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1. Lodish MB, Stratakis CA: RET oncogene in MEN2, MEN2B, MTC and other forms of thyroid cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2008 Apr;8(4):625-32
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  • [Title] RET oncogene in MEN2, MEN2B, MTC and other forms of thyroid cancer.
  • Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is caused by specific autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene.
  • Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development.
  • MTC represents a promising model for targeted cancer therapy, as the oncogenic event responsible for initiating malignancy has been well characterized.
  • The RET proto-oncogene has become the target for molecularly designed drug therapy.
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting activated RET are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with MTC.
  • This review will provide a brief overview of MTC and the associated RET oncogenic mutations, and will summarize the therapies designed to strategically interfere with the pathologic activation of the RET oncogene.

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  • (PMID = 18402529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 HD999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 67
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS101681; NLM/ PMC2670186
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2. Barnes PJ: Drugs for asthma. Br J Pharmacol; 2006 Jan;147 Suppl 1:S297-303
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Drugs for asthma.
  • Current drug therapy for asthma is highly effective and has evolved from naturally occurring substances through logical pharmaceutical developments.
  • Pharmacology has played a critical role in asthma drug development and several key experimental observations have been published in this journal.
  • Understanding the pharmacology of effective drug therapies has also taught us much about the underlying mechanisms of asthma. beta(2)-Adrenoceptor agonists are the most effective bronchodilators and evolved from catecholamines from the adrenal medulla, whereas corticosteroids, from the adrenal cortex, are by far the most effective controllers of the underlying inflammatory process in the airways.
  • The current 'gold standard' of asthma therapy is a combination inhaler containing a long-acting beta(2)-agonist with a corticosteroid - an improved form of adrenal gland extract.
  • Cromoglycate, derived from a plant product and theophylline, a dietary methyl xanthine, have also been extensively used in the therapy of asthma, but we still do not understand their molecular mechanisms.
  • Pharmacology has played an important role in improving natural products to make effective long lasting and safe asthma therapies, but has so far been challenged to produce new classes of antiasthma therapy.
  • The only novel class of antiasthma therapy introduced in the last 30 years are leukotriene antagonists, which are less effective than existing treatments.
  • New, more specific, therapies targeted at specific cytokines are less effective than corticosteroids, whereas more effective therapies carry a risk of side effects that may not be acceptable.
  • It seems likely that pharmacology, rather than molecular genetics, will remain the main approach to the further improvement of treatment for asthma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / history. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adrenergic beta-Agonists / history. Adrenergic beta-Agonists / therapeutic use. Animals. Chromones / history. Chromones / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. History, 20th Century. History, 21st Century. Humans. Inflammation Mediators / antagonists & inhibitors. Theophylline / history. Theophylline / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16402117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1188
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Adrenergic beta-Agonists; 0 / Anti-Asthmatic Agents; 0 / Chromones; 0 / Inflammation Mediators; C137DTR5RG / Theophylline
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1760737
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3. de Pontes VM, Souza Júnior AS, Cruz FM, Coelho HL, Dias AT, Coêlho IC, Oliveira Mde F: [Adverse reactions in Chagas disease patients treated with benznidazole, in the State of Ceará]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop; 2010 Mar-Apr;43(2):182-7
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  • [Transliterated title] Reações adversas em pacientes com doença de Chagas tratados com benzonidazol, no Estado do Ceará.
  • This drug has the troublesome features of presenting partial effectiveness and high toxicity ranging from hypersensitivity reactions to medullary aplasia.
  • Blood samples were collected before treatment and after 30 and 60 days of treatment.
  • Out of the 28 patients with adverse reactions, eight (28.57%) discontinued their treatment.
  • The adverse reactions that culminated with discontinuation of the treatment were prickling (7; 87.5%) or skin eruptions (5; 62.5%).
  • There was a slight increase in aminotransferase levels during the treatment in 9.4% of the patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Following up the drug therapy administered to Chagas patients is of great importance for prevention and early detection of adverse reactions to drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Chagas Disease / drug therapy. Nitroimidazoles / adverse effects. Trypanocidal Agents / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20464150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-9849
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitroimidazoles; 0 / Trypanocidal Agents; YC42NRJ1ZD / benzonidazole
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4. Sollecito TP, Draznin J, Parisi E, Duffy K, Stadtmauer EA, Luger SM, Schuster SJ, Tsai D, Porter DL: Leukemic gingival infiltrate as an indicator of chemotherapeutic failure following monoclonal antibody therapy: a case report. Spec Care Dentist; 2003;23(3):108-10
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  • [Title] Leukemic gingival infiltrate as an indicator of chemotherapeutic failure following monoclonal antibody therapy: a case report.
  • Treatment options are limited for patients with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), particularly when the disease is refractory to standard cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Targeted drug therapy offers the advantage of delivering higher doses of non-cross resistant chemotherapy with potentially less systemic toxicity.
  • Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg, Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories) is an immunoconjugate that consists of humanized anti-CD 33 antibody linked to the potent anti-tumor antibiotic calicheamicin and has been an effective therapy for some patients with relapsed AML.
  • This article reports gemtuzumab treatment of refractory AML in a 32-year-old man.
  • At the time of recurrence, his bone marrow was hypoplastic and without leukemia, but the condition progressed resulting in marked leukemic infiltration of the oral mucosa.
  • This case history raises the possibility that leukemic sanctuary sites may exist, and that monoclonal antibody therapy may have sub-optimal activity in non-medullary sites of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides / therapeutic use. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Gingiva / pathology. Immunotoxins / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antigens, CD. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 14650559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-1879
  • [Journal-full-title] Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spec Care Dentist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; 0 / gemtuzumab
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5. Stein R, Chen S, Reed L, Richel H, Goldenberg DM: Combining radioimmunotherapy and chemotherapy for treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma: effectiveness of dacarbazine. Cancer; 2002 Jan 1;94(1):51-61
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  • [Title] Combining radioimmunotherapy and chemotherapy for treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma: effectiveness of dacarbazine.
  • BACKGROUND: To enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), we evaluated the effect of combining radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) with 90Y-anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody MN-14 and chemotherapy in nude mice bearing human MTC xenografts.
  • Given individually, DTIC yielded the most effective tumor growth inhibition, delaying the mean time to doubling from 1 week for untreated tumor-bearing mice to 7.5 weeks.
  • Administering either the 4 drugs in combination or a 2-drug combination comprised of doxorubicin and DTIC significantly improved the efficacy compared with any single drug alone, increasing the mean doubling time to 10-12 weeks.
  • METHODS: Drug doses were selected to conform to the doses of each drug given clinically.
  • For the combined modality therapy, administration of 90Y-labeled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody MN-14 to nude mice bearing established TT tumors was followed by various chemotherapy regimens initiated 24 hours after RAIT.
  • Chemotherapy protocols combined with RAIT included doxorubicin or DTIC alone and in combination, and the doxorubicin, DTIC, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine 4-drug protocol.
  • Tumor volumes were measured weekly, and toxicity was evaluated by measuring blood counts and body weight.
  • RESULTS: Combinations of RAIT and chemotherapy with DTIC or RAIT and chemotherapy with the drug combinations were found to augment the antitumor effects of RAIT or chemotherapy alone, without a significant increase in toxicity.
  • The mean tumor volume doubling times were increased up to 100% compared with the results of chemotherapy alone.
  • No significant differences in tumor growth were observed between the RAIT plus DTIC protocol and the RAIT plus two- or four-drug protocols.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The superiority of the combined modality treatment argues for the integration of RAIT into chemotherapeutic regimens for MTC treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Radioimmunotherapy. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / immunology. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Mice. Mice, Nude. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays. Yttrium Radioisotopes

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11815960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA-79857
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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6. Stein R, Goldenberg DM: A humanized monoclonal antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen, labetuzumab, inhibits tumor growth and sensitizes human medullary thyroid cancer xenografts to dacarbazine chemotherapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 2004 Dec;3(12):1559-64
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  • [Title] A humanized monoclonal antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen, labetuzumab, inhibits tumor growth and sensitizes human medullary thyroid cancer xenografts to dacarbazine chemotherapy.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect that an anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (MAb) may have on the growth of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), a CEA-expressing tumor, alone and in combination with chemotherapy.
  • Using the TT MTC cell line grown s.c., we compared tumor growth in untreated mice with that of mice given the humanized anti-CEA MAb labetuzumab or an isotype-matched control MAb.
  • The effects of time of administration post-tumor injection, MAb dose response, specificity of response, and combination with dacarbazine (DTIC) chemotherapy were studied.
  • In addition, labetuzumab sensitizes these tumor cells to chemotherapy with an effective drug in this model, DTIC, without increased toxicity.
  • Significant delays in tumor growth were caused by the MAb therapy or chemotherapy alone; however, the combination of these agents was significantly more effective than either agent given as a monotherapy or use of an irrelevant MAb in this model.
  • The superiority of the combined modality treatment argues for the integration of CEA MAb therapy into chemotherapeutic regimens for MTC management and possibly other CEA-expressing neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / immunology. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15634649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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7. Oehadian A, Fadjari TH: Neutropenic enterocolitis in breast cancer patient after taxane-containing chemotherapy. Acta Med Indones; 2008 Jan;40(1):29-33
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  • [Title] Neutropenic enterocolitis in breast cancer patient after taxane-containing chemotherapy.
  • Neutropenic enterocolitis or typhlitis (from the Greek typhlon, meaning caecum) is defined as a necrotizing colitis with inflammation of the cecum and surrounding tissues.
  • Although this condition occurs primarily in severely myelosuppressed and immunosuppressed patients with leukemia, it may also occur in those with other advanced malignancies receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy.
  • It has been described most recently in patients with solid tumors who receive taxane-based therapy.
  • A 60-year old woman with medullary breast cancer stage IIIB underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TAC (doxetaxele 100 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2).
  • Sixth day after TAC chemotherapy, she had abdominal pain and vomiting.
  • Neutropenic enterocolitis should be considered in patients with abdominal symptoms especially during the granulocyte nadir following chemotherapy.
  • Increased awareness of this rapidly progressive and potentially fatal disease leads to accurate diagnosis and the prompt treatment that can decrease morbidity and mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Enterocolitis, Neutropenic / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Neutropenia / complications. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Taxoids / adverse effects. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18326897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-9326
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Indonesiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Indones
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Indonesia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; TAC protocol
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8. Pritchard MJ: Medullary sponge kidney: causes and treatments. Br J Nurs; 2010 Aug 12-Sep 8;19(15):972-6
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  • [Title] Medullary sponge kidney: causes and treatments.
  • Medullary sponge kidney is a little known and little understood disease.
  • A patient with a medullary sponge kidney may undergo decades of suffering in the form of infections and pain before any diagnosis is even made.
  • When a diagnosis is made, it is more than likely to be an incidental finding from a test for another problem.
  • However, on diagnosis there are a number of options available to treat this condition.
  • These include non-invasive treatments such as drug therapy, diet or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, to invasive therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy, ureteroscopy and more advanced surgery.
  • The aim of this article is to highlight this little known condition, outline the effects, and discuss the treatment options available to patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Medullary Sponge Kidney / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Allopurinol / adverse effects. Allopurinol / pharmacology. Allopurinol / therapeutic use. Diuretics / adverse effects. Diuretics / pharmacology. Diuretics / therapeutic use. Enzyme Inhibitors / adverse effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Kidney Calculi / etiology. Kidney Calculi / therapy. Lithotripsy. Nephrostomy, Percutaneous. Potassium Citrate / adverse effects. Potassium Citrate / pharmacology. Potassium Citrate / therapeutic use. Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors / adverse effects. Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors / pharmacology. Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Ureteroscopy

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  • (PMID = 20966864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0966-0461
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors; 63CZ7GJN5I / Allopurinol; EE90ONI6FF / Potassium Citrate
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9. Gursoy A, Erdogan MF, Kamel N: Severe reversible dilated cardiomyopathy in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Apr;29(4):363-6
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  • [Title] Severe reversible dilated cardiomyopathy in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A syndrome.
  • Pheochromocytoma may infrequently lead to dilated cardiomyopathy, which may reverse partially or completely after treatment.
  • Progressive dyspnea, palpitations, and paroxysmal attacks of severe hypertension leading to cardiac failure had developed in a 25-yr-old woman.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging detected a large mass lesion in the right adrenal gland.
  • Medical drug therapy with alpha-blocker, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, beta-blocker, digoxin, and diuretic rapidly improved her cardiac condition.
  • The clinical condition of excess catecholaminemia (and thus, arterial hypertension and the abnormality of the glucose metabolism) subsided with complete resolution of the congestive heart failure following the surgical removal of the tumor.
  • Evaluation for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) revealed an elevated calcitonin level demonstrated by fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (MEN 2A) syndrome was diagnosed.
  • An overwhelming secretion of catecholamine might cause severe cardiomyopathy and impair glucose metabolism, as evidenced by the improvement of both conditions following the medical treatment of catecholaminemia and surgical resection of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cardiomyopathy, Dilated / etiology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications


10. Tomoda C, Moatamed F, Naeim F, Hershman JM, Sugawara M: Indomethacin inhibits cell growth of medullary thyroid carcinoma by reducing cell cycle progression into S phase. Exp Biol Med (Maywood); 2008 Nov;233(11):1433-40
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  • [Title] Indomethacin inhibits cell growth of medullary thyroid carcinoma by reducing cell cycle progression into S phase.
  • Indomethacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has been reported to inhibit the growth of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cells in vitro.
  • Indomethacin at 25 muM, a putative therapeutic serum indomethacin level, showed potency similar to 100 to 200 nM sunitinib, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
  • In conclusion, indomethacin has specific anti-tumor effect on MTC cells, probably by reducing cell cycle progression into S phase rather than by prostaglandin depletion.
  • Since no drug therapy is currently available for MTC, indomethacin may be one of the therapeutic candidates.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Indomethacin / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Calcitonin / genetics. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / genetics. Cell Line. Dinoprostone / metabolism. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Indoles / pharmacology. Phosphorylation. Pyrroles / pharmacology. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism. S Phase / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18791128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3702
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / sunitinib; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone; XXE1CET956 / Indomethacin
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11. Pradeep PV, Agarwal A, Baxi M, Agarwal G, Gupta SK, Mishra SK: Safety and efficacy of surgical management of hyperthyroidism: 15-year experience from a tertiary care center in a developing country. World J Surg; 2007 Feb;31(2):306-12; discussion 313
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  • Though surgical management of toxic multinodular goiter (MNG) is well accepted, surgical treatment of Graves' disease (GD) is still controversial in view of the presumed increased incidence of complications.
  • The indications for surgery in Graves' patients were large goiter, relapse after antithyroid drug therapy (ATD), Graves' ophthalmopathy, and presence of nodule.
  • Hemithyroidectomy was the procedure of choice in patients with AFTN.
  • Eight percent of patients with Graves' disease without a clinically palpable nodule and 25% of those with nodules had associated differentiated carcinoma, including papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. India. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Satisfaction. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg. 1999 Nov;178(5):377-80 [10612531.001]
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  • (PMID = 17219271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Strouse JJ, Spevak M, Mack AK, Arceci RJ, Small D, Loeb DM: Significant responses to platinum-based chemotherapy in renal medullary carcinoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Apr;44(4):407-11
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  • [Title] Significant responses to platinum-based chemotherapy in renal medullary carcinoma.
  • Most patients with renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) have advanced disease at presentation and rarely respond to radiation or chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Kidney Medulla. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. African Americans. Anemia, Sickle Cell / complications. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Aug;47(2):228 [16514612.001]
  • (PMID = 15602719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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13. Lubner SJ, Chen H, Holen K, LoConte N, Rikkers L, Weber S, Warner T, Eickhoff J, Fass T, Schelman W: A phase II clinical and biological study of lithium carbonate (Li) in patients with low-grade neuroendocrine tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15662

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : e15662 Background: Low-grade neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), such as carcinoid, islet cell tumors, and medullary thyroid carcinomas, respond poorly to chemotherapy, and effective, less toxic therapies are needed.
  • Prior treatment was allowed if completed >4wks prior to registration.
  • Standard eligibility criteria were used, and use of medications affecting Li metabolism or levels were prohibited.
  • The primary endpoint was objective tumor response by RECIST.
  • Secondary endpoints included overall survival, progression-free survival, decrease of serum tumor markers, toxicity, and quality of life.
  • Patients' diagnoses were carcinoid tumor for 8 subjects, islet cell tumor for 5 subjects, and 2 unknown primary sites.
  • 13 patients had pre- and post-therapy biopsies.
  • Evaluation of quality of life and GSK-3β levels in tumor tissue is ongoing.
  • We will determine from tumor biopsies whether Li was effective at phosphorylating GSK-3β in order to make conclusions about GSK-3β as a therapeutic target for future NET treatment strategies.

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  • (PMID = 27962770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Simpson L, Bergan R, He X, Pins M, Perlman E, Campbell S, Huang X: ABL gene amplification is associated with renal medullary carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):4549

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ABL gene amplification is associated with renal medullary carcinoma.
  • : 4549 Background: Renal Medullary Carcinoma (RMC) is an aggressive cancer that develops in young African Americans who have the Sickle Cell Trait, causing death within weeks.
  • METHODS: Papers resulting from a Medline search of the English literature for all case reports of RMC were reviewed through July 2003, and individual case data collected on demographics, stage, treatment, and outcomes.
  • Tissue from three patients was analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the presence of BCR-ABL translocation.
  • The mean and median age at diagnosis was 19 and 21 years, respectively.
  • Response to chemotherapy was poor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RMC is an aggressive disease, which is typically diagnosed when metastatic in young individuals who have sickle cell trait, is not responsive to systemic therapy, and rapidly causes death.
  • As cure appears possible with early diagnosis, increased awareness of the disease could make an impact.
  • The role of ABL amplification with respect to etiology and as a therapeutic target should be investigated further.

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  • (PMID = 28016043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Ono M, Tsuda H, Shimizu C, Yamamoto S, Shibata T, Kouno T, Tamura K, Ando M, Katsumata N, KInoshita T, Fujiwara Y: Evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumor cell apoptosis as predictive markers for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):559

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumor cell apoptosis as predictive markers for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer.
  • : 559 Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and HER-2.
  • Pathological complete response (pCR) of TNBC to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is correlated with excellent clinical outcome.
  • We examined the value of histological parameters including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumor cell apoptosis as surrogate markers for pCR in TNBC.
  • METHODS: Of 474 patients who received NAC and subsequent surgical therapy to stage II-III invasive breast carcinoma between 1999 and 2007, 102 (22%) had TNBC, and 92 core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens before NAC were available.
  • All cases were TNBC, and 54 tumors (59%) were basal-like subtype defined as expression of at least one of CK5/6, CK14 and EGFR in >1% of cancer cells.
  • These parameters were also examined in resected tumor specimens from 21 non-pCR cases.
  • Tumors showing medullary features and p53-negative tended to show pCR more frequently (38% and 35%) than those with non-medullary features and with p53-positive (25% and 24%), but the differences were not significant.
  • The pCR rate did not differ significantly between the basal-like type (31%) and non-basal-like type (24%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: TIL and the level of tumor cell apoptosis appeared predictive markers for response to NAC in TNBC.

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  • (PMID = 27960670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Sherman EJ, Fury MG, Tuttle RM, Ghossein R, Stambuk H, Baum M, Lisa D, Su YB, Shaha A, Pfister DG: Phase II study of depsipeptide (DEP) in radioiodine (RAI)-refractory metastatic nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):6059

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : 6059 Background: Historically, systemic therapy for radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory thyroid cancer has been understudied.
  • Available drugs have modest efficacy.
  • Depsipeptide (DEP) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with potent anti-tumor effects both in vitro and in vivo.
  • In thyroid cancer cell lines, DEP increases expression of both thyroglobulin and the sodium/iodine symporter messenger RNAs, offering the possibility of improved iodine concentrating ability of radioactive iodine (RAI)-resistant tumors.
  • METHODS: Eligible patients (pts) must have progressive, RAI-refractory, recurrent/metastatic, non-medullary, non-anaplastic thyroid cancer; RECIST measurable disease; and adequate organ/marrow function.
  • Exclusionary criteria include prior chemotherapy in the recurrent/metastatic setting; cardiac disease or dysfunction; QTc prolongation or co-administration of drugs that prolong the QTc.
  • Grade 4-5 AE possibly related to drug: grade 5 sudden death (1); grade 4 -pulmonary embolus (1).
  • For evaluable patients (14) only, median overall survival and time on study was 36 (.5-45+) months and 1.7 (0.46-12) months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We observed preliminary signs of in vivo reversal of RAI resistance after treatment with DEP.

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  • (PMID = 27961936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Perkins GH, Green MC, Middleton LP, Giordano SH, Garcia SM, Strom EA, Schechter NR, Allen P, Buchholz TA, Hortobagyi GN: Medullary breast carcinoma: Outcomes and prognosis with the utilization of chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):671

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medullary breast carcinoma: Outcomes and prognosis with the utilization of chemotherapy.
  • : 671 Background: Medullary carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon histological type consisting of poorly differentiated cells surrounded by a prominent lymphoid stroma.
  • It is also suggested that these lesions have good prognosis and therefore may not benefit from systemic therapy.
  • We therefore report on our experience with this tumor type.
  • Outcomes were analyzed by administration of chemotherapy, use of hormonal therapy, pathologic size, and nodal status.
  • RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 44 years (range 24-84)with a mean follow-up of 9 years (range 0.16- 23.3).
  • 71% of patients recieved chemotherapy (n=102) with 88% having a doxorubicin-based regimen.
  • Improvement in 5 and 10 yr OS and DMFS was noted with chemotherapy (86%/79%) vs no chemoherapy (72%/66% P=.08) and ( 81%/81% vs 71%/71% P=.08).
  • No improvement was noted with adjuvant hormonal therapy (n=21)(P=.5).
  • 5 and 10 yr OS rates decreased with increasing tumor size with tumors 1 cm or less having 100%/100% vs tumors 1-3cm having 83%/83%, and tumors 3 cm or larger having 74%/69% values (p=.13).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with medullary breast cancer benefited from the use of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In our series, patients with + nodes and tumor size greater than 1 cm had prognosis similar to that ascribed to invasive ductal carcinoma NOS and may benefit from systemic regimens.
  • Larger datasets should be examined to further clarify therapy recommendations.

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  • (PMID = 28017003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Carr L, Goulart B, Martins R, Keith E, Kell E, Wallace S, Capell P, Mankoff D: Phase II trial of continuous dosing of sunitinib in advanced, FDG-PET avid, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):6056

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II trial of continuous dosing of sunitinib in advanced, FDG-PET avid, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC).
  • : 6056 Background: Due to the low efficacy of chemotherapy in progressive, WDTC and MTC, novel treatment approaches are needed.
  • Thyroid cancers have elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and higher microvessel density than normal thyroid tissue.
  • Sunitinib inhibits several tyrosine kinase receptors involved in angiogenesis as well as the RET kinase frequently mutated in thyroid cancer.
  • To target those patients with more aggressive thyroid cancer, enrollment was limited to FDG-PET avid disease.
  • Secondary end-points include FDG-PET response rate (defined as 20% reduction from baseline SUV) after 7 days of treatment, toxicity, overall survival, duration of response, and time to progression.
  • Median time on study is 7.5 months.
  • Among those who have progressed the median time to progression is 6.5 months.
  • FDG-PET was performed on 22 patients following 7 days of treatment, 36% (8/22) have a PET response.
  • One patient on lovenox therapy died of gastrointestinal bleeding.

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  • (PMID = 27961933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Johnson ED, Tannir NN, Olejeme KA, Logothetis CJ, Jonasch E: Survival benefit in bevacizumab-based therapy in sickle cell trait patients diagnosed with renal medullary carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16096

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival benefit in bevacizumab-based therapy in sickle cell trait patients diagnosed with renal medullary carcinoma.
  • : e16096 Background: Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is an epithelial malignant tumor arising from collecting duct epithelium.
  • The tumor is almost exclusive to young black patients with the sickle cell hemoglobinopathies, primarily sickle cell trait.
  • This is a rare and highly aggressive tumor that is shown to be most resistant to chemotherapy.
  • In an effort to evaluate treatment outcomes, we retrospectively examined those patients diagnosed with RMC who were treated with and without bevacizumab based regimens.
  • Anderson Cancer Center for patient diagnosed between 1999-2008 with histology proven RMC.
  • In addition, detailed chemotherapy regimen as well as medical and radiological data were also obtained.
  • A sample of five black males 5/9 (53%) were treated with therapy that included a 2 or 3 drug combinations of Adriamycin, Taxol, Gemzar, cisplatin, or Gleevac.
  • Only 4/9 (47%) patients received bevacizumab based therapy in a 2 or 3 drug combinations with Gemzar, Xeloda, cisplatin, or Taxol.
  • The group that received bevacizumab based therapy had a median survival of 5.8 months longer.
  • Future studies, including genetic studies on the tumor types are essential to determining the SNP profiles of renal cell carcinoma in black patients.
  • Furthermore, a prospective multicenter trial should be developed to evaluate the efficacy of bevacizumab based regimens in renal medullary carcinoma in this population.

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  • (PMID = 27963088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Deshpande HA, Gettinger SN, Sosa JA: Novel chemotherapy options for advanced thyroid tumors: small molecules offer great hope. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Jan;20(1):19-24
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  • [Title] Novel chemotherapy options for advanced thyroid tumors: small molecules offer great hope.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endocrine tumors are often overlooked in medical oncology discussions, as many of them are effectively cured by surgery alone or surgery plus an ablative radiation therapy.
  • To date, conventional chemotherapy has not had a significant impact on the natural history of these malignancies.
  • This review will focus on the advances made in the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer, the commonest of endocrine malignancies.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: A growing understanding of molecular oncology has allowed the development of targeted agents in different types of thyroid cancer.
  • SUMMARY: The recent explosion of targeted agents available for study has generated enthusiasm for oncologists treating thyroid cancer.
  • RET inhibition in medullary thyroid cancer is also being explored.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18043252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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21. Sherman SI: Advances in chemotherapy of differentiated epithelial and medullary thyroid cancers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 May;94(5):1493-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Advances in chemotherapy of differentiated epithelial and medullary thyroid cancers.
  • For patients with differentiated or medullary carcinomas unresponsive to conventional treatments, novel therapies are needed to improve disease outcomes.
  • EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The PubMed and Google Scholar search engines were used to identify publications and peer-reviewed meeting presentations addressing chemotherapy and targeted therapy for differentiated or medullary carcinoma.
  • EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Multiple novel therapies primarily targeting angiogenesis have entered clinical trials for metastatic thyroid carcinoma.
  • The most successful agents target the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, with potential targets including the mutant kinases associated with papillary and medullary oncogenesis.
  • Two drugs approved for other malignancies, sorafenib and sunitinib, have had promising preliminary results reported, and are being used selectively for patients who do not qualify for clinical trials.
  • Randomized trials for several agents are underway that may lead to eventual drug approval for thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment for patients with metastatic or advanced thyroid carcinoma now emphasizes clinical trial opportunities for novel agents with considerable promise.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19258410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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22. Matuszczyk A, Petersenn S, Voigt W, Kegel T, Dralle H, Schmoll HJ, Bockisch A, Mann K: Chemotherapy with paclitaxel and gemcitabine in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Jan;42(1):61-4
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy with paclitaxel and gemcitabine in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • Nine patients (mean age 53) with metastasizing, progressive, medullary (MTC), thyroid carcinoma and progressive, nonradioiodine accumulating thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium (follicular carcinoma, FTC and papillary carcinoma, PTC) were treated with a combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine between 2004 and 2006.
  • Tumors were histologically classified as follicular in 5 patients (56%), as papillary in 2 patients (22%), and medullary in 2 patients (22%).
  • The effect of therapy was evaluated by radiographic imaging (CT images) and [(18)F]FDG-PET.
  • All patients with papillary, follicular, or medullary thyroid carcinoma had continuous progression during restaging 14.8+/-8.8 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy, including one patient with stable disease after 3 cycles, but continuous progression after 6 cycles of chemotherapy.
  • Paclitaxel and gemcitabine are not a valid chemotherapy option, in particular in patients with progressive, nonradioiodine-accumulating follicular thyroid carcinoma, who were already treated by other chemotherapeutic agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.
  • (PMID = 19735058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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23. Matuszczyk A, Petersenn S, Bockisch A, Gorges R, Sheu SY, Veit P, Mann K: Chemotherapy with doxorubicin in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Mar;40(3):210-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chemotherapy with doxorubicin in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • In addition, nine patients (mean age 51 years) with medullary thyroid carcinoma were treated with doxorubicin between 1997 and 2005.
  • Treatment consisted of doxorubicin: either 8 cycles of 15 mg/m2 weekly or 3 cycles of 60 mg/m2 every 3 weeks, repeated once, depending on response and side effects.
  • The effect of therapy was evaluated by radiographic imaging, [18F] FDG-PET, and bone scans.
  • Three patients died before completing chemotherapy.
  • In patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, 11% had a partial regression over 6 months followed by stable disease for 3 months, 11% had stable disease over 7 months, and 79% demonstrated progressive disease established over 5 months (range: 2-12).
  • Doxorubicin can be a valid chemotherapy option, especially for advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / radiography. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18348081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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24. Kaltsas GA, Mukherjee JJ, Isidori A, Kola B, Plowman PN, Monson JP, Grossman AB, Besser GM: Treatment of advanced neuroendocrine tumours using combination chemotherapy with lomustine and 5-fluorouracil. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2002 Aug;57(2):169-83
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  • [Title] Treatment of advanced neuroendocrine tumours using combination chemotherapy with lomustine and 5-fluorouracil.
  • OBJECTIVE: Combination chemotherapy with the two agents streptozotocin (SZT), which is a nitrosurea, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an alkylating agent, has a long-established role in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours; however, it is often accompanied by considerable toxicity, and it has not been assessed in a comparative manner with other current chemotherapy regimens.
  • In order to assess the therapeutic response and adverse effects using an alternative nitrosurea, lomustine (CCNU), which has a different side-effect profile, in combination with 5-FU, we have reviewed all patients with neuroendocrine tumours who received this form of treatment in our department.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of the case notes of patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours who received treatment with the combination of CCNU and 5-FU, and who were followed up according to a defined protocol in a given time frame.
  • PATIENTS: Thirty-one patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (18 with carcinoid tumours, five islet-cell tumours, five chromaffin-cell tumours and three medullary carcinoma of the thyroid) treated with the combination of CCNU and 5-FU, and when necessary additional therapy, over a 22-year period, were included in this analysis.
  • MEASUREMENTS: The symptomatic, hormonal and tumoural responses before and after chemotherapy with the combination of CCNU and 5-FU over a median follow-up duration of 25 months (range 9-348 months) were recorded.
  • Of the 31 patients (16 males; median age 52 years, range 20-86 years), eight (four males; median age 61 years, range 30-74 years) were treated with the combination of CCNU and 5-FU alone (Group 1), whereas the other 23 patients (12 males; median age 47 years, range 20-86 years) received additional therapy with other chemotherapeutic regimens, somatostatin analogues, alpha-interferon or radiolabelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) therapy (Group 2).
  • RESULTS: A total of 121 therapeutic cycles was administered (mean 3.9, range 1-14 cycles).
  • None of the patients obtained a complete tumour response.
  • A partial tumour response (not a complete but a 50% or greater reduction of all measurable tumour) was seen in six out of the 29 patients (21%) (four out of eight in Group 1 and two out of 21 in Group 2, respectively).
  • There was no tumour progression in eight out of the 29 patients (27.5%) (one out of eight in Group 1 and seven out of 21 in Group 2, respectively).
  • No chemotherapy-related death was recorded.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy with CCNU and 5-FU, either alone or in combination with other therapeutic modalities, produces considerable symptomatic and hormonal improvement and moderate tumour regression/stabilization according to currently accepted WHO criteria, particularly in patients with metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours with minimal adverse effects.
  • It may therefore be a valuable additional therapeutic option, particularly for well-differentiated carcinoid and islet-cell tumours, but mainly reserved for when there is no response or progression of the disease after currently available first-line treatment with somatostatin analogues or radiopharmaceuticals.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12153595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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25. Gallo G, Giarnieri E, Bosco S, Cappelli C, Alderisio M, Giovagnoli MR, Giordano A, Vecchione A: Aberrant bcl-2 and bax protein expression related to chemotherapy response in neuroblastoma. Anticancer Res; 2003 Jan-Feb;23(1B):777-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aberrant bcl-2 and bax protein expression related to chemotherapy response in neuroblastoma.
  • Neuroblastoma (NB) is a tumor of the sympathetic nervous system which develops in young children.
  • It derives from cells of the embryonal neural crest that form many different tissues, including the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic ganglia.
  • Survival rates for patients with neuroblastoma have remained unchanged despite intensive efforts to develop more effective treatment strategies.
  • The intrinsic resistance of many tumor types to antineoplastic therapies and the appearance of resistant cell populations upon relapse of an originally responsive tumor represent major impediments to successful treatment.
  • The possibility exists that these neoplasms, particularly those that have become refractory to chemotherapeutic drugs, may occur in part because of failed apoptosis.
  • In this study we investigated the immunocytochemical expression, before and after a trial of chemotherapy of the bcl-2 and bax proteins in 15 cases of NB, including 8 stroma-poor and 7 stroma-rich NBs.
  • Patients with strong expression of bcl-2 before the treatment had shorter survival than those with weak or moderate expression of the protein (p = 0.004).
  • Moreover, bcl-2 protein expression was correlated to the stroma-poor histotype only after the treatment (p = 0.031).
  • An association between bax protein expression before treatment and longer survival (p = 0.014) was also found.
  • We conclude that bcl-2 and bax expression, before the treatment, could be of prognostic value in neuroblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Treatment Outcome. bcl-2-Associated X Protein

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  • (PMID = 12680183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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26. Thomson B, Park JR, Felgenhauer J, Meshinchi S, Holcenberg J, Geyer JR, Avramis V, Douglas JG, Loken MR, Hawkins DS: Toxicity and efficacy of intensive chemotherapy for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after first bone marrow or extramedullary relapse. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2004 Oct;43(5):571-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Toxicity and efficacy of intensive chemotherapy for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after first bone marrow or extramedullary relapse.
  • We report a novel combination of chemotherapy for relapsed pediatric ALL.
  • PROCEDURE: Thirty pediatric patients with relapsed medullary (n = 18) and extra-medullary (n = 12) ALL were enrolled at three pediatric institutions.
  • Additionally, minimal residual disease (MRD) detection by multidimensional flow cytometry (MDF) was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Bacteremia / chemically induced. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Infant. Infusions, Intravenous. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Mesna / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Polyethylene Glycols / administration & dosage. Recurrence. Stomatitis / chemically induced. Thioguanine / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15382275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / pegaspargase; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; NR7O1405Q9 / Mesna; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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27. Geibel JP: Distal tubule acidification. J Nephrol; 2006 Mar-Apr;19 Suppl 9:S18-26
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  • [Title] Distal tubule acidification.
  • The distal tubule defines the final section of the renal tubule, and can be subdivided into four segments: distal tubule, connecting segment (which was previously considered part of the distal tubule), cortical collecting duct and medullary collecting tubule.
  • This results from the fact that most reabsorption takes place in the proximal tubule and other nephron segments so that this final portion of the nephron is the final concentrating and acidifying region of the nephron.
  • In this review I will briefly go over the distribution of the various cell types in the outer and inner medullary region as well as discuss some of the modifications that occur in the functional distribution of acid related proteins, during metabolic disturbances or during hormonal stimulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Tubules, Distal / metabolism. Proton-Translocating ATPases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16736436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.3.14 / Proton-Translocating ATPases
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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28. Zhong L, Liu T, Chen Y, Zhong X, Du X, Lu Z, Weng J, Wu S, Lin W: [The study on effect of Sarcandra glabra on prevention and treatment of thrombocytopenia by chemotherapy]. Zhong Yao Cai; 2005 Jan;28(1):35-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The study on effect of Sarcandra glabra on prevention and treatment of thrombocytopenia by chemotherapy].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Sarcandra glabra Thunb on prevention and treatment of thrombocytopenia after chemotherapy with a large dosage.
  • Then the effect was analyzed by measuring peripheral blood cell counts of the mice on the 2nd day, the 4th day and the 7th day after chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Before the chemotherapy, the platelet counts of mice treated by Sarcandra glabra Thunb were higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05).
  • After chemotherapy with 5-FU, the platelet counts were not significantly decreased in two all experimental groups compared with negative control group (P < 0.05), while there was not significantly different between two experimental groups (P > 0.05).
  • Moreover the marrow biopsy showed that bone marrow hyperplasia was active in two intervention study groups with some megaryocytes in the medullary cavity of bone while bone marrow hyperplasia was low in the control group without any megaryocyte in the medullary cavity of bone.
  • CONCLUSION: The Sarcandra glabra Thunb had obvious activity in treatment to therombocytopenia and can prevent thrombocytopenia by 5-FU.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiosperms / chemistry. Drugs, Chinese Herbal / administration & dosage. Plants, Medicinal / chemistry. Thrombocytopenia / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Erythrocyte Count. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Hematopoiesis / drug effects. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Platelet Count

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  • (PMID = 15934240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-4454
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Yao Cai
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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29. Kawabata R, Doki Y, Ishikawa O, Nakagawa H, Takachi K, Miyashiro I, Tsukamoto Y, Ohigashi H, Sasaki Y, Murata K, Ishiguro S, Imaoka S: Frequent brain metastasis after chemotherapy and surgery for advanced esophageal cancers. Hepatogastroenterology; 2007 Jun;54(76):1043-8
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  • [Title] Frequent brain metastasis after chemotherapy and surgery for advanced esophageal cancers.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Brain metastasis, rarely observed as a tumor recurrence after curative surgery for thoracic esophageal cancers (TEC), has been increasingly observed with improvement of the clinical outcome of TEC.
  • METHODOLOGY: Records of 254 TEC patients who developed recurrent cancers after curative surgery during 1984-2002 revealed 11 patients (4.3%) with symptomatic brain metastasis, which were classified as five without extra-cranial disease (Brain type) and six with other metastatic diseases (Systemic type).
  • RESULTS: Brain metastases were significantly associated with an advanced clinical stage and perioperative chemotherapy, which had been undergone by 73% of the brain metastasis patients, but only 23% for non-brain metastasis patients (p = 0.0008).
  • Comparing to Systemic type, Brain type showed longer duration from esophagectomy to brain metastasis and tended to be more effective for perioperative chemotherapy.
  • All Brain type but only two Systemic type brain metastases were removed by surgery.
  • The average survival after brain metastasis was 17.7 months for the Brain type patients (two alive without tumor recurrence), but only 38.5 days for the Systemic type patients.
  • The histological hallmark of Brain type metastasis was medullary tumor growth with mature tumor vessels, while Systemic type showed invasive tumor growth with naive capillaries.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative brain metastasis in TEC patients is not rare, especially in an advanced clinical stage following perioperative chemotherapy.
  • Surgical removal of brain metastasis might be the most promising treatment unless tumor metastasis in other organs is evident.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17629035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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30. Choi WJ, Lee YY, Kim S, Kim YK, Kim ES, Seo SO, Jo JH, Lee SM, Lee HJ: A case of medullary thyroid carcinoma in which the skin metastasis was concurrently present and response occurred to chemotherapy. Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Dec;40(4):202-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of medullary thyroid carcinoma in which the skin metastasis was concurrently present and response occurred to chemotherapy.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for 3% of all thyroid gland malignancies.
  • The most effective treatment for skin metastasis is complete surgical removal of all local and regional lesions.
  • The response to systemic chemotherapy is typically poor.
  • We report a case of medullary thyroid carcinoma with cutaneous metastases, which responded to chemotherapy.

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  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Apr;36(4):531-7 [9092737.001]
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  • (PMID = 19688131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2697479
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chemotherapy / Cutaneous metastases / Medullary thyroid carcinoma
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31. Miyauchi J, Kiyotani C, Shioda Y, Kumagai M, Honna T, Matsuoka K, Masaki H, Aiba M, Hata J, Tsunematsu Y: Unusual chromaffin cell differentiation of a neuroblastoma after chemotherapy and radiotherapy: report of an autopsy case with immunohistochemical evaluations. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 Apr;28(4):548-53
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  • [Title] Unusual chromaffin cell differentiation of a neuroblastoma after chemotherapy and radiotherapy: report of an autopsy case with immunohistochemical evaluations.
  • Despite the fact that neuroblastomas most often arise from the adrenal medulla, chromaffin-cell differentiation in neuroblastomas is not widely recognized.
  • Tumor cells with a chromaffin-cell nature have only been detected using histochemical techniques in neuroblastoma cell lines or focal areas of certain in vivo tumors.
  • We describe a neuroblastoma that exhibited an unusual differentiation toward chromaffin cells in a patient that had been treated with surgery, intensive chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
  • Although a biopsy specimen of the retroperitoneal primary tumor was extensively necrotic, possibly because of a previous chemotherapy regimen, surgically resected metastatic tumors of bilateral ovaries were viable and diagnosed as poorly differentiated neuroblastomas according to the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification system.
  • However, metastatic tumors of bilateral lungs examined at the time of autopsy exhibited histologic features similar to those of a pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, and immunohistochemical examinations demonstrated that these tumors were composed of extra-adrenal chromaffin cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15087676.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Keyes KA, Albella B, LoRusso PM, Bueren JA, Parchment RE: Cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens that increase dose per cycle (dose intensity) by extending daily dosing from 5 consecutive days to 28 consecutive days and beyond. Clin Cancer Res; 2000 Jun;6(6):2474-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens that increase dose per cycle (dose intensity) by extending daily dosing from 5 consecutive days to 28 consecutive days and beyond.
  • Dose intensity, defined as dose administered per unit time, has emerged as a potentially important measurement of anticancer drug exposure and determinant of efficacy.
  • This strategy involves continued therapy during periods of recovery from reversible toxicity, and it inherently challenges our understanding that renewing tissues cannot repopulate (recover) in the continued presence of cytotoxic drug.
  • ], and/or melphalan (i.p. injection, 7.2 mg/m2/day) can be tolerated for 28 consecutive days and whether suppressed bone marrow function recovers despite this protracted daily therapy.
  • The three drugs all caused acute neutropenia and suppression of medullary hematopoiesis.
  • Marrow recovery was observed during continued daily treatment with acetyldinaline and gemcitabine but not melphalan, and marrow function completely recovered after finishing the 28-day course.
  • Pharmacology studies proved that protracted therapy causes little, if any, change in cellular drug tolerance or systemic exposure.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Blood Cell Count. Blood Platelets / drug effects. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Inbred DBA. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Neutrophils / drug effects. Random Allocation. Stem Cells / drug effects. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 10873102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-09531; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA-46560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA-62487
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Phenylenediamines; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 112522-64-2 / acetyldinaline; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
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33. Kim SH, Chung HC, Jeong J, Kim JH, Rha SY, Ahn JB, Cho NH, Jeung HC: A locally advanced breast cancer with difficult differential diagnosis of carcinosarcoma and atypical medullary carcinoma, which had poor response to adriamycin- and taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case report. Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Sep;39(3):134-7
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  • [Title] A locally advanced breast cancer with difficult differential diagnosis of carcinosarcoma and atypical medullary carcinoma, which had poor response to adriamycin- and taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case report.
  • Atypical medullary carcinomas and carcinosarcoma have unique histopathological features.
  • A 54-year old patient with a malignant breast mass received 6 cycles of adriamycin-based chemotherapy, followed by 3 cycles of paclitaxel monotherapy, and had a poor clinical response to treatment.
  • The pathological diagnosis was complicated by an inability to distinguish between atypical medullary carcinoma and carcinosarcoma.
  • The findings included a tumor that was well-circumscribed, high grade and a syncytial growth pattern as well as biphasic sarcomatous and carcinomatous characteristics.
  • In conclusion, atypical medullary carcinoma and carcinosarcoma of the breast have entirely different prognoses and should be managed differently.
  • Both should be treated by surgical resection, and additional therapy should be considered based on the cancer with the poorer prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 19746221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2739326
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Atypical medullary carcinoma / Carcinosarcoma / Metaplastic breast cancer / Neoadjuvant chemotherapy
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34. Kirchner T, Jung A: [Pathological diagnosis for individualized therapy of colorectal cancer]. Pathologe; 2010 Feb;31(1):16-21
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  • [Title] [Pathological diagnosis for individualized therapy of colorectal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Pathologische Diagnostik für die individualisierte Therapie des Dickdarmkarzinoms.
  • Pathological diagnosis is essential today for the individualized therapy of colorectal cancer.
  • In the routine analysis of colorectal carcinomas the molecular-pathological detection of a KRAS mutation predicts unresponsiveness to EGFR-targeted antibody therapies.
  • Moreover, the detection of mismatch-repair deficiency or high-degree microsatellite instability indicates unresponsiveness to 5-FU monotherapy.
  • Colorectal carcinomas with high-grade microsatellite instability and their associated morphologic subtypes, such as the medullary carcinoma, exhibit a low risk of distant metastasis and might be considered as carcinomas with low need for adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cetuximab. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA Mismatch Repair / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Leucovorin / adverse effects. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Microsatellite Instability. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Organoplatinum Compounds / adverse effects. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Pharmacogenetics. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras). RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19957085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / MSI1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 6A901E312A / panitumumab; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras); EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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35. Yao JC, Hoff PM: Molecular targeted therapy for neuroendocrine tumors. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2007 Jun;21(3):575-81; x
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  • [Title] Molecular targeted therapy for neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Although endocrine tumors are often slow growing, most can be life threatening and are considered resistant to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • The recent emergence of molecularly targeted therapy in oncology has brought renewed interest in the development of novel agents for this rare group of diseases.
  • Preliminary results from phase II studies have shown promising results for VEGF and mTOR inhibitors in carcinoid and islet cell carcinoma and RET inhibitors in medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphokines / antagonists & inhibitors. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein Kinases / drug effects. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Structure-Activity Relationship. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases

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  • (PMID = 17548041.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8588
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Lymphokines; 0 / PDGFD protein, human; 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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36. Delèvaux I, Bernard N, Ramanampamonjy R, Morlat P, Lacoste D, Bonnet F, Bonnel C, Deminière C, Beylot J: [Multiple medullary and extramedullary plasmacytomas in an HIV infected female patient]. Rev Med Interne; 2000 Jul;21(7):623-7
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  • [Title] [Multiple medullary and extramedullary plasmacytomas in an HIV infected female patient].
  • [Transliterated title] Plasmocytomes multiples médullaires et extramédullaires chez une patiente infectée par le VIH.
  • INTRODUCTION: Before the HIV infection era, plasmocyte tumor rarely occurred in patients younger than 40 years of age.
  • EXEGESIS: We report the case of a 29-year-old HIV-infected female patient in whom were diagnosed occipital, parotidal, sphenoidal, epidural, and uterine plasmocytomas for which chemotherapy and subsequent radiotherapy were successful.
  • CONCLUSION: Plasmocyte tumors belong to neoplasia whose incidence is increased in HIV infection.
  • Their currently poor diagnosis should be improved by highly active antiretroviral therapies allowing enhanced chemotherapy with possibility of autograft.


37. Rathmell WK, Monk JP: High-dose-intensity MVAC for Advanced Renal Medullary Carcinoma: Report of Three Cases and Literature Review. Urology; 2008 Sep;72(3):659-63
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  • [Title] High-dose-intensity MVAC for Advanced Renal Medullary Carcinoma: Report of Three Cases and Literature Review.
  • OBJECTIVES: Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare and highly aggressive cancer that is characteristically resistant to most forms of chemotherapy.
  • This pediatric tumor, exclusively affecting individuals who carry at least one sickle hemoglobin allele, carries a uniformly fatal outcome, usually within a matter of weeks, and no effective therapies have been reported.
  • RESULTS: All 3 patients were able to tolerate multiple cycles of therapy and achieved at least a partial response and longer survival than predicted from the historical precedent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results have shown that this regimen provides a tolerable therapy with efficacy to promote survival for several months and suggest that highly intensive regimens of chemotherapy might bring additional benefit to the young patients with these rare tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Comorbidity. Disease Progression. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sickle Cell Trait / complications. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18649931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
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38. Kremens B: [Systemic therapy in children and adolescents]. Urologe A; 2007 Oct;46(10):1404-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Systemic therapy in children and adolescents].
  • Urologic malignancies in childhood and adolescence are mainly nephroblastomas, neuroblastomas, soft tissue sarcomas, and germ cell tumors.
  • National and supranational treatment studies are the standard of care for pediatric cancer in Germany; they yield 5-year survival rates of almost 90% for nephroblastoma and germ cell tumors and 60% for neuroblastoma (all stages) and rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The principles of antineoplastic therapy are the same as in adult cancer medicine; the drugs used depend upon the disease.
  • In a multimodal treatment strategy, the role of chemotherapy as well as that of surgery and radiotherapy can differ, as is described for nephroblastoma, infant neuroblastoma, and stage 4 neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Urogenital Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Medulla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Infant. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / mortality. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroblastoma / mortality. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / mortality. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Survival Rate. Wilms Tumor / drug therapy. Wilms Tumor / mortality. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17823786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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39. Rinner B, Siegl V, Pürstner P, Efferth T, Brem B, Greger H, Pfragner R: Activity of novel plant extracts against medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. Anticancer Res; 2004 Mar-Apr;24(2A):495-500
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  • [Title] Activity of novel plant extracts against medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare calcitonin-producing tumor, derived from the parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid.
  • MTC is known to be relatively insensitive to conventional chemotherapy.
  • Extracts have been used in traditional Chinese medicine; however, no experience on their effects on medullary thyroid carcinomas has been reported so far.
  • CONCLUSION: The activity of the novel plant extracts possiby offers a new approach towards successful chemotherapy of the so far chemo-resistant medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiosperms / chemistry. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Phytotherapy / methods. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Plants, Medicinal / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aglaia / chemistry. Artemisia / chemistry. Cell Line, Tumor. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Stemonaceae / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15152949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Plant Extracts
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40. Pinchot SN, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Sippel RS, Chen H: Medullary thyroid carcinoma: targeted therapies and future directions. J Oncol; 2009;2009:183031
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  • [Title] Medullary thyroid carcinoma: targeted therapies and future directions.
  • Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that accounts for approximately 5% of all thyroid malignancies.
  • Conventional chemotherapy and external beam radiation have been largely ineffective in altering the natural history of MTC.
  • Therefore, there is a great need to develop novel therapeutic strategies to affect symptom control and reduce tumor burden in patients with widely disseminated disease.
  • Here, we review several pathways which have been shown to be vital in MTC tumorigenesis and focus on the pathways of interest for which targeted drug therapies are currently being developed.

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  • (PMID = 20069043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8469
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2798103
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41. Noguera-Irizarry WG, Hibshoosh H, Papadopoulos KP: Renal medullary carcinoma: case report and review of the literature. Am J Clin Oncol; 2003 Oct;26(5):489-92
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  • [Title] Renal medullary carcinoma: case report and review of the literature.
  • Renal medullary carcinoma is a recently recognized epithelial malignant tumor arising in the renal parenchyma.
  • The tumor is almost exclusive to young black patients with the sickle cell trait.
  • An Hispanic woman with renal medullary carcinoma who initially responded to chemotherapy with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin and survived for 12 months is presented.
  • The clinical, histologic, and radiologic features of this tumor are described, and chemotherapeutic regimens used in this disease are detailed.
  • Treatment modalities have proved largely unsuccessful in the setting of advanced disease.
  • Given the shared demographic, clinical, and radiographic features of these patients, awareness and early diagnosis may prove essential in improving survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 14528077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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42. Iwasaki T, Hamano T, Ogata A, Hashimoto N, Kakishita E: IgD multiple myeloma preceding the development of extensive extramedullary disease without medullary involvement. Acta Haematol; 2000;104(1):42-5
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  • [Title] IgD multiple myeloma preceding the development of extensive extramedullary disease without medullary involvement.
  • We present a unique case of IgD multiple myeloma (MM) preceding the development of extensive extramedullary disease without medullary involvement.
  • A 63-year-old man was diagnosed with IgD-lambda MM when he developed anemia.
  • After 3 months of chemotherapy, he was in complete remission as evidenced by the disappearance of bone marrow (BM) plasmacytosis, monoclonal IgD protein in his serum, and Bence Jones proteinuria.
  • Six months after diagnosis, his disease took an unusual course with the development of plasmacytomas in the skin, without medullary involvement.
  • He then received chemotherapy, resulting in the complete disappearance of the subcutaneous plasmacytomas.
  • Two years after the initial diagnosis, his disease took an aggressive clinical course with retroperitoneal relapse, leading to the patient's death within 1 month.
  • This case provides evidence of two separate transformations of the original malignant MM clone.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Clone Cells / pathology. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Plasmacytoma / drug therapy. Plasmacytoma / enzymology. Recurrence. Remission Induction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11111122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5792
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin D; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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43. Diao B, Paule B, Esquivel S, Abbou CC, Salomon L, De La Taille A: [Renal medullary carcinoma: remission with gemcitabine-cisplatin and review of therapeutic perspectives]. Prog Urol; 2010 Jul;20(7):538-41
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  • [Title] [Renal medullary carcinoma: remission with gemcitabine-cisplatin and review of therapeutic perspectives].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome médullaire du rein : rapport d'une rémission sous gemcitabine-cisplatine et revue des perspectives thérapeutiques.
  • We report a case of renal medullary carcinoma concerning a 38-year-old woman.
  • The CT-scan revealed a left renal mass of 48 mm x 20 mm, hypovascularised, located in the lower pole of the kidney with extension into the sinus.
  • The histological examination with immuno-histo-chemical analysis revealed a renal medullary carcinoma T1N2R0 (TNM 2002).
  • An adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of gemcitabine-cisplatin was administered.
  • A regression of the residual lymph nodes was noticed after the six cycles of chemotherapy and the PET-Scan was negative.
  • No tumor cell was found at the histological examination of the residual nodes.
  • We discuss the diagnostic criteria and analyse the therapeutic perspectives.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20656278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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44. Bongarzone I, Carniti C, Perego C, Mondellini P, Pierotti MA: RETMEN2A and RETMEN2B oncoproteins are targets of PP1 inhibitor. Tumori; 2003 Sep-Oct;89(5):550-2
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  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) responds very poorly to chemotherapy.
  • RET therefore represents a rational target for the development of novel MTC therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / metabolism. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins / drug effects. Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Pyrazoles / pharmacology. Pyrimidines / pharmacology. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / drug effects. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret

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  • (PMID = 14870784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(tert-butyl)pyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Pyrimidines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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45. Vitale G, Caraglia M, Ciccarelli A, Lupoli G, Abbruzzese A, Tagliaferri P, Lupoli G: Current approaches and perspectives in the therapy of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Cancer; 2001 May 1;91(9):1797-808
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  • [Title] Current approaches and perspectives in the therapy of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor derived from parafollicular cells.
  • At present, surgery is the most important treatment for MTC.
  • METHODS: We describe the current approaches of MTC treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and biologic therapy).
  • Radiotherapy and chemotherapy play a marginal role in advanced MTC.
  • Recently, it has been found that somatostatin analogs and type I interferon are able to control the neuroendocrine symptoms induced by advanced MTC and that they provide clinical benefit by improving the lifestyle of these patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Although these agents are poorly active in inducing a shrinkage in tumor mass, the combined use of different biologic agents and cytotoxic drugs needs to be explored in advanced MTC.
  • However, at present, surgery is the only curative treatment for MTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Drug Therapy / trends. Genetic Counseling. Humans. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11335906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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46. Nelkin BD, Ball DW: Combretastatin A-4 and doxorubicin combination treatment is effective in a preclinical model of human medullary thyroid carcinoma. Oncol Rep; 2001 Jan-Feb;8(1):157-60
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  • [Title] Combretastatin A-4 and doxorubicin combination treatment is effective in a preclinical model of human medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), both in patients and in preclinical models, is resistant to chemotherapy.
  • In this study, we show that the anti-neovascular agent combretastatin A-4 phosphate prodrug (CA4P) in combination with doxorubicin was effective in curtailing tumor growth in a preclinical model of human MTC.
  • This combination of combretastatin and doxorubicin extended the doubling time of established MTC tumors in nude mice to 29 days, compared to 12 days in untreated controls.
  • This suggests that a combination of combretastatin and a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent may be an effective treatment for MTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / toxicity. Animals. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / toxicity. Cell Division / drug effects. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Doxorubicin / toxicity. Female. Heart / drug effects. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Myocardium / pathology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Organ Size / drug effects. Stilbenes / administration & dosage. Stilbenes / pharmacology. Stilbenes / toxicity. Tumor Cells, Cultured / transplantation. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 11115589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Stilbenes; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; I5590ES2QZ / fosbretabulin
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47. Fasano J, Muggia F: Breast cancer arising in a BRCA-mutated background: therapeutic implications from an animal model and drug development. Ann Oncol; 2009 Apr;20(4):609-14
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  • [Title] Breast cancer arising in a BRCA-mutated background: therapeutic implications from an animal model and drug development.
  • To date, the presence of a hereditary background has not influenced the selection of drug treatment in breast cancer.
  • However, increasingly, negative hormone receptors and Her2 (often referred to as 'triple negative') or a medullary carcinoma histology has been reported in BRCA mutation carriers.
  • Accordingly, such patients are often considered for adjuvant protocols based on chemotherapy (and not based on endocrine manipulations or trastuzumab).
  • Mouse models introducing a conditional BRCA-null expression in the breast have recently provided powerful support for cisplatin-based treatment and have implications for the design of adjuvant studies in these patients.

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Oncol. 2009 May;20(5):962 [19403936.001]
  • (PMID = 19150941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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48. Labidi SI, Gravis G, Tarpin C, Brun V, Viens P: Medullary thyroid cancer treated by capecitabine. Anticancer Drugs; 2007 Aug;18(7):831-4
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  • [Title] Medullary thyroid cancer treated by capecitabine.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma with distant metastases is generally incurable, with 20% overall survival at 10 years.
  • The treatment goal is palliative.
  • Chemotherapy has a limited role, with low response rates and high toxicities with the different regimens.
  • Here, we report the case of 64-year-old man with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma in progression after primary treatment with cisplatin-doxorubicin.
  • He received 41 cycles, and presented prolonged and objective tumor response (30 months), without any toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Capecitabine. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Palliative Care. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17581307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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49. Kochbati L, Ben Romdhane NK, Mrad K, Nasr C, Ben Salah DE, Ben Romdhane K, Maalej M: [Solitary bone plasmocytoma: treatment and outcome features]. Cancer Radiother; 2004 Apr;8(2):70-4
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  • [Title] [Solitary bone plasmocytoma: treatment and outcome features].
  • PURPOSE: - To describe natural history of solitary bone plasmocytomas (SBO) after treatment.
  • To be included in this study, three criteria were needed: histologic confirmation and only one bone lesion without medullary infiltration (or less than 10%).
  • Tumor sites were vertebra (6), flat bones (6) and tibia (1).
  • Megavoltage radiotherapy was given to all patients, associated to surgery in eight cases (5 excisions and 3 laminectomies) and to chemotherapy in three.
  • Two patients developed multifocal lesions and one patient had an extramedullary lesion.
  • CONCLUSION: - Radiotherapy is an effective local treatment for solitary bone plasmocytoma.
  • Prospective studies are needed to better define predictive parameters of unfavourable outcome and indications of combined chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Cobalt Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laminectomy. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / etiology. Radioisotope Teletherapy. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Tibia / pathology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15063873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] eng; fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cobalt Radioisotopes
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50. Mitsiades CS, McMillin D, Kotoula V, Poulaki V, McMullan C, Negri J, Fanourakis G, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Ain KB, Mitsiades N: Antitumor effects of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Oct;91(10):4013-21
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  • [Title] Antitumor effects of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells in vitro.
  • The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (PS-341, Velcade) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of multiple myeloma and is being studied intensely in several other malignancies.
  • NF-kappaB has been implicated in the pathophysiology of the most aggressive forms of thyroid carcinoma, i.e. medullary and anaplastic.
  • OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We evaluated the effect of bortezomib on a panel of thyroid carcinoma cell lines, originating from papillary, follicular, anaplastic, and medullary carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: Bortezomib induced apoptosis in medullary and anaplastic cell lines with IC(50) values well within the range of clinically achievable concentrations and much lower than respective IC(50) values for other solid malignancies.
  • Sensitivity of thyroid carcinoma cells to bortezomib was partially decreased by overexpression of Bcl-2 or treatment with IGF-I, whereas the combination of bortezomib with chemotherapy (doxorubicin) was synergistic.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data provide both insights into the molecular mechanisms of antitumor activity of proteasome inhibitors and the rationale for future clinical trials of bortezomib, alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy, to improve patient outcome in medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Boronic Acids / pharmacology. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Proteasome Inhibitors. Pyrazines / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein / metabolism. Bortezomib. Caspases / physiology. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / analysis. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / pharmacology. NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Phosphorylation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16849420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein; 0 / BID protein, human; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 0 / Pyrazines; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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51. Leleu X, Coiteux V, Facon T: [Prognostic factors and new treatments of multiple myeloma]. Rev Prat; 2006 Jan 15;56(1):31-9
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  • [Title] [Prognostic factors and new treatments of multiple myeloma].
  • Multiple myeloma is a blood disease that is often easy to diagnose, relying on a combination of an excessive medullary plasmacytosis, a serum and/or urinary monoclonal immunoglobulin and one or several signs of organ involvement (anemia, renal failure, bone lesions, hypercalcaemia, infections).
  • The beta2m, serum albumin, and certain chromosomal anomalies of the malignant clone are the essential prognostic factors.
  • Intensive treatment with auto-transplantation of stem cells of peripheral blood is a significant development from which patients less than or equal to 65 years of age have benefited.
  • The diphosphonates are combined with chemotherapy in order to limit the effect on bones, and recombinant erythropoietin is used in certain patients.
  • Above all, therapeutic progress has been made thanks to thalidomide, bortezomib and lenalidomide, even if the optimal utilisation of these molecules is still to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Boronic Acids / administration & dosage. Bortezomib. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Humans. Melphalan / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Pyrazines / administration & dosage. Stem Cell Transplantation. Thalidomide / administration & dosage. Thalidomide / analogs & derivatives. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 16548247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Pyrazines; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; F0P408N6V4 / lenalidomide; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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52. Meijer JA, le Cessie S, van den Hout WB, Kievit J, Schoones JW, Romijn JA, Smit JW: Calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen doubling times as prognostic factors in medullary thyroid carcinoma: a structured meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2010 Apr;72(4):534-42
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Calcitonin .

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  • [Title] Calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen doubling times as prognostic factors in medullary thyroid carcinoma: a structured meta-analysis.
  • CONTEXT: In the management of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), calcitonin doubling time (dt) has gained interest as an independent predictor of recurrence and survival.
  • OBJECTIVE: To perform a structured meta-analysis of the diagnostic value of calcitonin dt, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) dt and the combination and to define dt strata with the highest predictive power.
  • METHODS: Ten studies containing data on the post-operative kinetics of tumour marker(s) and (recurrence free) survival were included.
  • RESULTS: Calcitonin- and CEA-dt are significant indicators for survival (hazard ratios (HR) 21.52 respectively infinite for dt 0-1 year compared to dt >1 year) and recurrence (HR 5.33 respectively 6.80 for dt 0-1 year compared to dt >1 year).
  • The highest predictive power was found for the dt classification 0-1 year vs. >1 year.
  • CEA dt has a higher predictive value than calcitonin dt in the subgroup of patients for which both parameters were available.
  • CEA dt has a higher predictive value than calcitonin dt and therefore measuring both tumour markers is essential for proper risk stratification.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / metabolism. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19563448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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53. Moley JF: Medullary thyroid carcinoma: management of lymph node metastases. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2010 May;8(5):549-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medullary thyroid carcinoma: management of lymph node metastases.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine malignancy of the thyroid C cells.
  • Surgery is currently the only therapy that can reliably lead to cure, reduction in tumor burden, or effective palliation.
  • Although data are limited, standard chemotherapy and radiation therapy have not been shown to be effective in the treatment of MTC.
  • Newer targeted drug therapies are promising and are being examined in therapeutic clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20495084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Moley JF, Fialkowski EA: Evidence-based approach to the management of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg; 2007 May;31(5):946-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evidence-based approach to the management of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare malignancy of the thyroid C cells.
  • Thorough surgical extirpation of the primary tumor and nodal metastases by compartment-oriented resection has been the mainstay of treatment (level IV evidence).
  • Radioactive iodine, external beam radiation therapy, and conventional chemotherapy have not been effective.
  • Newer systemic treatments, with agents that target abnormal RET proteins hold promise and are being tested in clinical trials for patients with metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy. Evidence-Based Medicine. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm, Residual. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / drug effects. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17426901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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55. Hawkins DS, Park JR, Thomson BG, Felgenhauer JL, Holcenberg JS, Panosyan EH, Avramis VI: Asparaginase pharmacokinetics after intensive polyethylene glycol-conjugated L-asparaginase therapy for children with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clin Cancer Res; 2004 Aug 15;10(16):5335-41
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ASPARAGINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Asparaginase pharmacokinetics after intensive polyethylene glycol-conjugated L-asparaginase therapy for children with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: Asparaginase therapy is an important component in the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Polyethylene glycol-conjugated asparaginase (PEG-ASNase) has significant pharmacological advantages over native Escherichia coli asparaginase.
  • We investigated the pharmacokinetics of PEG-ASNase, presence of antibodies to PEG-ASNase, and concentrations of asparagine in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in combination chemotherapy for relapsed pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Twenty-eight pediatric patients with relapsed medullary (n = 16) and extramedullary (n = 11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia were enrolled at three pediatric institutions and had at least two serum and CSF samples obtained for analysis.
  • Patients received induction therapy (including PEG-ASNase 2500 IU/m2 intramuscularly weekly on days 2, 9, 16, and 23) and intensification therapy (including PEG-ASNase 2500 IU/m2 intramuscularly once on day 7).
  • CSF samples were obtained during therapeutic lumbar punctures during induction and intensification.
  • RESULTS: Weekly PEG-ASNase therapy resulted in PEG-ASNase activity of >0.1 IU/ml in 91-100% of patients throughout induction.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intensive PEG-ASNase therapy in the treatment of relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia reliably results in high-level serum PEG-ASNase activity, and asparagine depletion in serum and CSF is usually achieved.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Asparaginase / pharmacokinetics. Polyethylene Glycols / pharmacokinetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15328169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / pegaspargase; 0RH81L854J / Glutamine; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 7006-34-0 / Asparagine; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase
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56. Rinner B, Li ZX, Haas H, Siegl V, Sturm S, Stuppner H, Pfragner R: Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. Anticancer Res; 2009 Nov;29(11):4519-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a rare calcitonin-producing tumor, is derived from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid and is characterized by constitutive Bcl-2 overexpression.
  • The tumor is relatively insensitive to radiation therapy as well as conventional chemotherapy.
  • To date, the only curative treatment is the early and complete surgical removal of all neoplastic tissue.
  • ) DC, commonly known as uña de gato or cat's claw were investigated.
  • Cell growth of MTC cells as well as enzymatic activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenase was markedly inhibited after treatment with different fractions of the plant.
  • These promising results indicate the growth-restraining and apoptotic potential of plant extracts against neuroendocrine tumors, which may add to existing therapies for cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Cat's Claw / chemistry. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Caspase 3 / metabolism. Caspase 7 / metabolism. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Indoles / chemistry. Staining and Labeling / methods

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  • (PMID = 20032400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Plant Extracts; 47165-04-8 / DAPI; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 7
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57. Shiina H, Oka K, Okane M, Tanno W, Kawasaki T, Nakayama M: Coexisting true hermaphroditism and partial hydatidiform mole developing metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors. A case report. Virchows Arch; 2002 Nov;441(5):514-8
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  • The testis had seminiferous tubules containing primitive germ cells, immature Sertoli cells, and cytomegalic Leydig cells.
  • Cortical cytomegaly and medullary neuroblastoma in situ were seen in the adrenals.
  • The patient presented multiple metastatic pulmonary tumors at 1 month after the interruption, and was treated with chemotherapy for the clinical diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic tumor metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Therapeutic. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Mosaicism / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 12447683.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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58. Li Z, Sturm S, Svejda B, Höger H, Schraml E, Ingolic E, Siegl V, Stuppner H, Pfragner R: Anticancer activity of novel extracts from Cautleya gracilis (Smith) Dandy: apoptosis in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. Anticancer Res; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5A):2705-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anticancer activity of novel extracts from Cautleya gracilis (Smith) Dandy: apoptosis in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a calcitonin-producing tumor of the thyroid arising from the parafollicular C-cells.
  • MTC is poorly responsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hence the only effective therapy is surgery.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of Cautleya gracilis (Smith) Dandy were investigated for the first time in three human MTC cell lines and in MTC-transplanted mice.
  • Similar tumor inhibition was seen in heterotransplanted mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Zingiberaceae / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19035299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Plant Extracts; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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59. Pacini F, Brilli L, Marchisotta S: Targeted therapy in radioiodine refractory thyroid cancer. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2009 Oct;53(5):520-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeted therapy in radioiodine refractory thyroid cancer.
  • The majority of differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) of follicular cell origin are cured with adequate surgical management and radioiodine therapy.
  • Other thyroid malignancies such as medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas frequently metastasize, precluding patients from a curative resection.
  • Therapeutic options for these patients include additional surgery for resectable lesions, external radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • The results of this approach is usually disappointing and the use of novel therapeutic approaches is needed.
  • The outstanding progress in the molecular basis of thyroid carcinoma offered the tool for the development of new drugs, mainly tyrosine-kinase inhibitor and inhibitors of proangiogenic factors, which are currently in phase II or III clinical trials with promising results (the so called targeted therapy).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19910905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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60. Skinner MA, Lackey KE, Freemerman AJ: RET activation inhibits doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in SK-N-MC cells. Anticancer Res; 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4B):2019-25
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  • BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is generally resistant to chemotherapy and the frequent constitutive activation of RET (rearranged during transfection gene) in these tumors might inhibit drug-induced apoptosis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each RET isoform was separately expressed in SK-N-MC cells (neural crest-derived tumor) and the impact of RET activation on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis was examined.
  • In the presence of a MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase inhibitor or a RET kinase inhibitor, the RET-activated/drug-treated cells displayed nearly 75% and 100% of the doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of the drug-treated cells without RET activation, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Doxorubicin / antagonists & inhibitors. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Flavonoids / pharmacology. Humans. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Phosphorylation. Protein Isoforms. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 18751369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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61. Vidal M, Wells S, Ryan A, Cagan R: ZD6474 suppresses oncogenic RET isoforms in a Drosophila model for type 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Cancer Res; 2005 May 1;65(9):3538-41
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ZD6474 suppresses oncogenic RET isoforms in a Drosophila model for type 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Patients with hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B and familial MTC (FMTC) have mutations in the RET proto-oncogene.
  • RET kinase inhibitors are likely to be beneficial for patients with hereditary MTC, where currently there is no effective chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
  • We have developed a Drosophila model for MEN2A and MEN2B diseases by targeting oncogenic forms of RET to the developing Drosophila eye.
  • Our results support the view that targeting chemical kinase inhibitors such as ZD6474 to tissues with oncogenic forms of RET is a useful treatment strategy for RET-dependent carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Drosophila Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / drug therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / drug therapy. Piperidines / pharmacology. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15867345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA084309
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-((1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)methoxy)quinazolin-4-amine; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Ret oncogene protein, Drosophila; EC 2.7.11.1 / raf Kinases; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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62. Thomas X, Pavan L, Le QH: [Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia with central nervous system involvement: an overview]. Bull Cancer; 2008 Jul-Aug;95(7):707-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Leucémies aiguës lymphoblastiques de l'adulte avec envahissement du système nerveux central : mise au point.
  • At the time of diagnosis, central nervous system (CNS) involvement is identified in less than 10% of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • In CNS leukemia, innovative treatments and alternative delivery techniques are, however, warranted.
  • Outcome in such patients is a reflection of an aggressive systemic and CNS-directed therapy.
  • However, CNS toxicity represents the dose-limiting side effect of treatment.
  • With effective CNS prophylaxis including intrathecal chemotherapy, high-dose systemic administration of certain agents and cranial irradiation, most adults with ALL without CNS disease at diagnosis may remain free of CNS leukemia.
  • CNS involvement at the time of relapse occurs in 1 to 15% of cases.
  • Leukemic relapse remains a major therapeutic challenge.
  • Adult ALL with CNS recurrence remains of poor prognosis and is generally associated with a systemic and medullary relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cytarabine / adverse effects. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Humans. Meningeal Neoplasms. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 18755650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 109
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63. Quayle FJ, Moley JF: Medullary thyroid carcinoma: management of lymph node metastases. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2005 Jul;6(4):347-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medullary thyroid carcinoma: management of lymph node metastases.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine malignancy of the thyroid C cells.
  • Because of these features, the treatment of metastatic or recurrent MTC is different from the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Surgery is the only effective therapy at present that can result in cure, or reduction in tumor burden, or effective palliation.
  • Although data are limited, standard chemotherapy and radiation therapy have not been effective in the treatment of MTC.
  • Newer targeted drug therapies are being examined in therapeutic clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15967087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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64. Pichard E: [Emergency management of acute pain in oncology]. Rev Prat; 2003 Dec 15;53(19):2138-46
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pain.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] La prise en charge en urgence des douleurs cancérologiques.
  • They are linked: to the tumour, indicating a modification of the tumoural evolution (necrosis, haemorrhage, fracture, acute obstruction of hollow organs or canals, occlusion, hydronephrosis); to the treatment: (inflammation of mucosal membranes, anusitis, post PL syndromes); and to invasive investigations.
  • They are equally neuropathic, revealing an underlying threatened or confirmed medullary compression, or induced by neurotoxic chemotherapy.
  • They are also analysed according to their mode of apparition: mechanical, arising as acute on chronic pain (the pre-fracture pain of metastases); insufficiency of the duration of therapeutic efficacity; an acute episode of neuropathic pain that is often lancing, unpredictable and inevitable.
  • To counteract this pain, medications with a short onset of action and a short half-life should be used to avoid side effects.
  • Acutely emerging pains, whatever be their type, arising in the context of cancer and long-term pain are sensitising elements to all further pains, as they imprint in the memory, and are very negatively conditioned by the anguishing context of the illness.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / complications. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15008470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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65. Gorman MF, Ji L, Ko RH, Barnette P, Bostrom B, Hutchinson R, Raetz E, Seibel NL, Twist CJ, Eckroth E, Sposto R, Gaynon PS, Loh ML: Outcome for children treated for relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (rAML): a Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia (TACL) Consortium study. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Sep;55(3):421-9
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  • [Title] Outcome for children treated for relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (rAML): a Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia (TACL) Consortium study.
  • We hypothesize that further improvements in survival are unlikely to be achieved with traditional approaches such as dose intensive chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplants, since these therapies have been rigorously explored in clinical trials.
  • PROCEDURE: We performed a retrospective cohort review of pediatric patients with relapsed and refractory AML (rAML) previously treated at TACL institutions between the years of 1995 and 2004.
  • Data regarding disease characteristics at diagnosis and relapse, treatment response, and survival was collected on 99 patients and 164 medullary relapses or treatment failures.
  • RESULTS: The complete response (CR) rate following the second therapeutic attempt was 56 +/- 5%.
  • CR rates following a third treatment attempt was 25 +/- 8% while 17 +/- 7% achieved CR following the fourth through sixth treatments.
  • The 5-year disease-free survival in patients achieving CR following a second therapeutic attempt was 43 +/- 7%.
  • The 5-year EFS and overall survival (OS) rates for all patients receiving a second treatment attempt was 24 +/- 5% and 29 +/- 5%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This CR rate following a second therapeutic attempt and OS rate in patients with rAML is consistent with the literature.
  • Our data can serve as a historical benchmark to compare outcomes of future therapeutic trials in rAML against traditional chemotherapy regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Retreatment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20658611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K22 CA113557
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Romagnoli S, Moretti S, Voce P, Puxeddu E: Targeted molecular therapies in thyroid carcinoma. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2009 Dec;53(9):1061-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeted molecular therapies in thyroid carcinoma.
  • Thyroid cancer incidence has significantly increased in the last three decades and many patients seek medical attention for its treatment every year.
  • Among follicular cell-derived tumors, the majority are differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC), whose prognosis is very good with only 15% of the cases presenting disease persistence or recurrence after initial treatment.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma has a worse prognosis, especially in patients with diffused cancers at the time of initial surgery.
  • Traditional treatment options for persistent or recurrent disease include additional surgery, radioiodine treatment and TSH-suppression in DTC patients; external beam radiotherapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy, often have low efficacy and many patients with advanced disease ultimately die.
  • In the last two decades many of the molecular events involved in cancer formation have been uncovered.
  • This knowledge has prompted the development of novel therapeutic strategies mainly based on the inhibition of key molecular mediators of the tumorigenic process.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use. Humans. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Indazoles / therapeutic use. Indoles / therapeutic use. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Niacinamide / therapeutic use. Phenylurea Compounds. Piperidines / therapeutic use. Pyridines / therapeutic use. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Quinazolines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20126863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Indazoles; 0 / Indoles; 0 / N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-((1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)methoxy)quinazolin-4-amine; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / sunitinib; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; C9LVQ0YUXG / axitinib; F60NE4XB53 / imetelstat
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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67. Nieto JM, Vives I, Jiménez JA, González MA, Guerrero E, Roigé J: [Anesthetic management of sacroiliac-vertebral echinococcosis]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim; 2008 Aug-Sep;55(7):434-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Manejo anestésico de la hidatidosis sacroilíaca-vertebral.
  • The capsules progress aggressively through the medullary canal and replace the trabecular bone without forming cysts, as occurs in the organs, thus making anaplylaxis rare.
  • The combination of chemotherapy and surgery facilitates anesthetic management and reduces the incidence of anaphylactic events and disease recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 18853682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9356
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de anestesiología y reanimación
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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68. Murakami M, Kuroda Y, Sano A, Okamoto Y, Yoden E, Nishimura S, Matsusue S, Takeda H, Kobashi Y: Breast conservation for huge-sized locally advanced breast cancer: a case report. Radiat Med; 2001 May-Jun;19(3):155-9
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  • [Title] Breast conservation for huge-sized locally advanced breast cancer: a case report.
  • A 35-year-old woman with locally advanced stage IIIB breast cancer (medullary carcinoma) 12 cm in diameter underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of three courses of intraarterial infusion [adriamycin (ADR), mitomycin (MMC), cisplatin (CDDP), 5-fluorouracil (5FU)] and four cycles of systemic chemotherapy (ADR, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, MMC, CDDP) for three months.
  • The tumor markedly diminished after the first course of intraarterial infusion chemotherapy, with a 3-cm tumor remaining after the completion of preoperative administration.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy was added and adjuvant chemohormonal therapy was continued for two years.
  • The patient is alive without recurrence and has been able to conserve the breast for the past eight years, neoadjuvant chemotherapy including intraarterial infusion enabled breast conservation treatment even for huge-sized locally advanced breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11467383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0288-2043
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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69. Chow LQ, Eckhardt SG: Sunitinib: from rational design to clinical efficacy. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Mar 1;25(7):884-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as SU6668 and SU5416 (semaxanib) demonstrated poor pharmacologic properties and limited efficacy; therefore, sunitinib was rationally designed and chosen for its high bioavailability and its nanomolar-range potency against the antiangiogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)--vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR).
  • Sunitinib inhibits other tyrosine kinases including, KIT, FLT3, colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), and RET, which are involved in a number of malignancies including small-cell lung cancer, GI stromal tumors (GISTs), breast cancer, acute myelogenous leukemia, multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B, and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Sunitinib demonstrated robust antitumor activity in preclinical studies resulting not only in tumor growth inhibition, but tumor regression in models of colon cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, renal carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma, which were associated with inhibition of VEGFR and PDGFR phosphorylation.
  • Clinical activity was demonstrated in neuroendocrine, colon, and breast cancers in phase II studies, whereas definitive efficacy has been demonstrated in advanced renal cell carcinoma and in imatinib-refractory GISTs, leading to US Food and Drug Administration approval of sunitinib for treatment of these two diseases.
  • Studies investigating sunitinib alone in various tumor types and in combination with chemotherapy are ongoing.
  • The clinical benchmarking of this small-molecule inhibitor of members of the split-kinase domain family of RTKs will lead to additional insights regarding the biology, potential biomarkers, and clinical utility of agents that target multiple signaling pathways in tumor, stromal, and endothelial compartments.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Indoles / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Pyrroles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Design. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2007 Jul 1;25(19):2858-9; author reply 2859-61 [17602094.001]
  • (PMID = 17327610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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70. Milanaccio C, Nozza P, Ravegnani M, Rossi A, Raso A, Gambini C, Garrè ML, Pietsch T: Cervico-medullary desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma: an unusual case with diffuse leptomeningeal dissemination at diagnosis. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Dec;45(7):986-90
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  • [Title] Cervico-medullary desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma: an unusual case with diffuse leptomeningeal dissemination at diagnosis.
  • Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) is a rare intracranial tumor affecting newborns and infants, and generally arising in the supratentorial region.
  • We report a case of an unusual DIG, arising at the cervico-medullary junction, with diffuse leptomeningeal seeding at diagnosis that was treated with chemotherapy (CT) and delayed partial surgery.

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15702481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Giuffrida D, Lavenia G, Aiello RA, Di Blasi C, Gambera G, Pappalardo A, Petralia G, Ursino M, Failla G: [Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: diagnosis and treatment]. Clin Ter; 2001 Jul-Aug;152(4):255-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: diagnosis and treatment].
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), accounting for 5% to 15% of primary malignant thyroid neoplasm, is one of the most aggressive solid tumors in humans.
  • It is rapidly fatal, with a mean survival of 6 months after diagnosis.
  • Multimodality treatment with surgery and/or external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy are of fundamental importance for local control of disease and to enhance survival.
  • It is essential to verify the diagnosis histologically because insular thyroid cancer, lymphomas, and medullary thyroid cancer are occasionally confused with undifferentiated neoplasms.
  • Immunohistochemical study is helpful in establishing the diagnosis.
  • Multimodal therapy and development of effective systemic chemotherapy agents would provide to result in improvements in survival although no single agent has yet been identified.
  • Aggressive multimodality treatment regimens show promise in improving local control in patients with ATC.
  • Despite intense applications of such integrated therapy, no standardized successful treatment protocol has yet been established.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11725619.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9074
  • [Journal-full-title] La Clinica terapeutica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ter
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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72. Benbouzid MA, Bencheikh R, Benhammou A, El Edghiri H, Boulaich M, Essakali L, Kzadri M: [Cervicofacial cellulitis revealing cutaneous lymphomas]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2007 Jun;108(3):228-30
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  • [Transliterated title] Dermohypodermites cervicofaciales révélatrices de lymphomes cutanés.
  • These lymphomas usually present as a long-lasting and treatment-refractory papule or nodule.
  • The diagnosis was proved by multiple biopsies, performed because there was no clinical improvement in spite of an aggressive and adequate antibiotherapy.
  • Our 2 patients were treated by radio and chemotherapy.
  • DISCUSSION: Cutaneous lymphomas are lymphocytic proliferations stemming from cutaneous lymphoid tissue, without nodal, medullary, or visceral localization.
  • They have no portal of entry and are resistant to treatment.
  • The diagnosis relies on histology, and biopsies must be performed if there is a suspicion of lymphoma.
  • The treatment is radio and chemotherapy, and the evolution depends on the tumoral stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Cellulitis / diagnosis. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17399753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1768
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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73. Peltier J, Cretu I, Fichten A, Toussaint P, Desenclos C, Le Gars D: [Primary intramedullary lymphoma. Case report]. Neurochirurgie; 2007 Nov;53(5):375-8
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  • This patient was referred for lower limbs weakness, which had developed six weeks earlier and right C5 radiculalgia.
  • Physical examination revealed a medullary syndrome with Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome.
  • The diagnosis was established after MRI and biopsy (dorsal myelotomy).
  • The patient was given chemotherapy and craniospinal adjuvant radiotherapy (30 Grays).
  • The clinical, radiological and therapeutic features are discussed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Laminectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Cord / pathology. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17689569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vimentin
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74. Zatelli MC, Luchin A, Piccin D, Tagliati F, Bottoni A, Vignali C, Bondanelli M, degli Uberti EC: Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors reverse chemoresistance phenotype in medullary thyroid carcinoma by a permeability glycoprotein-mediated mechanism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Oct;90(10):5754-60
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors reverse chemoresistance phenotype in medullary thyroid carcinoma by a permeability glycoprotein-mediated mechanism.
  • OBJECTIVE: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a highly chemoresistant malignant neoplasia deriving from parafollicular C cells.
  • Chemotherapy failure has been ascribed, at least in part, to the overexpression by MTC of the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, encoding a transmembrane glycoprotein [permeability glycoprotein (P-gp)] that antagonizes intracellular accumulation of cytotoxic agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. P-Glycoprotein / physiology. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Blotting, Western. Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology. Cell Count. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cyclooxygenase 2. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors. Dinoprostone / pharmacology. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Humans. Lactones / pharmacology. Membrane Proteins. Permeability. Phenotype. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sulfones / pharmacology. Verapamil / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16091477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Sulfones; 0QTW8Z7MCR / rofecoxib; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; CJ0O37KU29 / Verapamil; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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75. Hou TY, Dai MS, Kao WY: Testicular plasmacytoma with bone dissemination without medullary plasmacytosis. Ann Hematol; 2003 Aug;82(8):518-20
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  • [Title] Testicular plasmacytoma with bone dissemination without medullary plasmacytosis.
  • He had received palliative radiotherapy, several combined chemotherapies including CHOP chemotherapy (vincristine, cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, and prednisone), MP (melphalan and prednisone) and M-2 protocol (melphalan, prednisone, vincristine, carmustine, and cyclophosphamide), and interferon therapy as 3 million units subcutaneous injection three times a week for 1 year.
  • Extensive bone plasmacytoma developed 7 years later without bone marrow involvement.
  • We suggest that early use of combined chemoradiotherapy and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support should be investigated in patients with testicular plasmacytoma with dissemination.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow / pathology. Carmustine / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Melphalan / therapeutic use. Plasma Cells / pathology. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12838369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol; M-2 protocol
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76. Delepine F, Delepine G, Cohen C, Delepine N: [Periosteal Ewing's sarcoma]. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot; 2002 Apr;88(2):188-92
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  • Periosteal Ewing's sarcoma is a histologically typical Ewing's sarcoma arising in the periosteum with no involvement of the medullary canal or cancellous bone.
  • We describe four cases in our experience and review the literature, recalling the usual computed tomography diagnostic criteria and the therapeutic consequences.
  • At surgical resection, cortical resection can be partial maintaining a continuous diaphysis; this should be examined as a possibility for young patients in order to avoid the problems encountered with massive reconstruction followed by chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11973551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1040
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de chirurgie orthopédique et réparatrice de l'appareil moteur
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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77. Woyach JA, Kloos RT, Ringel MD, Arbogast D, Collamore M, Zwiebel JA, Grever M, Villalona-Calero M, Shah MH: Lack of therapeutic effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in patients with metastatic radioiodine-refractory thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jan;94(1):164-70
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  • [Title] Lack of therapeutic effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in patients with metastatic radioiodine-refractory thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Aberrant histone deacetylase activity is seen in a variety of malignancies, and histone deacetylase inhibitors such as vorinostat have been shown to induce cell death and sensitize cells to cytotoxic chemotherapy in thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • This phase II study was undertaken to assess objective response to vorinostat in patients with advanced thyroid cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 19 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (n = 16) and medullary thyroid cancer (n = 3) were enrolled in the study.
  • Patients were treated for 2 wk, followed by 1 wk off therapy (3-wk cycle) until disease progression or study withdrawal.
  • Responses were measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria and correlated with tumor markers.
  • Median duration of therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer was 17 wk, whereas in medullary thyroid cancer patients it was 25 wk.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vorinostat at this dose and schedule is not an effective treatment for advanced thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Hydroxamic Acids / therapeutic use. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Thyroglobulin / blood

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  • (PMID = 18854394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00134043
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CM62207; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA076576; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01-CM-62207; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA76576
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 58IFB293JI / vorinostat; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630867
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78. Imanishi K, Nonoguchi H, Nakayama Y, Machida K, Ikebe M, Tomita K: Type 1A angiotensin II receptor is regulated differently in proximal and distal nephron segments. Hypertens Res; 2003 May;26(5):405-11
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  • [Title] Type 1A angiotensin II receptor is regulated differently in proximal and distal nephron segments.
  • Angiotensin II plays important roles in renal vasoconstriction, sodium reabsorption in proximal tubules, and cell proliferation.
  • Angiotensin II receptors are present not only in proximal but also in distal tubules.
  • We investigated the effects of dehydration on the mRNA expression of type 1A angiotensin II receptor (AT1A) in proximal and distal nephron segments and on the expression of type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) protein.
  • Collecting ducts showed higher expressions than did proximal tubules or thick ascending limbs.
  • Dehydration caused an increase of AT1A mRNA expression in glomeruli, proximal straight tubules (PST), and medullary and cortical thick ascending limbs (MAL and CAL, respectively).
  • In contrast, dehydration decreased AT1A mRNA expression in cortical, outer medullary, and inner medullary collecting ducts (CCD, OMCD, and IMCD, respectively).
  • Dehydration caused a decrease and increase of AT1 expression in the cortex and the medulla, respectively.
  • In summary, these data showed that the mechanisms of the regulation of AT1A differ between proximal and distal tubules.
  • The finding that AT1 was up-regulated in the medulla during dehydration may suggest that this receptor plays an important role in dehydration in the distal tubules.
  • [MeSH-major] Dehydration / physiopathology. Nephrons / physiology. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 / genetics. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 / metabolism. Renal Circulation / physiology. Water-Electrolyte Balance / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Gene Expression / physiology. Kidney Cortex / physiology. Kidney Medulla / physiology. Male. Osmolar Concentration. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Sodium / metabolism. Urine. Vasoconstriction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 12887132.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-9636
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertens. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium
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79. Zhao PL, Wang XT, Zhang XM, Cebotaru V, Cebotaru L, Guo G, Morales M, Guggino SE: Tubular and cellular localization of the cardiac L-type calcium channel in rat kidney. Kidney Int; 2002 Apr;61(4):1393-406
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  • [Title] Tubular and cellular localization of the cardiac L-type calcium channel in rat kidney.
  • BACKGROUND: The mRNAs of several types of calcium channels have been identified in intact rat kidney, and L-type calcium channels cause changes in intracellular calcium in primary cultures of distal tubule cells.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the tubular and cellular distribution of the alpha1C subunit of the L-type calcium channel in intact kidney.
  • RESULTS: Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA of the alpha1C subunit of the cardiac L-type calcium channel was present in whole rat kidney, kidney tubules and kidney cell lines.
  • Western blot of lysates from whole kidney, kidney tubules or cell lines revealed bands of approximately 190 kD for the alpha1C subunit and approximately 60 kD for the beta3 subunit.
  • Confocal immunohistochemistry indicated that the alpha1C subunit of this channel was co-expressed in cells of the distal tubule that express calbindin-D28K, but not in intercalated cells.
  • The alpha1C subunit was also highly expressed in both outer and inner medullary collecting ducts.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The distribution and cellular localization of the alpha1C subunit of cardiac L-type calcium channel suggest it is probably involved in intracellular and membrane calcium signaling.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium Channels, L-Type / metabolism. Kidney / metabolism. Kidney Tubules / metabolism. Myocardium / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / metabolism. Cell Line. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Rats. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 11918746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0085-2538
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 43423
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channels, L-Type; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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80. Morabito A, Piccirillo MC, Falasconi F, De Feo G, Del Giudice A, Bryce J, Di Maio M, De Maio E, Normanno N, Perrone F: Vandetanib (ZD6474), a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases: current status and future directions. Oncologist; 2009 Apr;14(4):378-90
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  • Vandetanib is a novel, orally available inhibitor of different intracellular signaling pathways involved in tumor growth, progression, and angiogenesis: vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, and REarranged during Transfection tyrosine kinase activity.
  • In the phase II setting, negative results were observed with vandetanib in small cell lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and multiple myeloma.
  • In contrast, three randomized phase II studies showed that vandetanib prolonged the progression-free survival (PFS) time of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a single agent when compared with gefitinib or when added to chemotherapy.
  • Antitumor activity was also observed in medullary thyroid cancer.
  • Four randomized phase III clinical trials in NSCLC are exploring the efficacy of vandetanib in combination with docetaxel, the Zactima in cOmbination with Docetaxel In non-small cell lung Cancer (ZODIAC) trial, or with pemetrexed, the Zactima Efficacy with Alimta in Lung cancer (ZEAL) trial, or as a single agent, the Zactima Efficacy when Studied versus Tarceva (ZEST) and the Zactima Efficacy trial for NSCLC Patients with History of EGFR-TKI chemo-Resistance (ZEPHYR) trials.
  • Based on a press release by the sponsor of these trials, the PFS time was longer with vandetanib in the ZODIAC and ZEAL trials; the ZEST trial was negative for its primary superiority analysis, but was successful according to a preplanned noninferiority analysis of PFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Piperidines / administration & dosage. Quinazolines / administration & dosage. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / drug effects. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / drug effects. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Drug Therapy / methods. Glutamates / administration & dosage. Guanine / administration & dosage. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Pemetrexed. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19349511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glutamates; 0 / N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-((1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)methoxy)quinazolin-4-amine; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Taxoids; 04Q9AIZ7NO / Pemetrexed; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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81. Kraeber-Bodéré F, Bodet-Milin C, Niaudet C, Saï-Maurel C, Moreau A, Faivre-Chauvet A, Thomare P, Deleris G, Estieu-Gionnet K, Bikfalvi A, Barbet J, Paris F: Comparative toxicity and efficacy of combined radioimmunotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy in carcinoembryonic antigen-expressing medullary thyroid cancer xenograft. J Nucl Med; 2010 Apr;51(4):624-31
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  • [Title] Comparative toxicity and efficacy of combined radioimmunotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy in carcinoembryonic antigen-expressing medullary thyroid cancer xenograft.
  • A significant antitumor effect was previously observed with radioimmunotherapy using anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (131)I-F6 monoclonal antibody in medullary thyroid cancer-bearing nude mice.
  • As seen with chemotherapy, drugs targeting the tumor microenvironment might improve radioimmunotherapy efficacy.
  • This study evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of combining radioimmunotherapy with thalidomide or a cyclopeptidic vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (CBOP11) in mice grafted with the TT human medullary thyroid cancer cell line.
  • METHODS: Six to 10 nude mice treated with 92.5 MBq of (131)I-F6 in association with 200 mg/kg/d of oral thalidomide during 20 d by force-feeding or 0.45 mg/kg/d of CBOP11 during 25 d using subcutaneous minipumps were compared with control mice receiving either treatment or naked F6 or nonspecific (131)I-734.
  • Combined therapies included (131)I-F6 at day 0 followed by thalidomide between days 20 and 40, thalidomide between days 0 and 20 followed by (131)I-F6 at day 25, (131)I-F6 at day 0 and CBOP11 between days 0 and 25, CBOP11 between days 0 and 25 followed by (131)I-F6 at day 25, and (131)I-F6 at day 0 followed by CBOP11 between days 20 and 45.
  • Animal weight, hematologic toxicity, tumor volume, and serum calcitonin were monitored for the following 3 mo.
  • Improvement of (125)I-F6 tumor biodistribution by antiangiogenic drug was studied after pretreatment by thalidomide.
  • Follow-up of the tumor after combined antiangiogenic and radioimmunotherapy therapies was performed by histology studies.
  • Tumor volume-quadrupling time (TVQT) was 22.8 +/- 3.3 d in the control group, 29.9 +/- 3.6 d in the group treated with thalidomide, 34.6 +/- 4.4 d in the group treated with CBOP11, and 51.0 +/- 2.8 d after radioimmunotherapy alone.
  • Change in calcitonin levels confirmed morphologic tumor response.
  • Tumor uptake 24 h after injection of (125)I-F6 was 4.5 +/- 0.6 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) without pretreatment and 8.7 +/- 1.3 %ID/g with pretreatment by thalidomide.
  • An increase of the antitumor effect observed using the antiangiogenic drug combined with radioimmunotherapy was correlated with a decrease of blood vessels shown by von Willebrand immunostaining.
  • CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with antiangiogenic therapies improved radioimmunotherapy efficacy, with acceptable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Radioimmunotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / chemistry. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacokinetics. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Endothelial Cells / drug effects. Endothelial Cells / pathology. Endothelial Growth Factors / pharmacokinetics. Endothelial Growth Factors / pharmacology. Endothelial Growth Factors / therapeutic use. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / chemistry. Mice. Peptides, Cyclic / pharmacokinetics. Peptides, Cyclic / pharmacology. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Thalidomide / pharmacology. Thalidomide / therapeutic use. Tissue Distribution. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20351352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-5667
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Endothelial Growth Factors; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / cyclo-VEGI; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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82. Brown JM, Berkey BD, Brooks JA: Discovery of a renal medullary carcinoma in an adolescent male with sickle cell trait by Tc-99m methylene disphosponate bone scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Dec;33(12):896-900
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  • [Title] Discovery of a renal medullary carcinoma in an adolescent male with sickle cell trait by Tc-99m methylene disphosponate bone scintigraphy.
  • The renal excretion of Tc-99m bone imaging agents often permits the identification of urinary tract abnormalities on bone scans.
  • In this case report, identification of focal intrarenal stasis of the excreted bone imaging agent led to additional anatomic imaging and the identification of a renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) in an adolescent black male undergoing evaluation for back pain.
  • RMC is a rare, highly aggressive renal neoplasm found almost exclusively in young individuals with sickle cell trait (SCT) or hemoglobin SC disease.
  • The prognosis of RMC is poor because the malignancy is usually refractory to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, with metastatic disease commonly present at the time of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone and Bones / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Medullary / radionuclide imaging. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Sickle Cell Trait / complications. Sickle Cell Trait / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Humans. Male. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19033803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] X89XV46R07 / Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
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83. Staals EL, Bacchini P, Bertoni F: High-grade surface osteosarcoma: a review of 25 cases from the Rizzoli Institute. Cancer; 2008 Apr 1;112(7):1592-9
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  • The circumferential involvement was on average 53% and in approximately half of the cases medullary canal involvement was detected.
  • Nineteen patients underwent a combination of surgery and chemotherapy for treatment of their initial lesion, whereas 5 patients were managed with surgery alone.
  • The current series demonstrates good overall survival for patients with this tumor.
  • Wide surgical excision and chemotherapy might improve the outcome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18300258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Bonadona V, Dussart-Moser S, Voirin N, Sinilnikova OM, Mignotte H, Mathevet P, Brémond A, Treilleux I, Martin A, Romestaing P, Raudrant D, Rudigoz RC, Lenoir GM, Lasset C: Prognosis of early-onset breast cancer based on BRCA1/2 mutation status in a French population-based cohort and review. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Jan;101(2):233-45
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  • [Title] Prognosis of early-onset breast cancer based on BRCA1/2 mutation status in a French population-based cohort and review.
  • PURPOSE: The debate concerning poorer survival for patients with breast cancer (BC) carrying a BRCA1 germline mutation is unresolved, and requires additional data from population-based studies.
  • We compared tumour characteristics and survival rates between 21 BRCA1/2 deleterious mutation carriers and 211 non-carriers.
  • RESULTS: As compared to sporadic tumours, BRCA1/2 tumours showed higher grade (P = 0.02), fewer ductal carcinoma in situ (P = 0.02), more frequent medullary histology (P = 0.02), more frequent negative oestrogen and progesterone receptors (P = 0.001 each).
  • 76% of BRCA1/2 carriers received chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite unfavourable tumour features, we found no evidence for poorer short-term survival in BRCA1 mutation carriers compared to non-carriers in this prospective population-based cohort.
  • The high rate of BRCA1 carriers who received chemotherapy for their BC should question the positive impact of this treatment, as suggested by preclinical studies showing increased chemosensitivity of BRCA1-associated tumours.

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  • (PMID = 17061047.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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85. Zhang IH, Zane LT, Braun BS, Maize J Jr, Zoger S, Loh ML: Congenital leukemia cutis with subsequent development of leukemia. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Feb;54(2 Suppl):S22-7
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  • Initial bone marrow and cerebrospinal fluid examination did not demonstrate medullary or meningeal disease.
  • Chemotherapy was initiated on the basis of the abnormal cytogenetic findings in the skin biopsy.
  • Intensive chemotherapy was, given but the infant's leukemia progressed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn

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  • (PMID = 16427986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 095621; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA104282
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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86. Barbet J, Campion L, Kraeber-Bodéré F, Chatal JF, GTE Study Group: Prognostic impact of serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen doubling-times in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Nov;90(11):6077-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic impact of serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen doubling-times in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: After unsuccessful surgery, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) may be fatal or remain stable for decades, and precise survival predictors are needed.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the prognostic value of calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) doubling-times (DT).
  • SETTING: Data registered in the database of the French Neuroendocrine Tumor Group were analyzed anonymously.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: To assess DT as prognostic factors, a patient population was extracted from the database.
  • RESULTS: When calcitonin DT was less than 6 months, 5- and 10-yr survivals were three of 12 (25%) and one of 12 (8%), respectively; when between 6 months and 2 yr, 5- and 10-yr survivals were 11 of 12 (92%) and three of eight (37%), whereas all 41 patients with calcitonin DT greater than 2 yr were alive at the end of the study.
  • Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) stage, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) score, and calcitonin DT were significant predictors of survival by univariate analysis, but only calcitonin DT remained an independent predictor of survival by multivariate analysis (P = 0.002) with a proportion of variance explained (PVE) of 37.4%.
  • Calcitonin DT was a better predictor than CEA (PVE 63.3% and 47.0%, respectively).
  • Calcitonin DT calculated using only the first four measurements was also an independent predictor of survival (P < 0.000001; PVE 40.4%).
  • CONCLUSION: Calcitonin DT may be superior to initial clinical staging and among the most powerful prognostic indicators in MTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Carcinoma, Medullary / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16091497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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87. Gobe GC, Johnson DW: Distal tubular epithelial cells of the kidney: Potential support for proximal tubular cell survival after renal injury. Int J Biochem Cell Biol; 2007;39(9):1551-61
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  • [Title] Distal tubular epithelial cells of the kidney: Potential support for proximal tubular cell survival after renal injury.
  • Acute kidney injury involves not only direct injury to the distal tubular (DT) and proximal tubular (PT) epithelium during and immediately following the injurious event, but the closely-associated and sometimes dysfunctional renal vascular endothelium also plays an important part in modulating the tubular epithelial injury.
  • In comparison with the PT, the DT epithelium is less sensitive to cell death, especially after ischemic injury.
  • In a neighborly way, the cytokines and growth factors secreted by the DT epithelium may then act positively on the ischemia-sensitive PT that has receptors to many of these proteins, but may not be able to synthesize them.
  • A more complete understanding of these cellular events will allow protection against nephron destruction, regeneration leading to re-epithelialization of the injured tubules, or prevention of progression to chronic kidney disease.
  • This review looks at these functions in the DT epithelial cells, specifically the cells in the medullary thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, in contrast with those of the straight segment of the PT.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelial Cells / cytology. Kidney Diseases / pathology. Kidney Tubules, Distal / cytology. Kidney Tubules, Proximal / cytology. Kidney Tubules, Proximal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17590379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-2725
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Heat-Shock Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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88. Vainas I, Koussis Ch, Pazaitou-Panayiotou K, Drimonitis A, Chrisoulidou A, Iakovou I, Boudina M, Kaprara A, Maladaki A: Somatostatin receptor expression in vivo and response to somatostatin analog therapy with or without other antineoplastic treatments in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2004 Dec;23(4):549-59
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  • [Title] Somatostatin receptor expression in vivo and response to somatostatin analog therapy with or without other antineoplastic treatments in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The long-term treatment of metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) with somatostatin (SST) analogs was evaluated in 22 patients with persistant or relapsed disease and with in vivo positive SST receptor (SSTR) tumors.
  • After surgical intervention all patients but one, initially or at a later time, had persistenly (15) or after relapse (7) elevated serum calcitonin (CT, 252-69482 pg/ml) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, 8-1130 ng/ml) concentrations; also, all of them showed positive uptake in 111In-pentetreotide scanning.
  • Systemic chemotherapy (Ch) with or without external radiotherapy (eRT) was given to 13 patients simultaneously.
  • No objective response in tumour growth was demonstrated.
  • Patients (10 survivors in group B) treated with Ch+eRT plus Octerotide showed higher sR (92.5%), lower mortality (23.1%), longer mean time to death (130 months) and longer mean total survival (mts) time (145 months) in comparison to group A patients who had 66.7% sR, 33.3% mortality, only 88.5 months mean time to death and 101 months mts-time.
  • Long-term octreotide and octreotide-LAR treatment offers a subjective and biological partial remission in one third and in one fourth of the MTC patients respectively, but it does not improve the natural course of the tumor.
  • It remains to be answered if these drugs, combined with other antineoplastic therapies, have a synergistic effect relating to treatment response and to patient survival and mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / biosynthesis. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calcitonin / blood. Child. Drug Monitoring. Female. Humans. Indium Radioisotopes / pharmacology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Octreotide / metabolism. Radionuclide Imaging. Recurrence. Time Factors. Tissue Distribution. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15743023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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89. Bellaaj H, Moussa A, Gouiaa N, Maazoun K, Frikha I, Medhaffar M, Hdiji S, Elloumi M, Souissi T: [Isolated extramedullary adnexal relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report]. Arch Pediatr; 2009 Jul;16(7):1016-20
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  • The occurrence of an isolated ovarian or pelvic relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in complete remission after chemotherapy has rarely been described.
  • We report the case of a 12-year-old girl, treated for ALL, who developed an isolated left ovarian and fallopian tube localization without medullary or blood relapse 4 years after the end of the initial treatment.
  • The diagnosis was established by a CT-guided biopsy.
  • The treatment consisted of a second course of chemotherapy and complementary surgery; a second complete remission was obtained.
  • [MeSH-major] Fallopian Tubes / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / diagnosis. Ovary / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Remission Induction
  • [MeSH-minor] Adnexa Uteri / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ovariectomy. Retreatment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19359147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-664X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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90. Lee JL, Lee JH, Kim MK, Cho HS, Bae YK, Cho KH, Bae SH, Ryoo HM, Lee KH, Hyun MS: A case of bone marrow necrosis with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura as a manifestation of occult colon cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2004 Aug;34(8):476-80
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  • [Title] A case of bone marrow necrosis with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura as a manifestation of occult colon cancer.
  • Although most cases are held to be idiopathic, its association with malignancy is well recognized and it usually occurs at the terminal stage of cancer.
  • Bone marrow necrosis (BMN) is another rare disorder defined pathologically as the necrosis of myeloid tissue and medullary stroma with preservation of bone.
  • Neither TTP nor BMN associated with colon cancer has been reported.
  • We describe here a patient with the rare association of TTP and BMN displayed as the first manifestation of an advanced colon cancer.
  • The anemia and thrombocytopenia responded not to plasma exchange but to the combination chemotherapy.
  • This case indicates that metastatic cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis of TTP and BMN, and that the chemotherapy may improve the detrimental clinical course.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Necrosis

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  • (PMID = 15371467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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91. Ishibashi Y, Tokuchi Y, Kamachi M, Harada M, Isobe H: [A case of non-small-cell lung cancer with intramedullary spinal cord metastasis diagnosed pre-mortem]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2000 Dec;38(12):943-6
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  • [Title] [A case of non-small-cell lung cancer with intramedullary spinal cord metastasis diagnosed pre-mortem].
  • The patient was a 54-year-old man who in May 1999 received a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, T4 N2 M1, stage IV.
  • Systemic chemotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery were performed only to result in further progression of the disease.
  • Later, bladder dysfunction also developed.
  • Since spinal cord MRI revealed intramedullary metastasis at Th 12 and L1 levels, we performed radiotherapy for the lumbar medullary lesion, together with systemic chemotherapy.
  • After chemoradiotherapy the tumor size decreased and the pain improved.
  • Cases of lung cancer with intramedullary metastasis are rare, especially those diagnosed before death.
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11244733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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92. Fassnacht M, Kreissl MC, Weismann D, Allolio B: New targets and therapeutic approaches for endocrine malignancies. Pharmacol Ther; 2009 Jul;123(1):117-41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New targets and therapeutic approaches for endocrine malignancies.
  • In endocrine malignancies (thyroid carcinoma, parathyroid carcinoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, malignant pheochromocytoma) surgery is currently the treatment of choice, in case of differentiated thyroid carcinomas followed by 131-I-radioiodine administration.
  • This approach is often successful in early disease; however, treatment options for advanced endocrine malignancies remain unsatisfactory and prognosis is poor.
  • In particular, cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy often show only limited and transient efficacy and are associated with significant toxicity.
  • Thus, new treatment options are urgently needed.
  • Advances in the understanding of the molecular pathology of endocrine malignancies has recently led to identification of key events in endocrine oncogenesis (e.g. oncogenic RET mutations in medullary thyroid carcinoma or RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma).
  • These new insights are increasingly matched by new compounds (e.g. tyrosine kinase inhibitors) targeting signaling pathways essential for tumor cell survival, proliferation and metastases.
  • First results of "targeted therapies" in medullary and differentiated thyroid carcinoma are impressive: phase II trials targeting RET or VEGF receptor kinases led to objective tumor response in up to 50% of patients.
  • This review covers these recent molecular and clinical advances which most likely will dramatically alter the treatment of endocrine malignancies within the coming decade.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Drug Design. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19374919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-016X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 438
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93. Odell MJ: Contemporary surgical management of non-medullary thyroid malignancy. Mo Med; 2008 May-Jun;105(3):250-6
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  • [Title] Contemporary surgical management of non-medullary thyroid malignancy.
  • This article reviews the clinical features of well differentiated thyroid cancer and examines various tools used in the evaluation of patients, in both the primary and the recurrent settings.
  • Contemporary treatment strategies, with an emphasis placed on surgical treatment are revisited.
  • Non-surgical modalities, including the use of radioactive iodine, external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Radiotherapy, Conformal. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18630306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-6620
  • [Journal-full-title] Missouri medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mo Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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94. Karam AR, Semaan RJ, Buch K, Shankar S: Extramedullary duodenal plasmacytoma presenting with gastric outlet obstruction and painless jaundice. J Radiol Case Rep; 2010;4(8):22-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma are predominantly confined to the medullary space of the skeletal system, therefore the disease course will be dominated by signs and symptoms related to bone marrow infiltration and destructive bone lesions with their consequences as well as abnormal protein production.
  • Diagnosis was first suggested on imaging, and proved by endoscopic biopsy.
  • The duodenal mass resolved following chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 22470749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3303390
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Multiple myeloma / duodenal plasmacytoma / extramedullary multiple myeloma / gastric outlet obstruction / gastrointestinal involvement / painless jaundice
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95. Bible KC, Suman VJ, Molina JR, Smallridge RC, Maples WJ, Menefee ME, Rubin J, Sideras K, Morris JC 3rd, McIver B, Burton JK, Webster KP, Bieber C, Traynor AM, Flynn PJ, Goh BC, Tang H, Ivy SP, Erlichman C, Endocrine Malignancies Disease Oriented Group, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Mayo Phase 2 Consortium: Efficacy of pazopanib in progressive, radioiodine-refractory, metastatic differentiated thyroid cancers: results of a phase 2 consortium study. Lancet Oncol; 2010 Oct;11(10):962-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy has historically proven ineffective in advanced differentiated thyroid cancers, but the realisation that various tyrosine kinases are activated in the disease suggested a potential therapeutic role for tyrosine-kinase inhibitors.
  • Each patient received 800 mg continuous pazopanib daily in 4-week cycles until disease progression, drug intolerance, or both occurred.
  • Up to two previous therapies were allowed, and measurable disease with radiographic progression in the 6-month period before enrolment was a requirement for inclusion.
  • The primary endpoint was any tumour response, according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.0.
  • One patient had received no previous radioiodine therapy and another withdrew consent before treatment.
  • Two patients who died during treatment had pre-existing contributory disorders.
  • INTERPRETATION: Pazopanib seems to represent a promising therapeutic option for patients with advanced differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • The correlation of the patient's response and pazopanib concentration during the first cycle might indicate that treatment can be individualised to achieve optimum outcomes.
  • Assessment of pazopanib in an expanded cohort of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, as well as in cohorts of patients with medullary and anaplastic thyroid cancers, is presently being done.
  • FUNDING: National Cancer Institute, supported in part by NCI CA15083 and CM62205.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Sulfonamides / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiography. Time Factors. Treatment Failure. United States. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • [CommentIn] Lancet Oncol. 2010 Oct;11(10):912-3 [20851683.001]
  • (PMID = 20851682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00625846
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CM62205; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA015083-33; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA015083-36; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA015083-37; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / CM62205; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA015083-32; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA015083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA015083-35; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / NCI CA15083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA015083-34; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA015083
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Sulfonamides; 7RN5DR86CK / pazopanib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS291776; NLM/ PMC3107731
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96. Fialkowski EA, Moley JF: Current approaches to medullary thyroid carcinoma, sporadic and familial. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Dec 15;94(8):737-47
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  • [Title] Current approaches to medullary thyroid carcinoma, sporadic and familial.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare malignancy of the thyroid C cells.
  • It occurs in hereditary (25% of cases) and sporadic forms, and aggressiveness is related to the clinical presentation (hereditary vs. sporadic) and the type of RET mutation present.
  • In hereditary cases, early diagnosis makes preventative surgery possible.
  • In established cases, thorough surgical extirpation of the primary tumor and nodal metastases has been the mainstay of treatment.
  • Radioactive iodine, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), and conventional chemotherapy have not been effective.
  • Newer systemic treatments, with agents that target abnormal RET proteins, hold promise and are being tested in clinical trials for patients with metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Genotype. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / genetics. Mutation. Neck Dissection. Phenotype. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17131404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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97. Vekaria RM, Shirley DG, Sévigny J, Unwin RJ: Immunolocalization of ectonucleotidases along the rat nephron. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol; 2006 Feb;290(2):F550-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Evidence is accumulating that extracellular nucleotides act as autocrine/paracrine agents in most tissues, including the kidneys.
  • Cryostat sections of cortical and medullary regions were incubated with antibodies specific to the following enzymes: ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) 1, NTPDase2, NTPDase3, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 3 (NPP3), and ecto-5'-nucleotidase.
  • Sections were then costained with Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (for identification of proximal tubules) and antibodies against Tamm-Horsfall protein (for identification of thick ascending limb), calbindin-D(28k) (for identification of distal tubule), and aquaporin-2 (for identification of collecting duct).
  • The proximal tubule showed prominent expression of NPP3 and ecto-5'-nucleotidase in most, but not all, segments.
  • NTPDase2 and NTPDase3, but not NPP3 or ecto-5'-nucleotidase, were expressed in the thick ascending limb and distal tubule.
  • NTPDase3, with some low-level expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase, was also found in cortical and outer medullary collecting ducts.
  • Inner medullary collecting ducts displayed low-level staining for NTPDase1, NTPDase2, NTPDase3, and ecto-5'-nucleotidase.

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  • (PMID = 16189292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-857X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / 49460; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / 49460
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; EC 3.1.3.5 / 5'-Nucleotidase; EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / Pyrophosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / ectoATPase; EC 3.6.1.- / nucleoside-triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3; EC 3.6.1.- / nucleotide pyrophosphatase - phosphodiesterase I; EC 3.6.1.5 / Apyrase; EC 3.6.1.5 / CD39 antigen
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98. Chatal JF, Campion L, Kraeber-Bodéré F, Bardet S, Vuillez JP, Charbonnel B, Rohmer V, Chang CH, Sharkey RM, Goldenberg DM, Barbet J, French Endocrine Tumor Group: Survival improvement in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma who undergo pretargeted anti-carcinoembryonic-antigen radioimmunotherapy: a collaborative study with the French Endocrine Tumor Group. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Apr 10;24(11):1705-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival improvement in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma who undergo pretargeted anti-carcinoembryonic-antigen radioimmunotherapy: a collaborative study with the French Endocrine Tumor Group.
  • PURPOSE: No effective therapy is currently available for the management of patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with advanced, progressive MTC, as documented by short serum calcitonin doubling times (Ct DTs), received an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)/anti-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) -indium BsMAb, followed 4 days later by a 131I-labeled bivalent hapten.
  • RESULTS: OS was significantly longer in high-risk, treated patients (Ct DT < 2 years) than in high-risk, untreated patients (median OS, 110 v 61 months; P < .030).
  • Toxicity was mainly hematologic and related to bone/bone-marrow tumor spread.
  • Ct DT and bone-marrow involvement appear to be prognostic indicators in MTC patients who undergo pRAIT.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Humans. Indium / therapeutic use. Pentetic Acid. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jul 10;24(20):e37; author reply e38 [16829644.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2006 Apr 10;24(11):1653-5 [16549818.001]
  • (PMID = 16549819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 045A6V3VFX / Indium; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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99. Germing U, Strupp C, Kuendgen A, Aivado M, Giagounidis A, Hildebrandt B, Aul C, Haas R, Gattermann N: Refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB): analysis of reclassification according to the WHO proposals. Br J Haematol; 2006 Jan;132(2):162-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The French-American-British (FAB) classification assigns patients with myelodysplastic syndromes to the category of refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) if they have a medullary blast count of 5-20%, and/or a peripheral blast count of 2-5%.
  • The new World Health Organization (WHO) classification subdivides RAEB into RAEB I with a medullary blast count < or =10% and a peripheral blast count < or =5% and RAEB II with >10% medullary and/or >5% peripheral blasts.
  • Patients with Auer rods, regardless of their medullary and peripheral blast count, had no worse prognosis.
  • The survival data support the WHO reclassification of RAEB based on peripheral and medullary blast counts and Auer rods.
  • The WHO classification is useful for diagnosis and provides risk stratification, supported by cytogenetic data for clinical decision making, identifying those RAEB patients with an unfavourable prognosis who should be offered chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation.

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  • [ErratumIn] Br J Haematol. 2006 Jul;134(2):247
  • (PMID = 16398650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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100. Valles P, Wysocki J, Batlle D: Angiotensin II and renal tubular ion transport. ScientificWorldJournal; 2005 Aug 29;5:680-90
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  • [Title] Angiotensin II and renal tubular ion transport.
  • Angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, also participates in the regulation of renal sodium and water excretion, not only via a myriad of effects on renal hemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate, and regulation of aldosterone secretion, but also via direct effects on renal tubule transport.
  • In addition, angiotensin II stimulates H+ secretion and HCO3- reabsorption in both proximal and distal tubules and regulates H+-ATPase activity in intercalated cells of the collecting tubule.
  • Different results regarding the effect of angiotensin II on bicarbonate reabsorption and proton secretion have been reported at the functional level, depending on the angiotensin II concentration and tubule segment studied.
  • In proximal tubules, stimulation of bicarbonate reabsorption, Na+/H+-exchange, and Na+/HCO3- cotransport has been found using low concentrations (<10(-9) M), while inhibition of bicarbonate reabsorption has been documented using concentrations higher than 10(-8) M.
  • Recently, we have shown that both aldosterone and angiotensin II provide such a mechanism of regulation in vivo at the level of the medullary collecting tubule.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiotensin II / physiology. Ions / metabolism. Kidney Tubules / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16142301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] TheScientificWorldJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ScientificWorldJournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bicarbonates; 0 / Ions; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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