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1. Jasaitiene D, Valiukeviciene S, Makstiene J, Juodzbaliene EB: Metastatic amelanotic nodular melanoma during pregnancy. Medicina (Kaunas); 2008;44(6):467-71
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  • A 34 year-old Caucasian woman at 19th week of the second pregnancy was diagnosed having amelanotic nodular melanoma (tumor thickness - 2.5 mm) with metastases to the regional right inguinal lymph node.
  • Amelanotic nodular melanoma represents malignant melanocytic tumor of the skin, which clinically mimics a variety of benign and malignant skin conditions and therefore commonly leads to delayed diagnosis.
  • Though primary tumor was excised immediately, other treatment procedures as radical lymphadenectomy and chemotherapy were delayed, and immunotherapy was not given totally.
  • At the 29th week of pregnancy, the woman via naturalem delivered a healthy female child, and the chemotherapy was started.
  • Since pregnancy limits the prescription of immunotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for melanoma during pregnancy detected later than in the second stage is poor and can be illustrated by our reported case.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / secondary. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant, Newborn. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, Second. Pregnancy Trimester, Third. Prognosis. Puerperal Disorders / mortality. Skin / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18660642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
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2. Tran MA, Gowda R, Sharma A, Park EJ, Adair J, Kester M, Smith NB, Robertson GP: Targeting V600EB-Raf and Akt3 using nanoliposomal-small interfering RNA inhibits cutaneous melanocytic lesion development. Cancer Res; 2008 Sep 15;68(18):7638-49
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  • [Title] Targeting V600EB-Raf and Akt3 using nanoliposomal-small interfering RNA inhibits cutaneous melanocytic lesion development.
  • Approximately 90% of normal moles and approximately 60% of early invasive cutaneous melanomas contain a T1799A B-Raf mutation ((V600E)B-Raf), leading to 10 times higher enzyme activity and constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.
  • Therefore, targeting (V600E)B-Raf and Akt3 signaling is necessary to prevent or treat cutaneous melanocytic lesions.
  • In this study, a unique nanoliposomal-ultrasound-mediated approach has been developed for delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) specifically targeting (V600E)B-Raf and Akt3 into melanocytic tumors present in skin to retard melanoma development.
  • Low-frequency ultrasound using a lightweight four-cymbal transducer array enables penetration of nanoliposomal-siRNA complex throughout the epidermal and dermal layers of laboratory-generated or animal skin.
  • Nanoliposomal-mediated siRNA targeting of (V600E)B-Raf and Akt3 led to a cooperatively acting approximately 65% decrease in early or invasive cutaneous melanoma compared with inhibition of each singly with negligible associated systemic toxicity.
  • Thus, cationic nanoliposomes loaded with siRNA targeting (V600E)B-Raf and Akt3 provide an effective approach for targeted inhibition of early or invasive cutaneous melanomas.

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  • (PMID = 18794153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119309-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA119309-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1-R03-CA128033-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA119309; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA128033
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 2.7.1.- / AKT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS456582; NLM/ PMC3628540
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3. Ugurel S, Houben R, Schrama D, Voigt H, Zapatka M, Schadendorf D, Bröcker EB, Becker JC: Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor gene amplification in metastatic melanoma is a prognostic marker for patient survival, but not a predictive marker for chemosensitivity and chemotherapy response. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Nov 1;13(21):6344-50
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  • [Title] Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor gene amplification in metastatic melanoma is a prognostic marker for patient survival, but not a predictive marker for chemosensitivity and chemotherapy response.
  • PURPOSE: The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is regarded as a key oncogene of the melanocytic lineage since it was detected by a genome-wide analysis to be strongly amplified in 15% to 20% of metastatic melanomas.
  • MITF gene amplification was shown to be associated with a reduced survival in metastatic melanoma patients, and reduction of MITF activity was shown to sensitize melanoma cell lines to chemotherapeutics, suggesting the intratumoral MITF gene copy number as a predictive biomarker of response and survival after chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: To validate this hypothesis, we investigated MITF gene amplification in tumor tissues obtained from 116 metastatic melanoma patients before an individualized sensitivity-directed chemotherapy using quantitative real-time PCR.
  • MITF amplification rates were correlated with tumor chemosensitivity quantified by an ATP-based luminescence assay and with chemotherapy outcome in terms of response and survival.
  • RESULTS: Of 116 tumor tissues, 104 were evaluable for MITF gene amplification.
  • Strong amplification (> or =4 copies per cell) was detected in 24 of 104 tissues (23%), whereas 62 of 104 tissues (60%) harbored >3 copies per cell.
  • However, no correlation was found between MITF copy number and in vitro chemosensitivity or in vivo chemotherapy response.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that strong amplifications of the melanoma oncogene MITF affects patient survival but does not influence tumor chemosensitivity and chemotherapy response.
  • Thus, the MITF gene copy number seems a useful prognostic marker in metastatic melanoma but could not be confirmed as a predictive marker of chemosensitivity and chemotherapy response.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17975146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor
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4. Busam KJ, Wolchok J, Jungbluth AA, Chapman P: Diffuse melanosis after chemotherapy-induced tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with metastatic melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2004 Mar;31(3):274-80
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  • [Title] Diffuse melanosis after chemotherapy-induced tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with metastatic melanoma.
  • A 35-year-old woman with stage IV melanoma is presented, who developed slate bluish-gray to brown discoloration of her skin after chemotherapy-induced tumor lysis syndrome.
  • Skin tissue was examined on routine hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections, Fontana stains, immunohistochemical studies with antibodies for Melan-A, gp100, tyrosinase, FXIIIa, and CD68, and by electron microscopy.
  • The main cell types found to contain melanin pigment were histiocytes and dendritic cells.
  • No melanoma cells were seen in the skin.
  • Sequence analysis of the tumor's cDNA failed to identify any mutations in the tyrosinase gene, and no tyrosinase protein was detected in non-melanocytic cells, indicating that it was unlikely that a mutation had resulted in a secretory form of the protein.
  • These findings document that diffuse melanosis may result from tumor lysis, with release of melanosomes into the bloodstream.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Melanoma / secondary. Melanosis / etiology. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Lysis Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Interleukin-2 / adverse effects. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Melanosomes / ultrastructure. Microscopy, Electron. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Vinblastine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 14984582.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Interleukin-2; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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5. Wild PJ, Meyer S, Bataille F, Woenckhaus M, Ameres M, Vogt T, Landthaler M, Pauer A, Klinkhammer-Schalke M, Hofstaedter F, Bosserhoff AK: Tissue microarray analysis of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase protein expression in melanocytic skin tumors. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Apr;142(4):471-6
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  • [Title] Tissue microarray analysis of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase protein expression in melanocytic skin tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Using tissue microarrays, we investigated whether methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) protein expression is associated with clinicopathologic variables in benign and malignant melanocytic skin tumors.
  • Lymph node metastases demonstrated significantly higher MTAP expression compared with skin metastases (P = .01).
  • Among 26 patients with MTAP-positive melanomas and tumor recurrence, 18 patients who received interferon therapy had a significant benefit compared with 8 patients who did not receive interferon therapy (P = .009).
  • Conclusion Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase protein expression may be a predictive marker of interferon therapy resistance in patients with melanoma and disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Interferons / therapeutic use. Male. Microarray Analysis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16618867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; EC 2.4.2.1 / Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase; EC 2.4.2.28 / 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase
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6. Lin CY, Yang SW, Lai CH: Primary malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity. Chang Gung Med J; 2003 Nov;26(11):857-62
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  • Malignant melanoma is a highly lethal melanocytic neoplasm, usually affecting the skin.
  • The prognosis is generally poor, with a mean survival time of 3.5 years.
  • The usual treatment of choice is radical excision.
  • Radiotherapy and chemotherapy appear to have little effect.
  • Palliative surgery was performed to excise the nasal cavity tumor.
  • Then, 6 courses of chemotherapy were further administered.
  • We have chosen to discuss this aggressive condition because of its rarity and also to emphasize the importance of its early detection through vigilant attention to nonspecific nasal symptoms.

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  • (PMID = 14765758.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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7. Tchernev G, Nenoff P: [Dissecting the pathways of tumour escape: " question of life and death?"]. An Bras Dermatol; 2010 Mar-Apr;85(2):248-59

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  • [Title] [Dissecting the pathways of tumour escape: " question of life and death?"].
  • [Transliterated title] Dissecando os caminhos de escape do tumor: âuma questA poundo de vida e morte?"
  • The disturbances of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis are also found on specific signal-transduction pathways within the tumour cells and between these and the immune system.
  • The article focuses attention on the evolution of the melanocytic naevi in the direction of a dysplastic or tumour cell.
  • New hopes are being placed on the treatment with TW-37, ABT-737 and TAT-Bim, which, to an extent, are able to support the programmed cell death.
  • The clinical importance of these innovative therapies remains to be seen and should therefore, be viewed with considerable criticism.
  • [MeSH-major] Tumor Escape / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Cycle / physiology. Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / physiology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20520947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Bras Dermatol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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8. Schittek B, Psenner K, Sauer B, Meier F, Iftner T, Garbe C: The increased expression of Y box-binding protein 1 in melanoma stimulates proliferation and tumor invasion, antagonizes apoptosis and enhances chemoresistance. Int J Cancer; 2007 May 15;120(10):2110-8
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  • [Title] The increased expression of Y box-binding protein 1 in melanoma stimulates proliferation and tumor invasion, antagonizes apoptosis and enhances chemoresistance.
  • In previous studies we identified the transcription/translation factor Y-box-binding protein (YB-1) as a gene that is upregulated in primary melanoma and melanoma metastases when compared to benign melanocytic nevi.
  • To analyze whether YB-1 expression correlates with melanoma progression in vitro and in vivo, we performed expression analysis on melanoma cell lines representing different stages of melanoma progression and on tissues of melanocytic nevi, primary melanoma and melanoma metastases.
  • In addition, migration and invasion of melanoma cells in monolayer and in a three-dimensional skin reconstruct in vitro was significantly reduced.
  • These data suggest that YB-1 is involved in malignant transformation of melanocytes and contributes to the stimulation of proliferation, tumor invasion, survival and chemoresistance.
  • Thus, YB-1 may be a promising molecular target in melanoma therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Y-Box-Binding Protein 1 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Growth Processes / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / physiology. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Transfection. Up-Regulation


9. Ilyas EN, Goldsmith K, Lintner R, Manders SM: Rhabdomyosarcoma arising in a giant congenital melanocytic nevus. Cutis; 2004 Jan;73(1):39-43
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  • [Title] Rhabdomyosarcoma arising in a giant congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • We report the case of a 6-week-old girl who presented with a pedunculated embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma arising in a giant congenital melanocytic nevus (GCMN) on her lower back.
  • The patient underwent surgical resection of the rhabdomyosarcoma at age 2 months, with subsequent chemotherapy consisting of actinomycin D and vincristine.
  • No recurrences or metastases of tumor have been noted at 5 months of age.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14964630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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10. Mu XC, Tran TA, Ross JS, Carlson JA: Topoisomerase II-alpha expression in melanocytic nevi and malignant melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2000 May;27(5):242-8
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  • [Title] Topoisomerase II-alpha expression in melanocytic nevi and malignant melanoma.
  • Malignant melanoma (MM) is considered to be a chemotherapy-refractory tumor.
  • New anti-cancer drugs (e.g. etoposide) that target DNA topoisomerases (e.g. topoisomerase II-alpha (topo IIalpha)) show activity against a wide variety of solid tumors.
  • In this study, we investigated the frequency and rate of labeling for topo IIalpha in 163 MMs (primary and metastatic) and 67 melanocytic nevi to determine whether topo IIalpha expression is elevated in MM.
  • The rate of topo IIalpha labeling in dysplastic melanocytic nevi, radial growth phase MM, vertical growth phase MM and metastatic MM revealed significant differences amongst groups and a positive covariance with advancing stage (means: 0.3, 0.5, 5, and 8 '+' cells/hpf, respectively; r=0.3, all p < or = 0.02).
  • Topo IIalpha labeling significantly correlated with increasing mitotic activity, depth of invasion and Clark's level, diminishing tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, and poor outcome (all p < or = 0.01) in primary MM.
  • These findings indicate topo IIalpha as a potential therapeutic target and marker for MM.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of disseminated MM may allow for correlation with clinical response and enable selection of candidates sensitive for specific chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Melanoma / enzymology. Nevus, Pigmented / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA-Binding Proteins. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / pathology. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 10847549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] DENMARK
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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11. Vad NM, Kudugunti SK, Graber D, Bailey N, Srivenugopal K, Moridani MY: Efficacy of acetaminophen in skin B16-F0 melanoma tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice. Int J Oncol; 2009 Jul;35(1):193-204
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  • [Title] Efficacy of acetaminophen in skin B16-F0 melanoma tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice.
  • It was also found that APAP selectively caused escalation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and intracellular GSH (ICG) depletion in melanocytic human SK-MEL-28 and murine B16-F0 melanoma cells that express functional tyrosinase whereas it lacked significant effects on ROS formation and ICG in amelanotic C32 melanoma cells that do not express functional tyrosinase.
  • These findings suggest that tyrosinase plays a major role in APAP selective induced toxicity in melanocytic melanoma cell lines.
  • Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy and toxicity of APAP in the skin melanoma tumor model in mice was investigated.
  • Mice receiving APAP at 60, 80, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, day 7 through 13 post melanoma cell inoculation demonstrated tumor size growth inhibition by 7+/-14, 30+/-17, 45+/-11 and 57+/-3%, respectively.
  • Mice receiving APAP day 1 through 13 post melanoma cell inoculation showed tumor size growth inhibition by 11+/-7, 33+/-9, 36+/-20 and 44+/-28%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetaminophen / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Melanoma, Experimental / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Ascorbic Acid / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Glutathione / metabolism. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Kidney / drug effects. Kidney / metabolism. Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects. Liver / drug effects. Liver / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Monophenol Monooxygenase / genetics. Monophenol Monooxygenase / metabolism. NAD / metabolism. Oxidation-Reduction. Phenacetin / metabolism. RNA Interference. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Sulfhydryl Compounds / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19513568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R15CA122044-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Sulfhydryl Compounds; 0U46U6E8UK / NAD; 362O9ITL9D / Acetaminophen; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase; ER0CTH01H9 / Phenacetin; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid
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12. Katoulis AC, Kanelleas A, Zambacos G, Panayiotides I, Stavrianeas NG: Development of two primary malignant melanomas after treatment with adalimumab: a case report and review of the possible link between biological therapy with TNF-alpha antagonists and melanocytic proliferation. Dermatology; 2010 Aug;221(1):9-12
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  • [Title] Development of two primary malignant melanomas after treatment with adalimumab: a case report and review of the possible link between biological therapy with TNF-alpha antagonists and melanocytic proliferation.
  • Biologics, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonists, have revolutionized treatment of several significant inflammatory autoimmune diseases.
  • There is growing evidence linking biological treatments with the occurrence of malignancies or reactivation of latent ones, including malignant melanoma.
  • We report the case of a 75-year-old male patient who developed 2 primary malignant melanomas (MM) after treatment with adalimumab for rheumatoid arthritis.
  • He was under adalimumab treatment for approximately 12 months before the diagnosis of MM on his right lower leg.
  • A few months later, a second MM developed on the patient's scalp.
  • The short duration of treatment with adalimumab and the unclear temporal relationship cannot adequately support a probable link between this double MM occurrence and the adalimumab-induced immunosuppressive state.
  • The result of a literature search regarding the possible association between anti-TNF drugs and melanocytic proliferation is provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antirheumatic Agents / adverse effects. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Melanoma / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adalimumab. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Humans. Leg / pathology. Leg / surgery. Male. Melanocytes / drug effects. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Scalp / pathology. Scalp / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20484878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; FYS6T7F842 / Adalimumab; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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13. Leonard N, Wilson N, Calonje JE: Squamomelanocytic tumor: an unusual and distinctive entity of uncertain biological potential. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):495-8
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  • [Title] Squamomelanocytic tumor: an unusual and distinctive entity of uncertain biological potential.
  • We report a case of a squamomelanocytic tumor of the skin.
  • Clinically, the lesion was felt to be a melanocytic or vascular tumor but histologically was characterized by epithelioid cells with focal squamous differentiation.
  • The lesion has some similarities to a melanocytic matricoma but no evidence of matrical differentiation.
  • The biological potential of this distinctive tumor is not known because so few have been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Male. Melanocytes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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14. Bacchi CE, Silva TR, Zambrano E, Plaza J, Suster S, Luzar B, Lamovec J, Pizzolitto S, Falconieri G: Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the skin: a study of 18 cases with emphasis on its clinicopathologic spectrum and unusual morphologic features. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Sep;34(9):1334-43
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  • [Title] Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the skin: a study of 18 cases with emphasis on its clinicopathologic spectrum and unusual morphologic features.
  • We report 18 cases of cutaneous angiosarcoma with predominant or exclusive epithelioid morphology.
  • In elderly patients scalp or facial lesions and cutaneous lesions arising within irradiated breast skin predominated.
  • Diverging phenotypes included syncytial growth of large cells with clear nuclei and prominent nucleoli, micronodules of tumor cells scattered in dermis, predominance of discohesive plasmacytoid polygonal cells with abundant bright eosinophilic cytoplasm, sheets of clear cells with coarse granular cytoplasm, trabecular and cord arrangement of tumor cells splaying the dermal collagen, or a pseudoglandular appearance owing to clear cell tubular arrangement with open lumina.
  • Immunohistochemical studies showed positivity for CD31 and CD34; no immunoreactivity was documented for other tested antigens including cytokeratins, S100 protein, melanocytic antigens, leukocyte common antigen, and desmin.
  • Therapeutic modalities included combined local excision, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, depending on patient clinical status.
  • Of the 9 patients available for follow-up, 5 were alive and apparently well, 2 had recurrent disease, and 2 had died of tumor.
  • Our data show that epithelioid cutaneous angiosarcoma may have a broad morphological spectrum, raising interpretive challenges on microscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20697249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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15. Schmid-Wendtner MH, Berking C, Baumert J, Schmidt M, Sander CA, Plewig G, Volkenandt M: Cutaneous melanoma in childhood and adolescence: an analysis of 36 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2002 Jun;46(6):874-9
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  • [Title] Cutaneous melanoma in childhood and adolescence: an analysis of 36 patients.
  • Analysis of data of 6931 patients with cutaneous melanoma seen at the Department of Dermatology and Allergology at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich between 1977 and 1998 identified 36 patients in whom cutaneous melanomas developed during childhood or adolescence (age <18 years).
  • Tumor thickness ranged from 0.24 to 7.0 mm, with a median of 1.29 mm (mean, 1.67 mm).
  • All patients with primary melanomas received surgical therapy; patients with metastatic disease received chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both.
  • Similar to experience in adult patients, survival strongly correlated with tumor thickness and clinical stage at the time of diagnosis.
  • The data emphasize that a high index of suspicion for cutaneous melanoma is needed by clinicians assessing melanocytic lesions in children and adolescents for early diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Medical Records. Nevus / congenital. Nevus / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 12063484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0190-9622
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Perdonà S, Di Trolio R, Di Lorenzo G, Autorino R: A case of renal melanoma metastasis: description of clinico-pathological features. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2007 Dec;79(4):161-3
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  • We report a case of single renal metastasis from skin melanoma revealed 14 months after observation and treatment of the primary tumor.
  • He had a history of previously treated skin melanoma.
  • Pathological examination revealed a high mitotic index of anaplastic neoplasm with epitheloid and fusiform atypical melanocytic cells with profuse cytoplasmic melanin pigment and immunohistochemical staining positive for HMB45.
  • Patient refused standard systemic chemotherapy/immunotherapy and was treated with sunitinib.

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  • (PMID = 18303733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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17. Wang W, Edington HD, Rao UN, Jukic DM, Wang H, Shipe-Spotloe JM, Kirkwood JM: STAT3 as a biomarker of progression in atypical nevi of patients with melanoma: dose-response effects of systemic IFNalpha therapy. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Aug;128(8):1997-2002
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  • [Title] STAT3 as a biomarker of progression in atypical nevi of patients with melanoma: dose-response effects of systemic IFNalpha therapy.
  • Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) plays a pivotal role in tumor progression.
  • It is suggested that the relative balance of pSTAT1/pSTAT3 may be associated with melanocyte differentiation in vivo. pSTAT3 is a potential biomarker of melanocytic transformation and progression and is modulated by IFNalpha dose-dependently.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / metabolism. Nevus / metabolism. STAT3 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Disease Progression. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. STAT1 Transcription Factor / genetics. STAT1 Transcription Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18305569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / STAT1 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor
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18. Lee C, Ramirez JA, Guitart J, Diaz LK: Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma during malignant melanoma progression. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Nov;35(11):989-94
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  • BACKGROUND: Cancer chemoprevention using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is frequently attributed to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition, although recent studies suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) may also be involved.
  • While surgical excision remains the treatment mainstay for localized malignant melanoma, certain high-risk patients may benefit from adjunctive chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: COX-2 and PPARgamma immunohistological staining was performed and reviewed in 99 melanocytic lesions, including 38 benign nevi, 32 primary melanomas and 29 metastatic melanomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: COX-2 and PPARgamma may help modulate the progression of melanocytic precursor lesions to disseminated malignant melanoma.
  • As such, they may serve as candidate substrates for targeted cancer therapies and may be particularly useful as adjuncts to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Count. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 18537861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PPAR gamma; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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19. Vogt T, McClelland M, Jung B, Popova S, Bogenrieder T, Becker B, Rumpler G, Landthaler M, Stolz W: Progression and NSAID-induced apoptosis in malignant melanomas are independent of cyclooxygenase II. Melanoma Res; 2001 Dec;11(6):587-99
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  • Using immunohistology we determined that Cox-II is not expressed in 70 benign and malignant melanocytic tumours.
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting of MM cell lines and MM tissues confirmed the lack of Cox-II expression in MM.
  • However, in vitro the Cox-inhibiting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) sulindac sulphide (SIS) was significantly more effective in inducing apoptosis than sulindac sulphone (SOS), a derivative with a negligible effect on Cox (P < 0.01).
  • Nevertheless, Cox-II inhibitors are still candidates for therapy, though they act via an unknown mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sulindac / analogs & derivatives. Sulindac / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / enzymology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / enzymology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Child. Cyclooxygenase 2. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology. DNA Primers / chemistry. Disease Progression. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Membrane Proteins. Middle Aged. RNA / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11725205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 6UVA8S2DEY / sulindac sulfide; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; K619IIG2R9 / sulindac sulfone
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20. Heimerl S, Bosserhoff AK, Langmann T, Ecker J, Schmitz G: Mapping ATP-binding cassette transporter gene expression profiles in melanocytes and melanoma cells. Melanoma Res; 2007 Oct;17(5):265-73
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  • Moreover, several human ABC proteins are responsible for drug exclusion in compound-treated tumor cells, providing cellular mechanisms for the development of multidrug resistance and, therefore, playing an important role in malignant transformation.
  • As only limited information exists on the role of ABC transporters in melanoma, the aim of the study was to generate a complete expression profile of ABC transporters in this tumor entity.
  • Cell line-specific expression levels were compared with gene expression in pooled RNA from a variety of other human tissues.
  • High expression levels were detected in pooled tissue RNA as well as in cells of melanocytic origin for ABCA5, ABCB2, ABCB6, ABCD3, ABCD4, ABCF1, ABCF2 and ABCF3, whereas ABCB5 revealed a melanocyte-specific high transcript level.
  • In summary, we present here for the first time an ABC-transporter mRNA expression profile in melanoma in comparison to normal melanocytes.
  • The differentially regulated ABC transporters detected by our approach may be candidate genes involved in melanoma tumorigenesis, progression and therapy resistance and could therefore be of great importance to identify novel options for melanoma therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Melanocytes / metabolism. Melanoma / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17885581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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21. Shannan B, Seifert M, Leskov K, Boothman D, Pföhler C, Tilgen W, Reichrath J: Clusterin (CLU) and melanoma growth: CLU is expressed in malignant melanoma and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates expression of CLU in melanoma cell lines in vitro. Anticancer Res; 2006 Jul-Aug;26(4A):2707-16
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of CLU was studied immunohistochemically in paraffin sections of primary cutaneous malignant melanomas, metastases of malignant melanomas and acquired melanocytic naevi.
  • Using PCR and Western blotting, the expression of CLU was also investigated in various vitamin D-responsive (MeWo, SK-MEL-28) and vitamin D-resistant melanoma cell lines (SK-MEL-5, SK-MEL-25), as well as in normal human melanocytes (NHM), along with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] treatment.
  • RESULTS: In contrast to acquired melanocytic naevi, CLU immunoreactivity was found in primary cutaneous malignant melanomas and metastases of malignant melanomas in situ.
  • Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 modulated CLU's expression in vitamin D-responsive but not in -resistant melanoma cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitriol / pharmacology. Clusterin / biosynthesis. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16886681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA013148; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA142543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078530
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLU protein, human; 0 / Clusterin; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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22. Eigentler TK, Mügge LO, Bembenek A, Garbe C: [Cutaneous melanoma]. Hautarzt; 2007 Oct;58(10):885-97; quiz 898
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  • [Title] [Cutaneous melanoma].
  • While the incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) continues to rise steadily, the mortality has stabilized.
  • Risk factors for the development of CM are UV light exposure and individual characteristics relating to pigmentation, and especially the number of melanocytic nevi.
  • The most important prognostic factor in CM is the vertical thickness of the primary tumor in the histological specimen.
  • Excision of the primary tumor with adequate safety margins is the treatment of choice.
  • In the case of a tumor 1.0 mm or more thick biopsy of the sentinel node is recommended.
  • Interferon-alpha is currently the only adjuvant therapy shown to have significant benefit in prospective randomized trials.
  • When distant metastases are present treatment is palliative and is aimed primarily at achieving tumor remission by operative, radiological, and pharmacological means.
  • Dacarbazine is considered the standard drug for systemic treatment.
  • Follow-up depends on the initial tumor parameters and the current stage of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / surgery. Palliative Care. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin / pathology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17973138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha
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23. Karbowniczek M, Spittle CS, Morrison T, Wu H, Henske EP: mTOR is activated in the majority of malignant melanomas. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Apr;128(4):980-7
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  • These data indicate that mTOR activation is very strongly associated with malignant, compared to benign, melanocytic lesions.
  • Together, these data implicate activation of mTOR in the pathogenesis of melanoma, and suggest that Rheb and mTOR may be targets for melanoma therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / enzymology. Melanoma / pathology. Protein Kinases / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. DNA Mutational Analysis. Humans. Nevus / enzymology. Nevus / pathology. Phosphorylation. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / genetics. Ribosomal Protein S6 / metabolism. Sirolimus / pharmacology. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases

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  • (PMID = 17914450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 51052
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Ribosomal Protein S6; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras); W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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