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1. Neves DR, Ramos DG, Magalhães GM, Rodrigues Rda C, Souza JB: Photodynamic therapy for treatment of multiple lesions on the scalp in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: case report. An Bras Dermatol; 2010 Jul-Aug;85(4):545-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for treatment of multiple lesions on the scalp in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: case report.
  • Photodynamic therapy is an effective alternative for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, selectively destroying the neoplastic cells through the use of photosensitizer substances that are irradiated with a source of light of adequate wave length.
  • The aim of this article is to show the excellent result of the treatment of multiple basal cell carcinomas on the scalp of a patient suffering from Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome


2. Sciacca V, Ciorra AA, Di Fonzo C, Rossi R, Pistillucci G, Lugini A, D'Aprile M: Long-term survival of metastatic melanoma to the ileum with evidence of primary cutaneous disease after 15 years of follow-up: a case report. Tumori; 2010 Jul-Aug;96(4):640-3
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  • [Title] Long-term survival of metastatic melanoma to the ileum with evidence of primary cutaneous disease after 15 years of follow-up: a case report.
  • The small bowel is the most common site of gastrointestinal metastasis from cutaneous melanoma.
  • Malignant melanoma has a poor prognosis, especially if distant metastases appear.
  • Although rare primary melanoma of the small bowel has been described, more frequently these lesions originate from unknown cutaneous melanoma.
  • Here we report the case of a 58-year-old man with a diagnosis of melanoma of the ileum without evidence of primary cutaneous disease.
  • After 15 years, during the clinical and radiological follow-up, a cutaneous melanoma in the left parietal side of the scalp, probably corresponding to the primary lesion with abdominal node metastasis, was diagnosed.
  • After 6 months of chemotherapy with fotemustine, the patient showed a complete response.
  • At present, he is still alive 18 years after the diagnosis of intestinal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ileal Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20968150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Martiniuk F, Damian DL, Thompson JF, Scolyer RA, Tchou-Wong KM, Levis WR: TH17 is involved in the remarkable regression of metastatic malignant melanoma to topical diphencyprone. J Drugs Dermatol; 2010 Nov;9(11):1368-72
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  • [Title] TH17 is involved in the remarkable regression of metastatic malignant melanoma to topical diphencyprone.
  • The authors provide an update on a previously reported patient with in-transit metastatic melanoma of the scalp treated with topical diphencyprone (DPCP).
  • The authors performed RT-PCR of total RNA from paraffin-embedded tissue before and after treatment with DPCP.
  • Before treatment with DPCP, the authors found elevated expression of IL 17C/D/E/F; after treatment there was no detectable expression.
  • Conversely, increased expression of PLZF/CD27 and CTLA4 was seen after treatment with no expression before treatment.
  • No expression of IL17A/B, CD7, RORgTand FoxP3 were before or after treatment.
  • Conclusions are limited to only the time samples were obtained.
  • Remarkable regression of an in-transit metastatic melanoma treated with the immunomodulatory agent DPCP showed gain and loss of gene expression of the TH17 pathway.

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  • (PMID = 21061759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR029893; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR029893-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 1UL1RR029893
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CTLA-4 Antigen; 0 / CTLA4 protein, human; 0 / Cyclopropanes; 0 / Haptens; 0 / Interleukin-17; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / Ointments; 147855-37-6 / ZBTB16 protein, human; I7G14NW5EC / diphenylcyclopropenone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS313894; NLM/ PMC3178326
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4. Ishii A, Nishiguchi T, Kitagawa T, Yagi M, Hakamada A, Isoda K, Kurokawa I, Hara K, Mizutani H: A case of epidermotropic metastatic malignant melanoma with multiple nodular lesions of the scalp. J Dermatol; 2005 Oct;32(10):821-6
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  • [Title] A case of epidermotropic metastatic malignant melanoma with multiple nodular lesions of the scalp.
  • Epidermotropic metastatic malignant melanoma (EMMM) is a form of metastatic malignant melanoma that has dermal cell nests with epidermotropism and specific histopathological features.
  • We report a patient with eight nodular lesions of the scalp with histopathological findings compatible with EMMM.
  • The tumors developed one year before consultation and increased in size simultaneously.
  • The tumors did not respond to combination chemotherapy with dacarbazine, nimustine, vincristine, and interferon-beta.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


5. Sigüenza M, Pizarro A, Mayor M, Vidaurrázaga C, Miralles L, González-Beato M, Casado M: [Topical treatment of melanoma skin metastases with imiquimod]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2005 Mar;96(2):111-5
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  • [Title] [Topical treatment of melanoma skin metastases with imiquimod].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento tópico de las metástasis cutáneas de melanoma con imiquimod.
  • The treatment of skin metastases of melanoma can be difficult in many cases because of the patients age, as well as the number, size and location of the lesions.
  • We present the case of an 82-year-old male with melanoma skin metastases on the scalp, which responded satisfactorily to treatment with 5 % imiquimod cream.
  • This case, along with others that have recently been published, supports the usefulness of this treatment in selected cases of melanoma skin metastases, at least for palliative purposes.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / secondary. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [CommentIn] Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2005 Oct;96(8):549-50 [16476296.001]
  • (PMID = 16476347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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6. Heber G, Helbig D, Pönitzsch I, Wetzig T, Harth W, Simon JC: Complete remission of cutaneous and subcutaneous melanoma metastases of the scalp with imiquimod therapy. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2009 Jun;7(6):534-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Imiquimod .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Complete remission of cutaneous and subcutaneous melanoma metastases of the scalp with imiquimod therapy.
  • Multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous melanoma metastases represent a therapeutic challenge.
  • A 63-year-old man presented with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous melanoma metastases on his right parieto-occipital region that appeared ten weeks after surgical excision of the primary tumor.
  • Because of the large area of cutaneous metastatic spread, the location and the limited possibility of a complete excision, we decided to begin immunomodulatory therapy with imiquimod applied for eight hours daily five days a week.
  • After six weeks of imiquimod monotherapy, a partial remission of the cutaneous metastases had occurred.
  • Four months later the patient is still free of cutaneous, visceral, cerebral and lymph node metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / secondary. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19250248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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7. Hu W, Nelson JE, Mohney CA, Willen MD: Malignant melanoma arising in a pregnant African American woman with a congenital blue nevus. Dermatol Surg; 2004 Dec;30(12 Pt 2):1530-2
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma arising in a pregnant African American woman with a congenital blue nevus.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of cutaneous melanoma in African-Americans is relatively low.
  • Despite the slightly greater occurrence of congenital melanocytic nevi in black persons compared with white persons, the cumulative risk of melanoma arising in these lesions is very small.
  • In addition, the overwhelming majority of melanomas in black persons occur on nonglaborous skin where congenital melanocytic nevi are rare.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to describe and an unusual case of melanoma arising in a congenital nevus with combined features of a blue nevus on the scalp of a pregnant African-American woman.
  • RESULTS: Histologic examination revealed a polypoid malignant melanoma arising in association with a congenital blue nevus in a young African-American woman.
  • The lesion was located on the right parietal scalp and had been enlarging over the course of her pregnancy.
  • Pathology from parotidectomy and neck dissection confirmed metastatic melanoma involving two intraparotid lymph nodes and 3 of 26 cervical lymph nodes.
  • Despite aggressive chemotherapy, she died in 1 year after the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / congenital. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Scalp

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  • (PMID = 15606833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Damian DL, Thompson JF: Treatment of extensive cutaneous metastatic melanoma with topical diphencyprone. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 May;56(5):869-71
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  • [Title] Treatment of extensive cutaneous metastatic melanoma with topical diphencyprone.
  • Diphencyprone is a potent contact sensitizer sometimes used to treat alopecia areata and cutaneous warts.
  • A patient with previous primary nodular melanoma on the scalp developed extensive, confluent cutaneous metastases near the primary site, unsuitable for treatment with surgery or radiotherapy.
  • Topical treatment with diphencyprone as a single agent resulted in regression of all lesions, and the patient remains well 18 months later.
  • Topical immunotherapy with diphencyprone was an inexpensive and well-tolerated treatment for extensive cutaneous melanoma metastases in our patient unsuitable for other therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cyclopropanes / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17276544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cyclopropanes; I7G14NW5EC / diphenylcyclopropenone
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9. Damian DL, Shannon KF, Saw RP, Thompson JF: Topical diphencyprone immunotherapy for cutaneous metastatic melanoma. Australas J Dermatol; 2009 Nov;50(4):266-71
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  • [Title] Topical diphencyprone immunotherapy for cutaneous metastatic melanoma.
  • Topical immunotherapy with contact sensitizers for metastatic melanoma was first reported more than 30 years ago.
  • Diphencyprone (DPCP) immunotherapy is frequently used to treat cutaneous warts and alopecia areata, and we have previously reported the use of DPCP as a single agent to successfully treat extensive, radiotherapy-resistant melanoma metastases on the scalp.
  • We now report DPCP treatment of a further six patients with cutaneous metastatic melanoma.
  • Of seven patients treated with DPCP thus far, four have demonstrated complete responses of their cutaneous lesions and three have had partial responses.
  • The treatment was well-tolerated by all patients.
  • Topical immunotherapy with DPCP is inexpensive and relatively non-invasive and should be considered in patients with locally advanced skin metastases that are unsuitable for other therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cyclopropanes / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19916970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-0960
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cyclopropanes; I7G14NW5EC / diphenylcyclopropenone
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10. Maier H, Mühlmeier G, Kraft K, Blumstein NM, Tisch M: [Primary malignant melanoma of the parotid gland: a case report and review of the literature]. HNO; 2008 Jun;56(6):627-32
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  • [Title] [Primary malignant melanoma of the parotid gland: a case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Primäres malignes Melanom in der Glandula parotidea: Fallbericht und Literaturübersicht.
  • Malignant melanomas (MMs) of the parotid gland are relatively uncommon.
  • They occur almost invariably as metastases from a primary tumour located in the region of the scalp or the mucous membranes of the nose, paranasal sinuses, or throat.
  • It is assumed that they originate in the glandular tissue or in intraglandular lymph nodes.
  • We present a case report and review of the literature on the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of intraparotid malignant melanoma.
  • Diagnosis is based primarily on B-scan ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • Patients with a cytological diagnosis of MM are further evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography and receive a thorough ear-nose-throat and dermatological examination.
  • The treatment of choice is total parotidectomy and selective neck dissection.
  • The effectiveness of adjuvant treatments such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy remains controversial.
  • Patients with primary MMs of the parotid gland appear to have a better prognosis than those with parotid metastases from melanomas of the skin or mucous membranes.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18066514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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11. Goyal A, Evans WD, Mansel RE: Isolated hyperthermic chemotherapy perfusion for limb melanoma is a safe procedure. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):7538

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated hyperthermic chemotherapy perfusion for limb melanoma is a safe procedure.
  • : 7538 Background: Isolated limb perfusion(ILP) delivers high dose of chemotherapeutic agent to an extremity with multiple in-transit lesions from cutaneous melanoma.
  • METHODS: 53 perfusions were performed using melphalan, 1.5-2mg/kg (13 prophylactic, 40 therapeutic) and 3 using melphalan in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents (all therapeutic).
  • 75% of the patients had MD Anderson stage III disease.
  • Other systemic side effects were: nausea and vomiting in 45 patients (82%), fever in 17 patients (31%) and scalp hair loss in 2 patients (4%).
  • Overall 5-year survival rate was 49% for therapeutic perfusion and 100% for prophylactic perfusion.
  • CONCLUSION: Therapeutic ILP is a suitable treatment for in-transit metastases not amenable to surgery and confined to a limb, since amputation provides no advantage in terms of survival.

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  • (PMID = 28014919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Katoulis AC, Kanelleas A, Zambacos G, Panayiotides I, Stavrianeas NG: Development of two primary malignant melanomas after treatment with adalimumab: a case report and review of the possible link between biological therapy with TNF-alpha antagonists and melanocytic proliferation. Dermatology; 2010 Aug;221(1):9-12
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHOTREXATE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Development of two primary malignant melanomas after treatment with adalimumab: a case report and review of the possible link between biological therapy with TNF-alpha antagonists and melanocytic proliferation.
  • Biologics, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonists, have revolutionized treatment of several significant inflammatory autoimmune diseases.
  • There is growing evidence linking biological treatments with the occurrence of malignancies or reactivation of latent ones, including malignant melanoma.
  • We report the case of a 75-year-old male patient who developed 2 primary malignant melanomas (MM) after treatment with adalimumab for rheumatoid arthritis.
  • He was under adalimumab treatment for approximately 12 months before the diagnosis of MM on his right lower leg.
  • A few months later, a second MM developed on the patient's scalp.
  • The short duration of treatment with adalimumab and the unclear temporal relationship cannot adequately support a probable link between this double MM occurrence and the adalimumab-induced immunosuppressive state.
  • The result of a literature search regarding the possible association between anti-TNF drugs and melanocytic proliferation is provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antirheumatic Agents / adverse effects. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Melanoma / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adalimumab. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Humans. Leg / pathology. Leg / surgery. Male. Melanocytes / drug effects. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Scalp / pathology. Scalp / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20484878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; FYS6T7F842 / Adalimumab; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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13. Morton CA: Methyl aminolevulinate (Metvix) photodynamic therapy - practical pearls. J Dermatolog Treat; 2003;14 Suppl 3:23-6
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  • [Title] Methyl aminolevulinate (Metvix) photodynamic therapy - practical pearls.
  • Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for certain non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), including superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas (sBCC and nBCC), actinic keratosis (AK) and Bowen's disease.
  • Methyl aminolevulinate (MAL, Metvix) is licensed in Europe for use in PDT for sBCC, nBCC and thin or non-hyperkeratotic and non-pigmented AK on the face and scalp, where other therapies are unsuitable.
  • The most common side effect of PDT is pain, burning or stinging discomfort at the site of treatment, although most patients do not request pain relief.
  • The incidental observation of surface fluorescence three hours after photosensitizer application can be utilized for tumour detection as well as delineation.
  • Topical PDT using Metvix MAL offers a practical non-invasive therapy option with the potential for high efficacy and good cosmesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / administration & dosage. Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 14522638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6634
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / delta-aminolevulinic acid methyl ester; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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14. Ahmed I, Berth-Jones J: Imiquimod: a novel treatment for lentigo maligna. Br J Dermatol; 2000 Oct;143(4):843-5
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  • [Title] Imiquimod: a novel treatment for lentigo maligna.
  • Lentigo maligna is the in situ phase of lentigo maligna melanoma, and if left untreated it may progress to invasive melanoma.
  • Conventional surgery using a 5-10 mm margin is the recommended treatment; however, lesions can be quite large and surgical removal may involve extensive plastic repair.
  • We report an elderly patient with a large lentigo maligna on the scalp who was reluctant to have surgery.
  • We tried topical imiquimod 5% cream (Aldara), a local immunomodulator, which has recently become available for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / drug therapy. Interferon Inducers / therapeutic use. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11069469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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15. Murakami M, Wada T, Kashiwagi T, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Iizuka H: Nodular malignant melanoma with Spitz nevus-like pathological features finally confirmed by the pathological feature of the sentinel lymph node. J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;34(12):821-8
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  • [Title] Nodular malignant melanoma with Spitz nevus-like pathological features finally confirmed by the pathological feature of the sentinel lymph node.
  • The clinical and histopathological similarities of nodular melanoma and Spitz nevus currently still make a definitive diagnosis difficult.
  • We report here a case of nodular melanoma that was extremely difficult to diagnose both clinically and histopathologically.
  • The primary tumor was a blackish nodule on the scalp and biopsy was performed for pathological diagnosis.
  • Although our first impression was malignant melanoma, we asked two dermatopathologists for second opinions; however, one diagnosed a melanoma and the other a Spitz nevus.
  • Histopathological diagnosis to establish whether it was a melanoma metastasis or nodal nevi was also difficult, and we again asked for second opinions from another dermatopathologist in the USA.
  • According to its clinical course and the histopathology of the sentinel lymph node with additional immunohistochemistry, this case was finally diagnosed as a nodular melanoma (T4aN1aM0, stage IIIA).
  • To date, the patient has been given five courses of chemotherapy at 6-month intervals, with no local recurrence or distant metastases so far.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


16. Bacchi CE, Silva TR, Zambrano E, Plaza J, Suster S, Luzar B, Lamovec J, Pizzolitto S, Falconieri G: Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the skin: a study of 18 cases with emphasis on its clinicopathologic spectrum and unusual morphologic features. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Sep;34(9):1334-43
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  • [Title] Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the skin: a study of 18 cases with emphasis on its clinicopathologic spectrum and unusual morphologic features.
  • We report 18 cases of cutaneous angiosarcoma with predominant or exclusive epithelioid morphology.
  • In elderly patients scalp or facial lesions and cutaneous lesions arising within irradiated breast skin predominated.
  • These cases posed further diagnostic challenges simulating lymphoma, melanoma, lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, adnexal carcinoma, and neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Therapeutic modalities included combined local excision, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, depending on patient clinical status.
  • Our data show that epithelioid cutaneous angiosarcoma may have a broad morphological spectrum, raising interpretive challenges on microscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20697249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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17. Ulamec M, Soldo-Belić A, Vucić M, Buljan M, Kruslin B, Tomas D: Melanoma with second myxoid stromal changes after personally applied prolonged phototherapy. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Apr;30(2):185-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanoma with second myxoid stromal changes after personally applied prolonged phototherapy.
  • Most malignant melanomas are easily diagnosed; however, melanoma is also one of the lesions most frequently reported to mimic other tumors.
  • A case is presented of primary cutaneous melanoma with abundant myxoid matrix in a patient who underwent prolonged phototherapy.
  • Multiple metastatic subcutaneous nodules were also found on the scalp and trunk.
  • Chemotherapy and immunotherapy were administered as suggested by an oncologist.
  • The patient died from distant metastases 6 months after the diagnosis.
  • Although some authors believe that myxoid changes do not seem to alter the behavior of melanoma, it remains an important differential diagnosis issue.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Phototherapy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18360128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Toulemonde A, Quereux G, Dréno B: [Sarcoidosis granuloma on a tattoo induced by interferon alpha]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2004 Jan;131(1 Pt 1):49-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Granulome sarcoïdosique sur tatouage induit par l'interféron alpha.
  • Emergence of sarcoidosis in patients with interferon alpha therapy is much more rare.
  • We describe a case occurring in a patient treated for melanoma.
  • CASE REPORT: A 54 Year-old woman who had been treated for fifty Months with low dose interferon alpha (Roféron(R), 3 millions units, three times a week) for a melanoma of the scalp (adjuvant therapy), developed labial nodules on a permanent tattoo.
  • The diagnosis of sarcoid granuloma was confirmed by histopathologic analysis.
  • The diagnosis of cutaneous and pulmonary sarcoidosis in association with interferon alpha therapy was made.
  • Within 4 weeks, skin nodules began to regress although interferon was pursued at the same dose.
  • Four Months later, at the end of interferon therapy, the nodules had totally disappeared.
  • DISCUSSION: About forty cases of cutaneous or systemic sarcoidosis in patients treated with interferon alpha have been reported, but none of these cases concerned patients treated for melanoma.
  • It is very important to recognize cutaneous sarcoidosis during interferon alpha treatment because pulmonary sarcoidosis can be confused with common general side effects observed with such treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Melanoma / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15041843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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19. Ooi T, Barnetson RS, Zhuang L, McKane S, Lee JH, Slade HB, Halliday GM: Imiquimod-induced regression of actinic keratosis is associated with infiltration by T lymphocytes and dendritic cells: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;154(1):72-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Imiquimod 5% cream is a topically applied immune response modifier that has been shown to give effective treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • The therapeutic effects of imiquimod are likely to involve the provocation of a cutaneous immune response against abnormal cells, an assumption based on a strong correlation between complete clearance rates and the severity of the local skin reactions (erythema, oedema, erosion/ulceration, weeping/exudation and scabbing/crusting); however, no clinical studies have conclusively proved this mechanism.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the nature of cellular infiltrates induced by the application of imiquimod to AK lesions and to study cells involved in the cutaneous immune response.
  • Enrolled patients were randomized in a 2 : 1 ratio to receive imiquimod cream or vehicle cream and applied study cream to five lesions on the scalp, forearm or upper trunk once daily, three days per week for up to 16 weeks.
  • Each patient had punch biopsies of two distinct AK lesions: a lesion was biopsied before treatment to obtain baseline biomarker levels, and a different lesion was biopsied after 2 weeks of treatment.
  • RESULTS: The imiquimod group showed statistically significant increases from baseline to week 2 in tissue biomarker levels for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD11c, CD86/CD11c, CD68, HLA-DR and TUNEL.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Imiquimod stimulates a cutaneous immune response characterized by increases in activated dendritic cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Dendritic Cells / drug effects. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cell Movement / immunology. Double-Blind Method. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Erythema / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Interferon Inducers / adverse effects. Interferon Inducers / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Skin / immunology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16403097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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20. Morton CA, Brown SB, Collins S, Ibbotson S, Jenkinson H, Kurwa H, Langmack K, McKenna K, Moseley H, Pearse AD, Stringer M, Taylor DK, Wong G, Rhodes LE: Guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy: report of a workshop of the British Photodermatology Group. Br J Dermatol; 2002 Apr;146(4):552-67
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  • [Title] Guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy: report of a workshop of the British Photodermatology Group.
  • Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective in the treatment of certain non-melanoma skin cancers and is under evaluation in other dermatoses.
  • Despite the relative simplicity of the technique, accurate dosimetry in PDT is complicated by multiple variables in drug formulation, delivery and duration of application, in addition to light-specific parameters.
  • Several non-coherent and coherent light sources are effective in PDT.
  • Current evidence indicates topical PDT to be effective in actinic keratoses on the face and scalp, Bowen's disease and superficial basal cell carcinomas (BCCs).
  • PDT may prove advantageous where size, site or number of lesions limits the efficacy and/or acceptability of conventional therapies.
  • Experience of the modality in other skin diseases remains limited; areas where there is potential benefit include viral warts, acne, psoriasis and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • A recent British Photodermatology Group workshop considered published evidence on topical PDT in order to establish guidelines to promote the efficacy and safety of this increasingly practised treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Health Care Costs. Humans. Keratosis / drug therapy. Light. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy. Radiometry / methods. Skin Diseases / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11966684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Guideline; Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 119
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21. Varker KA, Biber JE, Kefauver C, Jensen R, Lehman A, Young D, Wu H, Lesinski GB, Kendra K, Chen HX, Walker MJ, Carson WE 3rd: A randomized phase 2 trial of bevacizumab with or without daily low-dose interferon alfa-2b in metastatic malignant melanoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Aug;14(8):2367-76
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • [Title] A randomized phase 2 trial of bevacizumab with or without daily low-dose interferon alfa-2b in metastatic malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a proangiogenic molecule produced by melanoma cells.
  • We hypothesized that administration of bevacizumab (Bev), a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes VEGF, with low-dose interferon alfa-2b (IFN-alpha2b), an inhibitor of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), would lead to the regression of metastatic melanoma.
  • METHODS: Patients with metastatic melanoma were randomized to receive Bev (15 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks) with or without low-dose IFN-alpha2b (1 MU/m2 subcutaneously daily).
  • Six patients developed easily managed exacerbations of preexisting hypertension.
  • Two patients developed grade 3 proteinuria that resolved after a treatment break.
  • IFN-alpha2b therapy was associated with grade 1 to 2 constitutional symptoms.
  • One patient (Bev plus IFN-alpha2b arm) had locally recurrent scalp disease that partially responded to therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bev was well tolerated at this dose and prolonged disease stabilization was achieved in one-quarter of metastatic melanoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Immunologic Factors / administration & dosage. Immunologic Factors / adverse effects. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Recombinant Proteins

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  • (PMID = 17534686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA95426; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24 CA93670; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA95426; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA16058-28; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA09338-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA-076576-06
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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22. Siller G, Gebauer K, Welburn P, Katsamas J, Ogbourne SM: PEP005 (ingenol mebutate) gel, a novel agent for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicentre, phase IIa study. Australas J Dermatol; 2009 Feb;50(1):16-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PEP005 (ingenol mebutate) gel, a novel agent for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicentre, phase IIa study.
  • The sap of the plant Euphorbia peplus is a traditional remedy for skin conditions, including actinic keratosis.
  • Treatment was well tolerated.
  • The most common local skin responses were dose-related erythema, flaking/scaling/dryness and scabbing/crusting.
  • Ingenol mebutate gel is being developed as a short-course topical therapy for actinic keratosis and non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Diterpenes / therapeutic use. Esters / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Arm / pathology. Australia. Double-Blind Method. Drug Administration Schedule. Face / pathology. Female. Gels / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19178487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-0960
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3-ingenyl angelate; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Diterpenes; 0 / Esters; 0 / Gels
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23. Khan I, Rahman L, McKenna DB: Primary cutaneous melanoma: a complication of infliximab treatment? Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Jun;34(4):524-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary cutaneous melanoma: a complication of infliximab treatment?
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antirheumatic Agents / adverse effects. Head and Neck Neoplasms / chemically induced. Melanoma / chemically induced. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Humans. Infliximab. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19196307.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab
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24. Jiang HQ, Wang Y, Hu XB, Li YS, Li JS: Composite tissue allograft transplantation of cephalocervical skin flap and two ears. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2005 Mar;115(3):31e-35e; discussion 36e-37e
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Composite tissue allograft transplantation of cephalocervical skin flap and two ears.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Ear, External / transplantation. Melanoma / surgery. Scalp / transplantation. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Flaps
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anastomosis, Surgical. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Graft Rejection / prevention & control. Humans. Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Microsurgery. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Mycophenolic Acid / therapeutic use. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Tacrolimus / therapeutic use. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • [CommentIn] Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006 Jul;118(1):268-70 [16816716.001]
  • (PMID = 15731658.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; CUJ2MVI71Y / daclizumab; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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25. Wolf IH, Smolle J, Binder B, Cerroni L, Richtig E, Kerl H: Topical imiquimod in the treatment of metastatic melanoma to skin. Arch Dermatol; 2003 Mar;139(3):273-6
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical imiquimod in the treatment of metastatic melanoma to skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Knee. Leg. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Nitrosourea Compounds / administration & dosage. Organophosphorus Compounds / administration & dosage. Recombinant Proteins. Scalp. Treatment Outcome

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cancer Chemotherapy.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Melanoma.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CARBOPLATIN .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DACARBAZINE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Fotemustine .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Imiquimod .
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  • (PMID = 12622616.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; GQ7JL9P5I2 / fotemustine
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