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1. Noun M, Ennachit M, Boufettal H, Elmouatacim K, Samouh N: [The ovarian immature teratoma with gliomatosis peritonei]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2007 Oct;36(6):595-601
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The ovarian immature teratoma with gliomatosis peritonei].
  • OBJECTIVE: We return a case of ovarian immature teratoma with peritoneal gliomatose at a woman aged of 20 years.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The diagnosis discovered following pelvic mass increasing volume and treaty by a one-sided annexectomy, with chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Ovarian immature teratoma is a malignant germ cell tumor and represents less than 1% of ovarian malignant tumors.
  • Tissues are derived from the three germ layers (endo-, meso- and ectoderm).
  • Gliomatosis peritonei is a rare situation, characterized by the recurrence of peritoneal implants after the surgical treatment of ovarian teratoma.
  • This entity does not modify the good prognosis of mature teratomas, but we recommend regular follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17537589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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2. Mathew GK, Singh SS, Swaminathan RG, Tenali SG: Laparotomy for post chemotherapy residue in ovarian germ cell tumors. J Postgrad Med; 2006 Oct-Dec;52(4):262-5
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  • [Title] Laparotomy for post chemotherapy residue in ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary conservative surgery and cisplatin-based chemotherapy have resulted in high cure rates in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • A significant proportion of advanced tumors may have post-chemotherapy residue and it is important to distinguish necrosis or fibrosis without viable tumor from persistent viable tumor and teratoma.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the role of laparotomy in assessing the nature of post-chemotherapy residue in ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-three patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors seen at Cancer Institute, Chennai between 1992 and 2002 were studied.
  • Sixty-eight patients completed combination chemotherapy with cisplatin regimes, of whom 35 had radiological residual masses.
  • RESULTS: On laparotomy, three patients had viable tumor, seven immature teratoma, three mature teratoma and 16 only necrosis or fibrosis.
  • None of our patients with dysgerminoma, embryonal carcinoma, absence of teratoma element in the primary tumor and radiological residue of < 5 cm had viable tumor whereas all patients with tumors containing teratoma component initially had residual tumor.
  • Absence of viable disease was higher in patients who had normalization of serum markers by two cycles of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that patients with absence of teratoma element initially, radiological residue of< 5 cm and normalization of serum markers after two cycles of chemotherapy do not require surgery to assess the nature of post-chemotherapy residue.
  • However, laparotomy should be performed in patients with tumors that initially contain teratoma element and in those with sluggish tumor marker response after two cycles of chemotherapy since they have a high chance of having viable post chemotherapy residue.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparotomy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Postgrad Med. 2006 Oct-Dec;52(4):246-7 [17191357.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Postgrad Med. 2006 Oct-Dec;52(4):245-6 [17191355.001]
  • (PMID = 17102543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3859
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of postgraduate medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Postgrad Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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3. Sengar AR, Kulkarni JN: Growing teratoma syndrome in a post laparoscopic excision of ovarian immature teratoma. J Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Jun;21(2):129-31

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  • [Title] Growing teratoma syndrome in a post laparoscopic excision of ovarian immature teratoma.
  • A 26-year-old girl was referred to us in December 2008 with progressive pelvic mass while on chemotherapy.
  • Since histology was immature teratoma grade I, FIGO stage 1 she was kept on surveillance.
  • In September 2008, she developed recurrent pelvic mass with AFP levels of 2,400 ng/mL.
  • Three courses of chemotherapy (bleomycin-etoposide-cisplatin) were given.
  • Post-chemotherapy AFP normalized but tumor size increased.
  • With provisional diagnosis of growing teratoma syndrome she had exploratory laparotomy with excision of pelvic mass along with sigmoid colon, excision of right pelvic and subcutaneous deposits, omentectomy and sigmoid anastomosis.
  • Histology of all masses showed mature teratoma, no immature elements.
  • Growing teratoma syndrome is a clinico-pathological presentation during/post-chemotherapy in malignant ovarian germ cell tumor where mature teratoma grows and requires complete surgical excision.
  • Our case highlights the safety and adequacy concerns of laparoscopic management of malignant ovarian tumor.
  • Literature review suggests good prospects of resumption of menses, child bearing and five year survival in case of growing teratoma syndrome.

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  • [Cites] Gynecol Oncol. 1992 Jul;46(1):111-4 [1634130.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Radiol. 1991 Jun;43(6):402-8 [2070582.001]
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  • (PMID = 20613905.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2895713
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chemotherapy / Growing teratoma syndrome / Immature teratoma / Laparoscopy / Malignant ovarian germ cell tumor / Salpingo-oophorectomy
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4. Schmidt D, Kommoss F: [Teratoma of the ovary. Clinical and pathological differences between mature and immature teratomas]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):203-8
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  • [Title] [Teratoma of the ovary. Clinical and pathological differences between mature and immature teratomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Teratome des Ovars. Klinisch-pathologische Unterschiede zwischen unreifen und reifen Teratomen.
  • Teratomas are the most frequent germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • Two main groups can be distinguished: mature and immature teratomas.
  • Mature teratomas are benign tumors, which are most often composed of derivatives of two or three germ cell layers.
  • Only in rare cases is the transition into a malignant tumor observed (most often squamous cell carcinoma).
  • In contrast, immature teratomas are malignant ovarian tumors.
  • They contain immature tissue elements in addition to the mature components, most often consisting of immature neural tissue.
  • The proportion of immature tissue elements defines the grade of immaturity.
  • Grade 0 represents a mature teratoma.
  • With the exception of childhood cases, grade 2 and 3 immature teratomas are treated with chemotherapy.
  • If a focus of YST is present, the patient is treated with chemotherapy.
  • Both in cases of mature and immature teratoma, peritoneal implants can be found (gliomatosis peritonei), which are also graded.
  • In cases of immature peritoneal implants, patients are also treated with chemotherapy.
  • Gliomatosis peritonei is most likely derived from metaplasia of subperitoneal stem cells; it does not represent a metastatic disease of the ovarian teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17396268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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5. Hackethal A, Brueggmann D, Bohlmann MK, Franke FE, Tinneberg HR, Münstedt K: Squamous-cell carcinoma in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: systematic review and analysis of published data. Lancet Oncol; 2008 Dec;9(12):1173-80
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  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: systematic review and analysis of published data.
  • Up to a quarter of ovarian masses originate from germ cells, and many of these are mature cystic teratomas.
  • The secondary development of malignancy is a rare but well-known phenomenon in patients with ovarian teratomas.
  • Squamous-cell carcinoma accounts for 80% of secondary malignant transformations of ovarian teratomas.
  • Squamous-cell carcinoma in mature cystic teratoma was mainly found in women aged more than 50 years, with high concentrations of squamous-cell-carcinoma antigen and cancer antigen CA125, and with ovarian tumours more than 100 mm in size.
  • Complete resection together with hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and lymphadenectomy for patients with advanced disease, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with an alkylating drug was associated with higher survival, radiotherapy was not.
  • We make proposals for investigation and treatment of this rare disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Ovarian Neoplasms. Teratoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Young Adult

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  • [ErratumIn] Lancet Oncol. 2009 May;10(5):446
  • (PMID = 19038764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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6. Li H, Hong W, Zhang R, Wu L, Liu L, Zhang W: Retrospective analysis of 67 consecutive cases of pure ovarian immature teratoma. Chin Med J (Engl); 2002 Oct;115(10):1496-500
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retrospective analysis of 67 consecutive cases of pure ovarian immature teratoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the development regularity, treatment methods and prognosis of ovary immature teratoma (POIT).
  • From the 1980s, this was followed by four-cycles of combination chemotherapy (VAC, PVB or BEP x 3 cycles) as post-operative adjuvant therapy.
  • Combined chemotherapy and multiple operations were performed for advanced and recurrent lesions.
  • The chief prognostic factors for this disease are clinical stage, pathological grade and adequate treatment.
  • It is characterized by the fact that recurrent tumors may be converted back to mature ones as time goes on.
  • With chemotherapy, these is a good opportunity to rescue those patients with recurrent tumors.
  • At present, treatment of POIT gives the most satisfactory results among all malignant ovarian germ cell tumor types.
  • Tests of serum specific tumor markers (CA19-9, AFP, CA125, CEA) performed preoperatively or before chemotherapy and during follow-up have been found helpful in the evaluation of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Teratoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 12490095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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7. Itani Y, Kawa M, Toyoda S, Yamagami K, Hiraoka K: Growing teratoma syndrome after chemotherapy for a mixed germ cell tumor of the ovary. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2002 Jun;28(3):166-71
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  • [Title] Growing teratoma syndrome after chemotherapy for a mixed germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • A retroperitoneal enlarging mass was detected and resected in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman after fertility-preserving surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for a malignant germ cell tumor (MGCT) of the right ovary.
  • This enlarging mass contained only a mature teratoma component.
  • Alpha-fetoprotein, which was elevated to 21236.6 ng/mL before the initial surgery, persisted within normal after the completion of adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • The patient was diagnosed with growing teratoma syndrome.
  • Growing teratoma syndrome originating from ovarian germ cell tumor is very rare.
  • Surgical resection and histological confirmation of growing mass after MGCT treatment is essential before conducting salvage chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Teratoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Syndrome. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 12214834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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8. Loy V, Klenk U, Linke J: [Regression of germ cell tumors after chemotherapy]. Pathologe; 2004 Nov;25(6):469-73
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  • [Title] [Regression of germ cell tumors after chemotherapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Regression von Keimzelltumoren nach Chemotherapie.
  • Today the treatment of gonadal germ cell tumors is standardized.
  • The cisplatin containing chemotherapy and the multi-modal therapy strategies have increased the rate of successful treatment enormously.
  • Germ cell tumors are almost always treated surgically.
  • Following the rare, primary chemotherapy, the residual tumor must be classified according to the WHO as accurately as possible.
  • The examination of the tissue samples from a retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy after chemotherapy is problematic.
  • Is there still vital tumor present then it can most often be diagnosed as a teratoma.
  • In that case a classification takes place as to whether it is "mature" or "immature".
  • If a tissue sample contains other differentiations, the classification is performed in detail according to the WHO classification of germ cell tumors.
  • Sarcomas or carcinomas must be reliably distinguished and classified, as they lead to different therapeutic consequences.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm, Residual

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  • (PMID = 15549315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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9. Nimkin K, Gupta P, McCauley R, Gilchrist BF, Lessin MS: The growing teratoma syndrome. Pediatr Radiol; 2004 Mar;34(3):259-62
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  • [Title] The growing teratoma syndrome.
  • Growing teratoma syndrome is defined as enlarging masses of mature teratoma following chemotherapy for malignant nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors.
  • We describe clinical and imaging findings in a case of growing teratoma syndrome originating from immature teratoma of the ovary in a 12-year-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14551755.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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10. Aygun B, Kimpo M, Lee T, Valderrama E, Leonidas J, Karayalcin G: An adolescent with ovarian osteosarcoma arising in a cystic teratoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 May;25(5):410-3
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  • [Title] An adolescent with ovarian osteosarcoma arising in a cystic teratoma.
  • A 14-year-old girl had an abdominal mass with the characteristics of an ovarian germ cell tumor on computed tomography scan.
  • The mass, arising from the left ovary, was completely resected and found to be osteosarcoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma.
  • Seven months after completion of chemotherapy, there were simultaneous local recurrence and lung metastases.
  • Previously, 10 cases of ovarian osteosarcoma have been reported in the literature: 5 were primary osteosarcoma of the ovary, 4 were associated with teratomas, and 1 was part of a malignant mixed mesodermal tumor of the ovary.
  • Of the 10, there are only 2 long-term survivors, both of whom were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy following complete resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Osteosarcoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12759630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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11. Hariprasad R, Kumar L, Janga D, Kumar S, Vijayaraghavan M: Growing teratoma syndrome of ovary. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;13(1):83-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Growing teratoma syndrome of ovary.
  • Growing teratoma syndrome is an increase of tumor size containing only a mature teratoma component, during or after chemotherapy for germ cell tumors.
  • Mature teratomatous elements are chemoresistant and have to be resected surgically.
  • We describe three patients with malignant immature teratoma treated with chemotherapy and surgical resection.
  • All three had an increase in the size of the mass after chemotherapy, surgery was possible, and histology revealed mature teratoma.
  • One of the patients showed fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) positivity for growing teratoma syndrome, but the histology revealed only mature teratoma.
  • Early recognition of this syndrome is essential as it offers hope for curative resection and avoids the use of ineffective chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18307026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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12. Djordjevic B, Euscher ED, Malpica A: Growing teratoma syndrome of the ovary: review of literature and first report of a carcinoid tumor arising in a growing teratoma of the ovary. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Dec;31(12):1913-8
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  • [Title] Growing teratoma syndrome of the ovary: review of literature and first report of a carcinoid tumor arising in a growing teratoma of the ovary.
  • We report the first case of a secondary tumor arising from a peritoneal nodule of mature teratoma in a patient with growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) of the ovary.
  • The patient originally presented 19 years ago with an immature teratoma of the ovary and positive retroperitoneal lymph nodes.
  • After surgery and chemotherapy, mature teratomas recurred as abdominal and pelvic masses after 1, 6, and 19 years.
  • Upon the last recurrence, a trabecular carcinoid tumor developed in a mature teratoma associated with the liver.
  • On the basis of our review of ovarian GTS cases in the literature, we have found that ovarian GTS nodules tend to appear for the first time within 2 years of the initial primary.
  • This new information may help identify and screen women with germ cell tumors of the ovary at risk for GTS.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / secondary


13. Zuntová A, Sumerauer D, Teslík L, Kabícková E, Koutecký J: [Mixed germ cell tumours of the ovary in childhood and adolescence]. Cesk Patol; 2004 Jul;40(3):92-101
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  • [Title] [Mixed germ cell tumours of the ovary in childhood and adolescence].
  • Mixed germ cell tumours of the ovary are rare malignant neoplasms containing combinations of two or more types of germ cell elements.
  • The aim of the study was to review biopsy examinations, medical records, treatment strategy, follow-up and outcome of all girls treated for mixed germ cell tumour of the ovary at the Department of Pediatric Oncology, University Hospital Motol during the period 1979-2002.
  • The clinical data on surgical treatment, chemotherapy and radiotherapy used and follow-up information were obtained in all girls.
  • Sixteen girls with mixed germ cell tumour of the ovary, age range 3 years 11 months to 17 years 8 months (median 12 years) were treated.
  • All girls presented with unilateral tumour of the ovary and all underwent surgery as an initial treatment.
  • The original diagnosis of mixed histology was confirmed in all cases; in five cases the tumour contained three histologic components, in eleven cases the tumour consisted of two germ cell types.
  • All tumours contained elements of yolk sac tumour, followed by immature teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, dysgerminoma and mature teratoma.
  • At the time of diagnosis three patients had stage I disease, four patients stage II, seven stage III and two stage IV disease.
  • All patients were treated with chemotherapy after surgery, predominantly with platinum-based regimens (PVB, BEP).
  • Overall survival and event-free survival were 80% and 81.3% respectively (median follow-up time 7.6 years).
  • Three patients have died from the disease, two progressed on treatment (MAC), one girl relapsed three months after finishing therapy, no further therapy was administered.
  • Microscopic examination should be extensive and careful to find out all types of malignant germ cell elements.
  • Platinum based chemotherapy is effective in the management of children and adolescents with mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15493415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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14. Lo Curto M, D'Angelo P, Cecchetto G, Klersy C, Dall'Igna P, Federico A, Siracusa F, Alaggio R, Bernini G, Conte M, De Laurentis T, Di Cataldo A, Inserra A, Santoro N, Tamaro P, Indolfi P: Mature and immature teratomas: results of the first paediatric Italian study. Pediatr Surg Int; 2007 Apr;23(4):315-22
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  • [Title] Mature and immature teratomas: results of the first paediatric Italian study.
  • Teratoma is the most common germ cell tumour in childhood; mature (MT) and immature teratomas (IT) are benign tumours, but if they recur, they can be in some cases malignant.
  • Clinical data, treatment and results were all analysed.
  • Chemotherapy (CT) with Vinblastine, D: -actinomycin and cyclophosphamide was indicated for extra-testicular IT grade 2 or 3.
  • A malignant recurrence occurred in two patients with sc tumours (after partial resection in one and after biopsy + CT in one) and in one patient with ovarian IT after a partial resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Teratoma / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17333214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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15. Matsushita H, Arai K, Fukase M, Takayanagi T, Ikarashi H: Growing teratoma syndrome of the ovary after fertility-sparing surgery and successful pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2010;69(4):221-3
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  • [Title] Growing teratoma syndrome of the ovary after fertility-sparing surgery and successful pregnancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is rare and is defined as an enlarging mature teratoma that arises during or after chemotherapy for a malignant germ cell tumor, with normalization of previously elevated serum tumor markers.
  • CASE: A 30-year-old nulliparous Japanese woman was diagnosed as having a stage IIIa immature teratoma.
  • After fertility-sparing surgery, she received 4 cycles of chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin.
  • Surgical specimens revealed a mature teratoma, and she was diagnosed as having GTS postoperatively.
  • Therefore, long-term follow-up of patients treated for ovarian immature teratoma should be mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20068327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-002X
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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16. Tangjitgamol S, Manusirivithaya S, Leelahakorn S, Thawaramara T, Suekwatana P, Sheanakul C: The growing teratoma syndrome: a case report and a review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:384-90
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  • [Title] The growing teratoma syndrome: a case report and a review of the literature.
  • We present the case of a 5-year-old girl with ovarian immature teratoma, which recurred a few months after an incomplete surgical staging.
  • The patient and her parents refused surgical resection of these recurrent masses; therefore, chemotherapy was promptly given.
  • After multiple cycles of chemotherapy, all the masses remained stable in size despite normalization of the tumor marker.
  • Subsequent complete resection of the masses showed only mature teratoma (MT) component without any residual malignant germ cell tumor.
  • The patient was disease free for 2 years, when another episode of recurrence developed as a 5-cm mass in the perihepatic area.
  • The third laparotomy revealed a tumor mass, histologically composed of only MT tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Teratoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Reoperation. Vincristine / administration & dosage. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16515629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol; VAC protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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17. Umekawa T, Tabata T, Tanida K, Yoshimura K, Sagawa N: Growing teratoma syndrome as an unusual cause of gliomatosis peritonei: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Dec;99(3):761-3
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  • [Title] Growing teratoma syndrome as an unusual cause of gliomatosis peritonei: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is defined as enlarging peritoneal implants that occur during or after chemotherapy for malignant germ cell tumors, but are histologically mature teratomas without any malignant components.
  • GTS is a synonym for "chemotherapeutic retroconversion", i.e., conversion from a metastatic immature teratoma to a mature tumor by chemotherapy.
  • Gliomatosis peritonei (GP) is a rare condition associated with ovarian teratomas of any grade, in which benign glial implants develop on the peritoneal surface.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroglia / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16125758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Göbel U, Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Koch S, Teske C, Harms D: The malignant potential of teratomas in infancy and childhood: the MAKEI experiences in non-testicular teratoma and implications for a new protocol. Klin Padiatr; 2006 Nov-Dec;218(6):309-14
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  • [Title] The malignant potential of teratomas in infancy and childhood: the MAKEI experiences in non-testicular teratoma and implications for a new protocol.
  • Since 1982, mature and immature teratomas have been recruited into the MAHO and MAKEI protocols of the German Society for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH) for testicular and non-testicular germ cell tumors in order to study the epidemiology and clinical behaviour of teratomas.
  • Patients with immaturity grade 2 and 3 according to Gonzales-Crussi were eligible for adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • 4) In MAKEI 83/86/89 four newborns with teratoma died due to perioperative complications and nine children as a result of tumor progression, whereas in MAKEI 96 no newborn died, only one child died from tumor progression, and another child died during long time observation for another reason (meningitis).
  • 5) In accordance to the experience of the MAKEI 83/86/89 studies, no child of the MAKEI 96 study presented with yolk sac tumor at recurrence if adjuvant chemotherapy was administered during first-line treatment because of immaturity.
  • In contrast, more than half of the children with tumor recurrence after watch and wait strategy had yolk sac tumor in addition to teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms. Teratoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Prospective Studies. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Sacrococcygeal Region. Sex Factors. Treatment Outcome. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 17080332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. André F, Fizazi K, Culine S, Droz J, Taupin P, Lhommé C, Terrier-Lacombe M, Théodore C: The growing teratoma syndrome: results of therapy and long-term follow-up of 33 patients. Eur J Cancer; 2000 Jul;36(11):1389-94
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  • [Title] The growing teratoma syndrome: results of therapy and long-term follow-up of 33 patients.
  • Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is defined as an increase in tumour size during or after chemotherapy for germ cell tumour (GCT), and only mature teratoma at histological analysis of the resected tumour specimen.
  • A mature teratoma component was found in 86% of the primary GCT.
  • 2 (8%) and 3 (50%) male patients treated with complete and partial resection subsequently developed a malignant NSGCT respectively (P=0.01).
  • Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice for GTS.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Teratoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Syndrome. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10899652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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20. Malagón HD, Valdez AM, Moran CA, Suster S: Germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 46 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Sep;31(9):1356-62
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 46 cases.
  • The clinicopathologic features of 46 patients with germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components (GCTSC) involving either the primary site or their metastases were studied.
  • The germ cell component consisted of pure mature or immature teratoma (23 cases), teratoma mixed with other seminomatous or nonseminomatous components (17), pure seminoma (2), intratubular germ cell neoplasia (1), and yolk sac tumor (1).
  • All patients were treated by cisplatinum-based chemotherapy plus other agents followed by surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Ovariectomy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17721191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Patterson DM, Murugaesu N, Holden L, Seckl MJ, Rustin GJ: A review of the close surveillance policy for stage I female germ cell tumors of the ovary and other sites. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jan-Feb;18(1):43-50
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  • [Title] A review of the close surveillance policy for stage I female germ cell tumors of the ovary and other sites.
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors are rare but very curable at all stages of disease.
  • There is good evidence that surveillance for stage I dysgerminomas is a safe option although many centers worldwide still advocate adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IA nondysgerminomatous tumors, despite the significant risk of developing long-term treatment side effects.
  • Here, we review the safety of our ongoing surveillance program of all stage IA female germ cell tumors.
  • Relapse rates for stage IA nondysgerminomatous tumors and dysgerminomas were 8 of 22 (36%) and 2 of 9 (22%), respectively, plus one patient with mature teratoma and glial implants also relapsed; 10 of these 11 patients (91%) were successfully cured with platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • The overall disease-specific survival of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors was 94%.
  • We have confirmed again that surveillance of all stage IA ovarian germ cell tumors is very safe and that the outcome is comparable with testicular tumors.
  • We question the need for potentially toxic adjuvant chemotherapy in nondysgerminoma patients who have greater than 90% chance of being salvaged with chemotherapy if they relapse later.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Population Surveillance. Prognosis. Risk Management. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17466047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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22. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • In 2 cases, the tumor was associated with a mature cystic teratoma; one of them also containing an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • A single case was associated with a benign ovarian cyst.
  • NSCNEC represented anywhere from 10% to 90% of the ovarian tumor.
  • Seven patients were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • One patient had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omentectomy and appendectomy followed by chemotherapy; 1 patient had a total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy; one had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy, and one had a right salpingo-oophorectomy with appendectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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23. Rzepka-Górska I, Błogowska A, Zajaczek S, Zielińska D: [Germinal cell tumors in young and adolescent girls]. Ginekol Pol; 2003 Sep;74(9):840-6
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  • [Title] [Germinal cell tumors in young and adolescent girls].
  • OBJECTIVE: Germ cell tumours are the most common ovarian tumours in childhood and adolescence.
  • This diverse group of tumours derives from germ cells.
  • DESIGN: The aim of this work is presentation of germ cell tumours in the material from our clinic with characteristic clinical features, the scope of operation and effects of many years of observation.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated 109 girls with germ cell tumours of the ovary: 13 had malignant tumours: there were 7 patients with dysgerminomas, 2 with endodermal sinus tumour of the ovary, 3 with immature teratomas, 1 with carcinoma embryonale.
  • Gonadoblastomas was diagnosed 4 patients and mature teratomas in 92 patients.
  • It must be suggested that patients of stage I who wish to preserve childbearing function may be treated with unilateral salpingoophorectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Monitoring of the treatment is connected with measurement of biochemical markers.
  • Some of these markers are useful for monitoring of response to therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The sift ultrasonographic investigations can be helpful in the early diagnosis of germ cell tumours of the ovary in girls.
  • Fertility sparing operative treatment is preferred when karyotype is normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Dysgerminoma / therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Female. Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / therapy. Gonadoblastoma / pathology. Gonadoblastoma / therapy. Gonadotropins / blood. Gonadotropins / genetics. Humans. Poland. Risk Factors. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 14674134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gonadotropins
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24. Basu S, Rubello D: PET imaging in the management of tumors of testis and ovary: current thinking and future directions. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Sep;33(3):229-56
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  • The role of fluoro-D-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) in testicular malignancies has been examined in various studies primarily in three specific settings:.
  • 1) differentiation of active disease from fibrosis/mature teratoma in patients with residual mass following chemotherapy and evaluation of the response to treatment;.
  • 2) initial staging and disease assessment after orchidectomy identification of suspected recurrences in the context of elevated circulating serum markers; and 3) predicting response to treatment.
  • Of these, the area where FDG-PET imaging has been examined the most in testicular tumors is the evaluation of postchemotherapy residual mass in both seminoma and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) of the testis, a critical step in determining the subsequent management approach of these tumors that vary amongst various centers.
  • From the available data, this should be the test of choice for the assessment of a computed tomography (CT)-visualized residual mass following chemotherapy.
  • In patients with residual masses or raised marker levels following therapy, positron-emission tomography (PET) appears sensitive and specific for detecting recurrent disease, at suspected and unsuspected sites.
  • With regard to its role in ovarian carcinoma, it appears to be particularly useful for the diagnosis of recurrence when CA125 levels are rising and conventional imaging is inconclusive or negative.
  • The role of fluoro-D-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT for the detection of recurrent ovarian cancer appears very promising and has the potential to replace the current surveillance techniques in detecting recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Testicular Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Forecasting. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration / radionuclide imaging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18846028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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25. Mikuz G: [WHO classification of testicular tumors]. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol; 2002;86:67-75
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  • The most important is obviously the precursor lesion of germ cell tumors, which has been called "intratubular malignant germ cells".
  • Such atypical cells appear in the tubules adjacent to the germ cell tumors, in some few cases (6%) also in the contra lateral healthy gonad and rarely in infertile men (1%).
  • The precursor lesion can progress to franc germ cell tumor starting probably with seminoma, which still maintain the capability of differentiation (pluripotente cells) in all other types of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • This lesion is missed in germ cell tumors of childhood and in spermatocytic seminomas, both seem to have a histogenetic history rather different from the other germ cell in adults.
  • In the group of mature teratomas the "dermoid cyst" appears as a benign subtype mostly observed in children.
  • Unfortunately, however, the old term "teratoma with malignant transformation" was changed to "teratoma with malignant areas" in the 1998 classification.
  • This is a harmless name for an extremely dangerous tumor in which one tissue overgrows the other and gives rise to somatic type sarcomas or carcinomas.
  • Such tumors do not respond like germ cell tumors to the usual chemotherapy.
  • Treatment should be tailored according to that used in standard management of the respective sarcoma or carcinoma.
  • In the comments it is mentioned that the testis carcinoid could be a part of teratoma, but the diagnosis is listed in the group of "miscellaneous" tumors together with tumors of ovarian epithelial type.
  • This is a very questionable decision because the normal testis does not contain neuroendocrine cells from which carcinoids would have to be able to develop.
  • "Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumour" has been recently described and can be sporadic or inherited.
  • The patients have cardiac myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation, hormone active nodular hyperplasia of the adrenals and soft tissue myxomas.
  • The newly appearing "mixed germ cell--sex cord/gonadal stromal tumours, unclassified" has a histology similar to the well known gonadoblastomas.
  • For the therapy of germ cell tumor an assessment of risk factors found by the pathologists is extremely important.
  • In the absence of such predictors a surveillance policy allows some patients to forgo chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 12647353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-4113
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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