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1. Hoelzer D, Gökbuget N, Digel W, Faak T, Kneba M, Reutzel R, Romejko-Jarosinska J, Zwolinski J, Walewski J: Outcome of adult patients with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma treated according to protocols for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood; 2002 Jun 15;99(12):4379-85
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  • [Title] Outcome of adult patients with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma treated according to protocols for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • We treated 45 adult patients with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) (age range 15-61 years) with 2 protocols designed for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • In our study, an 8-drug standard induction was administered over 8 weeks including prophylactic cranial (24 Gy) and mediastinal irradiation (24 Gy) followed by consolidation and reinduction therapy.
  • At diagnosis, 91% of the 45 patients showed a mediastinal tumor and 40% had pleural/pericardial effusions; 73% of the patients had stage III/IV disease.
  • The majority of relapses (47%) occurred in the mediastinum (n = 7) despite mediastinal irradiation with 24 Gy in 6 out of 7 patients.
  • This study demonstrates in a large cohort of patients with adult T-LBL that a high CR rate and a favorable outcome can be achieved with an ALL-type regimen.
  • Mediastinal recurrence was the major obstacle and further improvement by intensification of chemotherapy, increased dose of mediastinal irradiation (36 Gy), and extended indications for stem cell transplantation seem to be required.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cranial Irradiation. Female. Humans. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / mortality. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Middle Aged. Pleural Neoplasms / mortality. Pleural Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pleural Neoplasms / therapy. Radiation Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Recurrence. Remission Induction / methods. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12036865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Aljurf M, Zaidi SZ: Chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma: current status and controversies. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2005 Oct;11(10):739-54
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma: current status and controversies.
  • Adult T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma is a relatively rare aggressive type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with frequent involvement of extranodal sites.
  • Because of the rarity of this malignancy, it is treated variably and often suboptimally, using approaches similar to those used for other types of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas, with the consequence that outcome is often suboptimal.
  • The collective experience in the management of adult T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma suggests a good outcome for patients with no adverse prognostic factors who are treated with an acute lymphocytic leukemia-like treatment strategy.
  • Patients with adverse prognostic features should be considered for more aggressive therapy-specifically, high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
  • This article will attempt to review the current status of chemotherapy treatment programs and the relative merits of the different hematopoietic stem cell transplantation programs in this disease, particularly in relation to the pathologic and clinical features that correlate with disease prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Graft vs Tumor Effect. Humans. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16182175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-8791
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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3. Hunault M, Truchan-Graczyk M, Caillot D, Harousseau JL, Bologna S, Himberlin C, Guyotat D, Berthou C, Casassus P, Baranger L, Béné MC, Ifrah N, Gyan E, GOELAMS Group: Outcome of adult T-lymphoblastic lymphoma after acute lymphoblastic leukemia-type treatment: a GOELAMS trial. Haematologica; 2007 Dec;92(12):1623-30
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  • [Title] Outcome of adult T-lymphoblastic lymphoma after acute lymphoblastic leukemia-type treatment: a GOELAMS trial.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: T-lymphoblastic lymphoma is an infrequent disease usually treated as T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia with an induction chemotherapy course and sequential reinduction and maintenance chemotherapy.
  • The T-LBL/ALL-GOELAL02 study evaluated the impact of randomized reinduction chemotherapy against intensified conditioning followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), after an induction regimen of the type used for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with favorable characteristics were randomized to receive chemotherapy or ASCT.
  • Within the group of 27 patients with favorable characteristics, ten received ASCT and 17 chemotherapy.
  • INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Randomized maintenance or high-dose therapy (HDT) and ASCT or intensified HDT according to initial presentation gave similar overall and relapse-free survival rates.
  • However, HDT allowed sparing of mediastinal irradiation and shortened treatment duration.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 18055985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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4. Attarbaschi A, Mann G, Dworzak M, Wiesbauer P, Schrappe M, Gadner H: Mediastinal mass in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: significance and therapy response. Med Pediatr Oncol; 2002 Dec;39(6):558-65
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  • [Title] Mediastinal mass in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: significance and therapy response.
  • BACKGROUND: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) accounts for approximately 10-13% of childhood ALL cases.
  • Within the last 10 years, the previously dismal prognosis of this ALL subtype has been improved by intensified chemotherapy.
  • However, 30-40% of patients still relapse, so that additional prognostic factors such as the local response of the mediastinal mass to therapy might allow defining the patients at risk in a better manner.
  • PROCEDURE: A retrospective analysis of 116 Austrian patients with T-ALL was performed to assess whether an initial mediastinal mass (70/116) and its response to chemotherapy as measured by thoracic X-rays (32/70) might predict outcome.
  • RESULTS: Neither patients with a mediastinal tumor at the time of diagnosis nor patients with an incomplete response on day 35 or 70 of therapy had a worse prognosis, as compared with the group of patients with no initial tumor and complete regression on day 35 and 70.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We failed to show that in children with T-ALL residual mediastinal tumors are of prognostic relevance.
  • This might suggest that incomplete local response is not necessarily an indication for treatment intensification such as local irradiation, second-look operation, or high-dose chemotherapy with bone marrow rescue.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12376978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Thomas DA, O'Brien S, Cortes J, Giles FJ, Faderl S, Verstovsek S, Ferrajoli A, Koller C, Beran M, Pierce S, Ha CS, Cabanillas F, Keating MJ, Kantarjian H: Outcome with the hyper-CVAD regimens in lymphoblastic lymphoma. Blood; 2004 Sep 15;104(6):1624-30
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  • [Title] Outcome with the hyper-CVAD regimens in lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • Therapy of lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL) has evolved with use of chemotherapy regimens modeled after those for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).
  • We treated 33 patients with LL with the intensive chemotherapy regimens hyper-CVAD (fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, Adriamycin, and dexamethasone) or modified hyper-CVAD used for ALL at our institution.
  • Induction consolidation was administered with 8 or 9 alternating cycles of chemotherapy over 5 to 6 months with intrathecal chemotherapy prophylaxis, followed by maintenance therapy.
  • Consolidative radiation therapy was given to patients with mediastinal disease at presentation.
  • No consolidation with autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation was performed.
  • At diagnosis, 80% were T-cell immunophenotype, 70% were stages III to IV, 70% had mediastinal involvement, and 9% had central nervous system (CNS) disease.
  • Estimates for the patients with known T-cell immunophenotype were 62% and 67%, respectively.
  • Other modifications of the program could include incorporation of monoclonal antibodies and/or nucleoside analogs, particularly for slow responders or those with residual mediastinal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15178574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; CVAD protocol
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6. Park SR, Kim JH, Kim DY, Lee S, Lee SY, Choi IS, Yoon SS, Park S, Kim BG, Kim NK: Treatment outcome of adult acute lymphocytic leukemia with VPD(L) regimen: analysis of prognostic factors. Korean J Intern Med; 2003 Mar;18(1):21-8
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  • [Title] Treatment outcome of adult acute lymphocytic leukemia with VPD(L) regimen: analysis of prognostic factors.
  • BACKGROUND: Because of the relative paucity of data regarding the clinical outcome in adult patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in Korea, we analyzed clinical courses in adult ALL patients treated with VPD (L) regimen (vincristine, prednisolone, daunorubicin, L-asparaginase) at the Seoul National University Hospital, and evaluated prognostic factors influencing the outcome.
  • Induction chemotherapy consisted of VPD with (46 cases) or without L-asparaginase (7 cases).
  • After complete remission (CR), consolidation therapy, CNS prophylaxis and maintenance chemotherapy were administered.
  • With a median follow-up time of 27.2 months (range 12.9-83.0 months) in living patients, the median overall survival (OS) for all cases was 16.7 months (13.4-20.1 months, 95% C.I.) and the estimated 4-year OS rate was 25.4% +/- 8.9%.
  • Poor prognostic factors for OS were Ph chromosome (p = 0.005) and T-cell immunophenotype (p = 0.03).
  • For RFS they were Ph chromosome (p = 0.01) and the presence of a mediastinal mass (p = 0.03).
  • CONCLUSION: Despite an initial excellent response to the VPD (L) regimen, newer therapeutic strategies, including more intensive postremission therapies, are urgently needed because of the high relapse rate.
  • Future therapeutic approaches need to be stratified according to several prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Probability. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12760264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; VPD protocol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4531597
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7. Giebel S, Krawczyk-Kuliś M, Adamczyk-Cioch M, Czyz A, Lech-Marańda E, Piatkowska-Jakubas B, Paluszewska M, Pałynyczko G, Piszcz J, Hołowiecki J, Polish Adult Leukemia Group: Prophylaxis and therapy of central nervous system involvement in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: recommendations of the Polish Adult Leukemia Group. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2008 Jun;118(6):356-61
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  • [Title] Prophylaxis and therapy of central nervous system involvement in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: recommendations of the Polish Adult Leukemia Group.
  • The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most frequent extramedullary locations of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), affecting approximately 5% of patients at diagnosis.
  • T-lineage ALL, high initial leukocyte counts and mediastinal involvement are the predisposing factors.
  • The treatment comprises intrathecal cytostatics, cranial and spinal cord irradiation, as well as systemic chemotherapy including agents penetrating to the CNS.
  • Compliance to the prophylactic protocols should be one of the principles in the treatment of adult ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / prevention & control. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 18619191.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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8. Hoelzer D, Gökbuget N: T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a separate entity? Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2009;9 Suppl 3:S214-21
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  • [Title] T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a separate entity?
  • T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) are considered the same disease, differing by the extent of bone marrow infiltration.
  • Immunophenotypes of T-LBL and T-ALL are identical but differ in frequency, with a higher rate of cortical or mature immunophenotypes in T-LBL, which is probably related to the higher rate (> 90%) of mediastinal tumors.
  • Treatment approaches in T-LBL changed from conventional non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) protocols to intensive NHL protocols but recently to ALL-designed protocols.
  • Mediastinal tumors resolve in most cases of T-ALL with chemotherapy only, whereas in T-LBL additional mediastinal irradiation seems to be beneficial.
  • Strategies for stem cell transplantation (SCT) in T-LBL and T-ALL differ.
  • Autologous SCT in complete remission (CR) in T-LBL gives a 70% survival rate, which is similar to chemotherapy alone.
  • In T-ALL, the subtypes of early and mature T-ALL have a poor outcome with chemotherapy alone (< 30%) and might profit from an allogeneic transplantation in first CR (OS > 50%).
  • MRD may guide further treatment strategies in T-ALL and probably also in T-LBL as indications for a SCT or for the evaluation of novel, particularly T-cell-specific, drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19778844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0712
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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9. Lyman MD, Neuhauser TS: Precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma involving the uterine cervix, myometrium, endometrium, and appendix. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2002 Apr;6(2):125-8
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  • [Title] Precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma involving the uterine cervix, myometrium, endometrium, and appendix.
  • This report presents a case of precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) involving the uterine cervix, myometrium, endometrium, and appendix.
  • The patient was a 38-year-old woman with a history of ALL who had been in remission for 4 years following chemotherapy.
  • The patient was again treated with chemotherapy but her disease did not respond.
  • Precursor T-cell ALL most commonly presents as a mediastinal mass in adolescent males.
  • This case shows some of the varied manifestations of precursor T-cell ALL and highlights the necessity of considering the female reproductive tract as a possible location of relapsing disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendix / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12004362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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10. Onciu M, Lai R, Vega F, Bueso-Ramos C, Medeiros LJ: Precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults: age-related immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular subsets. Am J Clin Pathol; 2002 Feb;117(2):252-8
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  • [Title] Precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults: age-related immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular subsets.
  • We analyzed the clinicopathologic and molecular findings in 26 adults (age 16-72 years) with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and observed features that correlated with age.
  • Patients older than 60 years (n = 5) had a low frequency of hepatosplenomegaly (0 [0%]), anterior mediastinal mass (1 [20%]), and lymphadenopathy (2 [40%]), and completely responded to chemotherapy (4 of 4).
  • The T-ALL in this group commonly expressed myeloid antigens (4 [80%]), had lineage-inappropriate gene rearrangements (2/3 [67%]) and chromosome 2 deletion (3/4 [75%]), and exclusively used the V(III) or V(IV) families of the T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma gene.
  • In comparison, patients 16 to 60 years old (n = 21) more commonly had an anterior mediastinal mass (8 [38%]), hepatosplenomegaly (10 [48%]), and lymphadenopathy (16 [76%]).
  • These results illustrate considerable age-related heterogeneity in adult T-ALL, which may reflect differences in tumor cell maturation.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Stem Cells / immunology. Stem Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD13 / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Bone Marrow / pathology. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2. Cytogenetic Analysis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte / genetics. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / biosynthesis. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / genetics. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11863221.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; EC 3.4.11.2 / Antigens, CD13
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11. Sweetenham JW: Lymphoblastic lymphoma in adults. Curr Hematol Malig Rep; 2006 Dec;1(4):241-7
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  • [Title] Lymphoblastic lymphoma in adults.
  • Understanding of the pathogenesis and biology of precursor T-cell and B-cell neoplasms has advanced significantly with the description of gene expression profiling studies, especially in T-cell disease.
  • Optimal treatment strategies for adult lymphoblastic lymphoma are uncertain, although current evidence supports the use of regimens similar to those used in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with intensive induction therapy, central nervous system prophylaxis, and prolonged consolidation maintenance therapy.
  • Current studies do not demonstrate a benefit from stem cell transplantation in first remission, although this approach is probably beneficial in relapsed disease.
  • Identification of new therapeutic targets by further molecular studies is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Rearrangement. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Multicenter Studies as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. T-Lymphocytes / pathology. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20425319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-822X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current hematologic malignancy reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Hematol Malig Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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12. Felice MS, Zubizarreta PA, Alfaro EM, Sackmann-Muriel F: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: prognostic value of initial peripheral blast count in good responders to prednisone. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Oct;23(7):411-5
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  • [Title] Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: prognostic value of initial peripheral blast count in good responders to prednisone.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the value of initial peripheral blast count in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and prednisone good response (PGR).
  • The authors compared the clinical and laboratory characteristics of these subgroups at diagnosis and outcome and detected significant differences in white cell count, incidence of T immunophenotype, and presence of mediastinal or spleen enlargement.
  • However, there were no differences in response to induction treatment, death in complete remission, relapses, or event-free survival probability.
  • The PGR group with an initial blast count of at least 1,000/microL had significantly higher white cell counts.
  • T markers, and mediastinal or spleen enlargement at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blast Crisis / blood. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Leukocyte Count. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11878573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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13. Thomas DA, Cortes J, O'Brien SM, Giles F, Faderl S, Verstovsek S, Ferrajoli A, Beran M, Cabanillas F, Kantarjian H: Favorable outcome with hyper-CVAD in lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL). J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):6597

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  • [Title] Favorable outcome with hyper-CVAD in lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL).
  • : 6597 Background: Outcome with LL has improved with use of more intensive chemotherapy regimens designed for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • Mediastinal irradiation (XRT) was planned for bulky mediastinal disease.
  • 70% had mediastinal disease and 30% had pericardial and/or pleural effusions.
  • T-cell immunophenotype was present in 80%.
  • XRT was given to 74% with mediastinal disease.
  • Overall complete remission (CR) rate was 91% (rest with mediastinal disease not qualifying for CR).
  • Incorporation of newer agents such as Campath and nelarabine could be considered for slow responders or those with residual mediastinal disease.

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  • (PMID = 28016219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Jabbour E, Koscielny S, Sebban C, Peslin N, Patte C, Gargi T, Biron P, Fermé C, Bourhis JH, Vantelon JM, Arnaud P, Ribrag V: High survival rate with the LMT-89 regimen in lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL), but not in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Leukemia; 2006 May;20(5):814-9
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  • [Title] High survival rate with the LMT-89 regimen in lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL), but not in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL).
  • The most appropriate treatment for lymphoblastic lymphomas (LL) remains uncertain.
  • Mediastinal enlargement was present in 25/27 patients, with pleural effusion in 12.
  • Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 20/27 patients, unconfirmed complete remission in three patients (residual mediastinal lesion on computed tomography scan) and four failed induction therapy (ORR: 85%).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Marrow / pathology. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16511514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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15. Oudot C, Auclerc MF, Levy V, Porcher R, Piguet C, Perel Y, Gandemer V, Debre M, Vermylen C, Pautard B, Berger C, Schmitt C, Leblanc T, Cayuela JM, Socie G, Michel G, Leverger G, Baruchel A: Prognostic factors for leukemic induction failure in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and outcome after salvage therapy: the FRALLE 93 study. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Mar 20;26(9):1496-503
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors for leukemic induction failure in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and outcome after salvage therapy: the FRALLE 93 study.
  • PURPOSE: To identify prognostic factors and to evaluate the outcome of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) failure after induction therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between June 1993 and December 1999, 1,395 leukemic children were included in the French Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 93 study.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-three patients (3.8%) had a leukemic induction failure (LIF) after three- or four-drug induction therapy.
  • In univariate analysis, high WBC count (P = .001), mediastinal mass (P = .017), T-cell phenotype (T-ALL; P = .001), t(9;22) translocation (P = .001), and a slow early response (at day 8 and/or on day 21, P = .001) were predictive of LIF.
  • The following three prognostic groups for LIF were identified by multivariate analysis: a low-risk group with B-cell progenitor (BCP) ALL without t(9;22) (odds ratio [OR] = 1), an intermediate-risk group with T-ALL and a mediastinal mass (OR = 7.4, P < .0001), and a high-risk group with BCP-ALL and t(9;22) or T-ALL without a mediastinal mass (OR = 28.4, P < .0001).
  • The 5-year OS rate among allogeneic graft recipients, autologous graft recipients, and after chemotherapy were 30.4% +/- 9.6% (50% +/- 26% after genoidentical transplantation), 50% +/- 17.7%, and 41.7% +/- 14.2%, respectively (P = .18).
  • Approximately one third of patients with LIF can be successfully treated with salvage therapy overall.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Analysis of Variance. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. France. Humans. Infant. Logistic Models. Male. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18349402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Bubała H, Sońta-Jakimczyk D, Szczepańska M, Szprynger K: [Tumor lysis syndrome in the course of acute lymphoblastic leukemia as the consequence of prednisone monotherapy]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2003 Aug;15(86):182-4
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  • [Title] [Tumor lysis syndrome in the course of acute lymphoblastic leukemia as the consequence of prednisone monotherapy].
  • Authors present the case of 15-year-old girl with diagnosed pre T-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with hyperleukocytosis--at admission 213 x 10(9)/l.
  • At clinical evaluation a major peripheral and abdominal lymphadenopathy, mediastinal mass, hepatosplenomegaly were revealed.
  • After administration of prednisone for two times--11.4 mg/m2/24 h--the features of tumour lysis syndrome rapidly increased.
  • Hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia and hyperuricemia resulted in acute renal failure.
  • Renal replacement therapy was introduced with simultaneous application of cytoreduction phase therapy and induction of remission according to New York protocol.
  • Obtained haematological remission in 8th week of treatment is still present.
  • Remission supportive treatment has been continued according to above-mentioned protocol.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Prednisolone / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 14648989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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17. Cho Y, Suzuki S, Yokoi M, Shimada M, Kuwabara S, Murayama A: Lateral position prevents respiratory occlusion during surgical procedure under general anesthesia in the patient of huge anterior mediastinal lymphoblastic lymphoma. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2004 Oct;52(10):476-9
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  • [Title] Lateral position prevents respiratory occlusion during surgical procedure under general anesthesia in the patient of huge anterior mediastinal lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • Lymphoblastic lymphoma, an aggressive mediastinal mass, is recognized as serious threat to the patient in developing cardiac tamponade or airway obstruction.
  • Surgical procedure is often required to relieve clinical emergency and to establish prompt pathological diagnosis.
  • However, in such a patient, acute respiratory occlusion in the spine position can be a life-threatening complication during general anesthesia.
  • Pathological diagnosis was precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • There were no complications attributable to the operative procedure.
  • Further chemotherapy reduced the mediastinal mass in size after two weeks when the patient developed sepsis and died.
  • Lateral position prevents respiratory occlusion during surgical procedure under general anesthesia in the patient of huge anterior mediastinal tumor with airway obstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Airway Obstruction / prevention & control. Anesthesia, General. Cardiac Tamponade / surgery. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Posture. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Intubation, Intratracheal. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15552973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1344-4964
  • [Journal-full-title] The Japanese journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official publication of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery = Nihon Kyobu Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Hoelzer D, Gökbuget N: Treatment of lymphoblastic lymphoma in adults. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol; 2002 Dec;15(4):713-28
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  • [Title] Treatment of lymphoblastic lymphoma in adults.
  • Lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with biological features similar to those of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  • In the majority of cases LBL shows a T-cell phenotype, and mediastinal tumours are the most frequent manifestation.
  • Outcomes of LBL patients treated according to NHL or ALL-type regimens are reviewed.
  • Since prophylaxis of CNS relapse and local recurrence emerged as important issues in the treatment of LBL the different options are discussed.
  • Several studies have used autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the primary treatment of LBL and results are reviewed.
  • The analysis of published prognostic factors and models in LBL demonstrates that, at present, no convincing risk model is available for LBL treated according to contemporary intensive chemotherapy protocols.
  • Future prospects for improvement of treatment results in LBL include intensification of chemotherapy, definition of prognostic factors, evaluation of minimal residual disease and SCT in high-risk patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12617872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6926
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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19. Kaleem Z, Shuster JJ, Carroll AJ, Borowitz MJ, Pullen DJ, Camitta BM, Zutter MM, Watson MS: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia with an unusual t(8;14)(q11.2;q32): a Pediatric Oncology Group Study. Leukemia; 2000 Feb;14(2):238-40
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  • [Title] Acute lymphoblastic leukemia with an unusual t(8;14)(q11.2;q32): a Pediatric Oncology Group Study.
  • We present the clinicopathologic findings and survival data on 10 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and a rare t(8;14)(q11.2;q32).
  • Eight (80%) patients had a white blood cell (WBC) count <50 x 109/l at presentation.
  • No patient had central nervous system involvement or a mediastinal mass.
  • All eight cases where immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry showed a B-precursor phenotype with expression of CD10 (CALLA).
  • All patients achieved complete remission and seven patients were in complete continuous remission (CCR) after chemotherapy designed for B-precursor ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • [CommentIn] Leukemia. 2001 Aug;15(8):1304-5 [11480576.001]
  • (PMID = 10673739.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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20. Bonilla M, Moreno N, Marina N, deReyes G, Shurtleff SA, Downing JR, Behm FG, Harrison PL, Ribeiro RC, Peña O, Crist WM, Antillon FG: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a developing country: preliminary results of a nonrandomized clinical trial in El Salvador. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Nov-Dec;22(6):495-501
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  • [Title] Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a developing country: preliminary results of a nonrandomized clinical trial in El Salvador.
  • PURPOSE: To improve outcome and study biology of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in El Salvador.
  • Therapy was based on a modified SJCRH protocol, with uniform remission induction (prednisone, vincristine, L-asparaginase) followed-up by consolidation with teniposide/cytarabine and/or high-dose methotrexate.
  • Continuation treatment was risk-stratified: 123 patients assigned to the high-risk group received weekly rotational drug pairs, and 16 assigned to the standard-risk group received daily 6-mercaptopurine, weekly methotrexate, and monthly pulses of vincristine plus dexamethasone.
  • High risk was defined as: DNA index < 1.16, age 12 months or younger, white blood cell count > or = 50 x 10(9)/L, T-cell immunophenotype, anterior mediastinal mass, central nervous system leukemia at diagnosis, or t(4;11), t(1;19), or t(9;22).
  • Duration of the continuation treatment was 2.5 years in both groups.
  • RESULTS: Immunophenotypes were early beta-progenitor in 79%, T-cell in 3.9%, and inconclusive in 17% of cases.
  • For the analyzes, patients who refused therapy (abandoned treatment) were considered to have treatment failure as of their last follow-up dates.
  • Complete remission was achieved in 126 of 151 (82.4%) patients (11 abandoned therapy during induction).
  • When patients who refused further treatment are censored, the corresponding 4-year estimates of EFS are 51 +/- 8% and 75 +/- 14%, respectively.
  • Risk-directed chemotherapy can successfully be used in developing countries, but risk factors must be carefully determined and applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Developing Countries. Disease-Free Survival. El Salvador. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. International Cooperation. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Survival Analysis. Teniposide / administration & dosage. Time Factors. United States. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [CommentIn] J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2000 Nov-Dec;22(6):490-1 [11132213.001]
  • (PMID = 11132215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 957E6438QA / Teniposide; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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21. Lin P, Jones D, Dorfman DM, Medeiros LJ: Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma: a predominantly extranodal tumor with low propensity for leukemic involvement. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 Nov;24(11):1480-90
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  • [Title] Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma: a predominantly extranodal tumor with low propensity for leukemic involvement.
  • Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) is uncommon and accounts for less than 10% of cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • Patients with concurrent precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) or a history thereof were excluded.
  • There was no evidence of bone marrow disease at the time of diagnosis in 23 patients; two patients had focal (<5%) involvement.
  • The treatment and survival data available for a subset of patients with B-LBL were compared with those from a series of patients with B-ALL at our institution.
  • The primary sites of disease were skin (nine cases), bones (five cases), soft tissue (four cases), lymph nodes, (three cases), breast (two cases), stomach and colon (one case), and mediastinum (one case).
  • All cases were positive for B-cell antigens and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase.
  • Of 14 patients with available survival data, all achieved complete clinical response after combination chemotherapy (13 patients) or surgical excision followed by local irradiation (one patient).
  • Five (35.7%) patients subsequently relapsed, including the patient who had received only irradiation, and four of these patients died after a median survival time of 60 months.
  • None of the patients had leukemia, although one patient developed extensive bone marrow involvement.
  • Unlike precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, which commonly involves lymph nodes and the mediastinum, B-LBL usually involves extranodal sites, most often the skin, and rarely presents as a mediastinal mass.
  • With aggressive chemotherapy, patients with precursor B-LBL rarely develop leukemia and appear to have a better prognosis than do patients with B-ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11075849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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22. Sun XF, Jiang WQ, Liu DG, Xia ZJ, Huang HQ, Zhang L, Li YH, Zhou ZM, Zhen ZJ, Xia Y, He YJ, Guan ZZ: [Efficacy of modified BFM-90 regimen on children and adolescents with T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma: a report of 20 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2004 Dec;23(12):1687-91
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  • [Title] [Efficacy of modified BFM-90 regimen on children and adolescents with T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma: a report of 20 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in childhood and adolescence is an aggressive malignant disease with higher mortality.
  • BFM-90 regimen for lymphoblastic lymphoma is one of the most effective regimens.
  • This study was designed to evaluate efficacy and toxicities of modified BFM-90 regimen on Chinese children and adolescents with lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • METHODS: A total of 20 naive children and adolescents with T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma were enrolled, 7 in stage III, and 13 in stage IV.
  • Eighteen (90%) patients suffered from mediastinal mass with superior vena obstruction syndrome,10(50%) suffered from marrow invasion.
  • All patients received modified BFM-90 regimen consisting of induction, consolidation and central nervous system prophylaxis, reinduced alleviation, and maintenance therapy.
  • Total treatment duration was 2 years.
  • Of 2 patients at CR1 received APBSC, 1 relapsed after transplantation, but achieved CR and survived after salvage chemotherapy;1 survived all along.
  • Of other patients achieved CR, 5 relapsed; of these 5 patients, 1 survived after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, 1 survived after autologous stem cell transplantation, 3 died of progressive disease after chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Modified BFM-90 regimen is feasible for Chinese children and adolescent patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma, and may improve survival rate of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / therapeutic use. Adolescent. Asparaginase / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Daunorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Stem Cell Transplantation. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15601561.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; AIEOP acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocol
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23. Le Gouill S, Lepretre S, Brière J, Morel P, Bouabdallah R, Raffoux E, Sebban C, Lepage E, Brice P: Adult lymphoblastic lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of 92 patients under 61 years included in the LNH87/93 trials. Leukemia; 2003 Nov;17(11):2220-4
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  • [Title] Adult lymphoblastic lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of 92 patients under 61 years included in the LNH87/93 trials.
  • Lymphoblastic lymphomas (LBL) were included in those studies until 1997, and 92 LBL patients under 61 years were identified after histological review.
  • A total of 23 patients underwent high-dose therapy consolidation followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation and 69 received standard chemotherapy regimens.
  • Clinical characteristics showed a male predominance (66%) with a median age of 31 years, bone marrow (BM) involvement (22%), mediastinal involvement (66%) and elevated LDH (62%).
  • At the end of treatment, it was seen that 71% of the patients achieved complete remission; four (4%) patients died during induction; 43 patients relapsed at a median time of 10 months.
  • These results are poorer than those obtained in other aggressive lymphomas treated with the same regimens and suggest that adult LBL patients should be treated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Marrow / pathology. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Selection. Predictive Value of Tests. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14576732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CEOP protocol 1
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24. Kamps WA, Veerman AJ, van Wering ER, van Weerden JF, Slater R, van der Does-van den Berg A: Long-term follow-up of Dutch Childhood Leukemia Study Group (DCLSG) protocols for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 1984-1991. Leukemia; 2000 Dec;14(12):2240-6
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  • [Title] Long-term follow-up of Dutch Childhood Leukemia Study Group (DCLSG) protocols for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 1984-1991.
  • Here we report the long-term results of the DCLSG protocols ALL-6 and -7 with special emphasis on the incidence of CNS relapse after treatment without cranial irradiation.
  • In DCLSG protocol ALL-6 (1984-1988), designed for patients with ALL non-high risk (ALL-NHR) (WBC <50 x 10(9)/l, no mediastinal mass, no B cell phenotype and no CNS involvement at diagnosis, comprising 71% of all ALL patients), CNS prophylaxis consisted of a combination of three methods of chemotherapeutic CNS prophylaxis (the use of dexamethasone during induction and maintenance therapy, i.v. medium dose methotrexate and prolonged administration of intrathecal triple therapy).
  • Total duration of treatment: 116 weeks.
  • Treatment duration was 18 months.
  • The EFS rate at 10 years of the 127/218 (58.3%) patients with standard risk non-T-lineage ALL according to the NCI risk criteria was 67.9 +/- 4.3%, which is not significantly different from the results achieved in this category of patients with the moderately intensive treatment according to protocol ALL-6 (logrank P = 0.17).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11187915.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
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25. Xu W, Li JY, Qian SX, Wu HX, Lu H, Chen LJ, Zhang SJ, Lu RL, Sheng RL: Outcome of treatment with Hyper-CVAD regimen in Chinese patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Leuk Res; 2008 Jun;32(6):930-5
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  • [Title] Outcome of treatment with Hyper-CVAD regimen in Chinese patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia.
  • Modern intensive chemotherapy regimens have improved the prognosis for adult patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).
  • However, patients with mediastinal disease had lower CR rates (P<0.05), with the presence of hepatomegaly and t(9;22) abnormalities had poor survival (P<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. China. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18061665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; CVAD protocol
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26. Veerman AJ, Kamps WA, van den Berg H, van den Berg E, Bökkerink JP, Bruin MC, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Korbijn CM, Korthof ET, van der Pal K, Stijnen T, van Weel Sipman MH, van Weerden JF, van Wering ER, van der Does-van den Berg A, Dutch Childhood Oncology Group: Dexamethasone-based therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results of the prospective Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) protocol ALL-9 (1997-2004). Lancet Oncol; 2009 Oct;10(10):957-66
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  • [Title] Dexamethasone-based therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results of the prospective Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) protocol ALL-9 (1997-2004).
  • BACKGROUND: A population-based cohort of children aged 1-18 years with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was treated with a dexamethasone-based protocol (Dutch Childhood Oncology Group [DCOG] ALL-9).
  • HR criteria were white-blood-cell count of 50,000 cells per microL or more, T-cell phenotype, mediastinal mass, CNS or testicular involvement, and Philadelphia chromosome or MLL rearrangement; patients who did not fulfil these criteria were deemed to be NHR.
  • The NHR group was treated with a three-drug induction (dexamethasone, vincristine, and asparaginase) for 6 weeks, medium-dose methotrexate for 3 weeks, then maintenance therapy.
  • HR patients received a four-drug induction (as for the NHR patients plus daunorubicin) for 6 weeks, high-dose methotrexate for 8 weeks, and two intensification courses before receiving maintenance therapy.
  • Triple intrathecal medication was given 13 times in NHR patients, 15 times in HR patients (17 times for patients with initial CNS involvement).
  • Maintenance therapy was given until 109 weeks for all patients and consisted of mercaptopurine and methotrexate for 5 weeks, alternated with dexamethasone and vincristine for 2 weeks.
  • 5-year event-free survival was 81% (SE 1%) in all patients: 84% (2%) in NHR patients, and 72% (3%) in HR patients.
  • In a multivariate analysis, DNA index was the strongest predictor of outcome (<1.16 vs >or=1.16; relative risk 0.42, 95% CI 0.22-0.78), followed by age (1-9 vs >or=10 years; 2.23, 1.60-3.11) and white-blood-cell count (<50,000 vs >or=50,000 cells per microL; 1.60, 1.13-2.26).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Netherlands. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet Oncol. 2009 Oct;10(10):932-3 [19747877.001]
  • (PMID = 19747876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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27. Rubio MT, Dhedin N, Boucheix C, Bourhis JH, Reman O, Boiron JM, Gallo JH, Lhéritier V, Thomas X, Fière D, Vernant JP: Adult T-biphenotypic acute leukaemia: clinical and biological features and outcome. Br J Haematol; 2003 Dec;123(5):842-9
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  • [Title] Adult T-biphenotypic acute leukaemia: clinical and biological features and outcome.
  • Biphenotypic acute leukaemia with T-lymphoid and myeloid markers is rare and poorly documented.
  • In the Leucemie Aigue Lymphoblastique de l'Adulte (LALA) prospective trial (LALA 94) of treatment for adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), seven patients (0.86%) had T-biphenotypic forms.
  • At diagnosis, all had a tumoural syndrome and five had a mediastinal mass.
  • Two patients (28%) entered complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy.
  • Four of the five remaining and assessable patients entered CR after designed salvage chemotherapy with mitoxantrone and high-dose cytosine arabinoside.
  • Three patients died, from treatment toxicity in two cases and progressive disease in one case.
  • Thus, biphenotypic T-acute leukaemia is clinically frequently associated with mediastinal involvement and the response to conventional chemotherapy used in ALL is poor.
  • However, sustained CR can be achieved by salvage chemotherapy combining an intercalating agent with high-dose cytosine arabinoside, as used in acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / immunology. Leukemia, T-Cell / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers / analysis. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytogenetic Analysis. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Immunophenotyping. Male. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Haematol. 2004 Apr;125(1):94 [15015979.001]
  • [CommentIn] Br J Haematol. 2004 Jun;125(6):814-5 [15180872.001]
  • (PMID = 14632775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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28. Sun XF, Zhen ZJ, Liu DG, Xia ZJ, Huang HQ, Zhang L, Zhou ZM, Li YH, Xia Y, Ling JY, Guan ZZ: [Modified BFM-90 regimen greatly improves treatment outcomes of chinese childhood and adolescent lymphoblastic lymphoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Jan;29(1):58-61
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  • [Title] [Modified BFM-90 regimen greatly improves treatment outcomes of chinese childhood and adolescent lymphoblastic lymphoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of modified BFM-90 regimen originated from Germany authors in the treatment of Chinese childhood and adolescent lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • METHODS: Thirty-six untreated lymphoblastic lymphoma patients aged from 3 to 18 years were included, with 1 patient in stage II , 9 in stage III and 26 in stage IV.
  • Of these 36 patients, 28 (77.7%) were diagnosed as T cell phenotype, 26 (72.
  • 2%) were found to have mediastinal mass, 21 (58.
  • All patients received chemotherapy of modified BFM-90 regimen consisting of induction remission, central nerve system prophylaxis, re-induction remission and maintenance therapy.
  • Total treatment duration was two years.
  • The difference from standard BFM-90 is that we omitted cranial radiotherapy but gave regular high dose methotrexate (MTX) iv infusion and intrathecal MTX therapy during maintenance therapy period.
  • Two patients received autologous stem cell transplantation at CR1, and two patients received radiotherapy to mediastinum.
  • Totally, 5 patients relapsed, while 2 of them were still alive after salvage chemotherapy.
  • Median follow-up time was 28 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Modified BFM-90 protocol can improve the efficacy and survival of Chinese childhood and adolescent lymphoblastic lymphoma with tolerable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / therapeutic use. Adolescent. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Asparaginase / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. China. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Daunorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17575697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; AIEOP acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocol
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29. Hon KL, Leung A, Chik KW, Chu CW, Cheung KL, Fok TF: Critical airway obstruction, superior vena cava syndrome, and spontaneous cardiac arrest in a child with acute leukemia. Pediatr Emerg Care; 2005 Dec;21(12):844-6
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  • [Title] Critical airway obstruction, superior vena cava syndrome, and spontaneous cardiac arrest in a child with acute leukemia.
  • We report the unusual presentation of a previously healthy girl with sudden cardiopulmonary arrest caused by acute lymphoblastic leukemia and mediastinal involvement leading to acute tracheal and airway obstruction.
  • Despite active resuscitation and mechanical ventilation, she developed severe cerebral edema as a result of cerebral asphyxia.
  • She also had facial edema caused by superior vena cava obstruction, a high peripheral white cell count with blast differentials, and renal failure.
  • Because of severe asphyxia leading to brain death and renal failure, chemotherapy was withheld.
  • Her white cell count spontaneously reverted to reference range without chemotherapy.
  • This report serves to alert clinicians of the oncological emergency of "superior mediastinal syndrome" causing airway and superior vena cava obstruction leading to death in this potentially curable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Airway Obstruction / etiology. Heart Arrest / etiology. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / diagnosis. Superior Vena Cava Syndrome / etiology


30. Hyakuna N, Toguchi S, Higa T, Okudaira T, Taira N, Masuda M, Kitoh T, Ohta T: Childhood blastic NK cell leukemia successfully treated with L-asparagenase and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2004 Jun;42(7):631-4
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  • [Title] Childhood blastic NK cell leukemia successfully treated with L-asparagenase and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
  • Blastic NK cell lymphoma/leukemia is a rare and highly malignant neoplasia in both adults and children.
  • It is characterized by lymphoblastoid morphology without cytoplasmic granules and immature NK cell immunophenotypes (CD56+, CD57-, CD16-).
  • It has predilection for extranodal organ involvement, and the prognosis of affected patients is extremely poor under the current chemotherapy.
  • We present a 14-year-old girl who was diagnosed as having blastic NK cell leukemia with mediastinal, pleural, and pericardial involvement.
  • T cell receptor (TCR) and Immunoglobulin heavy chain genes were not rearranged.
  • She received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia incorporating L-asparaginase (L-asp) which successfully induced complete remission.
  • Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from her HLA-identical sibling was conducted after two courses of consolidation therapy.
  • Induction and consolidation therapy incorporating L-asp followed by allo-BMT might be a promising treatment for child hood blastic NK cell leukemia, but more samples of the rare leukemia need to be studied before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.
  • [MeSH-major] Asparagine / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, Lymphoid / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15127419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7006-34-0 / Asparagine; EC 6.3.1.1 / Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase
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31. Kantarjian HM, O'Brien S, Smith TL, Cortes J, Giles FJ, Beran M, Pierce S, Huh Y, Andreeff M, Koller C, Ha CS, Keating MJ, Murphy S, Freireich EJ: Results of treatment with hyper-CVAD, a dose-intensive regimen, in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Feb;18(3):547-61
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  • [Title] Results of treatment with hyper-CVAD, a dose-intensive regimen, in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of Hyper-CVAD (fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone), a dose-intensive regimen, in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adults with newly diagnosed ALL referred since 1992 were entered onto the study; treatment was initiated in 204 patients between 1992 and January 1998.
  • Mature B-cell disease (Burkitt type) was present in 9%, T-cell disease in 17%.
  • Leukocytosis of more than 30 x 10(9)/L was found in 26%, Philadelphia chromosome-positive disease in 16% (20% of patients with assessable metaphases), CNS leukemia at the time of diagnosis in 7%, and a mediastinal mass in 7%.
  • Treatment consisted of four cycles of Hyper-CVAD alternating with four cycles of high-dose methotrexate (MTX) and cytarabine therapy, together with intrathecal CNS prophylaxis and supportive care with antibiotic prophylaxis and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy.
  • Maintenance in patients with nonmature B-cell ALL included 2 years of treatment with mercaptopurine, MTX, vincristine, and prednisone (POMP).
  • RESULTS: Overall, 185 patients (91%) achieved complete remission (CR) and 12 (6%) died during induction therapy.
  • Previous prognostic models remained predictive for outcome with Hyper-CVAD therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Hyper-CVAD therapy is superior to our previous regimens and should be compared with established regimens in adult ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Humans. Leukemia, T-Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia, T-Cell / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 10653870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; CVAD protocol; VAD protocol
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32. Konik A, Dührsen U, Röth A: Nodular lesions of the scalp and a mediastinal mass in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Int J Hematol; 2010 Jul;92(1):3-4
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  • [Title] Nodular lesions of the scalp and a mediastinal mass in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Remission Induction. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20559760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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