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1. Gandhi A, Holland PA, Knox WF, Potten CS, Bundred NJ: Effects of a pure antiestrogen on apoptosis and proliferation within human breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Cancer Res; 2000 Aug 1;60(15):4284-8
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  • [Title] Effects of a pure antiestrogen on apoptosis and proliferation within human breast ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Adjuvant antiestrogen (AE) therapy has been proposed for all women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • However, many cases of DCIS are of the high-grade, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtype that are unlikely to respond to AE treatment.
  • Women (n = 23) with mammographic microcalcification suggestive of DCIS were identified at the time of surgery (day 0), a sample of representative tissue was obtained, divided into multiple 2x2x1-mm xenografts, and implanted s.c. into female BALB/c nu/nu mice (eight xenografts/mouse).
  • Fourteen days after implantation, four xenografts were retrieved and mice were randomly divided into one of three treatment groups: (a) insertion of a slow release 2-mg 17beta-estradiol pellet;.
  • After 2 weeks of treatment, the remaining four xenografts were retrieved from each mouse.
  • Retrieved xenografts containing DCIS were assessed for morphological evidence of apoptotic cell death [apoptotic index (AI)] and cell proliferation (by immunohistochemical detection of the Ki67 proliferation antigen LI).
  • AI and LI values within ER- DCIS did not differ between xenografts exposed to 17beta-estradiol or AE treatment compared with the controls or pretreatment values (mean AI and LI in estradiol-treated, antiestrogen-treated, and control groups 1.04% versus 0.98% versus 1.29% and 17.2% versus 20.5% versus 17.7% respectively).
  • In contrast, treatment of mice bearing ER+ DCIS xenografts with 17beta-estradiol raised both the AI (1.03% versus 0.40%, P = 0.03) and LI (11.0% versus 5.1%, P = 0.007) compared with controls.
  • AE therapy of ER+ DCIS xenografts did not affect proliferation but resulted in higher apoptosis than in controls (0.9% versus 0.4% respectively, P = 0.04).
  • AE therapy should be reserved for patients with estrogen receptor positive DCIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Estradiol / analogs & derivatives. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Cell Division / drug effects. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Transplantation. Receptors, Estrogen / physiology. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 10945643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 22X328QOC4 / fulvestrant; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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2. Morvan A, de Korvin B, Bouriel C, Carsin A, Tas P, Bendavid C, Dupré PF, Kerbrat P, Mesbah H, Poree P, Levêque J: [MRI evaluation of residual breast carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy]. J Radiol; 2010 Jun;91(6):693-9
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  • [Title] [MRI evaluation of residual breast carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du sein traité par chimiothérapie néoadjuvante: évaluation du reliquat tumoral par l'IRM mammaire.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate the sensibility and specificity of MRI in the detection and size measuring of residual breast cancer in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 32 women, who underwent breast MRI before and after neoadjuvant treatment.
  • There was no false negative case and four false positive cases (Two ductal carcinomas in situ and two scars-like fibrosis).
  • When MRI outcomes were compared with the presence or absence of invasive or in situ residual carcinoma, only one false negative case was noticed (one "in situ" residual tumor).
  • Underestimations of tumor size were due to non-continuous tumor regression or invasive lobular carcinoma or association of invasive carcinoma and intra ductal breast cancer.
  • Over estimations of tumor size were due to chemotherapy-induced changes.
  • CONCLUSION: MRI is a sensitive but poorly specific method to assess the pathological complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Estimation of tumor size and detection of isolated residual in situ carcinoma are fare.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20808270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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3. Silva VA, Kataguiri P, Trufelli DC, Matos LL, Neves-Pereira JC, Campos JR: [Pulmonary hamartoma as a differential diagnosis of breast cancer metastasis: case report]. J Bras Pneumol; 2007 Nov-Dec;33(6):738-42
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary hamartoma as a differential diagnosis of breast cancer metastasis: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Hamartoma pulmonar como diagnóstico diferencial de metástase de carcinoma de mama: relato de caso.
  • We present the case of a 60-year-old female patient who had been in menopause for 14 years and presented a pulmonary nodule on chest X-ray diagnosed in the postoperative follow-up evaluation of breast cancer.
  • The patient had a history of mastectomy and ipsilateral axillary lymphadenectomy for invasive ductal breast carcinoma, as well as of hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • Recent studies show that 75% of patients who undergo surgery for pulmonary nodules after a curative mastectomy for breast cancer present lung metastases, 11.5% present primary lung cancer, and 13.5% present benign lesions, including hamartoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology. Lung Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18200376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicaça̋o oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bras Pneumol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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4. Plunkett TA, Hanby AM, Miles DW, Rubens RD: Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: response to docetaxel (Taxotere) chemotherapy. Ann Oncol; 2001 Mar;12(3):411-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: response to docetaxel (Taxotere) chemotherapy.
  • In places large and small cells merged and focally the former component infiltrated the epidermis in a manner akin to Paget's disease of the breast.
  • The majority of the tumour was high grade; using the modified Bloom and Richardson grading system, usually applied to mammary ductal carcinomas, the tumour graded as 3.
  • Metastatic disease developed nine months following primary surgical treatment.
  • The metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma was resistant to epirubicin but responded to docetaxel chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There are no data to support the use of adjuvant therapy in the management of eccrine porocarcinoma.
  • The use of the modified Bloom and Richardson grading system may define cases at high risk of relapse in which adjuvant therapy might be considered.
  • The treatment was well tolerated and resulted in marked symptomatic and radiological responses.
  • Treatment with docetaxel should be considered in future cases of this rare tumour.

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  • (PMID = 11332156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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5. Rozenowicz Rde L, Santos RE, Silva MA, Rodrigues FF, Oliveira AL, Ulson LB, Oliveira VM, Aoki T: Cox-2 and its association with prognostic factors and response to primary chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. Rev Col Bras Cir; 2010 Oct;37(5):323-7
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  • [Title] Cox-2 and its association with prognostic factors and response to primary chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of cox-2 before primary chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC) and its association with initial tumor size, lymph node status, hormone receptors, expression of HER2 and the clinical and pathological response in patients with breast cancer.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study with 41 women with histopathological diagnosis of ductal breast carcinoma.
  • They underwent primary chemotherapy with FEC regimen (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide) at 500mg/m2, 75mg/m2 and 500 mg/m2, respectively.
  • Inclusion criteria were age range between 30 and 70 years, stage II to IIIA, absence of metastasis, primary tumor of the breast, single, unilateral, with ductal invasion at histology and absence of heart disease and pregnancy.
  • The evaluation of clinical response to treatment was performed during physical examination by measuring the major tumor axis with a pachymeter.
  • Measurements were taken at admission and after primary chemotherapy cycles.
  • After three chemotherapy sessions at intervals of 21 days the surgical procedure was carried out.
  • CONCLUSION: There was an association of the expression of Cox-2 to the factors associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, such as positive lymph node status, negative hormone receptors and HER2 expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / enzymology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / etiology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 21180996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1809-4546
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Col Bras Cir
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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6. Lalić H, Volavsek C, Radosević-Stasić B: Chromosomal instability and double minute chromosomes in a breast cancer patient. Acta Med Okayama; 2004 Feb;58(1):51-8
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  • [Title] Chromosomal instability and double minute chromosomes in a breast cancer patient.
  • Cytogenetic analysis was performed in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a woman with ductal breast carcinoma, who as a hospital employee was exposed professionally for 15 years to low doses of ionizing radiation.
  • The most important finding after the chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy was the presence of double minutes (DM) chromosomes, in combination with other chromosomal abnormalities (on 200 scored metaphases were found 2 chromatid breaks, 10 dicentrics, 11 acentric fragments, 2 gaps, and 3 double min chromosomes).
  • The data rejected this possibility, but the retroactive analysis showed that the patient even at the time of employment had a moderately increased number of chromosomal aberrations (3.5%) consisting of 3 isochromatids and 4 gaps, suggesting that her initial genomic instability enhanced the later development.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Chromosomal Instability. Chromosome Aberrations

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  • (PMID = 15157012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0386-300X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Okayama
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med. Okayama
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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7. Bacić I, Druzijanić N, Karlo R, Skifić I, Jagić S: Efficacy of IP6 + inositol in the treatment of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: prospective, randomized, pilot clinical study. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2010;29:12
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  • [Title] Efficacy of IP6 + inositol in the treatment of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: prospective, randomized, pilot clinical study.
  • BACKGROUND: Prospective, randomized, pilot clinical study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) + Inositol in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with invasive ductal breast cancer where polychemotherapy was indicated were monitored in the period from 2005-2007.
  • Fourteen patients in the same stage of ductal invasive breast cancer were involved in the study, divided in two randomized groups.
  • When the treatment was finished, all patients have filled questionnaires QLQ C30 and QLQ-BR23 to determine the quality of life.
  • RESULTS: Patients receiving chemotherapy, along with IP6 + Inositol did not have cytopenia, drop in leukocyte and platelet counts.
  • CONCLUSION: IP6 + Inositol as an adjunctive therapy is valuable help in ameliorating the side effects and preserving quality of life among the patients treated with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal / drug therapy. Phytic Acid / administration & dosage. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Quality of Life. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 20152024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-9966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / inositol hexakisphosphate receptor; 7IGF0S7R8I / Phytic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2829500
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8. Aliaga A, Rousseau JA, Ouellette R, Cadorette J, van Lier JE, Lecomte R, Bénard F: Breast cancer models to study the expression of estrogen receptors with small animal PET imaging. Nucl Med Biol; 2004 Aug;31(6):761-70
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  • [Title] Breast cancer models to study the expression of estrogen receptors with small animal PET imaging.
  • Different animal models of estrogen positive tumors (ER+) were evaluated for their suitability to follow tumor response after various treatment protocols, using small animal positron emission tomography (PET).
  • ER+ human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T-47D, using MDA-MB-231 as ER-; control, and murine mammary ductal carcinomas MC4-L2, MC4-L3, and MC7-L1, were compared for their in vivo growth rate and retention of ER+ status.
  • F-18 activity values were obtained by small animal PET imaging and confirmed by tissue sampling and radioactivity counting.
  • Chemotherapy and hormone therapy delayed the growth of MC7-L1 and MC4-L2 tumors, confirming their suitability as an ER+ model for therapeutic interventions.
  • These data demonstrate that murine MC7-L1 and MC4-L2 tumors are suitable models for the monitoring of ER+ breast cancer therapy using small animal PET imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Estradiol / analogs & derivatives. Estradiol / pharmacokinetics. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Fluorine Radioisotopes. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / radionuclide imaging. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tissue Distribution

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 15246367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 84693-92-5 / 16-fluoroestradiol
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9. Zhang LB, Xu YX, Geng JL, Zhang YH: [Treatment analysis of 26 patients with breast ductal carcinoma in situ]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2003 Mar;25(2):195-7
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  • [Title] [Treatment analysis of 26 patients with breast ductal carcinoma in situ].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the appropriate surgical treatment for breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • Among them, 3 patients were treated by simple mastectomy, 23 patients by mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection, 8 patients by chemotherapy and one patient by radiotherapy after operation.
  • After surgery, 3 patients developed lymph edema of the arm.
  • Conservative breast surgery without lymph node dissection is feasible for most DCIS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery

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  • (PMID = 12795854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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10. Uğur Y, Sari O, Uğur O, Korkusuz P, Varoğlu E, Arslan N, Gürcan N, Yildirim M, Sökmensüer C, Aşan E, Aras T: Lack of correlation between Tc-99m-sestaMIBI uptake and cadherin expression in infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma as prognostic indicators. Ann Nucl Med; 2003 Jun;17(4):281-7
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  • [Title] Lack of correlation between Tc-99m-sestaMIBI uptake and cadherin expression in infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma as prognostic indicators.
  • Despite using various kinds of prognostic indicators, it is still not possible to predict the biological behavior of breast cancer in all patients.
  • Tc-99m-sestaMIBI (MIBI) uptake determined by breast scintigraphy and cadherin expression of tumor tissue revealed by immunohistochemistry are suggested as potential agents for this purpose.
  • We hypothesize that there can be a correlation between MIBI whose cellular mitochondrial content is claimed to play a significant role in its tumor uptake and cadherin whose downregulation causes an increase in mitochondrial activity in human mammary carcinoma cell lines.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the degree of MIBI tumor uptake and cadherin expression in infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma.
  • Correlation with response to chemotherapy and some known prognostic factors of breast cancer such as tumor size, number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes and microscopic grading was also done.
  • Fourteen patients who underwent scintimammography and subsequent surgical excisional biopsy that revealed infiltrating ductal carcinoma were enrolled in this study.
  • Also, no statistically significant correlation was noted between MIBI uptake and tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, microscopic grade, stage of the disease or response to chemotherapy.
  • Similarly, there was no statistically significant correlation between cadherin expression and tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, microscopic grade, stage of the disease or chemotherapy response.
  • The results of this study imply that there is no correlation between MIBI tumor uptake and cadherin expression with neither of them good enough to be used as prognostic indicators for breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast / radionuclide imaging. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Cadherins / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 12932110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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11. Wasserberg N, Morgenstern S, Schachter J, Fenig E, Lelcuk S, Gutman H: Risk factors for lymph node metastases in breast ductal carcinoma in situ with minimal invasive component. Arch Surg; 2002 Nov;137(11):1249-52
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  • [Title] Risk factors for lymph node metastases in breast ductal carcinoma in situ with minimal invasive component.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Clinical and pathological variables may be predictors of axillary dissemination in T1mic and T1a breast carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS: All patients diagnosed as having ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with microinvasion between January 1, 1988, and December 30, 1998.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pathology slides were reviewed according to the 1997 Cancer Staging Manual put forth by the American Joint Committee on Cancer.
  • Modified radical mastectomy was performed in 29 patients (18 with T1mic and 11 with T1a) and breast-preserving surgery in 28 (19 with T1mic and 9 with T1a).
  • Forty-seven patients received adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy alone, or with hormones or chemotherapy).
  • One patient was unavailable for follow-up, another died of disseminated disease, and a third developed contralateral primary carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The significant rate of axillary metastases in T1a and T1mic breast tumors makes axillary staging a must.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 12413311.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Bebenek M, Jedrzejuk D, Milewicz A: Metastases to the internal mammary lymph nodes as the only spread of ductal breast cancer: case description. J BUON; 2008 Oct-Dec;13(4):585-7
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  • [Title] Metastases to the internal mammary lymph nodes as the only spread of ductal breast cancer: case description.
  • The present paper describes a case of a breast cancer patient in whom lymphoscintigraphy identified metastases in the internal mammary nodes whilst the axillary lymphatic center was tumor-negative.
  • Because of the lymph node involvement, cancer was restaged from original I to IIIc.
  • Consequently, the patient was qualified for chemotherapy with docetaxel and doxorubicin.
  • The case described is another contribution for the routine application of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 19145687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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13. Cocquyt VF, Blondeel PN, Depypere HT, Praet MM, Schelfhout VR, Silva OE, Hurley J, Serreyn RF, Daems KK, Van Belle SJ: Different responses to preoperative chemotherapy for invasive lobular and invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2003 May;29(4):361-7
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  • [Title] Different responses to preoperative chemotherapy for invasive lobular and invasive ductal breast carcinoma.
  • AIM: Preoperative chemotherapy (PCT) is used in primary breast cancer, to facilitate breast conservative surgery (BCS).
  • Biologic markers are needed to individualize treatment.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five patients with breast carcinoma were treated with PCT, followed by surgery and adjuvant therapy.
  • Clinical response and pathological complete response (pCR), biological markers and type of surgery were compared between invasive ductal (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC).
  • After PCT, patients with large ILC should preferably be offered mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12711290.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CAF protocol; CMF protocol
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14. Delille JP, Slanetz PJ, Yeh ED, Halpern EF, Kopans DB, Garrido L: Invasive ductal breast carcinoma response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy: noninvasive monitoring with functional MR imaging pilot study. Radiology; 2003 Jul;228(1):63-9
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  • [Title] Invasive ductal breast carcinoma response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy: noninvasive monitoring with functional MR imaging pilot study.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate if the extraction flow product (EFP), as determined on dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images, could be a potential marker of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen women with proven breast cancer underwent MR imaging prior to and following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Mean EFP (EFPmean) and distribution analysis of EFP (EFPcount) were measured in tumors before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and were compared with tumor response at MR imaging.
  • RESULTS: EFPmean after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in partial responders and nonresponders was 33 mL x 100 g-1 x min-1 +/- 9.8 and 54.2 mL x 100 g-1 x min-1 +/- 10.3, respectively (P <.005).
  • EFPmean decreased after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the responders and nonresponders by 37% +/- 30 and -5% +/- 35, respectively (P >.05).
  • CONCLUSION: EFPcount appears to provide functional information regarding changes in tumor angiogenesis due to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Functional MR imaging of the breast may be useful in monitoring tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Echo-Planar Imaging. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Physiologic. Pilot Projects

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  • (PMID = 12775851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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15. Bini A, Zompatori M, Ansaloni L, Grazia M, Stella F, Bazzocchi R: Bilateral recurrent pneumothorax complicating chemotherapy for pulmonary metastatic breast ductal carcinoma: report of a case. Surg Today; 2000;30(5):469-72
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  • [Title] Bilateral recurrent pneumothorax complicating chemotherapy for pulmonary metastatic breast ductal carcinoma: report of a case.
  • Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) is a rare complication of chemotherapy for pulmonary metastases and to the best of our knowledge, only 28 cases have been described, most of which occurred in patients with osteosarcoma or germ cell tumors.
  • We present herein the case of a 56-year-old woman in whom bilateral and recurrent SSP was caused by the rupture of pulmonary lacunae induced by chemotherapy, given for bilateral lung metastases secondary to breast carcinoma.
  • Our experience of this case led us to conclude that: patients with pulmonary metastases may develop bilateral and/or recurrent pneumothoraces following chemotherapy; computed tomography scan is essential for defining the cause of SSP; and closed chest tube drainage remains the therapy of choice, while chemical pleurodesis may also be used to prevent recidivant SSP.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pneumothorax / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Drainage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Oncology. 1997 Jan-Feb;54(1):15-8 [8978586.001]
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  • (PMID = 10819490.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CMF regimen; MMM protocol 2
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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16. Papantoniou V, Tsiouris S, Koutsikos J, Ptohis N, Lazaris D, Zerva C: Increased serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in relapsed ductal breast carcinoma. Hell J Nucl Med; 2006 Jan-Apr;9(1):36-8
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  • [Title] Increased serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in relapsed ductal breast carcinoma.
  • Increased serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is a quite uncommon manifestation of breast cancer both on early disease and on relapse.
  • A 53-year-old woman with invasive ductal breast carcinoma underwent left-sided mastectomy.
  • Surgery and histopathology revealed infiltration by breast adenocarcinoma and she was treated with chemotherapy.
  • At that time serum tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 15-3 were within normal range.
  • In an attempt to search for a second neoplasm possibly of gastrointestinal (GI) origin, abdominal computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography (MRCP), endoscopy of the upper GI tract and colonoscopy were performed, as well as measurement of serum CA 19-9.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection confirmed an extensive metastatic infiltration of these nodes by breast adenocarcinoma.
  • The interest of this case lies on the unexpected high serum CA 19-9 values found in a breast relapsed adenocarcinoma and in the important contribution of SM in diagnosing the axillary lymph node metastatic infiltration.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Carcinoma, Ductal / blood. Carcinoma, Ductal / secondary. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 16617392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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17. Semple SI, Staff RT, Heys SD, Redpath TW, Welch AE, Ahearn TS, Hutcheon A, Gilbert FJ: Baseline MRI delivery characteristics predict change in invasive ductal breast carcinoma PET metabolism as a result of primary chemotherapy administration. Ann Oncol; 2006 Sep;17(9):1393-8
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  • [Title] Baseline MRI delivery characteristics predict change in invasive ductal breast carcinoma PET metabolism as a result of primary chemotherapy administration.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate whether pre-therapy vascular delivery assessment [using dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI)] can predict reduction in breast cancer metabolism [detected using 2-[(18)F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ((18)F(-)FDG-PET)] after a single cycle of chemotherapy.
  • Reduction in (18)F-FDG PET metabolism has previously been shown to correlate with histological response to primary chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with large or locally advanced invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast were imaged using DCE-MRI and (18)F-FDG-PET prior to therapy and 20 days after the first cycle of chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: A significant association (P <0.05) was observed between pre-therapy DCE-MRI vascular parameters and the reduction in PET metabolism resulting from administration of one cycle of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A relationship was demonstrated between pre-therapy DCE-MRI vascular parameters and the reduction in PET metabolism after a single cycle of chemotherapy.
  • This suggests that reduction in PET metabolism as a result of chemotherapy may be dependent, at least in part, on pre-therapy vascular delivery.
  • These pre-therapy vascular characteristics may be suitable for use as a surrogate measure for initial chemotherapy delivery, a key factor in chemotherapeutic efficacy.

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  • (PMID = 16788001.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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18. Fazeny-Dörner B, Piribauer M, Wenzel C, Fakhrai N, Pirker C, Berger W, Sedivy R, Rudas M, Filipits M, Okamoto I, Marosi C: Cytogenetic and comparative genomic hybridization findings in four cases of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2003 Oct 15;146(2):161-6
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  • [Title] Cytogenetic and comparative genomic hybridization findings in four cases of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • To assess a potential common pattern of genetic alterations in chemotherapy-resistant tumors we analyzed four tumors from breast cancer patients (patients 1-4) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, by comparative genome hybridization (CGH) and conventional chromosome banding analysis.
  • In CGH analysis, the patients showed typical imbalances for ductal breast cancer: gains of 1q (3 patients), 5q (2 patients), 8q (3 patients), and X (4 patients) and losses of 1p33 approximately p36 (3 patients), 16q (3 patients), 17p (3 patients), 19 (4 patients), and 22q (4 patients).
  • Other recurrent imbalances of atypical pattern for ductal breast cancer were gain of 4q21 approximately q32 (2 patients), 20q21 approximately q22 (2 patients), and 21 (2 patients) and loss of 20p (3 patients).
  • Three patients showed involvement of several regions bearing genes of drug resistance (MDR1 [HUGO symbol: ABCB1], BCRP [HUGO symbol: ABCG2], MRP1 [HUGO symbol: ABCC1], RFC1); the fourth patient displayed an amplification in the region of MYC (alias c-myc), thus providing--at the level of the light microscope--an explanatory background for the ability of their tumors to survive anthracycline-, taxane- and cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy.
  • Conventional cytogenetic analysis and CGH displayed highly coincidental findings in the tumors of four patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Genome, Human. Humans. Karyotyping. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Nucleic Acid Hybridization

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  • (PMID = 14553951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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19. Torres B, Sotomayor L, Sanchez-Cazau D, Vazquez-Torres O: Right hemidiaphragm paralysis as a rare complication of a central venous port catheter insertion. Bol Asoc Med P R; 2007 Jan-Mar;99(1):31-7
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  • Central Venous Port Catheters are increasingly used in critically ill patients for intravenous treatments and nutrition, and lately, a main focus of oncology patients receiving chemotherapy.
  • In this case report we describe the acute presentation of a right hemidiaphragm paralysis in an oncology patient with recurrent breast ductal carcinoma as an immediate rare complication of a right subclavian vein catheterization and port insertion.

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  • (PMID = 17616043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-4849
  • [Journal-full-title] Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bol Asoc Med P R
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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20. Salemis NS, Razou A: Coexistence of breast cancer metastases and tuberculosis in axillary lymph nodes--a rare association and review of the literature. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health; 2010 May;41(3):608-13
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  • [Title] Coexistence of breast cancer metastases and tuberculosis in axillary lymph nodes--a rare association and review of the literature.
  • The coexistence of metastatic breast cancer and tuberculosis in axillary lymph nodes is very rare.
  • We present the case of a 57-year-old woman with multifocal invasive ductal breast carcinoma in whom the resected axillary nodes were found to harbor both metastatic cancer and tuberculous lymphadenitis.
  • The patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy antituberculous therapy, radiation and hormonal therapy with aromatase inhibitors.
  • We conclude the possibility of coexistent latent tuberculosis should be kept in mind when granulomatous lesions are identified in axillary lymph nodes with metastatic breast cancer, especially in patients from endemic regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / microbiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / microbiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Latent Tuberculosis / complications. Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / complications

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  • (PMID = 20578549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-1562
  • [Journal-full-title] The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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21. Tsunoda-Shimizu H, Hayashi N, Hamaoka T, Kawasaki T, Tsugawa K, Yagata H, Kikuchi M, Suzuki K, Nakamura S: Determining the morphological features of breast cancer and predicting the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy via diagnostic breast imaging. Breast Cancer; 2008;15(2):133-40
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  • [Title] Determining the morphological features of breast cancer and predicting the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy via diagnostic breast imaging.
  • BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has recently become common therapy for breast cancer.
  • This work studied whether or not the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy can be predicted from morphological features of breast cancer in initial diagnostic imaging.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 186 cases who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy at this hospital in 2006 were studied.
  • One is a type of invasive carcinoma that tends to grow along the mammary ducts (type A1), another is a type of expansively growing invasive carcinoma that is relatively well-defined (type A2), a third is a type of irregularly shaped mass that retracts surrounding tissue (type A3), and the fourth is a mixed type.
  • Thus, the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on carcinomas of the four types were compared on the basis of image and pathological findings.
  • Effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were classified into three categories of enlarged mass, pCR, and other, with the latter indicating no change or shrinkage.
  • RESULTS: Of the 186 total cases, 72 were classified as type A1, 31 as type A2, 52 as type A3, and 31 as a mixed type.
  • Seven of 31 cases of type A2 (22.6%) were cases of an enlarged mass, revealing a high percentage of such cases.
  • Dividing cases into type A2 and other types and looking at the proportion of cases of an enlarged mass thus indicated a significantly higher tendency. pCR was achieved in 6 of 31 cases with type A2 (19.4%).
  • Here, also, the proportion of type A2 cases was significantly higher.
  • CONCLUSION: Morphological features prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy can contribute to determining the effects of the therapy.
  • Expansively growing well-defined masses contain lesions at both extremes, tending to enlarge in some instances or instead allowing pCR, so the course of therapy must be carefully followed when performing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / classification. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / classification. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / classification. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Diagnostic Imaging. Epirubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Stereoisomerism. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18288570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; FEC protocol
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22. Amat S, Penault-Llorca F, Cure H, Le Bouedëc G, Achard JL, Van Praagh I, Feillel V, Mouret-Reynier MA, Dauplat J, Chollet P: Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grading: a pleiotropic marker of chemosensitivity in invasive ductal breast carcinomas treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Int J Oncol; 2002 Apr;20(4):791-6
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  • [Title] Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grading: a pleiotropic marker of chemosensitivity in invasive ductal breast carcinomas treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade, an important prognostic factor in breast cancer, was also associated with cell proliferation, a consistent indicator of response to chemotherapy.
  • We explored the influence of SBR grade on response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma.
  • SBR grading was performed according to the Elston method on needle core biopsies prospectively collected prior to treatment from 290 patients and on residual tumour at surgery from 171 patients.
  • Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to evaluate the significance of SBR grade on response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Both statistical analysis revealed that SBR grade III tumours responded better to neoadjuvant treatment than SBR grade I (p<10(-6)).
  • As a conclusion, we showed that SBR grade is a strong predictive factor of response to induction chemotherapy in breast cancer, independently of the type of regimen used.
  • The association between evolution of the histological grade following chemotherapy and response to treatment may prove valuable for clinicians as they make their decision regarding patient therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Differentiation. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 11894126.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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23. Koda M, Lenczewski A, Sulkowska M, Kanczuga-Koda L, Wincewicz A, Tomaszewski J, Sulkowski S: The effect of chemotherapy on status of estrogen receptors in primary tumors and lymph node metastases of human ductal breast cancer. Oncol Rep; 2007 Feb;17(2):385-91
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  • [Title] The effect of chemotherapy on status of estrogen receptors in primary tumors and lymph node metastases of human ductal breast cancer.
  • The aim of the study was the evaluation of ERalpha and ERbeta expression in primary tumors and lymph node metastases of breast cancer as well as the assessment of the influence of preoperative chemotherapy on these receptors with regard to changes in morphological appearance of primary tumors and their metastases.
  • Immunohistochemical examinations were conducted on surgically removed ductal invasive breast cancers and their lymph node metastases of 135 patients.
  • Seventy-one patients were spared preoperative chemotherapy which was administered to other 64 patients.
  • Primary breast cancers with preoperative chemotherapy showed lower mean percentage of cells with a positive reaction to ERalpha and ERbeta as compared to primary tumors without preoperative chemotherapy.
  • There were positive correlations among primary tumors and lymph node metastases regardless of preoperative chemotherapy applied.
  • On the other hand, ERalpha and ERbeta expressions were negatively correlated in primary tumors without chemotherapy in contrast to primary tumors after chemotherapy.
  • Furthermore, it was observed that preoperative chemotherapy was responsible for significantly less damage to lymph node metastases of breast cancer in comparison to primary tumors.
  • Although preoperative chemotherapy did not severely impair estrogen receptor expression, presented changes of their distribution are a sufficient reason for simultaneous labeling of estrogen receptors in both primary tumors and metastases due to various sensitivity to chemotherapy of primary cancers in comparison with involved lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor alpha / biosynthesis. Estrogen Receptor beta / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17203178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta
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24. Domagala W, Welcker M, Chosia M, Karbowniczek M, Harezga B, Bartkova J, Bartek J, Osborn M: p21/WAF1/Cip1 expression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma: relationship to p53, proliferation rate, and survival at 5 years. Virchows Arch; 2001 Aug;439(2):132-40
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  • [Title] p21/WAF1/Cip1 expression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma: relationship to p53, proliferation rate, and survival at 5 years.
  • The p21/WAF1/Cipl antibody, DCS-60, was characterized by means of immunoblotting and immunofluorescence on a variety of human breast cancer cell lines.
  • Heterogeneous staining of nuclei was observed with strong staining of cells in early G1. p21/WAF1/Cipl expression in invasive ductal, not otherwise specified breast carcinomas was determined using immunohistochemistry with this antibody and computerized image analysis.
  • Two hundred and twenty-two tumors, including 130 from patients with no axillary node involvement, were examined. p21-positive tumor cell nuclei were found in 30% of the breast carcinomas.
  • With respect to p21/p53 phenotype, the significant difference in survival was noted only for the group of patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The results seem to suggest a correlation between p21/p53 phenotype and response to adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Cyclins / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antigens, Nuclear. Biomarkers / analysis. Cell Division. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ki-67 Antigen. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Survival Rate. Tumor Cells, Cultured / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11561753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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25. Koda M, Sulkowska M, Kanczuga-Koda L, Tomaszewski J, Kucharczuk W, Lesniewicz T, Cymek S, Sulkowski S: The effect of chemotherapy on Ki-67, Bcl-2 and Bak expression in primary tumors and lymph node metastases of breast cancer. Oncol Rep; 2007 Jul;18(1):113-9
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  • [Title] The effect of chemotherapy on Ki-67, Bcl-2 and Bak expression in primary tumors and lymph node metastases of breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was the analysis of Ki-67, Bcl-2 and Bak expression in primary tumor and axillary lymph node metastases of breast cancer as well as an attempt to assess preoperative chemotherapy influence on the mentioned markers with regard to changes in the morphological appearance of the primary tumor and its metastases.
  • Immunohistochemical examinations of Ki-67, Bcl-2 and Bak expression were conducted on sections collected from 135 patients treated surgically on invasive ductal breast cancer.
  • Sixty-four of these patients were administered preoperative chemotherapy, whilst on 71 patients the surgery was performed without initial chemotherapy.
  • In the group of patients without preoperative chemotherapy positive correlation in Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression between primary tumors and lymph node metastases (p<0.0001, r=0.707; p<0.0001, r=0.604, respectively) was observed.
  • In the group of patients after chemotherapy positive correlation between primary tumors and lymph node metastases in case of Bcl-2 and Bak proteins (p<0.04, r=0.424; p<0.02, r=0.478, respectively) was observed.
  • It was also found that preoperative chemotherapy has an influence on the expression of proteins connected with proliferation and apoptosis and thus, it can influence neoplastic process biology.
  • It does not have any significant impact on the proapoptotic Bak protein expression either in primary tumor or in lymph node metastases of breast cancer.
  • However, it is related to lower expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein (p<0.0005) and of Ki-67 proliferation marker (p<0.03) in primary tumors, which indirectly indicates a beneficial influence of preoperative chemotherapy on the primary tumor.
  • Concurrently, the influence of neoadjuvant therapy on lymph node metastases seems to be relatively small, which can limit its effectiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17549355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAK1 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CMF regimen
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26. Loo WT, Jin LJ, Cheung MN, Chow LW, Wang M: Combination of radiological and biochemical methods to assess bone mineral density of mandible in fully edentulous patients after chemotherapy: a 5-year prospective study. Expert Opin Investig Drugs; 2010 Apr;19 Suppl 1:S109-15
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  • [Title] Combination of radiological and biochemical methods to assess bone mineral density of mandible in fully edentulous patients after chemotherapy: a 5-year prospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is of concern in breast cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy.
  • This study compared the bone mineral density (BMD) index of the mandible and hip hinge between patients who were undergoing chemotherapy or breast cancer, and fully edentulous Chinese patients without cancer over a period of 5 years.
  • METHOD: 120 fully edentulous patients with an average age of 69 who had undergone mastectomy for grade two or three non-metastatic invasive breast ductal carcinoma.
  • The 118 fully edentulous cancer-free patients were included as a control group.
  • The first assessment point was 6 months after chemotherapy treatment.
  • The serum and urine level of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), as well as liver and renal function tests were determined.
  • RESULT: The cancer patients demonstrated a statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase in bone resorption of mandible and hip, and an increase in BAP and ICTP levels when compared with the control group.
  • CONCLUSION: Breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy displayed significant resorption of mandibular bones compared with the healthy control, which might result in difficulties in fitting dentures, as it would cause pain and mucosal friction.
  • Thus, concurrent therapy to decrease mandibular bone loss and special considerations in dentures are warranted for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Bone Density / drug effects. Mouth, Edentulous / complications. Osteoporosis / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorptiometry, Photon. Aged. Bone Resorption / chemically induced. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Case-Control Studies. China. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Denture, Complete. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Hip / pathology. Humans. Mandible / pathology. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Prosthesis Fitting / methods. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20374022.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7658
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on investigational drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Investig Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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27. Peihong S, Perry F: Expression of nm23, MMP-2, TIMP-2 in breast neoplasm in Zhengzhou Center Hospital, China. Ethiop Med J; 2007 Jan;45(1):79-83
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  • [Title] Expression of nm23, MMP-2, TIMP-2 in breast neoplasm in Zhengzhou Center Hospital, China.
  • BACKGROUND: In recent years, the carcinoma of the breast threatens to women's health heavily.
  • OBJECTIVE: A prospective study is made in the center hospital of zhengzhou, in order to approach the expression of nm23, MMP-2 (Matrix metallo-proteinase-2), TIMP-2 (it's tissue-inhibitor of the metalloproteinase-2) in the breast neoplasm and the relationship with invasion and metastasis.
  • METHODOLOGY: This study applied the immunohistochemistry technique SP method RESULTS: In fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast 4 groups, the positive immunostaining rate of nm23, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 have significant difference among 4 groups (p < 0.05).
  • In the breast invasive ductal carcinoma, the expression of nm23 and TIMP-2 decreased or the expression of MMP-2 increased CONCLUSION: This suggested that invasion and metastasis is ability of the neoplasm.
  • MMP-2 in the breast ductal carcinoma in situ appears of high expression and this suggested that the positive expression of this onco-proteins was the early incident in the genetic course of the breast cancer The unite detection of nm23, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 expression would contribute to the early diagnosis and prognostic assessment of the carcinoma of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Fibroadenoma / drug therapy. Matrix Metalloproteinases, Membrane-Associated / therapeutic use. Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] China. Female. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2

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  • (PMID = 17642161.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-1755
  • [Journal-full-title] Ethiopian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ethiop. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ethiopia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases; 127497-59-0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2; EC 2.7.4.6 / NME1 protein, human; EC 2.7.4.6 / Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases, Membrane-Associated; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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28. Tubiana-Hulin M, Stevens D, Lasry S, Guinebretière JM, Bouita L, Cohen-Solal C, Cherel P, Rouëssé J: Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in lobular and ductal breast carcinomas: a retrospective study on 860 patients from one institution. Ann Oncol; 2006 Aug;17(8):1228-33
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  • [Title] Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in lobular and ductal breast carcinomas: a retrospective study on 860 patients from one institution.
  • BACKGROUND: We compared the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on pathologic response and outcome in operable invasive lobular breast carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We extracted from our database all patients with pure invasive lobular (n=118, 14%) or pure invasive ductal carcinomas (n=742, 86%).
  • Their treatment included neoadjuvant chemotherapy, adapted surgery, radiotherapy and adjuvant hormonal treatment.
  • The outcome at 60 months was significantly better for ILC, but histologic type was not an independent factor for survival in multivariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ILC appeared less responsive to chemotherapy but presented a better outcome than IDC.
  • While new information on biological features of ILC is needed, we consider that neoadjuvant endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive ILC may be a more adapted approach than neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 16740599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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29. da Silva BB, dos Santos AR, Pires CG, Lopes-Costa PV: Effect of raloxifene on vascular endothelial growth factor expression in breast carcinomas of postmenopausal women. Cell Prolif; 2009 Aug;42(4):506-10
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  • [Title] Effect of raloxifene on vascular endothelial growth factor expression in breast carcinomas of postmenopausal women.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of raloxifene on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in breast carcinomas of postmenopausal women.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen postmenopausal patients with operable stage II, oestrogen receptor-positive, infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma were treated with raloxifene at a dose of 60 mg/day, for a period of 28 days prior to definitive surgery.
  • Tumour samples were obtained by incisional biopsy at the time of diagnosis and again at the time of surgery.
  • McNemar's test of symmetry was used to evaluate agreement between positive or negative classification of VEGF expression prior to and following raloxifene treatment (P < 0.05).
  • RESULTS: Fourteen of the 16 patients (88%) were classified as positive for VEGF expression prior to raloxifene treatment, while only 5 (31%) were classified as positive following treatment (P < 0.007).
  • CONCLUSION: Raloxifene significantly reduced VEGF expression in these oestrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas of postmenopausal women.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Estrogen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Postmenopause. Raloxifene Hydrochloride / therapeutic use. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19489979.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2184
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell proliferation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Prolif.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 4F86W47BR6 / Raloxifene Hydrochloride
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30. Taal BG, Peterse H, Boot H: Clinical presentation, endoscopic features, and treatment of gastric metastases from breast carcinoma. Cancer; 2000 Dec 1;89(11):2214-21
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  • [Title] Clinical presentation, endoscopic features, and treatment of gastric metastases from breast carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy in women.
  • METHODS: Endoscopic features and treatment options were evaluated retrospectively for 51 patients with gastric metastases of breast carcinoma.
  • Histology showed mainly lobular breast carcinoma (n = 36) compared with ductal carcinoma (n = 10) and other types (n = 5), contrary to the usual distribution.
  • The overall response to systemic therapy was 46% (17 of 37 treated patients).
  • Median survival from detection of gastric metastases was 10 months, with a 2-year survival rate of 23%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gastric metastases usually derive from lobular rather than ductal breast carcinoma.
  • Chemotherapy or hormonal treatment may result in fair palliation in selected patients, although many patients are heavily pretreated.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Gastroscopy. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11147591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Chen J, Gomes AR, Monteiro LJ, Wong SY, Wu LH, Ng TT, Karadedou CT, Millour J, Ip YC, Cheung YN, Sunters A, Chan KY, Lam EW, Khoo US: Constitutively nuclear FOXO3a localization predicts poor survival and promotes Akt phosphorylation in breast cancer. PLoS One; 2010 Aug 20;5(8):e12293
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  • [Title] Constitutively nuclear FOXO3a localization predicts poor survival and promotes Akt phosphorylation in breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The PI3K-Akt signal pathway plays a key role in tumorigenesis and the development of drug-resistance.
  • Cytotoxic chemotherapy resistance is linked to limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Examination of FOXO3a and phosphorylated-Akt (P-Akt) expression in breast cancer tissue microarrays showed nuclear FOXO3a was associated with lymph node positivity (p = 0.052), poor prognosis (p = 0.014), and P-Akt expression in invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • Using tamoxifen and doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cell lines as models, we found that doxorubicin- but not tamoxifen-resistance is associated with nuclear accumulation of FOXO3a, consistent with the finding that sustained nuclear FOXO3a is associated with poor prognosis.
  • We also established that doxorubicin treatment induces proliferation arrest and FOXO3a nuclear relocation in sensitive breast cancer cells.
  • However FOXO3a induction has little effect on cell proliferation, indicating that FOXO3a or its downstream activity is deregulated in the cytotoxic drug resistant breast cancer cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together these data suggest that lymph node metastasis and poor survival in invasive ductal breast carcinoma are linked to an uncoupling of the Akt-FOXO3a signaling axis.
  • In these breast cancers activated Akt fails to inactivate and re-localize FOXO3a to the cytoplasm, and nuclear-targeted FOXO3a does not induce cell death or cell cycle arrest.
  • As such, sustained nuclear FOXO3a expression in breast cancer may culminate in cancer progression and the development of an aggressive phenotype similar to that observed in cytotoxic chemotherapy resistant breast cancer cell models.

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  • (PMID = 20808831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C37/A5606
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924889
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32. Lindemann K, Harbeck N, Lengyel E, Resau JH: A special key for unlocking the door to targeted therapies of breast cancer. ScientificWorldJournal; 2008;8:905-8
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  • [Title] A special key for unlocking the door to targeted therapies of breast cancer.
  • Personalized medicine and targeted therapy is the best hope for patients with cancer.
  • C-Met-HGF/SF inhibition may be an effective cancer treatment for ductal carcinoma of the breast as it is expected to be an important signalling target in a large number of malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / therapy. Hepatocyte Growth Factor / therapeutic use. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met / drug effects. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism


33. Horn LC, Einenkel J, Baier D: Endometrial metastasis from breast cancer in a patient receiving tamoxifen therapy. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2000;50(2):136-8
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  • [Title] Endometrial metastasis from breast cancer in a patient receiving tamoxifen therapy.
  • Tamoxifen (TAM) is known to be associated with several types of endometrial pathologies, e.g. hyperplasias, polyps and endometrial carcinomas, sometimes of special histologic type.
  • Here we report a rare case of endometrial metastasis from a breast carcinoma (ductal carcinoma) discovered during TAM therapy.
  • This occurrence does not suggest that TAM treatment causes endometrial metastases of breast cancer.
  • However, clinicians should be aware of this possibility and provide patients receiving TAM therapy with close gynecologic follow-up using liberal indications for endometrial biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Estrogen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Ovariectomy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 10965200.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-7346
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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34. Ettinger DS, Grunberg SM, Hauber AB, Mohamed AF: Evaluation of the relative importance of chemotherapeutic and antiemetic efficacy in various oncologic settings. Support Care Cancer; 2009 Apr;17(4):405-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oncologists in the USA and four European countries completed an online stated-choice survey consisting of three hypothetical treatment choices for each of two patient types.
  • Each hypothetical treatment alternative included both chemotherapy and antiemetic regimens.
  • The two hypothetical patient types were (1) a 48-year-old woman with locoregional infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast and (2) a 78-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and multiple liver metastases.
  • In each choice question, oncologists were asked to select the better combination of chemotherapy and antiemetic prophylaxis between two treatment alternatives.
  • For the adjuvant breast cancer patient, the most aggressive chemotherapy is consistently the most important treatment consideration in all countries.
  • For the advanced lung cancer patient, the most aggressive chemotherapy, the less aggressive chemotherapy, and the most aggressive antiemetic prophylaxis are of similar importance in most countries.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Physicians appear more likely to prescribe a more aggressive chemotherapy regimen for a younger patient with a perceived curable tumor, regardless of the emetogenic properties of the chemotherapy.
  • Symptom management is more of a concern and chemotherapeutic efficacy relatively less of a priority in an older patient with advanced disease for whom chemotherapy is not curative.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiemetics / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Cites] Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Oct;101(10):2308-18 [17032196.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2006 Sep 20;24(27):4377-83 [16983106.001]
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  • [Cites] Support Care Cancer. 2005 Feb;13(2):80-4 [15599601.001]
  • (PMID = 18762991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7339
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Care Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiemetics; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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35. Quadros CA, Vasconcelos A, Andrade R, Ramos RS, Studart E, Nascimento G, Trajano A: Good outcome after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and extended surgical resection for a large radiation-induced high-grade breast sarcoma. Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2006;3:18

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Good outcome after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and extended surgical resection for a large radiation-induced high-grade breast sarcoma.
  • This article is a case report of a high grade, radio-induced, breast malignant fibrous histiocytoma (undifferentiated high grade pleomorphic sarcoma), which developed in a 44-year old female, seven years after breast conservative surgery and radiotherapy for a T1N0M0 invasive left breast ductal carcinoma.
  • The sarcoma presented as a fast growing tumour, 9.5 cm in the largest diameter, with skin, left breast, chest wall muscle and rib invasion.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed with epirubicin and ifosfamide.
  • Extended radical surgery according to oncological standards and soft tissue reconstruction were carried out.

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  • [Cites] Eur J Cancer. 1998 Dec;34(13):2068-75 [10070313.001]
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  • (PMID = 16824232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1538603
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36. Eros N, Karolyi Z, Kovács A, Matolcsy A, Barna T, Kelényi G: Large B-cell lymphoma of the leg in a patient with multiple malignant tumours. Acta Derm Venereol; 2003;83(5):354-7
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  • A patient who had primary gastric B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, invasive ductal breast cancer and a basocellular carcinoma of the forehead in her medical history was studied.
  • Three years after polychemotherapy and irradiation of the breast cancer, a rapidly enlarging, ulcerated violaceous tumour developed on the patient's left leg.
  • Despite surgical excision, interferon-alpha2b treatment and chlorambucil + prednisone chemotherapy, a relapse occurred in the previously affected site, whereafter the patient received radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications. Lymphoma, B-Cell / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Forehead. Humans. Leg Ulcer / etiology. Leg Ulcer / therapy

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  • (PMID = 14609103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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37. Quilon JM, Gaskin TA, Ludwig AS, Alley C: Collision tumor: invasive ductal carcinoma in association with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in the same breast. South Med J; 2006 Feb;99(2):164-7
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  • [Title] Collision tumor: invasive ductal carcinoma in association with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in the same breast.
  • Synchronous occurrence of multiple neoplastic processes is uncommon and the relationship between breast cancer with lymphoproliferative diseases is unusual as well.
  • Furthermore, breast involvement by malignant lymphoma is a rare event and primary breast mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is even rarer.
  • We report a patient with synchronous occurrence of malignant lymphoma of MALT type and ductal carcinoma of the breast, presenting as "collision tumor," invading each other and occurring as a single mass in the breast.
  • Involvement of the sentinel lymph node by MALT lymphoma was demonstrated with no evidence of metastatic carcinoma.
  • Staging bone marrow biopsy did not show involvement by malignant lymphoma or carcinoma.
  • Our patient was treated with chemotherapy for the lymphoma.
  • She also received radiotherapy and aromatase inhibitor as adjuvant therapy for the breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • [CommentIn] South Med J. 2006 Feb;99(2):108-10 [16509544.001]
  • (PMID = 16509555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-4348
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Haji AG, Sharma S, Vijaykumar DK, Mukherjee P, Babu RM, Chitrathara K: Primary mammary small-cell carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2009 Jan;30(1):31-4
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  • [Title] Primary mammary small-cell carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature.
  • Only a few cases of primary small-cell carcinoma of the breast have been documented in the current medical literature.
  • We describe a case of a 68-year-old lady with left breast lump, which was diagnosed as breast cancer on fine-needle aspiration and core biopsy.
  • Metastatic workup was negative for disease elsewhere, and she received 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery (modified radical mastectomy).
  • Present surgical treatment options are similar to those in cases of invasive ductal breast cancer, as appropriate for the size and stage of the lesion.

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  • [Cites] Pathol Int. 2000 Nov;50(11):914-8 [11107070.001]
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  • (PMID = 20668605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2902213
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Small cell carcinoma / mammary / neuroendocrine tumor
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39. Fontana S, Ghilardi R, Barbaglio A, Amaddeo P, Faldi F, Pericotti S: Male breast cancer with mandibular metastasis. A case report. Minerva Stomatol; 2007 Apr;56(4):225-30
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  • [Title] Male breast cancer with mandibular metastasis. A case report.
  • Female breast cancer is one of the major causes of death among women while male breast cancer is relatively uncommon and accounts for about 1% of all breast cancers in both sexes.
  • Influencing factors are: gynecomasty, familiarity for male breast cancer, Jewish and African-American male population.
  • From the histological point of view, it is not different from the female breast cancer, except for the infiltrant ductal carcinoma, but with a much severe prognosis.
  • Breast cancer metastases to the jaws are rare, only 1%; the most common sites of metastases are: lungs(59-69%), liver (58-65%), bone (44-71%), pleura (23-37%), brain (9-22%) and kidney (4-17%).
  • At present, based on a literature research (May 2006), there have been just two other case reports of male breast cancer metastasis to the maxillofacial region, both to the mandible.
  • The case of a 69-year-old white man who in 2001 underwent a radical mastectomy due to ductal breast cancer is reported.
  • The histological examination was consistent with that of a metastatic deposit of adenocarcinoma of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Mandibular Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Androstadienes / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cortisone / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Furosemide / therapeutic use. Humans. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Omeprazole / administration & dosage. Osteolysis / drug therapy. Osteolysis / etiology. Phenobarbital / administration & dosage. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Toremifene / therapeutic use. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17452960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4970
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva stomatologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Stomatol
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androstadienes; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Taxoids; 107868-30-4 / exemestane; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; 7LXU5N7ZO5 / Furosemide; 7NFE54O27T / Toremifene; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; V27W9254FZ / Cortisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; YQE403BP4D / Phenobarbital; CMF regimen
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40. Newcomb PA, Titus-Ernstoff L, Egan KM, Trentham-Dietz A, Baron JA, Storer BE, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ: Postmenopausal estrogen and progestin use in relation to breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2002 Jul;11(7):593-600
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  • [Title] Postmenopausal estrogen and progestin use in relation to breast cancer risk.
  • Epidemiological evidence now consistently supports a modest increase in breast cancer risk among women using postmenopausal hormones, usually estrogens.
  • Less is known regarding how the addition of progestin affects breast cancer risk.
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the type and duration of postmenopausal therapy and breast cancer risk.
  • The subjects were 5298 postmenopausal women (age range, 50-79 years) with a new diagnosis of invasive breast cancer from statewide tumor registries.
  • Participants completed a structured telephone interview covering hormone use and breast cancer risk factors.
  • The RR for breast cancer increased with longer durations of hormone use, about 2%/year for estrogen alone (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03) and 4%/year for estrogen-progestin use (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08).
  • Estrogen-progestin use that was both recent and long term (>5 years in duration) was more strongly associated with breast cancer risk (RR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.15-2.14) than similar use of estrogen alone (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.17-1.65).
  • In estrogen-progestin users, risks were similar for sequential and continuous use regimens but perhaps stronger for lobular than ductal breast cancer.
  • Estrogen-progestin use, both sequential and continuous, appears to be more strongly associated with risk of breast cancer than use of estrogen alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / chemically induced. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Hormone Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Progestins / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Cohort Studies. Confidence Intervals. Drug Combinations. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Massachusetts / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Postmenopause. Probability. Reference Values. Reproducibility of Results. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Wisconsin / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 12101105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47147; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47305; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA69664
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Progestins
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41. Aziz SA, Pervez S, Khan S, Kayani N, Rahbar MH: Relationship of p53 expression with clinicopathological variables and disease outcome: a prospective study on 315 consecutive breast carcinoma patients. Malays J Pathol; 2001 Dec;23(2):65-71
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  • [Title] Relationship of p53 expression with clinicopathological variables and disease outcome: a prospective study on 315 consecutive breast carcinoma patients.
  • Breast cancer is an increasingly important cause of illness and death among women.
  • In recent years several novel prognostic determinants of breast cancer have been identified which includes p53.
  • Alterations of p53 are one of the most common abnormalities detected in primary breast cancer.
  • In this study alteration of p53 in primary carcinoma breast was correlated with other pathological variables and disease outcome.
  • In this prospective study the expression of p53 oncoprotein was analyzed immunohistochemically on 315 patient's tumour specimens of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast from 1992 to 1997.
  • A significant number of p53 patients developed local recurrence and distant metastases to brain, liver, lung and bone (p< 0.05).
  • The above findings have reinforced the view that p53 immunohistochemical detection is of help in detecting a subgroup of breast carcinoma patients who are at high risk.
  • This may also be of particular relevance in decisions regarding adjuvant chemotherapy to these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Hormones / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 12166594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0126-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hormones; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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42. Kurosumi M, Tabei T, Inoue K, Takei H, Ninomiya J, Naganuma R, Suemasu K, Higashi Y, Tsuchiya E: Prognostic significance of scoring system based on histological heterogeneity of invasive ductal carcinoma for node-negative breast cancer patients. Oncol Rep; 2003 Jul-Aug;10(4):833-7
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of scoring system based on histological heterogeneity of invasive ductal carcinoma for node-negative breast cancer patients.
  • This study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of histological scoring system based on heterogeneity of invasive ductal carcinoma, for node-negative breast cancer patients.
  • We studied 108 patients of node-negative invasive ductal carcinoma with invasive tumor >5 mm.
  • Histological score of each patient was evaluated based on histological subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma and pattern of its heterogeneity.
  • Score of each subtype was defined as follows; papillotubular carcinoma: score 1, solid-tubular carcinoma: score 2 and scirrhous carcinoma: score 3.
  • These results suggested that assessment of histological heterogeneity of invasive ductal carcinoma could serve as independent potent prognostic factor for node-negative invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, and this method might be useful to decide indication of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12792731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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43. Schmidberger H, Hermann RM, Hess CF, Emons G: Combination of anti-estrogenic therapy with radiation in breast cancer: simultaneous or sequential treatment? Onkologie; 2005 May;28(5):275-80
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  • [Title] Combination of anti-estrogenic therapy with radiation in breast cancer: simultaneous or sequential treatment?
  • Adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant endocrine therapy are commonly given to patients with invasive breast cancer or with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • Although both therapies have been well established through a number of randomized studies, little is known about a possible interaction of both treatment modalities if they are given simultaneously.
  • A number of in vitro studies indicated that tamoxifen treatment might reduce the intrinsic radiosensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
  • Conversely, estradiol treatment increased the intrinsic radiosensitivity of MCF-7 cells.
  • Retrospective analyses of prospectively randomized clinical studies did not indicate an antagonistic effect of tamoxifen on the effectiveness of ionizing radiation (XRT), since local control has been consistently higher when XRT was combined with tamoxifen, compared to treatment with XRT alone, regardless of whether tamoxifen was started simultaneously with radiotherapy or after completion of radiotherapy.
  • Currently there are no clinical data available that would suggest an adverse effect of adjuvant tamoxifen treatment started prior to or simultaneously with radiotherapy in breast cancer or DCIS.
  • However, since an antagonistic effect of tamoxifen and simultaneous chemotherapy has been reported recently, the issue of simultaneous.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiotherapy. Estrogen Antagonists / administration & dosage. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / radiation effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). Radiation Tolerance / drug effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 15867485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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44. Bandić D, Juretić A, Sarcević B, Separović V, Kujundzić-Tiljak M, Hudolin T, Spagnoli GC, Cović D, Samija M: Expression and possible prognostic role of MAGE-A4, NY-ESO-1, and HER-2 antigens in women with relapsing invasive ductal breast cancer: retrospective immunohistochemical study. Croat Med J; 2006 Feb;47(1):32-41
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  • [Title] Expression and possible prognostic role of MAGE-A4, NY-ESO-1, and HER-2 antigens in women with relapsing invasive ductal breast cancer: retrospective immunohistochemical study.
  • AIM: To evaluate the possible prognostic role of the expression of MAGE-A4 and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigens in women diagnosed with invasive ductal breast cancer and determine the expression of HER-2 antigen.
  • METHODS: The expression of MAGE-A4, NY-ESO-1, and HER-2 antigens was evaluated immunohistochemically on archival paraffin-embedded samples of breast cancer tissue from 81 patients.
  • All patients had T1 to T3, N0 to N1, M0 tumors and underwent postoperative radiotherapy and, if indicated, systemic therapy (chemotherapy and hormonal therapy).
  • RESULTS: The three groups of women were comparable in terms of age, type of operation, tumor size, tumor grade, number of metastatically involved axillary lymph nodes, Nottingham prognostic index (NPI), progesterone receptor (PR) status, and adjuvant hormonal therapy.
  • There were significantly fewer women who received adjuvant chemotherapy in the 5-year relapse-free group than in other two groups (7 vs 23 with locoregional relapse and 25 with bone metastases; P<0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16489695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1332-8166
  • [Journal-full-title] Croatian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Croat. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTAG1B protein, human; 0 / MAGEA4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2080373
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45. Santiago RJ, Harris EE, Qin L, Hwang WT, Solin LJ: Similar long-term results of breast-conservation treatment for Stage I and II invasive lobular carcinoma compared with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: The University of Pennsylvania experience. Cancer; 2005 Jun 15;103(12):2447-54
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  • [Title] Similar long-term results of breast-conservation treatment for Stage I and II invasive lobular carcinoma compared with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: The University of Pennsylvania experience.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to determine the long-term results of breast-conservation treatment in women with early-stage, invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast.
  • METHODS: Between 1977 and 1995, 1093 women with Stage I and II invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 55 women with invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast underwent lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiation treatment.
  • Overall, 49% of the women received adjuvant systemic therapy (chemotherapy and/or hormones).
  • RESULTS: The median age was 52 years for patients in the invasive ductal group and 54 years for patients in the invasive lobular group.
  • The median follow-up was 8.7 years and 10.2 years for patients in the invasive ductal and invasive lobular groups, respectively.
  • A comparison of patients who had invasive lobular carcinoma with patients who had invasive ductal carcinoma showed no difference in the 10-year actuarial rates of overall survival (85% vs. 79%, respectively; P = 0.73), cause-specific survival (93% vs. 84%, respectively; P = 0.85), or freedom from distant metastases (81% vs. 80%, respectively; P = 0.76).
  • The 10-year rates of local failure were 18% for patients with invasive lobular carcinoma and 12% for patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (P = 0.24), and the 10-year rates of contralateral breast carcinoma development for the 2 groups were 12% and 8%, respectively (P = 0.40).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breast-conservation treatment yielded similar long-term results for women with early-stage, invasive lobular carcinoma and women with the more prevalent invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15887223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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46. Hurley J, Franco S, Gomez-Fernandez C, Reis I, Velez P, Doliny P, Harrington W Jr, Wilkinson J, Kanhoush R, Lee Y: Breast cancer and human immunodeficiency virus: a report of 20 cases. Clin Breast Cancer; 2001 Oct;2(3):215-20; discussion 221
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  • [Title] Breast cancer and human immunodeficiency virus: a report of 20 cases.
  • Carcinoma of the breast is the most common malignancy in women in the United States.
  • More than 40% of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection develop cancer during their illness, but breast cancer has seldom been reported.
  • Twenty patients with breast cancer and HIV infection seen at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital between January 1988 and August 2000 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Seventeen patients had a previous or concurrent diagnosis of HIV at the time of the breast cancer diagnosis.
  • All stages of breast cancer were seen: ductal carcinoma in situ (2 patients), stage I (1 patient), stage II (9 patients), stage III (6 patients), and stage IV (2 patients).
  • Seven patients received chemotherapy with very poor tolerance.
  • Of the 18 patients who presented with local disease, 7 have died: 2 of breast cancer, 4 of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and 1 of cardiac arrest.
  • Breast cancer in the HIV-positive population is similar to that seen in seronegative women.
  • The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy are not clear.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / virology. HIV Seropositivity / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cause of Death. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Florida / epidemiology. Hospitals, University. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Premenopause. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11899415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-8209
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical breast cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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47. Kakagia D, Trichas M, Papadopoulos N, Tsalkidis A, Jivannakis T, Tamiolakis D: Ulcerative locally advanced breast cancer: the efficacy of combined anthracycline-based and hormonal therapy. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2004;25(6):716-8
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  • [Title] Ulcerative locally advanced breast cancer: the efficacy of combined anthracycline-based and hormonal therapy.
  • AIM: In the literature there are numerous large prospective studies on patients with locally advanced breast cancer, however little is reported on the management of ulcerative breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the employment of combined anthracycline-based chemotherapy and hormonal therapy in ulcerative locally advanced mammary carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four patients, aged from 67 to 83 years, presented with ulcerative breast cancer resulting in breast destruction.
  • Histological examination of biopsy specimens revealed highly differentiated estrogen receptor-positive ductal carcinomas.
  • Due to their religious beliefs all patients refused any other treatment but chemotherapy.
  • In these patients hemostasis and reduction of bacterial overgrowth were followed by administration of anthracycline-based chemotherapy and hormonal therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: There is clinical evidence from this study that the combination of anthracycline-based palliative chemotherapy coupled with tamoxifen is beneficial for patients with inoperable ulcerative breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Charcoal / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Greece / epidemiology. Humans. Silver / administration & dosage. Skin Ulcer / pathology. Skin Ulcer / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15597849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 16291-96-6 / Charcoal; 3M4G523W1G / Silver; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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48. Balu-Maestro C, Chapellier C, Bleuse A, Chanalet I, Chauvel C, Largillier R: Imaging in evaluation of response to neoadjuvant breast cancer treatment benefits of MRI. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2002 Mar;72(2):145-52
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  • [Title] Imaging in evaluation of response to neoadjuvant breast cancer treatment benefits of MRI.
  • PURPOSE: To compare the value of conventional imaging modalities and MRI for determination of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty tumors (53 ductal carcinomas, seven invasive lobular carcinomas) in 51 patients were evaluated by physical examination, mammography, ultrasound, and MRI at baseline before therapy, after three courses of chemotherapy, and after six courses prior to surgery.
  • RESULTS: (i) MRI was the most reliable technique for evaluation of residual tumor size; this parameter was correctly estimated in 63% of cases by MRI versus, respectively 52, 38, and 43% by physical examination, mammography, and ultrasound, (ii) MRI correctly identified the response to chemotherapy in all cases of complete response (five cases), and in 45/55 cases of partial response (43 cases) or no response (12 cases), and (iii) among the 32 patients who underwent a mastectomy, MRI correctly revealed the multifocal nature of the disease for 12/15 multifocal lesions found at histological examination; both mammography and sonography were accurate in only six of the 15 cases.
  • CONCLUSION: MRI appears to be a valuable technique for assessment of response to chemotherapy and identification of multifocal disease prior to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Weights and Measures / methods. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Mammography. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Physical Examination. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 12038705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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49. Gherardini G, Thomas R, Basoccu G, Zaccheddu R, Fortunato L, Cortino P, Evans GR, Matarasso A, D'Aiuto M, D'Aiuto G: Immediate breast reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap after skin-sparing mastectomy. Int Surg; 2001 Oct-Dec;86(4):246-51
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  • [Title] Immediate breast reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap after skin-sparing mastectomy.
  • Immediate breast reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap after skin-sparing mastectomy is becoming an increasingly performed procedure in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, early invasive breast cancer, and prophylactic mastectomy.
  • Through a periareolar approach, it is possible to remove the breast parenchyma along with the nipple areola complex, preserving almost all the original skin envelope and the inframmamary fold.
  • The TRAM flap is used to recreate the volume and shape of the original breast.
  • Thirty-one patients with a mean age of 39 years (range, 26-50 years) who had undergone unilateral or bilateral mastectomy for early breast cancer and immediate breast reconstruction with the pedicled TRAM flap were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Requirements for the skin-sparing mastectomy technique include suitability of donor site tissue for autologous tissue, early breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ, and adequate size and shape matching of the contralateral breast.
  • One patient developed abdominal bulging 1 month after the operation, during the administration of chemotherapy.
  • The nicer aesthetic result with oncological safety is achieved with immediate breast reconstruction with the TRAM flap after skin-sparing mastectomy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Rectus Abdominis / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12056470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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50. Santiago F, Saleiro S, Brites MM, Frutuoso C, Figueiredo A: A remarkable case of cutaneous metastatic breast carcinoma. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(7):10
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  • [Title] A remarkable case of cutaneous metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • Biopsy was consistent with cutaneous metastases from a ductal breast carcinoma.
  • Treatment included chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery.
  • This case reports a clinically remarkable cutaneous metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Mammaplasty. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Triazoles / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19903438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / Triazoles; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin
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51. Clemons M, Danson S, Howell A: Tamoxifen ("Nolvadex"): a review. Cancer Treat Rev; 2002 Aug;28(4):165-80
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  • Tamoxifen has been used in the management of breast cancer for over 30 years.
  • Since its introduction for the treatment of advanced breast cancer, its indications have increased to include the treatment of early breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ, and more recently for breast cancer chemoprevention.
  • Tamoxifen has a good tolerability profile and moreover, unlike many other endocrine therapies, it is efficacious in both pre- and postmenopausal women.
  • It is the combination of efficacy and tolerability that allows tamoxifen to maintain its position as the hormonal treatment of choice for most patients with oestrogen-receptor positive breast cancer.
  • Ongoing studies will provide further information about the optimal duration of tamoxifen therapy and how it compares with the newer aromatase inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Estrogen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aromatase Inhibitors. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Enzyme Inhibitors. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 12363457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
  • [Number-of-references] 155
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52. Schmidberger H, Hermann RM, Hess CF, Emons G: Interactions between radiation and endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2003 Sep;10(3):375-88
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  • [Title] Interactions between radiation and endocrine therapy in breast cancer.
  • Adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant endocrine therapy are commonly given to patients with invasive breast cancer or with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • Although both therapies have been well established through a number of randomized studies, little is known about a possible interaction of both treatment modalities if they are given simultaneously.
  • A number of in vitro studies have indicated that tamoxifen treatment might reduce the intrinsic radiosensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
  • Conversely, estradiol treatment increases the intrinsic radiosensitivity of MCF-7 cells.
  • Retrospective analyses of randomized clinical studies have not indicated an antagonistic effect of tamoxifen on the effectiveness of XRT, since local control has been consistently higher when XRT was combined with tamoxifen, compared with treatment with XRT alone, regardless of whether tamoxifen was started simultaneously with radiotherapy or after completion of radiotherapy.
  • Currently there are no clinical data available that would suggest an adverse effect of adjuvant tamoxifen treatment started prior to or simultaneously with radiotherapy in breast cancer or DCIS.
  • However, since an antagonistic effect of tamoxifen and simultaneous chemotherapy has been reported recently, the issue of simultaneous versus sequential radiation and tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer should be addressed in further studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiotherapy. Drug Interactions. Radiation Tolerance
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 14503914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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53. Nagashima T, Sakakibara M, Nakamura R, Arai M, Kadowaki M, Kazama T, Nakatani Y, Koda K, Miyazaki M: Dynamic enhanced MRI predicts chemosensitivity in breast cancer patients. Eur J Radiol; 2006 Nov;60(2):270-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dynamic enhanced MRI predicts chemosensitivity in breast cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary chemotherapy for breast cancer is effective as postoperative adjuvant therapy.
  • However, one of the critical disadvantages was a treatment delay for patients with progressive disease.
  • The present study attempts to clarify quantitative parameters on MRI which can be used to predict the sensitivity to treatment in breast cancer patients.
  • METHODS: The subjects consisted of 26 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer who received primary chemotherapy before surgery.
  • Dynamic enhanced MRI was evaluated at three different time periods; prior to, in the midst of preoperative chemotherapy, and just before the initial operation.
  • RESULTS: Responders to chemotherapy had the significantly higher SIR and ECU values than non-responders (p=0.0454 and 0.0334, respectively).
  • ECU value significantly decreased as tumor reduction by chemotherapy (p=0.0028).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our current series demonstrated the significant correlation between pretreatment MRI data and tumor reduction by chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.
  • With these results, it seems possible to define good and non-responders prior to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Image Enhancement. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Contrast Media / metabolism. Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual. Predictive Value of Tests. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity. Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16926079.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Contrast Media; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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54. Pryma DA, Akhurst T: Hydronephrotic ectopic pelvic kidney simulates sacral metastasis from breast cancer. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Apr;30(4):244-5
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  • [Title] Hydronephrotic ectopic pelvic kidney simulates sacral metastasis from breast cancer.
  • A 57-year-old woman with a history of a right modified radical mastectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for stage IIIB infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma presented for follow-up bone scan.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Ductal / radiography. Carcinoma, Ductal / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Ductal / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Spinal Neoplasms / radiography. Spinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15764880.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Sauer T: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extra mammary metastatic lesions in the breast: A retrospective study of 36 cases diagnosed during 18 years. Cytojournal; 2010;7:10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extra mammary metastatic lesions in the breast: A retrospective study of 36 cases diagnosed during 18 years.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic tumors in the breast require treatment according to origin and type of tumor.
  • It is important to recognize these lesions in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in order to avoid unnecessary mastectomy or non-relevant chemotherapy.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytological features of metastatic tumors and possible criteria that could alert us as to the possibility of a metastasis from an extra mammary malignancy.
  • METHODS: The material included 36 confirmed or suspected metastases in the breast registered in the pathology files at Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, during 1990-2007.
  • There were a total of 6,325 cases of malignant breast FNAC, representing 30 men and 6,295 women.
  • All carcinomas were graded.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metastases from extra mammary sites are (relatively) common in males (23.3%).
  • A large proportion of them (88%) are high-grade adenocarcinomas and poorly differentiated carcinomas that may resemble grade 3 ductal carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 20806071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924528
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast / FNAC / cytological features / extra mammary / grade / metastases
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56. Mainka P, Kahlert S, Kirchner T, Mayr D, Diebold J: [Basal and myoepithelial phenotype of metastatic mammary carcinomas. A prognostic factor in the palliative situation?]. Pathologe; 2008 Nov;29 Suppl 2:363-9
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  • [Title] [Basal and myoepithelial phenotype of metastatic mammary carcinomas. A prognostic factor in the palliative situation?].
  • [Transliterated title] Basaler und myoepithelialer Phänotyp des invasiven Mammakarzinoms. Prognostischer Faktor in der palliativen Situation?
  • AIMS: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of basal and myoepithelial phenotype in breast carcinomas (BBC and MBC) in the palliative situation.
  • METHODS: Paraffin-embedded material from 244 primary breast carcinomas of patients with subsequent metastatic disease was stained immunohistochemically for CK 5/6, CK14, smooth-muscle actin, p63, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor.
  • CONCLUSION: The association of BBC and MBC with reduced OASM in metastatic breast carcinomas is not independent from established prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Palliative Care. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / pathology. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Keratin-14 / analysis. Keratin-5 / analysis. Keratin-6 / analysis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / mortality. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / mortality. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18807040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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57. Mathews MS, Linskey ME, Hasso AN, Fruehauf JP: The effect of bevacizumab (Avastin) on neuroimaging of brain metastases. Surg Neurol; 2008 Dec;70(6):649-52; discussion 653
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  • BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab is FDA approved to treat colon cancer and is currently used off label for metastatic breast, kidney, and lung cancers.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors report the case of a 54-year-old woman with metastatic infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma who developed left occipital and right parietal intraaxial contrast-enhancing masses on surveillance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • After stopping bevacizumab therapy, the patient underwent microsurgical resection of the lesion.
  • Histopathologic examination was consistent with metastatic breast cancer indistinguishable from her previously resected enhancing brain metastasis.
  • Six weeks after stopping bevacizumab therapy and 3 weeks after microsurgical resection, a new contrast-enhancing mass was noted on magnetic resonance in the right temporal lobe.
  • CONCLUSION: This case is unique in that we have neuroimaging on prebevacizumab, concurrent bevacizumab, and postbevacizumab brain metastases in the same patient with a single cancer primary, thus, assuring that alterations in neuroimaging characteristics are consistent with bevacizumab effect.
  • As an internal control, it provides strong support for the premise that bevacizumab therapy can confound the diagnosis of brain metastases because of its effect on tumor enhancement.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18261776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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58. Yap X, Tan HY, Huang J, Lai Y, Yip GW, Tan PH, Bay BH: Over-expression of metallothionein predicts chemoresistance in breast cancer. J Pathol; 2009 Mar;217(4):563-70
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  • [Title] Over-expression of metallothionein predicts chemoresistance in breast cancer.
  • We examined MT expression in women with invasive breast ductal carcinoma who underwent mastectomy/lumpectomy without neo-adjuvant treatment.
  • We showed that MT was over-expressed in 87.9% of breast cancer tissues examined, with the mean percentage of positive cells at 30%.
  • For patients who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/5 fluorouracil- or doxorubicin-based regimes), those with high MT expression had a significantly lower recurrence-free survival (p = 0.048), suggesting a role of MT in predicting disease recurrence.
  • The data suggest that MT could be a potential marker of chemoresistance and a molecular therapeutic target.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Metallothionein / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Protein Isoforms / analysis. Protein Isoforms / genetics. RNA Interference. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19116991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein
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59. Gold HT, Do HT, Dick AW: Correlates and effect of suboptimal radiotherapy in women with ductal carcinoma in situ or early invasive breast cancer. Cancer; 2008 Dec 1;113(11):3108-15
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  • [Title] Correlates and effect of suboptimal radiotherapy in women with ductal carcinoma in situ or early invasive breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The study aimed to identify factors associated with less-than-optimal radiotherapy (RT) and its impact on disease-free survival in women aged 66+ years diagnosed with stage I breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • METHODS: The subjects were women diagnosed from 1991 to 1999 in the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database who underwent breast-conserving surgery and RT within 12 months postdiagnosis.
  • The authors conducted descriptive and multivariate survival analyses, and considered age, race, poverty, marital status, comorbidity indices, rural/urban, radiation oncologist density, comedo necrosis histology (DCIS only), chemotherapy receipt (stage I only), and RT completion (3+ weeks of treatment) and delay (8+ weeks postsurgery without chemotherapy; 4+ weeks postchemotherapy).
  • Those living in high poverty areas were less likely to complete RT (P < .03), as were those undergoing chemotherapy (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.15-2.88).
  • Stage I breast cancer patients with delayed RT were more likely to experience a subsequent breast event (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30), and those with incomplete RT had a higher rate of overall mortality (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.06-1.63).
  • Factors associated with lower subsequent breast events included older age, lower poverty, and being married.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RT should be facilitated to ensure completion and timeliness, especially for early invasive breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / mortality. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Multivariate Analysis. Radiotherapy Dosage. SEER Program. Time Factors


60. González Villarroel P, Fernández Pérez I, Páramo C, Gentil González M, Carnero López B, Vázquez Tuñas ML, Carrasco Alvarez JA: Megestrol acetate-induced adrenal insufficiency. Clin Transl Oncol; 2008 Apr;10(4):235-7
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  • Megestrol acetate is a synthetic progestin that has been used since the 1970s for the treatment of advanced cancer and subsequently to treat anorexia, cachexia and weight loss in AIDS patients.
  • It has been shown that high doses or prolonged treatment with this drug may cause Cushing's syndrome, new-onset diabetes and suppression of plasma ACTH and cortisol levels.
  • We present the case of a 74-year-old woman with infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma refractory to prolonged hormonal treatment with megestrol acetate, presenting with adrenal insufficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Insufficiency / chemically induced. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Megestrol Acetate / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18411198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; TJ2M0FR8ES / Megestrol Acetate
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61. Knott KK, McGinley JN, Lubet RA, Steele VE, Thompson HJ: Effect of the aromatase inhibitor vorozole on estrogen and progesterone receptor content of rat mammary carcinomas induced by 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2001 Dec;70(3):171-83
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  • [Title] Effect of the aromatase inhibitor vorozole on estrogen and progesterone receptor content of rat mammary carcinomas induced by 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea.
  • Vorozole, a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, impedes the post-initiation stage of chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis.
  • While various aspects of vorozole's effects on mammary carcinoma development have been investigated, little attention has been directed to determining the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) content of mammary carcinomas that arise despite vorozole treatment.
  • Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given an i.p. injection of 50mg MNU/kg body weight at 21 days of age and placed on diet supplemented with 0 or 3 mg vorozole/kg, which had no effect on mammary tumor development.
  • Histologically confirmed carcinomas were evaluated for ER and PR by immunohistochemistry.
  • In the control group, 78.8% of carcinomas were ER positive with an ER content ranging from 13.8 to 40.0%, similar to ER content of mammary ductal epithelial cells from non-carcinogen treated animals.
  • PR content ranged from 4.4 to 45.2% and also was similar to levels of PR observed in ductal epithelial cells.
  • ER was not correlated with PR in mammary carcinomas (r = 0.05, p > 0.80), whereas there was a significant correlation in ductal epithelium (r = 0.86, p = 0.006).
  • In vorozole-treated rats, no ER negative carcinomas were observed and overall ER expression by vorozole was elevated (p < 0.03).
  • All carcinomas from vorozole-treated rats expressed PR (2.5-60.2%) and correlation between ER and PR content was numerically greater in carcinomas from vorozole-treated animals (r = 0.42, p = 0.09).
  • These data, which are considered hypothesis generating, provide evidence that low doses of vorozole in the diet select for mammary carcinomas with an increased ER positive phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Aromatase Inhibitors. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Triazoles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Division / drug effects. Diet. Drug Administration Schedule. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Methylnitrosourea. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 11804181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCPDCID CDC HHS / CI / NCI-CN-75011-72
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Triazoles; 1E2S9YXV2A / vorozole; 684-93-5 / Methylnitrosourea
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62. Ronneburg H, Span PN, Kantelhardt E, Dittmer A, Schunke D, Holzhausen HJ, Sweep FC, Dittmer J: Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor alpha expression correlates with the outcome of CMF treatment in invasive ductal breast cancer. Int J Oncol; 2010 Feb;36(2):379-86
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  • [Title] Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor alpha expression correlates with the outcome of CMF treatment in invasive ductal breast cancer.
  • Rho-GDIalpha is an inhibitor of Rho-GTPases, which is involved in cancer progression.
  • Little is known about its role in breast cancer progression.
  • There is evidence, that Rho-GDIalpha may modulate drug resistance of breast cancer cells.
  • To assess the importance of Rho-GDIalpha as a risk factor in invasive ductal breast cancer, cancer specimens of three groups of patients were analyzed for Rho-GDIalpha RNA (group 1, N=72 and group 2, N=73) or protein expression (group 3, N=90).
  • In group 1, patients did not receive any adjuvant treatment, whereas, in groups 2 and 3, patients were treated with anti-estrogens and/or with chemotherapeutical drugs.
  • The data suggest that Rho-GDIalpha is beneficial to patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Rho-GDIalpha is possibly a useful biomarker to predict the response of breast cancer patients to CMF treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome. rho-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 20043072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors; 0 / rho-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CMF protocol
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63. Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Hortobágyi GN, Esteva FJ: Adjuvant therapy with trastuzumab for HER-2/neu-positive breast cancer. Oncologist; 2006 Sep;11(8):857-67
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy with trastuzumab for HER-2/neu-positive breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the U.S. and western Europe.
  • Amplification of the her-2/neu gene occurs in approximately 25% of invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast.
  • In experimental models, transfection of the her-2/neu gene results in transformation of mammary epithelial cells.
  • In human breast cancer, amplification of the her-2/neu gene results in protein over expression and poor prognosis.
  • Patients whose tumors have her-2/neu gene amplification have a shorter disease-free survival time than patients whose tumors exhibit a normal her-2/neu gene copy number. her-2/ neu gene amplification identifies a biologically unique subset of aggressive breast tumors that are sensitive to growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by anti-HER-2/neu-targeted therapies.
  • Trastuzumab therapy prolongs the survival of patients with metastatic HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer when combined with chemotherapy and has recently been demonstrated to lead to dramatic improvements in disease-free survival when used in the adjuvant therapy setting in combination with or following chemotherapy.
  • HER-2/neu testing, patient selection, cardiotoxicity, duration of therapy, and directions for future research are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Trastuzumab

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  • (PMID = 16951389.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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64. Gao X, Fisher SG, Emami B: Risk of second primary cancer in the contralateral breast in women treated for early-stage breast cancer: a population-based study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Jul 15;56(4):1038-45
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  • [Title] Risk of second primary cancer in the contralateral breast in women treated for early-stage breast cancer: a population-based study.
  • PURPOSE: To study the potential risk factors, including radiotherapy (RT) for contralateral breast cancer (CBC), in patients treated for early-stage breast cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973-1996) was used to study the incidence of CBC after breast cancer.
  • Information on the use of hormonal therapy and chemotherapy was not available in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.
  • RESULTS: A CBC was documented in 5679 (4.2%) of the 134501 localized invasive or intraductal breast cancer patients surviving at least 3 months.
  • In multivariate analysis, medullary carcinoma (RR = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.37), black race (RR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.08-1.33), and age >55 years at initial diagnosis (RR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22) were associated with increased CBC risk.
  • A total of 1234 (3.3%) of 37,379 patients who received RT developed CBC, and 4445 (4.6%) of 97122 patients who did not receive RT developed CBC.
  • CONCLUSION: CBC is not uncommon after breast cancer, especially for certain subsets of patients.
  • This minimal increase in CBC risk should not affect clinical decision-making in treatment selection for patients with localized invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Unnecessary radiation exposure to the contralateral breast should be avoided for all patients with early-stage breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Radiation Injuries / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / etiology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Risk Factors. SEER Program. United States / epidemiology

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003 Jul 15;56(4):920-1 [12829125.001]
  • (PMID = 12829139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Farczádi E, Kaszás I, Baki M, Szende B: Changes in apoptosis, mitosis, Her-2, p53 and Bcl2 expression in breast carcinomas after short-term tamoxifen treatment. Neoplasma; 2002;49(2):101-3
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  • [Title] Changes in apoptosis, mitosis, Her-2, p53 and Bcl2 expression in breast carcinomas after short-term tamoxifen treatment.
  • The short-term (7 days) effect of tamoxifen on apoptosis and mitosis index, p53, Bcl2 and Her-2/neu/c-erb2 expression in invasive ductal mammary carcinoma was studied histologically in the diagnostic biopsy and surgically removed tumor tissue of 10 patients.
  • Following tamoxifen treatment expression of HER-2 and p53 decreased but Bcl2 remained unchanged.
  • These changes may be attributed to the effect of antiestrogen therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / physiology. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Mitosis / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12088100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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66. Robertson JF: Faslodex (ICI 182, 780), a novel estrogen receptor downregulator--future possibilities in breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2001 Dec;79(1-5):209-12
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  • [Title] Faslodex (ICI 182, 780), a novel estrogen receptor downregulator--future possibilities in breast cancer.
  • Tamoxifen is an effective treatment for breast cancer; however, as well as exerting antagonistic effects on the estrogen receptor (ER), tamoxifen acts as a partial agonists in estrogen-sensitive tissues, resulting in stimulation of the endometrium and tumor growth in some patients who become resistant to treatment.ICI 182, 780 (Faslodex), a steroidal estrogen antagonist, is the first in a new class of agent-an estrogen receptor downregulator.
  • Pre-clinical breast cancer models show that ICI 182, 780 leads to a prolonged duration of response, and that it exerts its effects via a different mode of action to tamoxifen.
  • This was confirmed in a small clinical study involving 19 post-menopausal advanced breast cancer patients, where ICI 182, 780 was highly effective after tamoxifen failure.
  • Definitive evidence of the differing modes of action of ICI 182, 780 and tamoxifen, were provided in a study involving post-menopausal women with primary breast cancer, where analyses of tumor samples following short-term exposure to both drugs, showed that ICI 182, 780 reduced tumor ER levels in a dose-dependent manner, and to a significantly greater extent than tamoxifen.
  • Ongoing studies in post-menopausal women with advanced breast cancer are comparing ICI 182, 780 to anastrozole and tamoxifen, respectively.
  • Future studies being considered are whether ICI 182, 780 may also be effective in breast cancer in pre-menopausal women, in early breast cancer and in ductal carcinoma in situ in the breast, in combination with other hormonals, cytotoxics and biological modifiers.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Estradiol / analogs & derivatives. Estradiol / therapeutic use. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Receptors, Estrogen / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11850227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 22X328QOC4 / fulvestrant; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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67. Nott SL, Huang Y, Kalkanoglu A, Harper K, Chen M, Paoni SF, Fenton BM, Muyan M: Designer monotransregulators provide a basis for a transcriptional therapy for de novo endocrine-resistant breast cancer. Mol Med; 2010 Jan-Feb;16(1-2):10-8
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  • [Title] Designer monotransregulators provide a basis for a transcriptional therapy for de novo endocrine-resistant breast cancer.
  • The main circulating estrogen hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2) contributes to the initiation and progression of breast cancer.
  • Ablation of the circulating E2 and/or prevention of ER functions constitute approaches for ER-positive breast cancer treatments.
  • These modalities are, however, ineffective in de novo endocrine-resistant breast neoplasms that do not express ERs.
  • We herein tested the prediction that specific regulation of ERE-driven genes by an engineered monomeric and constitutively active transcription factor, monotransregulator, provides a basis for the treatment of ER-negative breast cancer.
  • Using adenovirus infected ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells derived from a breast adenocarcinoma, we found that the monotransregulator, but not the ERE-binding defective counterpart, repressed cellular proliferation and motility, and induced apoptosis through expression of genes that required ERE interactions.
  • Similarly, the monotransregulator suppressed the growth of ER-negative BT-549 cells derived from a breast-ductal carcinoma.
  • Thus, specific regulation of genes bearing EREs could offer a therapeutic approach for de novo endocrine-resistant breast cancers.

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  • (PMID = 19946606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-3658
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113682; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113682
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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68. Liu CM, Zhu RL, Liu RH, Li HL, Shan L, Xu XK, Zhang WD: cis-Clerodane diterpenoids from the liverwort Gottschelia schizopleura and their cytotoxic activity. Planta Med; 2009 Dec;75(15):1597-601
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  • The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1- 5 were evaluated against liver hepatoblastoma (HEP-G2), lung carcinoma (A549), breast ductal carcinoma (MDA-MB-435), and colon adenocarcinoma (LOVO) cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / isolation & purification. Hepatophyta / chemistry. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Diterpenes / isolation & purification. Diterpenes / pharmacology. Diterpenes / therapeutic use. Diterpenes, Clerodane / isolation & purification. Diterpenes, Clerodane / pharmacology. Diterpenes, Clerodane / therapeutic use. Humans. Molecular Structure

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.
  • (PMID = 19579183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0221
  • [Journal-full-title] Planta medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Planta Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Diterpenes; 0 / Diterpenes, Clerodane; 0 / Plant Extracts
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69. Gabrovski N, Poptodorov G, Velinov N, Gabrovski S: [Late metastases from breast cancer--report of two cases]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2010;(1):62-6
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  • [Title] [Late metastases from breast cancer--report of two cases].
  • INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is amongst the commonest reasons for brain metastases involving 15-20% of the patients.
  • Metastases discovered 10 or more years after the initial diagnosis of breast cancer are defined as late metastases and present a rare event.
  • We present two cases of late brain metastases of breast cancer discovered 15 and 17 years after initial diagnosis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 46-year old female patient a 5 x 6 cm lesion in the breast was observed and was histologically diagnosed to be a breast invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • Mastectomy was performed (TNM grade - T2N1bM0) with postoperative radiotherapy (40 Gy for 20 days) combined with chemotherapy.
  • CT scan revealed a lesion involving the frontal, temporal and parietal bones and the adjacent soft tissues as well as dura mater and the subdural space.
  • In a 38-year old female patient a 3 cm lesion in the breast was observed and was histologically diagnosed to be a low differentiated invasive ductal breast carcinoma.
  • Radical mastectomy was performed TNM grade (T2N1M0) with radio- and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In the presented cases we describe late brain metastasis from breast cancer 15 and 17 years after initial diagnosis.
  • This observation is important because, regular followup for patients with breast cancer is 6-10 years.
  • Based on our experience we suggest that the follow-up, in patients treated for breast cancer, even with apparently total regression of the disease, should be extended beyond the routine period of 10 years and tumour markers should be investigated regularly.
  • Metastasis in CNS should be taken into consideration in patients treated for breast cancer no matter the time from the initial diagnosis when clinical symptoms appear.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Brain / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast / pathology. Breast / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21972709.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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70. Yin Y, Russell RG, Dettin LE, Bai R, Wei ZL, Kozikowski AP, Kopelovich L, Glazer RI: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta and gamma agonists differentially alter tumor differentiation and progression during mammary carcinogenesis. Cancer Res; 2005 May 1;65(9):3950-7
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  • [Title] Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta and gamma agonists differentially alter tumor differentiation and progression during mammary carcinogenesis.
  • These and other receptor-mediated actions pertain to their role in hypolipidemic and antidiabetic therapies and as potential targets for cancer chemopreventive agents.
  • The present study evaluated the chemopreventive activity of two highly potent and selective PPARgamma and PPARdelta agonists in a progestin- and carcinogen-induced mouse mammary tumorigenesis model.
  • Significantly, tumors from GW7845-treated mice were predominantly ductal adenocarcinomas, whereas tumors from GW501516-treated animals were adenosquamous and squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Only tumors from mice treated with the PPARgamma agonist expressed estrogen receptor-alpha in luminal transit cells, suggesting increased ductal progenitor cell expansion.
  • Tumors from mice treated with the PPARdelta agonist exhibited increased PPARdelta levels and activated 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), which co-associated, suggesting a link between the known oncogenic activity of PDK1 in mammary epithelium and PPARdelta activation.
  • These results indicate that PPARdelta and PPARgamma agonists produce diverse, yet profound effects on mammary tumorigenesis that give rise to distinctive histopathologic patterns of tumor differentiation and tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Ductal / prevention & control. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / prevention & control. Oxazoles / pharmacology. PPAR delta / agonists. PPAR gamma / agonists. Thiazoles / pharmacology. Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives. Tyrosine / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / chemically induced. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemically induced. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Mice

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  • [ErratumIn] Cancer Res. 2005 Jul 1;65(13):5989
  • [ErratumIn] Cancer Res. 2005 Oct 1;65(19):9108. Kopleovich, Levy [corrected to Kopelovich, Levy]
  • (PMID = 15867396.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25101
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / GW 501516; 0 / GW 7845; 0 / Oxazoles; 0 / PPAR delta; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazoles; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine
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71. Larkin A, Moran E, Kennedy SM, Clynes M: Monoclonal antibody 5C3 raised against formalin fixed paraffin-embedded invasive breast tumour tissue: characterisation of its reactive antigen via immunoprecipitation and internal sequencing. J Immunol Methods; 2005 Aug;303(1-2):53-65
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  • [Title] Monoclonal antibody 5C3 raised against formalin fixed paraffin-embedded invasive breast tumour tissue: characterisation of its reactive antigen via immunoprecipitation and internal sequencing.
  • In an attempt to identify such an antigen, MAbs were generated by immunization with paraffin wax-embedded formalin-fixed invasive ductal breast tumour tissue from a patient who relapsed following an initial response to adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Extensive immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis of a range of cell lines and tissues including a series of pre- and post-chemotherapy treated invasive ductal breast carcinomas, with one of these MAbs, antibody 5C3, indicated that the 5C3 reactive antigen displayed a wide spectrum of reactivity amongst various human tumours.
  • A reduced level of 5C3 expression was observed in non-cancerous archival breast tissues and breast cell lines and normal murine tissues compared to the expression observed in infiltrating breast tumour cells.
  • Immunoprecipitation studies using the human ductal breast carcinoma cell line, ZR-75-1 resulted in the isolation of a 175 kDa reactive band which was excised from an SDS-PAGE gel and subjected to internal sequencing.
  • Sequencing analysis and database searching revealed that this 175 kDa band represented a cytokeratin heteropolymer, composed of type I cytokeratin 9 and type II cytokeratin 6.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / biosynthesis. Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Breast Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. HL-60 Cells. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / immunology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Spleen / pathology. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 16038928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1759
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunological methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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72. Gholam D, Chebib A, Hauteville D, Bralet MP, Jasmin C: Combined paclitaxel and cetuximab achieved a major response on the skin metastases of a patient with epidermal growth factor receptor-positive, estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (triple-negative) breast cancer. Anticancer Drugs; 2007 Aug;18(7):835-7
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  • [Title] Combined paclitaxel and cetuximab achieved a major response on the skin metastases of a patient with epidermal growth factor receptor-positive, estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (triple-negative) breast cancer.
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase of the erbB family, is expressed in 15-30% of all breast cancers.
  • Large clinical studies recently demonstrated cetuximab synergy with radiotherapy and chemotherapy agent irinotecan.
  • Studies in human breast cancer xenografts showed cetuximab synergy with paclitaxel, a potent mitosis spindle-cell stabilizer.
  • In this report, combined paclitaxel and cetuximab achieved a major reduction of the skin metastases of a heavily pretreated patient with epidermal growth factor receptor-positive, estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (triple-negative) invasive ductal breast carcinoma.
  • Treatment was well-tolerated overall and response was not correlated with the appearance of major cetuximab-induced acneiform rash.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acneiform Eruptions / chemically induced. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Cetuximab. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome


73. Buch RS, Schmidt M, Reichert TE: [Acute tongue necrosis provoked by epirubicin-cyclophosphamide treatment for invasive ductal breast cancer]. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir; 2003 May;7(3):175-9
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  • [Title] [Acute tongue necrosis provoked by epirubicin-cyclophosphamide treatment for invasive ductal breast cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Akute Nekrose der Zunge unter Epirubicin-Cyclophosphamid-Therapie bei einem invasiv duktalen Mammakarzinom.
  • Previously, it had only been described as an infrequent complication of temporal arteritis or as a side effect of therapy with ergotamine.
  • We present a case of unilateral necrosis of the tongue in a 62-year-old woman with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast treated with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide.
  • DISCUSSION: Because of the temporal connection between the occurrence of the necrosis and the administration of chemotherapy, an adverse effect of the administered drugs seems most likely.
  • However, it is important to be aware of the different causes leading to this rare disease in order to initiate the right therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Epirubicin / adverse effects. Tongue / pathology. Tongue Diseases / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Airway Obstruction / chemically induced. Airway Obstruction / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Necrosis

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  • (PMID = 12764685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-9417
  • [Journal-full-title] Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie : MKG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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74. Kumar P, Singh S, Datta NR, Tandon A: Epitrochlear lymph node metastases from invasive ductal breast cancer. J Cancer Res Ther; 2009 Jul-Sep;5(3):203-5
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  • [Title] Epitrochlear lymph node metastases from invasive ductal breast cancer.
  • Metastasis to an epitrochlear lymph node from a primary invasive breast cancer has not been reported earlier.
  • We report a case of epitrochlear lymph node metastasis that presented 10 years after the primary breast malignancy had been treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Humerus. Mastectomy, Radical. Middle Aged. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19841563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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75. Choi YS, Kim HB, Kwon GS, Park JK: On-chip testing device for electrochemotherapeutic effects on human breast cells. Biomed Microdevices; 2009 Feb;11(1):151-9
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  • [Title] On-chip testing device for electrochemotherapeutic effects on human breast cells.
  • A microfabricated cell-based testing device for electrochemotherapy (ECT) has been developed by miniaturizing the widely used clinical electroporator with a two-needle array into two-dimensional planar electrodes while keeping the similarity of the electric field strength distribution.
  • With the proposed platform, the electroporation rate was evaluated with propidium iodide and cell proliferation after 48 h of electrochemotherapy with bleomycin was determined with T47D human breast ductal carcinoma cell line in various electric field strengths and drug concentrations.
  • This microsystem has several advantages over conventional cuvette type electroporation assay, such as multiple assays on a chip, on-chip based operation from cell culture to final assay, and having similar electric field distribution as that of the clinical electroporator.
  • As the clinical trials of electrochemotherapy are being carried out, this new platform is expected to have valuable applications in basic in vitro ECT studies, drug discovery, and development of clinical ECT equipment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Bleomycin / pharmacology. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal / drug therapy. Electrochemotherapy / instrumentation. Electrochemotherapy / methods. Microfluidic Analytical Techniques / instrumentation. Microfluidic Analytical Techniques / methods

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  • (PMID = 18791868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-8781
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical microdevices
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Microdevices
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin
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76. Tamiolakisl D, Venizelos I, Lambropoulou M, Jivannakis T, Seliniotakis E, Tsikouras P, Limberis V, Tsalkidis A, Papadopoulos N: Gains and losses of HLA class II (DR) and CD4 in atypical hyperplasia, carcinoma in situ and infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove); 2004;47(4):257-62
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  • [Title] Gains and losses of HLA class II (DR) and CD4 in atypical hyperplasia, carcinoma in situ and infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast.
  • AIM: Breast cancer is a frequent cause of death among women with gynaecologic malignancies despite the introduction of combination chemotherapy.
  • There is therefore a need for new therapeutic strategies for patients with breast cancer, such as cellular immunotherapy.
  • In this immunohistochemical study we analyzed the epithelial expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (HLA-DR) on atypical and malignant primary mammary epithelial cells, as well as the magnitude of the stromal T lymphocytes (T4 subset) at the tumor site.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The study was carried out retrospectively in tumor tissue from 82 patients with mammary lesions (31 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia -ADH-, 12 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ -DCIS- and 39 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified -IDC-NOS).
  • Medullary carcinomas were not included in our investigation.

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  • (PMID = 15844251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1211-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica (Hradec Kralove)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens
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77. Madej B, Balak B, Winkler I, Burdan F: Cancer of the accessory breast--a case report. Adv Med Sci; 2009;54(2):308-10
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  • [Title] Cancer of the accessory breast--a case report.
  • Breast neoplasm may develop in ectopically located glandular tissue.
  • This paper presents an interesting and rare case of a 50-year-old female who despite regular mammography screening examination developed an invasive accessory breast cancer.
  • Oligobiopsy and additional examinations showed an invasive stage IIIB ductal breast cancer (Bloom II, G-2).
  • The increased level of cancer antigen 15.3 was found.
  • The patient was submitted to pre-operative chemotherapy.
  • She also underwent surgery and subsequently post-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • On the basis of the presented case, it could be concluded that the accessory mammary glands are out of the image of screening breast examinations.
  • Accessory breast cancer is usually diagnosed by clinical examination and ultrasonography.
  • Preventive resection of accessory breast in women at high risk of developing breast cancer can be considered as the treatment of choice in most patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Female. Humans. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Nipples / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis


78. Altundag K, Altundag O, Gunduz M, Arun B: Possible interaction between activator protein-1 and proto-oncogene B-cell lymphoma gene 6 in breast cancer patients resistant to tamoxifen. Med Hypotheses; 2004;63(5):823-6
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  • [Title] Possible interaction between activator protein-1 and proto-oncogene B-cell lymphoma gene 6 in breast cancer patients resistant to tamoxifen.
  • About 75% of breast tumors are positive for the estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PgR) or both, and estrogen is the main stimulant in the development and growth of these tumors.
  • Tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor antagonist has been endocrine treatment for hormone-sensitive breast cancer for more than 20 years.
  • However, the underlying cause of treatment failure in many breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen is resistance to tamoxifen.
  • AP-1 blockade suppresses mitogenic signals from multiple different peptide growth factors as well as estrogen, and inhibits the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo.
  • Increased AP-1 activity in breast cancer cells can lead to tamoxifen resistance.
  • BCL-6 is also expressed in the mammary epithelium in nonpregnant animals and during early pregnancy and is expressed in 68% of histologically high-grade ductal breast carcinomas, which are clinically the most aggressive.
  • We hypothesize that increased BCL-6 in breast cancer cells might block tamoxifen resistance by repressing AP-1, eventually resulting in apoptosis.
  • We also suggest that BCL-6 expression must be analyzed in ER-positive breast cancer patients and the results must be correlated with predictive and prognostic factors and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Humans. Models, Biological. Treatment Outcome


79. Calaf GM: Susceptibility of human breast epithelial cells in vitro to hormones and drugs. Int J Oncol; 2006 Feb;28(2):285-95
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  • [Title] Susceptibility of human breast epithelial cells in vitro to hormones and drugs.
  • Breast cancer is often hormone responsive with growth or regression of tumors modulated by endocrine manipulations.
  • Estrogens are known to control the growth of many mammary carcinomas in experimental animals, and humans.
  • Knowledge of tumor response to hormones will greatly improve the ability to plan therapy for breast cancer patients.
  • Chemoprevention of breast cancer has been mostly aimed at reducing the rate of cell division through administration of anti-hormones.
  • Tamoxifen has shown to be species, tissue, and cell-type specific.
  • Cell proliferation in mammary gland occurs in a non-random fashion since there are specific compartments with varied rates of proliferation represented by the terminal end buds that are ready for differentiation into alveolar buds.
  • Normal, benign lesions, and duct carcinomas of human breast tissues were processed for organ culture.
  • In the case of the normal breast tissue it was enzymatically digested and culture as organoid culture as well.
  • Several immortalized normal and malignant human breast cell lines were also used in these studies to analyze the effect of 17beta estradiol, progesterone, tamoxifen and anti-progestin RU486.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogen Antagonists / pharmacology. Tamoxifen / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast. Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Mifepristone / pharmacology. Organ Culture Techniques. Progesterone / pharmacology. Progestins / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16391781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Progestins; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 320T6RNW1F / Mifepristone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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80. Kiyohara T, Kumakiri M, Kawami K, Kouraba S, Takeuchi A, Sawai T, Lao LM, Ansai S, Hashimoto K: Apocrine carcinoma of the vulva in a band-like arrangement with inflammatory and telangiectatic metastasis via local lymphatic channels. Int J Dermatol; 2003 Jan;42(1):71-4
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  • [Title] Apocrine carcinoma of the vulva in a band-like arrangement with inflammatory and telangiectatic metastasis via local lymphatic channels.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary adenocarcinomas of the vulva have been classified as sweat gland carcinomas, extramammary Paget's disease, and primary breast carcinomas of the vulva.
  • METHODS: We describe a 72-year-old Japanese woman with apocrine carcinoma of the vulva and local lymphatic metastasis.
  • The peripheral papulovesicles demonstrated the same histopathologic view as in inflammatory and telangiectatic, metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • Tumor cells were positive for various ductal and glandular markers.
  • Ultrastructural findings suggested differentiation towards apocrine or mammary glands because of the presence of an apocrine process and electron-dense mucous granules.
  • The patient died in spite of combination chemotherapy and irradiation therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We report a rare case of apocrine carcinoma of the vulva in a band-like arrangement with local lymphatic metastasis which showed the clinical and histopathologic characteristics of inflammatory and telangiectatic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Palliative Care / methods. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 12581149.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Surowiak P, Materna V, Paluchowski P, Matkowski R, Wojnar A, Maciejczyk A, Pudelko M, Kornafel J, Dietel M, Kristiansen G, Lage H, Zabel M: CD24 expression is specific for tamoxifen-resistant ductal breast cancer cases. Anticancer Res; 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1B):629-34
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  • [Title] CD24 expression is specific for tamoxifen-resistant ductal breast cancer cases.
  • BACKGROUND: In breast cancer, the expression of CD24 represents a poorly recognised unfavourable prognostic factor.
  • The present study was aimed at examining the predictive value of CD24 expression in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer cases.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients with primary invasive ductal breast cancers with post-operative tamoxifen treatment were enrolled in the study.
  • CONCLUSION: The data from the present study suggested that CD24c-m expression is specific for tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cases.
  • CD24 should be subjected to comprehensive studies as a marker of resistance to tamoxifen treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD24 / biosynthesis. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Tamoxifen / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16739331.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD24; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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82. Abdallah A, Wesemann A, Saklaoui O, Stuckle C, Sommerer F, Zink M, Papadopoulos S: [Breast-conserving treatment of breast cancer after augmentation with injected hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel and review of the literature]. Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch; 2009;49(1):35-8
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  • [Title] [Breast-conserving treatment of breast cancer after augmentation with injected hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Brusterhaltende Therapie des Mammakarzinoms nach Augmentation mit injiziertem hydrophilem Polyacrylamidgel und Literaturübersicht.
  • We report on a 33-year-old female patient with invasive ductal breast cancer.
  • Despite breast augmentation with injected hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel in her history, she was successfully treated with breast-conserving therapy.
  • The widespread migration of the gel conglomerates first complicated diagnostic imaging, surgical treatment and tumour aftercare.
  • Nevertheless, the gel was macroscopically totally removed allowing a breast-conserving therapy.
  • After adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, the patient stays tumour free with a satisfactory cosmetic result.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / administration & dosage. Breast Implants. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Cosmetics / administration & dosage. Mastectomy, Segmental / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions. Injections. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19204400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynäkologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / polyacrylamide gels
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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83. Kossoy G, Anisimov VN, Ben-Hur H, Kossoy N, Zusman I: Effect of the synthetic pineal peptide epitalon on spontaneous carcinogenesis in female C3H/He mice. In Vivo; 2006 Mar-Apr;20(2):253-7
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  • Epitalon was injected at a dose of 0.1 microg, 5 times a week.
  • Treatment with Epitalon decreased the number of tumor-bearing mice with malignant tumors and prevented the development of metastases.
  • Spontaneous tumors of the reproductive organs (mammary glands and ovaries) were predominant in both groups of mice (control and experimental).
  • The mammary gland tumors were different variants of invasive ductal carcinomas.
  • Treatment with Epitalon slowed down the development of metastases from spontaneous tumors, and no metastases were found in the experimental mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligopeptides / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / prevention & control. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mice. Mice, Inbred C3H

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  • (PMID = 16634527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Oligopeptides; O65P17785G / alanyl-glutamyl-aspartyl-glycine
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84. Kamoshida S, Shiogama K, Shimomura R, Inada K, Sakurai Y, Ochiai M, Matuoka H, Maeda K, Tsutsumi Y: Immunohistochemical demonstration of fluoropyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes in various types of cancer. Oncol Rep; 2005 Nov;14(5):1223-30
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical demonstration of fluoropyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes in various types of cancer.
  • Fluoropyrimidines [5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and its prodrugs] have been widely used in the treatment of solid cancers.
  • The anticancer effects primarily depend on intratumoral levels of enzymes metabolizing the drugs, such as dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), and thymidylate synthase (TS).
  • In order to know the tumor types susceptible to respective fluoropyrimidines, we investigated the expression of DPD, OPRT, TP and TS in various types of cancer with the immunoperoxidase method.
  • These four enzymes existed in all of the cancer types studied, such as pulmonary, gastric, colorectal, hepatic, cholecystic, pancreatic, renal, urocystic, and mammary cancers.
  • Respective types of cancers presented characteristic immunohistochemical features as follows: pulmonary adenocarcinoma, DPD- and TP-high; pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, TS- and TP-high; intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma, TP-high; diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma, DPD-low and TS-high; colorectal adenocarcinoma, DPD- and TP-low, hepatocellular carcinoma, DPD-high, and TS- and OPRT-low; cholecystic adenocarcinoma, DPD- and TS-high; renal cell carcinoma, DPD-low, and OPRT- and TP-high; urocystic transitional cell carcinoma, DPD-high and OPRT-low; and mammary ductal carcinoma, OPRT-low, and TS- and TP-high.
  • The enzyme expression pattern in cancer tissue was generally similar to that of their normal counterparts.
  • However, TP immunoreactivity in adenocarcinomas of the lung, stomach and gallbladder, and urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder was stronger, and DPD immunoreactivity in adenocarcinoma of the breast was weaker, when compared with normal epithelial cells.
  • These results indicated that the key enzymes influencing the effects of fluoropyrimidines differ from cancer to cancer.
  • Fluoropyrimidine treatment may be selected, based on the simultaneous immunohistochemical evaluation of the fluoropyrimidine metabolic enzymes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / metabolism. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Fluorouracil / metabolism. Fluorouracil / pharmacology. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP) / metabolism. Drug Resistance. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase / metabolism. Thymidine Phosphorylase / metabolism. Thymidylate Synthase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16211289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; EC 1.3.1.2 / Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP); EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; EC 2.4.2.10 / Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase; EC 2.4.2.4 / Thymidine Phosphorylase; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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85. Molteni A, Ward WF, Ts'ao CH, Taylor J, Small W Jr, Brizio-Molteni L, Veno PA: Cytostatic properties of some angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors and of angiotensin II type I receptor antagonists. Curr Pharm Des; 2003;9(9):751-61
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  • [Title] Cytostatic properties of some angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors and of angiotensin II type I receptor antagonists.
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II (AII) type 1 receptor antagonists have strong cytostatic properties on in vitro cultures of many normal and neoplastic cells.
  • They are effective, in particular, in reducing the growth of human lung fibroblasts, renal canine epithelial cells, bovine adrenal endothelial cells, simian T lymphocytes, and of neoplastic cell lines derived from human neuroblastomas, a ductal pancreatic carcinoma of the Syrian hamsters, human salivary glands adenocarcinomas, and two lines of human breast adenocarcinomas.
  • ACE inhibitors and AII type 1 receptor antagonists are also effective in reducing excessive vascular neoformation in a model of injury to the cornea of rats and rabbits, and in controlling the excessive angiogenesis observed in the Solt-Farber model of experimentally induced hepatoma, in methylcholantrene or radiation-induced fibrosarcomas, in radiation-induced squamous cell carcinomas and in the MA-16 viral-induced mammary carcinoma of the mouse.
  • Moreover, AII regulates and enhances the activity of several growth factors including transforming growth factor B (TGFB) and smooth muscle actin (SMA); and many of these factors are reduced in tissues of animals treated with ACE inhibitors and AII type 1 receptor antagonists.
  • The ACE inhibitors containing a sulphydril (SH) or thiol radical in their moiety (Captopril and CL242817) seemed to be more effective in controlling fibrosis and the growth of some neoplastic cells than those ACE inhibitors without this thiol radical in their structure, even if the second group of these drugs show in vitro a stronger inhibitory effect on converting enzyme activity.
  • However, although these additional properties are pharmacologically relevant, the blockade of AII synthesis plays an essential role in the cytostatic activity of these two categories of drugs.
  • These observations underline that in addition to the beneficial effect of these drugs on the cardiovascular system, new potential applications are opening for their wider deployment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Angiotensin / physiology

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  • (PMID = 12570792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1381-6128
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical design
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Pharm. Des.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 24652; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 52750; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 64239; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 15612; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL 25106
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Angiotensin
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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86. Ben Hassouna J, Damak T, Ben Slama A, Chargui R, Ben Dhiab T, Khomsi F, Gamoud A, Boussen H, Rahal K: Breast carcinoma arising within fibroadenomas. Report of four observations. Tunis Med; 2007 Oct;85(10):891-5
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  • [Title] Breast carcinoma arising within fibroadenomas. Report of four observations.
  • BACKGROUND: Fibroadenoma is a frequent benign breast tumor affecting young woman.
  • The incidence of a carcinoma within adenofibromas is estimated at 0.1 to 0.3%.
  • AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients with breast carcinoma arising within adenofibroma and to determine the clinical characteristics and the prognosis of this rare entity.
  • OBSERVATIONS: We retrospectively report on four cases of carcinomas arising in mammary fibroadenomas.
  • The treatment consisted of a conservative treatment in two cases and a mastectomy plus axillary node dissection in the two others.
  • Radiotherapy was indicated in all cases and chemotherapy done in three cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Every benign mammary nodule must necessarily be verified surgically to avoid misdiagnosing any carcinomatous area because at this stage its prognosis is better.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Cyst / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18236815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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87. Carr A, Rodríguez E, Arango Mdel C, Camacho R, Osorio M, Gabri M, Carrillo G, Valdés Z, Bebelagua Y, Pérez R, Fernández LE: Immunotherapy of advanced breast cancer with a heterophilic ganglioside (NeuGcGM3) cancer vaccine. J Clin Oncol; 2003 Mar 15;21(6):1015-21
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  • [Title] Immunotherapy of advanced breast cancer with a heterophilic ganglioside (NeuGcGM3) cancer vaccine.
  • PURPOSE: A heterophilic ganglioside cancer vaccine was developed by combining NeuGcGM3 with the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis to form very small size proteoliposomes (VSSP).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Stage III to IV breast cancer patients received up to 15 (200 micro g) doses of the vaccine by intramuscular injection.
  • The first five doses (induction phase) were given at 2-week intervals, with the remaining treatment (maintenance) administered on a monthly basis.
  • All treated patients who completed the induction phase developed anti-NeuGcGM3 antibody titers between 1:1,280 and 1:164,000 immunoglobulin G (IgG), and 1:640 and 1:164,000 IgM.
  • Hyperimmune sera increased complement-mediated cytotoxicity versus P3X63 myeloma cells and a marked IgG differential reactivity against human mammary ductal carcinoma samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. G(M3) Ganglioside / analogs & derivatives. G(M3) Ganglioside / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Complement System Proteins / immunology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Immunoglobulin A / blood. Immunoglobulin G / blood. Immunoglobulin M / blood. Immunohistochemistry. Injections, Intramuscular. Middle Aged. Neisseria meningitidis. Neoplasm Staging. Proteolipids. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12637465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / G(M3) Ganglioside; 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / Proteolipids; 0 / proteoliposomes; 69345-49-9 / N-glycolylneuraminyllactosylceramide; 9007-36-7 / Complement System Proteins
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88. Kubota K, Ogawa Y, Nishioka A, Murata Y, Itoh S, Hamada N, Morio K, Maeda H, Tanaka Y: Radiological imaging features of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast and axillary lymph nodes. Oncol Rep; 2008 Nov;20(5):1143-7
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  • [Title] Radiological imaging features of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast and axillary lymph nodes.
  • Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast is of growing clinical significance.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the radiological imaging features for this type of breast carcinoma and the axillary lymph nodes.
  • The study population consisted of 30 breast cancer patients (8 invasive micropapillary carcinomas and 22 other types of invasive ductal carcinoma).
  • The breast lesions were evaluated with mammography, ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Only contrast-enhanced MRI showed characteristic findings for invasive micropapillary carcinoma.
  • Although invasive micropapillary carcinoma is commonly irregular in shape (7/8) compared with other types of invasive carcinoma (6/22) (p=0.012, chi(2) test), a careful interpretation of radiological imaging to identify lesion borders helped the complete clearance of cancer cells from 6/8 patients with invasive micropapillary carcinoma in one-time breast conservative surgery.
  • The positive and negative predictive values of sonography in diagnosing axillary lymph node metastases in cases of invasive micropapillary carcinoma were 100 and 50%, respectively.
  • In conclusion, contrast-enhanced MRI reveals the irregular shape of invasive micropapillary carcinoma and helps conservative breast surgery to be performed safely.
  • The pathological analysis of axillary nodes in cases of invasive micropapillary carcinoma may prove to be indispensable due to the relatively low negative predictive value of sonography.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radiography. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 18949414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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89. Park K, Choi K, Kim H, Kim K, Lee MH, Lee JH, Kim Rim JC: Isoflavone-deprived soy peptide suppresses mammary tumorigenesis by inducing apoptosis. Exp Mol Med; 2009 Jun 30;41(6):371-81
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  • [Title] Isoflavone-deprived soy peptide suppresses mammary tumorigenesis by inducing apoptosis.
  • Thus, suppression of NF-gammaB has been linked with chemoprevention of cancer.
  • We have determined whether the exogenous administration of isoflavone-deprived soy peptide prevents 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis and investigated the mechanism of action.
  • Dietary administration of soy peptide (3.3 g/rat/day) significantly reduced the incidence of ductal carcinomas (50%), the number of tumors per multiple tumor-bearing rats (49%; P<0.05), and extended the latency period of tumor development (8.07+/-0.92 weeks) compared to control diet animals (10.80+/-1.30; P<0.05).
  • In agreement with our in vivo data, soy peptide treatment inhibited the growth of human breast MCF-7 tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control. Apoptosis / drug effects. Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control. Soybean Proteins / isolation & purification. Soybean Proteins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Chemoprevention. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / genetics. HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Isoflavones / chemistry. NF-kappa B / genetics. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Peptides / chemistry. Peptides / isolation & purification. Peptides / therapeutic use. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Soybeans / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 19322027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental & molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Soybean Proteins; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2705857
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90. Fornage BD, Sneige N, Ross MI, Mirza AN, Kuerer HM, Edeiken BS, Ames FC, Newman LA, Babiera GV, Singletary SE: Small (&lt; or = 2-cm) breast cancer treated with US-guided radiofrequency ablation: feasibility study. Radiology; 2004 Apr;231(1):215-24
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  • [Title] Small (< or = 2-cm) breast cancer treated with US-guided radiofrequency ablation: feasibility study.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility and safety of ultrasonographically (US) guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation in the local treatment of invasive breast carcinomas 2 cm or less in greatest diameter.
  • A 15-gauge needle electrode was placed in the lesions, and the prongs of the needle electrode were deployed with real-time US guidance.
  • The desired outcome of the procedure was ablation of the tumor and of an adequate margin around it, as confirmed by the absence of viable tissue in the surgical specimen.
  • In one patient, who had undergone preoperative chemotherapy for a mass that was initially judged to be a T2 tumor but who was found to have a small residual tumor at mammography and US performed at the time of ablation, the target lesion was ablated but residual in situ mammographically and US occult invasive carcinoma was found at histopathologic examination.
  • CONCLUSION: US-guided percutaneous ablation of small invasive breast carcinomas is feasible and safe.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Carcinoma, Lobular / surgery. Catheter Ablation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright RSNA, 2004
  • (PMID = 14990810.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Prat A, Parker JS, Karginova O, Fan C, Livasy C, Herschkowitz JI, He X, Perou CM: Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the claudin-low intrinsic subtype of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res; 2010;12(5):R68
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  • [Title] Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the claudin-low intrinsic subtype of breast cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: In breast cancer, gene expression analyses have defined five tumor subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, basal-like and claudin-low), each of which has unique biologic and prognostic features.
  • These main features of claudin-low tumors were also evaluated in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and genetically engineered mouse models.
  • RESULTS: Claudin-low tumors are characterized by the low to absent expression of luminal differentiation markers, high enrichment for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers, immune response genes and cancer stem cell-like features.
  • Clinically, the majority of claudin-low tumors are poor prognosis estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative (triple negative) invasive ductal carcinomas with a high frequency of metaplastic and medullary differentiation.
  • They also have a response rate to standard preoperative chemotherapy that is intermediate between that of basal-like and luminal tumors.
  • Interestingly, we show that a group of highly utilized breast cancer cell lines, and several genetically engineered mouse models, express the claudin-low phenotype.
  • Finally, we confirm that a prognostically relevant differentiation hierarchy exists across all breast cancers in which the claudin-low subtype most closely resembles the mammary epithelial stem cell.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results should help to improve our understanding of the biologic heterogeneity of breast cancer and provide tools for the further evaluation of the unique biology of claudin-low tumors and cell lines.

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  • (PMID = 20813035.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES010126; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50-CA58223-09A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA138255; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN43308; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058223; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-138255
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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92. Lauby G: Carcinomatous meningitis in a patient with metastatic breast cancer. Clin Lab Sci; 2001;14(3):141-4
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  • [Title] Carcinomatous meningitis in a patient with metastatic breast cancer.
  • The importance of laboratory utilization in the diagnosis of metastasis is explored using a case study of a 39-year-old female with metastatic breast carcinoma to the brain.
  • Tissue from the breast was examined both before and after chemotherapy.
  • The breast tissue showed infiltrating mammary carcinoma, ductal type, with 8/11 auxiliary lymph nodes showing metastasis.
  • Based on cytological and hematological results, a diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatosis was determined and treatment was started.
  • Following the intrathecal chemotherapy, serial cerebrospinal fluid examinations showed the percentage of malignant cells decreased and no cells were detected 11 days after treatment.
  • Metastasis, including meningeal carcinomatosis is a common occurrence with breast carcinoma.
  • An effective chemotherapeutic treatment is evaluated for this disease when an accurate diagnosis is made.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 11517623.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical laboratory science : journal of the American Society for Medical Technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lab Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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93. Braunstein S, Formenti SC, Schneider RJ: Acquisition of stable inducible up-regulation of nuclear factor-kappaB by tumor necrosis factor exposure confers increased radiation resistance without increased transformation in breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res; 2008 Jan;6(1):78-88
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  • [Title] Acquisition of stable inducible up-regulation of nuclear factor-kappaB by tumor necrosis factor exposure confers increased radiation resistance without increased transformation in breast cancer cells.
  • High-grade breast cancers are better adapted to hypoxia and more resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) increases in breast tumors and in breast cancer cell lines, where it promotes chemoradiation resistance, in part by activation of antiapoptotic genes.
  • The role for up-regulation of NF-kappaB in breast cancer progression is less clear.
  • Here, we first show that whereas the constitutive activity of NF-kappaB is incrementally elevated from immortalized breast epithelial to frank transformed invasive ductal breast cancer cell lines (~3-fold, +/-0.1-fold, P < 0.05), inflammatory cytokine-inducible activity is further increased (up to 9-fold, +/-0.9-fold, P < 0.05).
  • Thus, TNF and possibly other inflammatory cytokines in the tumor-stroma matrix likely select for breast cancer cells that stably overexpress NF-kappaB, leading to greater cancer cell survival.
  • Greater cell survival despite increased genomic injury may permit increased acquisition of malignant genetic alterations as well as resistance to chemoradiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Radiation Tolerance / drug effects. Tumor Necrosis Factors / pharmacology. Up-Regulation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Death / drug effects. Cell Death / radiation effects. Cell Hypoxia / drug effects. Cell Hypoxia / radiation effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / radiation effects. Cytokines / pharmacology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / radiation effects. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors. Radiation, Ionizing. Tumor Stem Cell Assay

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  • (PMID = 18234964.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-7786
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factors
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94. Liu TJ, Tsai SC, Ho YJ, Sun SS, Kao CH: Comparison of the expression of P-glycoprotein, Ki-67, and P-53 to technetium-99m tetrofosmin mammoscintigraphic findings. Cancer Invest; 2002;20(2):199-205
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  • Adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy is being used increasingly in the treatment of breast cancer patients.
  • However, drug resistance plays an important role in the failure of chemotherapy in breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to compare technetium-99m tetrofosmin (Tc-TETRO) mammoscintigraphic findings with the expression of drug resistance proteins (p-glycoprotein [Pgp], Ki-67 and mutant p53) in human breast cancer tissues.
  • Thirty patients diagnosed with infiltrating ductal breast cancer underwent Tc-TETRO mammoscintigraphy before surgery or biopsy.
  • Our data confirmed that Tc-TETRO mammoscintigraphic findings are useful for determination of the presence of Pgp expression in breast cancer patients, but no significant relations between Tc-TETRO mammoscintigraphic findings and Ki67 or mutant p53 were found.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Organophosphorus Compounds. Organotechnetium Compounds. P-Glycoprotein / analysis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 11901540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane
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95. Brummer O, Stegner HE, Böhmer G, Kühnle H, Petry KU: HER-2/neu expression in Paget disease of the vulva and the female breast. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Nov;95(2):336-40
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  • [Title] HER-2/neu expression in Paget disease of the vulva and the female breast.
  • A 12% prevalence of invasive Paget carcinoma and a 4% prevalence of associated adenocarcinomas are described.
  • Furthermore, a high recurrence rate of 30% after surgical therapy is observed.
  • This study aims to search for therapeutic strategies for recurrent Paget disease, which are less mutilating and less aggressive than reexcision, x-ray therapy, or chemotherapy.
  • FDA for the treatment of patients with HER-2/neu-positive metastatic breast carcinomas.
  • In addition, we investigated five mammary Paget diseases.
  • Overexpression of HER-2/neu was demonstrated in all five cases of mammary Paget disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Using HercepTest as a standardized detection system, overexpression of HER-2/neu can be demonstrated in a majority of both noninvasive and invasive Paget disease of the vulva.
  • The use of Trastuzumab should be considered for the treatment of patients with recurrent Paget disease of the vulva with overexpression of HER-2/neu.
  • [MeSH-major] Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Paget's Disease, Mammary / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Female. Humans. Paraffin Embedding

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  • (PMID = 15491754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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96. Green JE, Shibata MA, Shibata E, Moon RC, Anver MR, Kelloff G, Lubet R: 2-difluoromethylornithine and dehydroepiandrosterone inhibit mammary tumor progression but not mammary or prostate tumor initiation in C3(1)/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic mice. Cancer Res; 2001 Oct 15;61(20):7449-55
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  • [Title] 2-difluoromethylornithine and dehydroepiandrosterone inhibit mammary tumor progression but not mammary or prostate tumor initiation in C3(1)/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic mice.
  • Female transgenic mice that express SV40 T/t antigens under the regulatory control of the rat C3(1) gene spontaneously develop multifocal mammary lesions that predictably evolve into invasive, hormone-independent carcinomas, whereas male mice are prone to develop prostate cancer.
  • Chemopreventive agents were administered to female C3(1)/SV40 large T-antigen mice from 7 to 19 weeks of age, during which time the mammary lesions developed and progressed to invasive carcinomas.
  • No significant differences in the numbers of preinvasive mammary intraepithelial neoplasia lesions (histologically similar to human ductal carcinoma in situ) were observed after 2 or 8 weeks of treatment between mice receiving either vehicle alone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), or 2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO).
  • However, a dose-response reduction in invasive carcinoma growth was observed for both DFMO, an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, and DHEA, the primary steroid precursor to both androgens and estrogens in primates.
  • Interestingly, despite its inhibitory effects on tumor development, DHEA caused a dose-dependent increase of serum estradiol levels that we have previously shown to increase mammary tumor formation in this model.
  • No effect on the development of the prostate cancer precursor lesions (prostate intraepithelial neoplasia) was observed when mice were treated with DHEA, DFMO, tocopherol acetate, selenomethionine, or 9-cis-retinoic acid, although the effects on late-stage prostate cancer development were not determined.
  • These results demonstrate that despite the expression of the highly transforming C3(1)/SV40 large T-antigen transgene, this transgenic model can be used to study the effects of chemopreventive agents on mammary cancer progression.
  • The tumor-inhibitory effects of DHEA and DFMO on mammary cancer growth appear to occur after the development of preinvasive lesions, suggesting that these agents inhibit tumor progression but not initiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Dehydroepiandrosterone / pharmacology. Eflornithine / pharmacology. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / prevention & control. Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / biosynthesis. Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / genetics. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Disease Progression. Estradiol / blood. Female. Gene Expression / drug effects. Male. Mice. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy. Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control. Rats. Transgenes / drug effects


97. Potemski P, Kusińska R, Pasz-Walczak G, Piekarski JH, Watała C, Płuciennik E, Bednarek AK, Kordek R: Prognostic relevance of cyclin E expression in operable breast cancer. Med Sci Monit; 2009 Feb;15(2):MT34-40
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  • [Title] Prognostic relevance of cyclin E expression in operable breast cancer.
  • High levels of cyclin E protein in breast cancer have been reported in association with higher disease stage, poor histological differentiation of tumor, and lack of steroid receptors.
  • Data concerning the prognostic relevance of cyclin E expression in breast cancer are conflicting.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prognostic relevance of cyclin E expression assessed by immunohistochemistry in patients with operable invasive ductal breast cancer.
  • MATERIAL/METHODS: The expression of cyclin E was analyzed by immunostaining in 174 women with breast cancer after radical mastectomy with a median follow-up period of 58 months.
  • RESULTS: Positive staining for cyclin E determined poor prognosis compared with cyclin E-negative patients in all cases (five-year cancer-specific survival rate of 64.5 vs. 84.5%, p=0.005), in the node-positive group (50.9 vs. 82.1%, p=0.008), and in patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (71.0 vs. 96.6%, p=0.008).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Cyclin E / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models

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  • (PMID = 19179977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1643-3750
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCNE1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / Oncogene Proteins
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98. Banerjee S, Bueso-Ramos C, Aggarwal BB: Suppression of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats by resveratrol: role of nuclear factor-kappaB, cyclooxygenase 2, and matrix metalloprotease 9. Cancer Res; 2002 Sep 1;62(17):4945-54
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  • [Title] Suppression of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats by resveratrol: role of nuclear factor-kappaB, cyclooxygenase 2, and matrix metalloprotease 9.
  • Because NF-kappaB suppression has been linked with chemoprevention, this prompted us to investigate the chemopreventive potential of resveratrol by testing it against mammary carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague Dawley rats.
  • Histopathological analysis of the tumors revealed that DMBA induced ductal carcinomas and focal microinvasion in situ (7 of 7), whereas treatment with resveratrol suppressed DMBA-induced ductal carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed that resveratrol suppressed the DMBA-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloprotease-9 expression in the breast tumor.
  • Treatment of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with resveratrol also suppressed the NF-kappaB activation and inhibited proliferation at S-G(2)-M phase.
  • Overall, our results suggest that resveratrol suppresses DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis, which correlates with down-regulation of NF-kappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, and matrix metalloprotease-9 expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Isoenzymes / physiology. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / prevention & control. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / physiology. NF-kappa B / physiology. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / physiology. Stilbenes / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene / antagonists & inhibitors. 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene / toxicity. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Animals. Blotting, Western. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinogens / antagonists & inhibitors. Carcinogens / toxicity. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Division / physiology. Cyclooxygenase 2. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors. Membrane Proteins. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 12208745.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Stilbenes; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; Q369O8926L / resveratrol
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99. Avilés Izquierdo JA, Martínez Sánchez D, Suárez Fernandez R, Lázaro Ochaita P, Longo-Imedio MI: Pigmented axillary nodule: carcinoma of an ectopic axillary breast. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Feb;31(2):237-9
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  • [Title] Pigmented axillary nodule: carcinoma of an ectopic axillary breast.
  • BACKGROUND: Ectopic mammary tissue appears in humans owing to an incomplete embryologic regression of the mammary ridges.
  • The same pathology that affects normally positioned breasts, including carcinoma, can occur in ectopic mammary tissue.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to present the case of a 43-year-old woman who developed a ductal mammary carcinoma of ectopic breast tissue.
  • METHODS: We describe the patient's history, the histologic diagnosis, and the therapy carried out.
  • RESULTS: The patient developed a ductal mammary carcinoma in the axilla, which is the most common site for the occurrence of carcinoma of ectopic breast tissue.
  • She has been sucessfully treated with surgery, lymphadenectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
  • Accessory mammary tissue is a relatively frequent incidental finding, whereas carcinoma of ectopic tissue is very rare.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoma occurring in ectopic breast tissue remains rare, but this diagnosis must be suspected when confronted with any axillary nodule.
  • The prognosis is similar to carcinoma of normal breast in the same tumor, node, metastasis stage, although it has a higher rate of lymph node involvement.
  • There is no consensus on the advisability of excising ectopic mammary tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15762222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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