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1. Kemp EG, Harnett AN, Chatterjee S: Preoperative topical and intraoperative local mitomycin C adjuvant therapy in the management of ocular surface neoplasias. Br J Ophthalmol; 2002 Jan;86(1):31-4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOMYCIN C .

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  • [Title] Preoperative topical and intraoperative local mitomycin C adjuvant therapy in the management of ocular surface neoplasias.
  • AIMS: To demonstrate the efficacy of mitomycin C as adjuvant therapy preoperatively and intraoperatively in the management of recurrent or diffuse ocular surface neoplasias.
  • METHODS: The case notes of 11 patients receiving mitomycin C adjuvant therapy as 0.04% eye drops four times a day in two weekly courses preoperatively and/or a single intraoperative application of 0.4 mg/ml of mitomycin C were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: All cases showed a favourable response to mitomycin C adjuvant therapy with regression in size or retardation of a rapid growth pattern and no serious sequelae.
  • CONCLUSION: In this series, mitomycin C adjuvant therapy of recurrent or diffuse ocular surface neoplasias was well tolerated and showed favourable clinical results.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Mitomycin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Intraoperative Care / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Ophthalmic Solutions / administration & dosage. Preoperative Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 11801499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770962
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2. Khong JJ, Muecke J: Complications of mitomycin C therapy in 100 eyes with ocular surface neoplasia. Br J Ophthalmol; 2006 Jul;90(7):819-22
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOMYCIN C .

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  • [Title] Complications of mitomycin C therapy in 100 eyes with ocular surface neoplasia.
  • AIM: To determine the complications associated with mitomycin C (MMC) in the treatment of ocular surface neoplasia.
  • Outcome measures included complications of MMC and the treatment required for these complications.
  • RESULTS: One to three 7 day cycles of topical MMC 0.04% four times a day were given to 59 eyes with localised corneal-conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 19 eyes with diffuse CIN, six eyes with recurrent CIN, one eye with ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma, three eyes with primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia, nine eyes with conjunctival malignant melanoma (MM), two eyes with sebaceous carcinoma with pagetoid spread, and one eye with recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • 31 (34%) cases developed an allergic reaction to MMC and 14 (14%) eyes had epiphora secondary to punctal stenosis at a mean follow up period of 26.5 months.
  • CONCLUSION: In the largest study looking at complications of topical MMC in the treatment of ocular surface neoplasia, allergic reaction and punctal stenosis are relatively common.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Drug Hypersensitivity / etiology. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mitomycin / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Corneal Diseases / drug therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / drug therapy. Humans. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / chemically induced. Lacrimal Duct Obstruction / chemically induced. Male. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanosis / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16672325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1857172
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3. Sun J, Blaskovich MA, Jain RK, Delarue F, Paris D, Brem S, Wotoczek-Obadia M, Lin Q, Coppola D, Choi K, Mullan M, Hamilton AD, Sebti SM: Blocking angiogenesis and tumorigenesis with GFA-116, a synthetic molecule that inhibits binding of vascular endothelial growth factor to its receptor. Cancer Res; 2004 May 15;64(10):3586-92
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  • In vitro, GFA-116 inhibits angiogenesis as measured by inhibition of migration and formation of capillary-like structures by human endothelial cells as well as suppression of microvessel outgrowth in rat aortic rings and rat cornea angiogenesis.
  • Furthermore, GFA-116 is also effective at inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis to the lung of B16-F10 melanoma cells injected into immunocompetent mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Benzoates / pharmacology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Peptides, Cyclic / pharmacology. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / blood supply. Cell Line, Tumor. Cornea / blood supply. Endothelium, Vascular / drug effects. Endothelium, Vascular / growth & development. Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / blood supply. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Melanoma, Experimental / blood supply. Melanoma, Experimental / drug therapy. Melanoma, Experimental / pathology. Mice. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. NIH 3T3 Cells. Neovascularization, Physiologic / drug effects. Phosphorylation. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood supply. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Rats. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 15150116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA78038; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM35208
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Benzoates; 0 / GFA 116; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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4. LaMontagne K, Littlewood-Evans A, Schnell C, O'Reilly T, Wyder L, Sanchez T, Probst B, Butler J, Wood A, Liau G, Billy E, Theuer A, Hla T, Wood J: Antagonism of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors by FTY720 inhibits angiogenesis and tumor vascularization. Cancer Res; 2006 Jan 1;66(1):221-31
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  • We show here that FTY720 has antiangiogenic activity, potently abrogating VEGF- and S1P-induced angiogenesis in vivo in growth factor implant and corneal models.
  • FTY720 administration tended to inhibit primary and significantly inhibited metastatic tumor growth in a mouse model of melanoma growth.
  • These data show that functional antagonism of vascular S1P receptors by FTY720 potently inhibits angiogenesis; therefore, this may provide a novel therapeutic approach for pathologic conditions with dysregulated angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Experimental / blood supply. Melanoma, Experimental / drug therapy. Propylene Glycols / pharmacology. Receptors, Lysosphingolipid / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cornea / blood supply. Endothelial Cells / drug effects. Endothelial Cells / enzymology. Female. Fingolimod Hydrochloride. Humans. Mice. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Neovascularization, Physiologic / drug effects. Phosphorylation. Phthalazines / pharmacology. Pyridines / pharmacology. Sphingosine / analogs & derivatives. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16397235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phthalazines; 0 / Propylene Glycols; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / Receptors, Lysosphingolipid; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 5DX9U76296 / vatalanib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; G926EC510T / Fingolimod Hydrochloride; NGZ37HRE42 / Sphingosine; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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5. Kabasawa S, Murayama K, Tsuchida T, Tanaka K, Arai E, Yoneya S: [Case of corneally displaced malignant conjunctival melanoma]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Feb;111(2):102-6
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  • [Title] [Case of corneally displaced malignant conjunctival melanoma].
  • BACKGROUND: We studied the clinicopathologic characteristics in a patient with malignant conjunctival melanoma associated with corneal invasion.
  • He developed recurrence and was referred to us.
  • Biomicroscopic examination revealed that there was a granular pigment lesion in the cornea.
  • The patient was diagnosed as having conjunctival melanoma with corneal invasion and treated with orbital exenteration and chemotherapy in our hospital.
  • Clinicopathologic tests revealed malignant melanoma cells invading through the bulbar conjunctiva and into the cornea.
  • Ultrastructural study by electron microscopy of the pigmented tumor cells in the cornea showed several lobations of the nuclei, a large active-appearing nucleolus, and an aberrant granular melanosomal morphology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The infiltration of palpebral malignant conjunctival melanoma was limited to the epidermis of the cornea.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Corneal Diseases / pathology. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17338327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-0203
  • [Journal-full-title] Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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6. Chalasani R, Giblin M, Conway RM: Role of topical chemotherapy for primary acquired melanosis and malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva and cornea: review of the evidence and recommendations for treatment. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2006 Sep-Oct;34(7):708-14
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  • [Title] Role of topical chemotherapy for primary acquired melanosis and malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva and cornea: review of the evidence and recommendations for treatment.
  • Surgical excision with cryotherapy is a well-established treatment option for malignant melanoma or primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia of the conjunctiva and cornea.
  • Relevant studies were reviewed with regards to treatment regimen, rates of recurrence and metastasis, side effect profile and length of follow up.
  • A total of 22 and 16 unique cases of biopsy proven PAM with atypia and malignant melanoma, respectively, treated with topical MMC were identified.
  • Topical MMC was well tolerated and shows considerable promise, particularly in the treatment of diffuse PAM with atypia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Corneal Diseases / drug therapy. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanosis / drug therapy. Mitomycin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16970772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-6404
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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7. Shields CL, Shields JA, Armstrong T: Management of conjunctival and corneal melanoma with surgical excision, amniotic membrane allograft, and topical chemotherapy. Am J Ophthalmol; 2001 Oct;132(4):576-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOMYCIN C .

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  • [Title] Management of conjunctival and corneal melanoma with surgical excision, amniotic membrane allograft, and topical chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To illustrate a novel method of management for extensive conjunctival and corneal melanoma.
  • A 40-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a large, diffuse conjunctival melanoma involving 6 clock hours of the limbus.
  • The remaining bulbar conjunctiva and the entire corneal epithelium were affected by diffuse, flat melanosis.
  • RESULTS: The conjunctival melanoma was completely resected microsurgically in one piece without disrupting the tumor.
  • The corneal melanosis was subsequently treated with topical mitomycin C eyedrops.
  • At 8 months follow-up, the conjunctiva and the cornea were completely healed with resolution of all pigment and 20/20 visual acuity.
  • CONCLUSION: Preliminary evidence suggests that combined therapeutic approaches, consisting of extensive tumor removal, cryotherapy, amniotic membrane allograft, and topical mitomyin C, can be effective in the management of diffuse conjunctival and corneal melanoma arising from primary acquired melanosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Amnion / transplantation. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Conjunctival Neoplasms / therapy. Corneal Diseases / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Melanosis / therapy. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 11589886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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8. Bouïs D, Hospers GA, Meijer C, Dam W, Mulder NH: CDT6-expression can alter tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2003 Jan-Feb;23(1A):443-6
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  • [Title] CDT6-expression can alter tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Cornea-derived transcript 6 (CDT6 = AngX) has been shown to have an anti-tumor effect.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We transfected the murine melanoma cell line B16-F10 with the CDT6 gene and compared the sensitivity to cytostatic drugs of the resulting cell line, B16-CDT6, to that of the empty vector-transfected control cell line B16-CMV.
  • However no difference in sensitivity for these drugs was found between the B16-CDT6 and the control cell line.
  • Altered gene expression induced by gene therapy might influence tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / genetics. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Genetic Therapy / methods. Melanoma, Experimental / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Cloning, Molecular. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Etoposide / pharmacology. Mice. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Transfection. Vincristine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 12680246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Shields JA, Shields CL, Mashayekhi A, Marr BP, Benavides R, Thangappan A, Phan L, Eagle RC Jr: Primary acquired melanosis of the conjunctiva: risks for progression to melanoma in 311 eyes. The 2006 Lorenz E. Zimmerman lecture. Ophthalmology; 2008 Mar;115(3):511-519.e2
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  • [Title] Primary acquired melanosis of the conjunctiva: risks for progression to melanoma in 311 eyes. The 2006 Lorenz E. Zimmerman lecture.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical features and risks for transformation of conjunctival primary acquired melanosis (PAM) into melanoma.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred eleven eyes with conjunctival PAM without melanoma at initial examination from a single-center tertiary referral center.
  • Times to PAM enlargement, recurrence, and transformation into melanoma were assessed using Kaplan-Meier estimates.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary acquired melanosis enlargement, recurrence, and transformation into melanoma.
  • The anatomic location(s) of PAM included bulbar conjunctiva (91%), limbal conjunctiva (55%), cornea (23%), forniceal conjunctiva (13%), palpebral conjunctiva (12%), and caruncle (11%).
  • Initial management included observation (n = 194 eyes [62%]), biopsy combined with cryotherapy (n = 107 eyes [34%]), and topical chemotherapy and/or cryotherapy without biopsy (n = 10 [4%]).
  • Of PAM that was observed, Kaplan-Meier estimates at 10 years revealed PAM enlargement in 35% and transformation into melanoma in 12%.
  • Of those that underwent incisional or excisional biopsy, 10-year estimates of PAM recurrence and transformation into melanoma were 58% and 11%, respectively.
  • Progression to melanoma occurred in 0% of cases of PAM without atypia, 0% of cases of PAM with mild atypia, and 13% of cases of PAM with severe atypia.
  • Of the 9 patients with PAM who developed melanoma, none have developed systemic metastasis.
  • Multivariable analysis revealed that the most significant factor for both PAM recurrence and progression to melanoma was extent of PAM in clock hours.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary acquired melanosis without atypia or with mild atypia shows 0% progression to melanoma, whereas PAM with severe atypia shows progression to melanoma in 13%.
  • The greater the extent of PAM in clock hours, the greater the risk for transformation to melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Diseases / pathology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Melanosis / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17884168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Lectures; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Ciralsky J, Colby K: Conjunctival melanomas: can the cancer stem cell hypothesis be applied? Semin Ophthalmol; 2009 May-Jun;24(3):161-5
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  • Conjunctival melanoma patients often follow an unpredictable course with significant rates of recurrence and metastases despite optimal treatment.
  • Targeting cancer stem cells may be the key to future treatments.
  • Directed treatments need to focus on key differences between cancer stem cells and normal tissue stem cells.
  • These directed treatments may lead to curative therapies and decrease the number of recurrences and metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / etiology. Melanoma / etiology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19437352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5205
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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11. Finger PT, Sedeek RW, Chin KJ: Topical interferon alfa in the treatment of conjunctival melanoma and primary acquired melanosis complex. Am J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan;145(1):124-129
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  • [Title] Topical interferon alfa in the treatment of conjunctival melanoma and primary acquired melanosis complex.
  • PURPOSE: To report on topical interferon alfa-2b for conjunctival malignant melanoma (CMM) and primary acquired melanosis with atypia (PAM).
  • METHODS: Five eyes of five consecutive patients with biopsy-proven malignant melanoma were treated with topical interferon alfa-2b as treatment for primary or recurrent disease.
  • One drop of interferon alfa-2b (1 million units/ml) was placed into the superior fornix four times daily for three months.
  • RESULTS: Five consecutive patients with conjunctival melanoma (American Joint Committee on Cancer-International Union Against Cancer stages T2 [n = 3] and T3 [n = 2]) were included.
  • Two patients had recurrent corneal tumors, eight and 13 months after local excision, cryotherapy, and topical mitomycin C therapy.
  • Two months after topical interferon alfa-2b treatment, the lesions regressed without side effects.
  • This melanoma did not respond to topical interferon alfa-2b nor did the patient tolerate treatment (keratoconjunctivitis).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We present evidence that conjunctival and corneal melanoma regresses after exposure to topical interferon alfa-2b.
  • A larger-scale longer-term study must evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of this therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ophthalmic Solutions / administration & dosage. Recombinant Proteins. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17981257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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12. Ley RD, Reeve VE, Kusewitt DF: Photobiology of Monodelphis domestica. Dev Comp Immunol; 2000 Jul;24(5):503-16
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 1-FLUORO-2,4-DINITROBENZENE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The presence of a light-activated DNA repair pathway in the tissues of Monodelphis has been used to identify pyrimidine dimers in DNA as initiating events for a number of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced pathologies of the skin and cornea.
  • Furthermore, Monodelphis, unlike common laboratory rodents, is susceptible to the induction of melanoma by UVR alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Cornea / radiation effects. DNA Repair. Opossums. Skin / radiation effects. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dermatitis, Contact / drug therapy. Dinitrofluorobenzene / pharmacology. Disease Models, Animal. Eye Neoplasms / etiology. Melanoma / etiology. Mice. Mice, Nude. Oxazolone / pharmacology. Photobiology. Pyrimidine Dimers / radiation effects. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Urocanic Acid / analysis

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  • (PMID = 10785275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-305X
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental and comparative immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Comp. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pyrimidine Dimers; 15646-46-5 / Oxazolone; D241E059U6 / Dinitrofluorobenzene; G8D26XJJ3B / Urocanic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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13. Singh N, Jani PD, Suthar T, Amin S, Ambati BK: Flt-1 intraceptor induces the unfolded protein response, apoptotic factors, and regression of murine injury-induced corneal neovascularization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2006 Nov;47(11):4787-93
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  • [Title] Flt-1 intraceptor induces the unfolded protein response, apoptotic factors, and regression of murine injury-induced corneal neovascularization.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether Flt24K, a recombinant construct of domains 2 to 4 of VEGFR-1 (Flt) coupled with an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (KDEL) can bind VEGFR-2 and induce apoptosis, unfolded protein response (UPR), and regression of injury-induced corneal neovascularization.
  • Human malignant melanoma cells (which express VEGFR-2 but not Flt), were transfected with pCMV.Flt24K, and lysates underwent immunoprecipitation with anti-FLT antibody, and Western blot analysis for VEGF and VEGFR-2.
  • RESULTS: The mean percentage area of corneal neovascularization in mice 3 weeks after corneal injury and 1 week after intrastromal injection of empty pCMV vector or pCMV.Flt24K was 55.4% +/- 2.7% vs. 19.3% +/- 6.1%, respectively (P < 0.001).
  • Apoptosis was observed in corneal neovascular endothelium in corneas treated with pCMV.Flt24K but not in the control.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The Flt24K intraceptor can bind VEGFR-2 within cells, induce the unfolded protein response in vitro and in vivo, elicit apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells in vivo, and induce regression of corneal neovascularization in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Burns, Chemical / drug therapy. Corneal Neovascularization / drug therapy. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Endothelium, Vascular / pathology. Eye Burns / chemically induced. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Caspase 12 / metabolism. Caspase 3 / metabolism. Cornea / drug effects. Cornea / metabolism. Genetic Vectors. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Receptors, Peptide / physiology. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / physiology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sodium Hydroxide / toxicity. Transcription Factors. Transfection. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Nov;48(11):4900
  • (PMID = 17065489.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / KDEL receptor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Peptide; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / regulatory factor X transcription factors; 55X04QC32I / Sodium Hydroxide; EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT1 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 12; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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14. Jain V, Dabir S, Shome D, Dadu T, Natarajan S: Aspergillus iris granuloma: a case report with review of literature. Surv Ophthalmol; 2009 Mar-Apr;54(2):286-91
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  • Differential diagnoses of a fungal granuloma, a medulloepithelioma, and an amelanotic melanoma were considered.
  • An excisional biopsy of the mass was performed through a superior clear corneal incision.
  • Definitive differentiation of this rare entity from a foreign body, amelanotic melanoma, and other inflammatory conditions such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis, may be possible only on microbiological and histo-pathological evaluation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Aqueous Humor / microbiology. Atropine / therapeutic use. Aza Compounds / therapeutic use. DNA, Fungal / analysis. Drug Therapy, Combination. Fluoroquinolones. Genome, Fungal / genetics. Humans. Male. Natamycin / therapeutic use. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Quinolines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19298905.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6257
  • [Journal-full-title] Survey of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surv Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Aza Compounds; 0 / DNA, Fungal; 0 / Fluoroquinolones; 0 / Quinolines; 7C0697DR9I / Atropine; 8O0C852CPO / Natamycin; U188XYD42P / moxifloxacin
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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15. Rodríguez-Ares T, Touriño R, De Rojas V, Becerra E, Capeans C: Topical mitomycin C in the treatment of pigmented conjunctival lesions. Cornea; 2003 Mar;22(2):114-7
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  • [Title] Topical mitomycin C in the treatment of pigmented conjunctival lesions.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the clinical efficacy of topical mitomycin C (MMC) 0.04% for the treatment of patients with pigmented conjunctival lesions.
  • METHODS: Two patients, one with primary acquired conjunctival melanosis with atypia and another with conjunctival melanoma, were treated with topical MMC 0.04%.
  • Before treatment, a biopsy was performed that confirmed the diagnosis and the absence of atypical melanocytes beyond the basal layer.
  • Each treatment cycle lasted 14 days, with repetition after 3 months when necessary.
  • RESULTS: Treatment with topical MMC 0.04% not only reduced the size and degree of pigmentation clinical lesions in both patients but also eradicated atypical conjunctival melanocytes as observed in histologic studies.
  • No severe adverse reactions to the treatment were observed.
  • CONCLUSION: Topical MMC 0.04% is an option worth considering for the treatment of pigmented conjunctival lesions, particularly as an adjunct to other forms of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Conjunctival Diseases / drug therapy. Melanosis / drug therapy. Mitomycin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Melanocytes / drug effects. Melanocytes / pathology. Ophthalmic Solutions. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12605043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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16. Ambrus JL, Toumbis CA, Karakousis CP, Kulaylat M, Akhter S, Plavsic L: Study of antiangiogenic agents with possible therapeutic applications in neoplastic disorders and macular degeneration. J Med; 2000;31(5-6):278-82
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  • [Title] Study of antiangiogenic agents with possible therapeutic applications in neoplastic disorders and macular degeneration.
  • Using a previously developed method (Ambrus, et al., 1991), we found that pentoxifylline and thalidomide potentiate each others antiangiogenic effect induced by human malignant melanoma cells in the cornea of Macaca arctoides monkeys.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Cornea / drug effects. Corneal Neovascularization / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology. Pentoxifylline / pharmacology. Thalidomide / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cells, Cultured. Drug Combinations. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Humans. Keratinocytes. Macaca. Macular Degeneration / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11508321.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7850
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; SD6QCT3TSU / Pentoxifylline
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17. Demirci H, Shields CL, Bianciotto CG, Shields JA: Topical imiquimod for periocular lentigo maligna. Ophthalmology; 2010 Dec;117(12):2424-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of topical imiquimod 5%, a local immune response modifier, in the treatment of periocular lentigo maligna.
  • The clinical features, treatment schedule, response to treatment, and complications were analyzed retrospectively.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Response to treatment and complications.
  • The medication was placed only on the skin and not the globe.
  • The mean duration of treatment was 9 months (range, 1-14 months).
  • There were no patients with toxicity to the conjunctiva, cornea, or globe.
  • Treatment was discontinued in 2 patients (one temporarily and the other permanently) because of intolerable local side effects of discomfort, redness, swelling, and cutaneous excoriation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Periocular lentigo maligna seems to respond to topical imiquimod 5% treatment.
  • Topical imiquimod 5% treatment for periocular lentigo melanoma deserves further study.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Eyelid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy


18. Kim EC, Min JK, Kim TY, Lee SJ, Yang HO, Han S, Kim YM, Kwon YG: [6]-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2005 Sep 23;335(2):300-8

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  • It also blocked capillary-like tube formation by endothelial cells in response to VEGF, and strongly inhibited sprouting of endothelial cells in the rat aorta and formation of new blood vessel in the mouse cornea in response to VEGF.
  • Moreover, i.p. administration, without reaching tumor cytotoxic blood levels, to mice receiving i.v. injection of B16F10 melanoma cells, reduced the number of lung metastasis, with preservation of apparently healthy behavior.
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate that [6]-gingerol inhibits angiogenesis and may be useful in the treatment of tumors and other angiogenesis-dependent diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Fatty Alcohols / pharmacology. Ginger / chemistry. Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Aorta / metabolism. Aorta / pathology. Blotting, Western. Catechols. Cell Cycle. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Cells, Cultured. Collagen / chemistry. Cornea / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. DNA / chemistry. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Combinations. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Endothelium, Vascular / cytology. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / metabolism. G1 Phase. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Laminin / chemistry. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Models, Chemical. Mutagens. NIH 3T3 Cells. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Transplantation. Plant Extracts. Proteoglycans / chemistry. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Umbilical Veins / cytology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16081047.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catechols; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Fatty Alcohols; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 119978-18-6 / matrigel; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; 9007-49-2 / DNA; 925QK2Z900 / gingerol
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19. Bouïs D, Hospers GA, Meijer C, Dam W, Peek R, Mulder NH: Effects of the CDT6/ANGX gene on tumour growth in immune competent mice. In Vivo; 2003 Mar-Apr;17(2):157-61
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  • BACKGROUND: Cornea-derived transcript 6 (CDT6, also known as AngX) has been described to inhibit tumour growth in a human melanoma growing in nude mice.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this report we describe the generation of a stably CDT6-expressing clone of the murine melanoma cell line B16-F10.
  • RESULTS: We found no significant inhibition or stimulation of either lag-time or doubling-time of the tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / therapeutic use. Angiogenic Proteins / genetics. Genetic Therapy / methods. Immunocompetence. Melanoma, Experimental / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Endothelium, Vascular / drug effects. Endothelium, Vascular / pathology. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Nude. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 12792978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / Angiogenic Proteins; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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20. Zhang G, Dass CR, Sumithran E, Di Girolamo N, Sun LQ, Khachigian LM: Effect of deoxyribozymes targeting c-Jun on solid tumor growth and angiogenesis in rodents. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2004 May 5;96(9):683-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We used human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) transfected with a DNAzyme targeting the c-Jun mRNA (Dz13), related oligonucleotides, or vehicle in in vitro models of microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, chemoinvasion, and tubule formation, a rat model of corneal neovascularization, and a mouse model of solid tumor growth and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis.
  • Dz13 blocked endothelial cell proliferation, migration, chemoinvasion, and tubule formation.
  • Dz13 inhibited VEGF-induced neovascularization in the rat cornea compared with vehicle control (Dz13 versus vehicle: 4.0 neovessels versus 30.7 neovessels, difference = 26.7 neovessels; P =.004; area occupied by new blood vessels for Dz13 versus vehicle: 0.35 mm2 versus 1.52 mm2, difference = 1.17 mm2; P =.005) as well as solid melanoma growth in mice (Dz13 versus vehicle at 14 days: 108 mm3 versus 283 mm3, difference = 175 mm3; P =.006) with greatly reduced vascular density (Dz13 versus vehicle: 30% versus 100%, difference = 70%; P<.001).
  • CONCLUSION: DNAzymes targeting c-Jun may have therapeutic potential as inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis and growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. DNA, Catalytic / pharmacology. Genes, jun. Melanoma, Experimental / drug therapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Division. Cell Line. Cell Movement. Cornea / blood supply. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Endothelial Cells. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A

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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 May 5;96(9):644 [15126593.001]
  • (PMID = 15126605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Catalytic; 0 / Dz13 DNAzyme; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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