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1. Pang RW, Poon RT: Clinical implications of angiogenesis in cancers. Vasc Health Risk Manag; 2006;2(2):97-108
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  • Angiogenesis plays an important role in the growth and progression of cancer.
  • Numerous studies have indicated that assessment of angiogenic activity by either microvessel density or expression of angiogenic factors in cancer can provide prognostic information independent of conventional clinicopathological factors such as tumor staging.
  • Some studies also suggested that assessment of tumor angiogenesis may predict cancer response to chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • However, the most important clinical implication of tumor angiogenesis is the development of a novel strategy of anticancer therapy targeting tumor vessels instead of cancer cells.
  • Antiangiogenic therapy aims to inhibit the growth of tumor, and current evidence suggests that it works best in combination with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Recently, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, which is one of the most potent angiogenic factors, has been approved for clinical use in colorectal cancer patients after a clinical trial confirmed that combining the antibody with standard chemotherapy regimen could prolong patient survival.
  • The clinical implications of angiogenesis in cancer are reviewed in this article.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenic Proteins / metabolism. Angiostatic Proteins. Animals. Humans. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17319453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-6344
  • [Journal-full-title] Vascular health and risk management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vasc Health Risk Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Angiogenic Proteins; 0 / Angiostatic Proteins; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 131
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1993993
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2. Seya T, Tanaka N, Shinji S, Shinji E, Yokoi K, Horiba K, Kanazawa Y, Yamada T, Oaki Y, Tajiri T: Case of rectal malignant melanoma showing immunohistochemical variability in a tumor. J Nippon Med Sch; 2007 Oct;74(5):377-81
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  • [Title] Case of rectal malignant melanoma showing immunohistochemical variability in a tumor.
  • We report on a patient with rectal malignant melanoma.
  • His grandmother had died of pancreatic cancer and his mother had been operated for rectal cancer.
  • A colonoscopic examination revealed an irregular surface mass, approximately 4.0 cm in size, located on the anterior wall of the lower rectum.
  • A biopsy of the rectal tumor showed the proliferation of epithelioid cells with pleomorphic features.
  • Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple liver and lymph node metastases.
  • With the diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum, abdominoperineal resection was performed.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy using cisplatin and irinotecan via the subcutaneous reservoir port was performed and a partial response was obtained.
  • However, the final pathological diagnosis of the surgically resected specimen was malignant amelanotic melanoma of the rectum.
  • Immunohistochemical expression differed between rectal biopsy specimens and surgically resected specimens.
  • As preoperative pathological diagnosis showed rare rectal tumor, we measured the chemosensitivity of the rectal tumor using the collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) to determine the most appropriate chemotherapy regimen for the patient.
  • However, there were no anticancer drugs tested by CD-DST for malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Interferon-beta / administration & dosage. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17965534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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3. Singer M, Mutch MG: Anal melanoma. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):78-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal melanoma.
  • Anal melanoma is rare and aggressive malignancy.
  • Unlike cutaneous melanoma, anal melanoma has no known risk factors.
  • Surgical excision remains the cornerstone of therapy.
  • There are no long-term survivors of stage II or III disease; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment remain crucial.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy, interferon, and radiation may offer some benefit.

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  • (PMID = 20011314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780102
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Melanoma / abdominoperineal resection / anal / malignancy / wide local excision
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4. Ersvaer E, Kittang AO, Hampson P, Sand K, Gjertsen BT, Lord JM, Bruserud O: The protein kinase C agonist PEP005 (ingenol 3-angelate) in the treatment of human cancer: a balance between efficacy and toxicity. Toxins (Basel); 2010 01;2(1):174-94
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The protein kinase C agonist PEP005 (ingenol 3-angelate) in the treatment of human cancer: a balance between efficacy and toxicity.
  • Crude euphorbia extract causes local toxicity and transient inflammation when applied topically and has been used in the treatment of warts, skin keratoses and skin cancer.
  • Direct pro-apoptotic effects of this drug have been demonstrated in several malignant cells, including melanoma cell lines and primary human acute myelogenous leukemia cells.
  • At micromolar concentrations required to kill melanoma cells this agent causes PKC-independent secondary necrosis.
  • However, in addition to this pro-apoptotic effect the agent seems to have immunostimulatory effects, including: (i) increased chemokine release by malignant cells;.
  • (ii) a general increase in proliferation and cytokine release by activated T cells, including T cells derived from patients with chemotherapy-induced lymphopenia;.
  • (iii) local infiltration of neutrophils after topical application with increased antibody-dependent cytotoxicity; and (iv) development of specific anti-cancer immune responses by CD8(+) T cells in animal models.
  • Published studies mainly describe effects from in vitro investigations or after topical application of the agent, and careful evaluation of the toxicity after systemic administration is required before the possible use of this agent in the treatment of malignancies other than skin cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Melanoma. Necrosis

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  • (PMID = 22069553.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-6651
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxins
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxins (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C-delta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3206618
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cancer-protein kinase C-PEP005 (major topic)
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20111110
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5. Pahlavan PS, Kanthan R: The epidemiology and clinical findings of colorectal cancer in Iran. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis; 2006 Mar;15(1):15-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colorectal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The epidemiology and clinical findings of colorectal cancer in Iran.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical features and management of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in Iran.
  • The tumors were categorized according to their distribution as appendix (n=4), cecum ( n=7), right colon (n=1), hepatic flexure (n=2), transverse colon (n=19), splenic flexure (n=3), left colon (n=6), sigmoid ( n=16), rectum (n=117), rectosigmoid and rectal lesions (n=16), and colorectal lesions without known locations (n=9).
  • Non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (AC) was the most common histological type (n=181, 90%), followed by mucinous AC (n=15), squamous cell carcinoma (n=1), carcinoid (n=1), melanoma (n=1) and signet ring carcinoma (n=1).
  • The most common presenting symptom was rectal bleeding (n=68, 34.5%).
  • Younger patients had a greater preponderance of mucinous AC (p=0.008) and generally underwent more extensive chemotherapy as seen with more usage of 5-Fluorouracil (p=0.05).
  • We found no significant difference between age, gender and type of cancer with subsite distribution.
  • Distal CRC was more prevalent.

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  • (PMID = 16680227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1841-8724
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases : JGLD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointestin Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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6. Solaz Moreno E, Vallalta Morales M, Silla Búrdalo G, Cervera Miguel JI, Díaz Beveridge R, Rayón Martín JM: [Primary melanoma of the rectum: an infrequent neoplasia with an atypical presentation]. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 May;7(4):171-3
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Melanoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary melanoma of the rectum: an infrequent neoplasia with an atypical presentation].
  • [Transliterated title] Melanoma primario de recto: una neoplasia infrecuente con una forma de presentación atípica.
  • Primary anorectal melanoma is a rare malignancy with an extremely aggressive biological behaviour.
  • The main clinical presentations are local symptoms such as rectal bleeding, anal mass or pain, or a change in bowel habits.
  • The tumour is frequently mistaken for benign conditions as haemorrhoids or rectal polyps.
  • Many treatments can be used: surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy and even bio-therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15960927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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7. Stroh C, Manger T: [Primary amelanotic anorectal melanoma--a case report]. Zentralbl Chir; 2007 Dec;132(6):560-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary amelanotic anorectal melanoma--a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Das primäre amelanotische Melanom des Rektums - Ein Fallbericht.
  • BACKGROUND: The amelanotic melanoma of the rectal mucosa is very rare with an unfavourable prognosis.
  • Therefore transrectal ultrasound is of major importance in the preoperative staging and postoperative follow-up especially in diagnosis of local recurrence by using the ultrasound-guided, transrectal aspiration.
  • METHODS: In literature 5 cases of amelanotic malignant melanoma were reported.
  • The overall survival time is 10 months after diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: We report about a 55-year-old female patient with an amelanotic melanoma of rectal mucosa.
  • 7 months after a wide local excision of the tumour and interferon therapy in case of the absence of pararectal, inguinal metastases and other metastases the patient developed pararectal metastasis.
  • We started chemotherapy with Dacarbazin and with regard of the tumour progress the chemotherapy was changed to Vindesin 25 months after first operation supported by a radiotherapy with 40 Gray.
  • The patient died 36 months after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of primary malignant anorectal melanoma is poor, irrespective of surgical treatment.
  • Wide local resection is the first choice for primary anorectal melanoma.
  • Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy should be considered in the treatment of anorectal melanoma to influence the overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease Progression. Endosonography. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery. Intestinal Mucosa / ultrasonography. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Proctoscopy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 18098086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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8. Dillman RO, Nanci AA, Williams ST, Kim RB, Hafer RL, Coleman CL, Wang PC, Duma CM, Chen PV, Selvan SR, Cornforth AN, DePriest C: Durable complete response of refractory, progressing metastatic melanoma after treatment with a patient-specific vaccine. Cancer Biother Radiopharm; 2010 Oct;25(5):553-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Durable complete response of refractory, progressing metastatic melanoma after treatment with a patient-specific vaccine.
  • A patient with metastatic melanoma who experienced a durable complete response after treatment with a patient-specific vaccine has been described in this article.
  • This 59-year-old woman presented with cervical spine metastases and, within the year, had experienced local disease progression and, despite various therapies, metastases to the axilla, rectum, gall bladder, and multiple soft-tissue sites.
  • She had previously received radiation therapy, combination chemotherapy, interleukin-2 plus interferon biotherapy, and gamma knife radiosurgery, and undergone multiple surgical resections.
  • At the time vaccine therapy was initiated, she had multiple, new, measurable, soft-tissue metastases that were increasing in size.
  • There was evidence of disease regression by the completion of therapy.
  • This is the first time she has been in a complete remission since her initial diagnosis.
  • Patient-specific vaccines can sometimes induce durable complete regression of progressing soft-tissue melanoma metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20849310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8852
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biotherapy & radiopharmaceuticals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines
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9. Korenkov M, Gönner U, Dünschede F, Junginger T: [Rectal melanoma: the value of modern treatment]. Zentralbl Chir; 2008 Dec;133(6):564-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Rectal melanoma: the value of modern treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Rektummelanome: Stellenwert der modernen Therapie.
  • Rectal melanoma is a rare disease.
  • There is much controversy concerning cause, incidence and treatment of the disease and the spreading of recurrence.
  • In this article, we discuss actual aspects of diagnostic, therapy and prognosis on the basis of our series of seven patients as well as a literature review.
  • The surgical therapy in the form of local tumour excision with a disease-free margin of up to 1-2 cm is the initial therapeutic modality of choice.
  • Such tumours should be treated by a combination of neoadjuvant radiation and chemotherapy for down-staging with subsequent local excision (LE) or abdomino-perineal rectum extirpation (APR).
  • The prognosis of rectal melanoma is markedly poor and is primarily related with the stage of disease.
  • Patients with stage II and III tumours have appreciably shorter survival times of 12 months on the average.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Errors. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy. Proctoscopy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rectum / pathology. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19090435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Maqbool A, Lintner R, Bokhari A, Habib T, Rahman I, Rao BK: Anorectal melanoma--3 case reports and a review of the literature. Cutis; 2004 Jun;73(6):409-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anorectal melanoma--3 case reports and a review of the literature.
  • Anorectal melanoma is an uncommon disease.
  • We report 3 cases of anorectal melanoma: a 40-year-old woman with anorectal melanoma with local recurrence after an abdominoperineal resection (APR); a 30-year-old woman with anorectal melanoma and multiple liver metastases returning with multiple masses in the rectum and 2 nodules above and below the left clavicle after receiving chemotherapy; and a 62-year-old woman with inguinal node metastases.
  • The histologic findings in all 3 cases revealed malignant tumor composed of atypical melanocytes diagnosed as malignant melanoma of the rectum.
  • The patient was noncompliant with chemotherapy and died after several months.
  • In the second case, chemotherapeutic treatment was begun.
  • Seven months after receiving chemotherapy, the patient returned with multiple metastases.
  • Anorectal melanoma is highly aggressive and unresponsive to both radical surgery and local control.
  • Although supplemental therapy may improve quality of life and prolong survival, the 5-year survival rate is 10% with a mean survival time of 15 to 25 months.
  • In the 3 cases presented, metastatic disease was present at the time of diagnosis.
  • At this stage, APR with lymphadenectomy followed by some form of adjuvant therapy is our recommended treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15224786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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11. van der Zee J: Heating the patient: a promising approach? Ann Oncol; 2002 Aug;13(8):1173-84
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • There is a clear rationale for using hyperthermia in cancer treatment.
  • Treatment at temperatures between 40 and 44 degrees C is cytotoxic for cells in an environment with a low pO(2) and low pH, conditions that are found specifically within tumour tissue, due to insufficient blood perfusion.
  • Therefore, the addition of hyperthermia to radiotherapy or chemotherapy will result in at least an additive effect.
  • Furthermore, the effects of both radiotherapy and many drugs are enhanced at an increased temperature.
  • The clinical value of hyperthermia in addition to other treatment modalities has been shown in randomised trials.
  • Significant improvement in clinical outcome has been demonstrated for tumours of the head and neck, breast, brain, bladder, cervix, rectum, lung, oesophagus, vulva and vagina, and also for melanoma.
  • Whether toxicity from chemotherapy is enhanced depends on sequence of the two modalities, and on which tissues are heated.
  • Recent developments include improvements in heating techniques and thermometry, development of hyperthermia treatment planning models, studies on heat shock proteins and an effect on anti-cancer immune responses, drug targeting to tumours, bone marrow purging, combination with drugs targeting tumour vasculature, and the role of hyperthermia in gene therapy.
  • These findings justify using hyperthermia as part of standard treatment in tumour sites for which its efficacy has been proven and, furthermore, to initiate new studies with other tumours.

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  • (PMID = 12181239.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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12. Yaramov N, Sokolov M, Angelov K, Petrov B, Pavlov V: [Malignant melanoma of the anus and rectum]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2010;(2-3):5-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma of the anus and rectum].
  • There is approximately 300 cases of malignant melanoma written in the world literature.
  • We write up 13 operated from us for 15 years cases of melanoma of the anus and rectum.
  • Despite the complex treatment--surgical, chemotherapy etc. the prognosis is at large poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21972686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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13. Ishizone S, Koide N, Karasawa F, Akita N, Muranaka F, Uhara H, Miyagawa S: Surgical treatment for anorectal malignant melanoma: report of five cases and review of 79 Japanese cases. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2008 Dec;23(12):1257-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment for anorectal malignant melanoma: report of five cases and review of 79 Japanese cases.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anorectal malignant melanoma (AMM) is a relatively rare disease.
  • Because of its poor prognosis, the optimal surgical treatment for AMM is still controversial and difficult to determine.
  • We also review the present five cases along with 74 other Japanese cases reported between 1997 and 2006 and discuss the role of surgery in the treatment of AMM.
  • There was no significant difference in survival between AMM patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, AMM patients treated by curative surgery can expect long-term survival, although the usefulness of adjuvant chemotherapy for AMM patients is controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Rectum / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Dis Colon Rectum. 1997 Jun;40(6):661-8 [9194459.001]
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  • (PMID = 18633625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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14. Samareh Pahlavan P: The epidemiology, clinical findings and prognosis of colorectal cancer in Iran. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):9630

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The epidemiology, clinical findings and prognosis of colorectal cancer in Iran.
  • : 9630 Background: This study was performed to evaluate the clinical features and outcome of patients with Colorectal cancer (CRC) in Iran.
  • METHODS: All cases of CRC presented to a main countryside referral University hospital (SGH) for cancers in Teheran, Iran between June 20,2000 and January 3,2003 were retrospectively reviewed to determine age, gender, subsite distribution, early symptoms, ethnicity, type of the CRC and the chemotherapy management.
  • RESULTS: A total of 200 patients were included .114 patients (57.0%) were male and 86 were female (43.0%) .Age ranged from 13-90 years with a mean of 55.15+/- 14.5 years.16.5% of patients were below 40 years of age.The tumors were classified as : appendix (n=4), cecum ( n=7), Right Cancers (RC), from the cecum to hepatic flexure (n=1), hepatic flexure ( n=2), Transverse Colon (n=19), Splenic Flexure (n=3), Left Colon (LC) from the Splenic Flexure down to Sigmoid (n=6), Sigmoid ( n=16), Rectum ( n=117), Rectosigmoid & Rectal lesions (n=16), and Colorectal lesions without known locations (n=9).
  • Non-Mucinous Adenocarcinoma was the most common (n=181, 90%), followed by Mucinous AC (n=15), SCC (n=1), Carcinoid (n=1), Melanoma (n=1), Signet ring carcinoma (n=1).
  • The most common presenting symptom was Rectal bleeding ( n=68, 34.5%) .
  • 37% of patients had anemia at the time of diagnosis.
  • 130 of patients underwent chemotherapy and the combination of 5-FU and Leucovorin was predominanat. (n=104, 52%) Younger patients significantly had more Mucinous AC (p=.008) and took more 5-FU.(p=0.05) Conclusions: We have no reports from the Epidemiology of CRC in Iran since 1977. the data suggested a younger age distribution for CRC .
  • we found no significant difference between age, gender and type of cancer with subsite distribution .
  • Distal (left-sided) CRC was more prevalent.
  • 30.5% of patients were diagnosed by screening studies which highly suggests the procedure.
  • Anemia was less common in our population. younger patients received medical attention and 5-FU medication earlier and more.

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  • (PMID = 28016212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Haid A, Knauer M, Köberle-Wührer R, Wenzl E: Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: technique and indication. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2005 Feb;117(4):121-128

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: technique and indication.
  • : Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has proved to be a useful and accurate procedure for lymph node staging in breast cancer and melanoma and should be standard of care in the treatment of these tumors.
  • In other malignancies (colon, rectum, stomach, esophagus, head and neck and thyroid, cervix uteri) it is still under investigation.
  • SNB in breast cancer was accepted as a sole and reliable diagnostic method in breast cancer by the panel of distinguished experts at the 8th international conference of primary therapy of early breast cancer 2003 in St. Gallen.
  • Albeit SNB could be shown to be safe after preoperative chemotherapy and in multicentric breast cancer, due to lack of sufficient data it is still under discussion in these cases.
  • Expedience of this procedure in other lymph node basins, along the mammaria interna vessels or in the infra- and supraclavicular region is considered to be at an investigative stage as well.
  • Detection of additional micrometastases that are found in 10-15% leads to an upgrading from N0 to N1.
  • Broad application and refurbishment led to scientific discussion of prognostic importance of micrometastases and its relevance regarding axillary dissection and adjuvant systemic treatment.
  • Findings of ongoing large prospective randomized trials like NSABP 32, Z0010 and Z0011 of the American College of Surgeons (ACOSOG), the AMAROS-Trial of the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the ALMANAC-Trial of the British Association of Surgical Oncology (BASO) will give a conclusive answer.
  • Significant improvement in morbidity and quality of life measurements could be revealed several times in unicentric and even in multicentric studies like ALMANAC.

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  • (PMID = 28108807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1613-7671
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast cancer / Indications / Sentinel node biopsy / Technique
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16. Schaapveld M, Visser O, Louwman MJ, de Vries EG, Willemse PH, Otter R, van der Graaf WT, Coebergh JW, van Leeuwen FE: Risk of new primary nonbreast cancers after breast cancer treatment: a Dutch population-based study. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Mar 10;26(8):1239-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk of new primary nonbreast cancers after breast cancer treatment: a Dutch population-based study.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the risk of secondary nonbreast cancers (SNBCs) in a recently treated population-based cohort of breast cancer patients focused on the association with treatment and prognostic implications.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 58,068 Dutch patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1989 and 2003, SNBC risk was quantified using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), cumulative incidence, and Cox regression analysis, adjusted for competing risks.
  • SIRs were elevated for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, lung, uterus, ovary, kidney, and bladder cancers, and for soft tissue sarcomas (STS), melanoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Among patients younger than 50 years, radiotherapy was associated with an increased lung cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.15 to 4.60) and chemotherapy with decreased risk for all SNBCs (HR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.98) and for colon and lung cancer.
  • Among patients age 50 years and older, radiotherapy was associated with raised STS risk (HR = 3.43; 95% CI, 1.46 to 8.04); chemotherapy with increased risks of melanoma, uterine cancer, and AML; and hormonal therapy with all SNBCs combined (HR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.21) and uterine cancer (HR = 1.78; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.27).
  • CONCLUSION: Breast cancer patients diagnosed in the 1990 s experienced a small but significant excess risk of developing an SNBC.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Netherlands / epidemiology. Risk Factors. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18323547.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Ryan P, Nguyen VH, Gholoum S, Carpineta L, Abish S, Ahmed NN, Laberge JM, Riddell RH: Polypoid PEComa in the rectum of a 15-year-old girl: case report and review of PEComa in the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Mar;33(3):475-82

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Polypoid PEComa in the rectum of a 15-year-old girl: case report and review of PEComa in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • We report PEComa with lymph node involvement occurring in the rectum of a 15-year-old girl, treated by surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • We review the differential diagnosis of intestinal PEComa, which includes malignant melanoma, epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumors, clear cell sarcoma of soft parts, alveolar soft part sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma with HMB45 expression, and paraganglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19092636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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18. Roviello F, Cioppa T, Marrelli D, Nastri G, De Stefano A, Hako L, Pinto E: [Primary ano-rectal melanoma: considerations on a clinical case and review of the literature]. Chir Ital; 2003 Jul-Aug;55(4):575-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary ano-rectal melanoma: considerations on a clinical case and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Il melanoma primitivo ano-rettale: considerazioni su un caso clinico e revisione della letteratura.
  • Anorectal melanoma is a rare disease (1% of all anorectal malignancies).
  • It is characterised by aspecific symptoms and the differential diagnosis versus other lesions of the rectum and anus is often difficult.
  • The prognosis is very poor: mean survival is about 24 months, and at diagnosis most patients present distant metastases.
  • Surgery is suggested as being the best treatment for this disease, since radio- and chemotherapy are generally only used for palliative purposes.
  • Long-term survival depends on the stage of the melanoma at diagnosis.
  • The possible surgical treatments available consist in local resection, which is considered the first therapeutic choice, and abdominoperineal amputation when local resection cannot be performed, or as a palliative operation.
  • In this report we describe a case of anorectal melanoma in a 73-year-old woman who underwent abdominoperineal amputation as surgical palliative treatment, because of infiltration of the puborectal muscle.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 12938606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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19. Sucker C, Dölken G, Stockschläder M: [Malignant melanoma of the anorectal mucosa]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2004 Jul 2;129(27):1504-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma of the anorectal mucosa].
  • HISTORY: A 62-year-old man was admitted to hospital because of rectal bleeding of unknown cause.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Coloscopy showed a rectal tumour as cause of the bleeding and concomitant hypochromic microcytic anaemia.
  • Histological examination established the diagnosis of anorectal malignant melanoma.
  • TREATMENT AND COURSE: An radical abdominoperineal rectal resection amputation was performed.
  • CONCLUSION: Anorectal malignant melanoma is a rare cause in the differential diagnosis of anorectal tumours.
  • Surgery remains the therapy of choice.
  • Chemotherapy and immunotherapy are principally used in a palliative setting.
  • Despite advances in therapy, the prognosis of this tumour entity remains unfavourable.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia, Hypochromic / etiology. Colonoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15227591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-0472
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Haid A, Knauer M, Köberle-Wührer R, Wenzl E: [Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: techniques and indications]. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2005 Feb;117(4):121-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: techniques and indications].
  • Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has proved to be a useful and accurate procedure for lymph node staging in breast cancer and melanoma and should be standard of care in the treatment of these tumors.
  • In other malignancies (colon, rectum, stomach, esophagus, head and neck and thyroid, cervix uteri) it is still under investigation.
  • SNB in breast cancer was accepted as a sole and reliable diagnostic method in breast cancer from the panel of distinguished experts at the 8th international conference of primary therapy of early breast cancer 2003 in St. Gallen.
  • Albeit SNB could be shown to be safe after preoperative chemotherapy and in multicentric breast cancer, due to lack of sufficient data it is still under discussion in these cases.
  • Expedience of this procedure in other lymph node basins, along the mammaria interna vessels or in the infra- and supraclavicular region is considered to be at an investigative stage as well.
  • Detection of additional micrometastases that are found in 10-15% leads to an upgrading from N0 to N1.
  • Broad application and refurbishment led to scientific discussion of prognostic importance of micrometastases and its relevance according axillary dissection and adjuvant systemic treatment.
  • Findings of ongoing large prospective randomized trials like NSABP 32, Z0010 and Z0011 of the American College of Surgeons (ACOSOG), the AMAROS-Trial of the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the ALMANAC-Trial of the British Association of Surgical Oncology (BASO) will give a conclusive answer.
  • Significant improvement in morbidity and quality of life measurements could be revealed several times in unicentric and even in muticentric studies like ALMANAC.

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  • (PMID = 15847190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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21. Pirenne Y, Bouckaert W, Vangertruyden G: Rectal melanoma--a rare tumour. Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Nov-Dec;108(6):756-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rectal melanoma--a rare tumour.
  • Malignant rectal melanoma is a rare tumour.
  • We report a case of a 66-year-old man who presented with a two-month history of rectal bleeding, pain, and tenesmus.
  • A semicircular rectal tumour was seen, just above the dentate line.
  • Biopsies proved it to be an amelanotic malignant melanoma, as protein S100, melanoma antigen HMB45 and Melan-A expression were found.
  • CT scan and rectal ultrasound showed invasion into the internal sphincter and several enlarged perirectal nodes.
  • Histology confirmed an amelanotic malignant melanoma.
  • The patient recovered well from the operation, and received no adjuvant therapy.
  • With this case we want to illustrate that malignant rectal melanoma can be difficult to diagnose, as patients have non-specific symptoms, and histology may be misleading.
  • One should always check for protein S-100, melanoma antigen HMN-45 and Melan-A expression, as they are strongly suggestive of melanoma.
  • Wide local excision is the preferred procedure when technically feasible, but abdominoperineal resection has to be done if the tumour invades a substantial portion of the anal sphincter or is circumferential.
  • Rectal melanoma has a poor outcome with a 5-year survival rate of between 10-20%.
  • The role of radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy looks promising, but further investigations are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19241934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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22. Wolin KY, Carson K, Colditz GA: Obesity and cancer. Oncologist; 2010;15(6):556-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Obesity and cancer.
  • Weight, weight gain, and obesity account for approximately 20% of all cancer cases.
  • Evidence on the relation of each to cancer is summarized, including esophageal, thyroid, colon, renal, liver, melanoma, multiple myeloma, rectum, gallbladder, leukemia, lymphoma, and prostate in men; and postmenopausal breast and endometrium in women.
  • Weight loss, particularly among postmenopausal women, reduces risk for breast cancer.
  • Among cancer patients, data are less robust, but we note a long history of poor outcomes after breast cancer among obese women.
  • Dosing of chemotherapy and radiation therapy among obese patients is discussed and the impact on therapy-related toxicity is noted.
  • Guidelines for counseling patients for weight loss and increased physical activity are presented and supported by strong evidence that increased physical activity leads to improved quality of life among cancer survivors.
  • The burden of obesity on society continues to increase and warrants closer attention by clinicians for both cancer prevention and improved outcomes after diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 20507889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3227989
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23. Moozar KL, Wong CS, Couture J: Anorectal malignant melanoma: treatment with surgery or radiation therapy, or both. Can J Surg; 2003 Oct;46(5):345-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Melanoma.

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  • [Title] Anorectal malignant melanoma: treatment with surgery or radiation therapy, or both.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anorectal malignant tumours are increasing in frequency for unknown reasons.
  • Surgery is the principal treatment, and the role of adjuvant therapy has not been defined.
  • We therefore decided to review the experience of the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, a large tertiary care cancer hospital, with respect to the surgical management of anorectal melanoma.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the charts of all registered patients with anorectal malignant melanoma (AMM) treated with surgery or radiotherapy, or both, at the hospital between 1980 and 1999, paying particular attention to survival, and local and distant recurrences.
  • RESULTS: There were 14 patients, all of whom were followed up to the time of death or for a minimum of 28 months for surviving patients.
  • The mean ages at diagnosis were 56 years for men and 68 years for women.
  • Local therapy included local resection alone in 7 cases and abdominoperineal resection in 7.
  • Seven patients received pelvic irradiation at some time during their disease, using different doses and fractionation schemes.
  • Three of them had concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy with no tumour regression.
  • Six patients were alive 1 year after treatment (median survival 32.5 mo [range from 21-51 mo]).
  • The overall survival was poor regardless of local treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colostomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 14577706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-428X
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
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24. Hornick JL, Jaffe ES, Fletcher CD: Extranodal histiocytic sarcoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 14 cases of a rare epithelioid malignancy. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 Sep;28(9):1133-44
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in lymph nodes, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Seven tumors arose in soft tissue (6 lower limb; 1 upper limb), 5 in the gastrointestinal tract (1 involving both stomach and colon, 1 ileum, 2 rectum, 1 anus), 1 in the nasal cavity, and 1 in the lung.
  • Six patients were treated with postoperative radiation and 7 with chemotherapy (CHOP or ProMACE-MOPP).
  • Two tumors recurred locally, and 5 patients developed distant spread: 3 to lymph nodes, 1 to lung, and 1 to bone.
  • At the last follow-up, 2 patients have died of disseminated disease, 4 and 5 months following initial diagnosis.
  • Histiocytic sarcoma may arise primarily in soft tissue and shows reproducible histologic features, including abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and a prominent inflammatory infiltrate.
  • Metastatic carcinoma, metastatic melanoma, and large cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas should be excluded by immunohistochemistry.

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  • (PMID = 15316312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Matsumoto S, Imaeda Y, Umemoto S, Kobayashi K, Suzuki H, Okamoto T: Cimetidine increases survival of colorectal cancer patients with high levels of sialyl Lewis-X and sialyl Lewis-A epitope expression on tumour cells. Br J Cancer; 2002 Jan 21;86(2):161-7
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  • [Title] Cimetidine increases survival of colorectal cancer patients with high levels of sialyl Lewis-X and sialyl Lewis-A epitope expression on tumour cells.
  • Cimetidine has been shown to have beneficial effects in colorectal cancer patients.
  • In this study, a total of 64 colorectal cancer patients who received curative operation were examined for the effects of cimetidine treatment on survival and recurrence.
  • The treatment was initiated 2 weeks after the operation and terminated after 1 year.
  • According to our previous observations that cimetidine blocked the expression of E-selectin on vascular endothelium and inhibited the adhesion of cancer cells to the endothelium, we have further stratified the patients according to the expression levels of sialyl Lewis antigens X (sL(x)) and A (sL(a)).
  • We found that cimetidine treatment was particularly effective in patients whose tumour had higher sL(x) and sL(a) antigen levels.
  • These results clearly indicate that cimetidine treatment dramatically improved survival in colorectal cancer patients with tumour cells expressing high levels of sL(x) and sL(a).
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cimetidine / pharmacology. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Gangliosides / biosynthesis. Histamine H2 Antagonists / pharmacology. Oligosaccharides / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign
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  • (PMID = 11870500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-acetylneuraminyl-(2-3)-galactosyl-(1-4)-(fucopyranosyl-(1-3))-N-acetylglucosamine; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gangliosides; 0 / Histamine H2 Antagonists; 0 / Oligosaccharides; 80061L1WGD / Cimetidine; 91847-18-6 / sialyl Le(a) ganglioside; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2375187
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26. Hasan J, Byers R, Jayson GC: Intra-tumoural microvessel density in human solid tumours. Br J Cancer; 2002 May 20;86(10):1566-77
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  • In this review we evaluate the quantification of angiogenesis by immunohistochemistry, the relationship between tumour vascularity and metastasis, and the clinicopathological studies correlating intra-tumoral microvessel density with prognosis and response to anti-cancer therapy.
  • In view of the extensive nature of this retrospective body of data, comparative studies are needed to identify the optimum technique and endothelial antigens (activated or pan-endothelial antigens) but subsequently prospective studies that allocate treatment on the basis of microvessel density are required.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Endothelial Growth Factors / biosynthesis. Endothelium, Vascular / immunology. Endothelium, Vascular / pathology. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphokines / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / biosynthesis. Receptors, Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Thymidine Phosphorylase / biosynthesis. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / analysis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors

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  • [Copyright] comCopyright 2002 Cancer Research UK
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  • (PMID = 12085206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Endothelial Growth Factors; 0 / Lymphokines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; EC 2.4.2.4 / Thymidine Phosphorylase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
  • [Number-of-references] 131
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2746601
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27. Marchetti M, Resnick L, Gamliel E, Kesaraju S, Weissbach H, Binninger D: Sulindac enhances the killing of cancer cells exposed to oxidative stress. PLoS One; 2009 Jun 05;4(6):e5804
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  • [Title] Sulindac enhances the killing of cancer cells exposed to oxidative stress.
  • BACKGROUND: Sulindac is an FDA-approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that affects prostaglandin production by inhibiting cyclooxygenases (COX) 1 and 2.
  • Sulindac has also been of interest for more than decade as a chemopreventive for adenomatous colorectal polyps and colon cancer.
  • PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pretreatment of human colon and lung cancer cells with sulindac enhances killing by an oxidizing agent such as tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) or hydrogen peroxide.
  • However, under the conditions used, there is a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cancer cells and a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that cell death is due to apoptosis, which was confirmed by Tunel assay.
  • SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that normal and cancer cells handle oxidative stress in different ways and sulindac can enhance this difference.
  • The combination of sulindac and an oxidizing agent could have therapeutic value.

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  • (PMID = 19503837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R15 CA122001; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 R15 CA 122001-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2686156
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28. Kienle GS, Berrino F, Büssing A, Portalupi E, Rosenzweig S, Kiene H: Mistletoe in cancer - a systematic review on controlled clinical trials. Eur J Med Res; 2003 Mar 27;8(3):109-19
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mistletoe in cancer - a systematic review on controlled clinical trials.
  • BACKGROUND: Mistletoe preparations are among the most widely used unconventional cancer therapies in Central Europe.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether prospective controlled clinical trials provide evidence for efficacy of mistletoe therapy in cancer.
  • Cancer sites included breast, lung, stomach, colon, rectum, head and neck, kidney, bladder, melanoma, glioma, and genital.
  • Among these studies, statistically significant positive outcomes were reported for survival (n = 8), tumor remission (n = 1), overall quality of life (QOL) (n = 3), and QOL in relation to side effects during cytoreductive therapy (n = 3).
  • Mistletoe therapy was well tolerated, and no major side effects were noted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Mistletoe. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Phytotherapy. Plant Preparations / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12730032.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Plant Preparations
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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29. Yang H, Jager MJ, Grossniklaus HE: Bevacizumab suppression of establishment of micrometastases in experimental ocular melanoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2010 Jun;51(6):2835-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bevacizumab suppression of establishment of micrometastases in experimental ocular melanoma.
  • PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine whether anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy inhibits growth of primary uveal melanoma and spread of its hepatic micrometastases.
  • METHODS: The human uveal melanoma cell lines Mel290 and Mel 270, HUVECs, mouse B16LS9 melanoma cells, and mouse vascular endothelial cells were separately cultured or co-cultured and incubated with bevacizumab or IgG1.
  • In vitro angiogenesis and invasion assays were performed under bevacizumab or IgG1 treatment.
  • Time and dosage experiments were performed by using 50 or 250 microg bevacizumab starting at day 1 or 4 after inoculation.
  • RESULTS: Bevacizumab significantly reduced the level of VEGF in the culture media from human uveal melanoma cells, mouse melanoma cells, and co-cultured cells.
  • In the mouse model, bevacizumab suppressed primary ocular melanoma growth and the formation of hepatic micrometastases in a dose-dependent manner.
  • Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining showed decreased Ki67 and unchanged caspase 3 expression after treatment with bevacizumab.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with bevacizumab suppressed in vitro growth and in vivo hepatic micrometastasis of ocular melanoma cells.
  • Bevacizumab is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of uveal melanoma micrometastases.

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  • (PMID = 20089875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA126447; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY006360-24; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY006360; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA126447-07; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY006360-24; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24EY017045; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA126447-07; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24 EY017045
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS169710; NLM/ PMC2874122
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30. Terada R, Ito S, Kobayashi M, Akama F, Tsujimura M, Ooe H: Anorectal melanoma: successful treatment by surgical excision and combination chemoimmunotherapy. Hepatogastroenterology; 2002 Nov-Dec;49(48):1545-8
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  • [Title] Anorectal melanoma: successful treatment by surgical excision and combination chemoimmunotherapy.
  • Anorectal melanoma is an extremely rare malignancy, and has a poor prognosis mainly due to delays in diagnosis and lack of effective systemic therapy.
  • We report the case of a 63-year-old female patient with anorectal melanoma.
  • Diagnosis was established after surgery by histology and immunohistochemistry.
  • Surgical management consisted of abdominoperineal resection of the rectum.
  • Postoperatively, the patient received combination therapy of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, vincristine sulfate, and interferon-beta for 3 cycles.
  • Ten months later, a solitary brain metastatic tumor was noted in the left occipital region, which was resected surgically followed by the above combination therapy for 2 cycles.
  • In our case, abdominoperineal resection of the rectum appears to have some effect in preventing regional and lymph node recurrence.
  • Furthermore, our case suggests that prolongation of survival may depend on extensive block resection and combination therapy of DAV and interferon-beta.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunotherapy. Interferon-beta / therapeutic use. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 12397731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta
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31. Kim KO, Jang BI, Kim JH, Bae YK: [Primary rectal malignant melanoma with rapid progression after complete resection]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2010 Mar;55(3):151-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary rectal malignant melanoma with rapid progression after complete resection].
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Disease Progression. Humans. Interferons / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Positron-Emission Tomography. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20357524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
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