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1. Kubota K, Ogawa Y, Nishioka A, Murata Y, Itoh S, Hamada N, Morio K, Maeda H, Tanaka Y: Radiological imaging features of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast and axillary lymph nodes. Oncol Rep; 2008 Nov;20(5):1143-7
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  • [Title] Radiological imaging features of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast and axillary lymph nodes.
  • Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast is of growing clinical significance.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the radiological imaging features for this type of breast carcinoma and the axillary lymph nodes.
  • The study population consisted of 30 breast cancer patients (8 invasive micropapillary carcinomas and 22 other types of invasive ductal carcinoma).
  • The breast lesions were evaluated with mammography, ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Only contrast-enhanced MRI showed characteristic findings for invasive micropapillary carcinoma.
  • Although invasive micropapillary carcinoma is commonly irregular in shape (7/8) compared with other types of invasive carcinoma (6/22) (p=0.012, chi(2) test), a careful interpretation of radiological imaging to identify lesion borders helped the complete clearance of cancer cells from 6/8 patients with invasive micropapillary carcinoma in one-time breast conservative surgery.
  • The positive and negative predictive values of sonography in diagnosing axillary lymph node metastases in cases of invasive micropapillary carcinoma were 100 and 50%, respectively.
  • In conclusion, contrast-enhanced MRI reveals the irregular shape of invasive micropapillary carcinoma and helps conservative breast surgery to be performed safely.
  • The pathological analysis of axillary nodes in cases of invasive micropapillary carcinoma may prove to be indispensable due to the relatively low negative predictive value of sonography.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radiography. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 18949414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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2. Bebenek M, Jedrzejuk D, Milewicz A: Metastases to the internal mammary lymph nodes as the only spread of ductal breast cancer: case description. J BUON; 2008 Oct-Dec;13(4):585-7
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  • [Title] Metastases to the internal mammary lymph nodes as the only spread of ductal breast cancer: case description.
  • The present paper describes a case of a breast cancer patient in whom lymphoscintigraphy identified metastases in the internal mammary nodes whilst the axillary lymphatic center was tumor-negative.
  • Because of the lymph node involvement, cancer was restaged from original I to IIIc.
  • Consequently, the patient was qualified for chemotherapy with docetaxel and doxorubicin.
  • The case described is another contribution for the routine application of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 19145687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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3. Gherardini G, Thomas R, Basoccu G, Zaccheddu R, Fortunato L, Cortino P, Evans GR, Matarasso A, D'Aiuto M, D'Aiuto G: Immediate breast reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap after skin-sparing mastectomy. Int Surg; 2001 Oct-Dec;86(4):246-51
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  • [Title] Immediate breast reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap after skin-sparing mastectomy.
  • Immediate breast reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap after skin-sparing mastectomy is becoming an increasingly performed procedure in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, early invasive breast cancer, and prophylactic mastectomy.
  • Through a periareolar approach, it is possible to remove the breast parenchyma along with the nipple areola complex, preserving almost all the original skin envelope and the inframmamary fold.
  • The TRAM flap is used to recreate the volume and shape of the original breast.
  • Thirty-one patients with a mean age of 39 years (range, 26-50 years) who had undergone unilateral or bilateral mastectomy for early breast cancer and immediate breast reconstruction with the pedicled TRAM flap were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Requirements for the skin-sparing mastectomy technique include suitability of donor site tissue for autologous tissue, early breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ, and adequate size and shape matching of the contralateral breast.
  • One patient developed abdominal bulging 1 month after the operation, during the administration of chemotherapy.
  • The nicer aesthetic result with oncological safety is achieved with immediate breast reconstruction with the TRAM flap after skin-sparing mastectomy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Rectus Abdominis / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12056470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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4. Santiago F, Saleiro S, Brites MM, Frutuoso C, Figueiredo A: A remarkable case of cutaneous metastatic breast carcinoma. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(7):10
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  • [Title] A remarkable case of cutaneous metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • Biopsy was consistent with cutaneous metastases from a ductal breast carcinoma.
  • Treatment included chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery.
  • This case reports a clinically remarkable cutaneous metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Mammaplasty. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Triazoles / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19903438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / Triazoles; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin
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5. Ettinger DS, Grunberg SM, Hauber AB, Mohamed AF: Evaluation of the relative importance of chemotherapeutic and antiemetic efficacy in various oncologic settings. Support Care Cancer; 2009 Apr;17(4):405-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oncologists in the USA and four European countries completed an online stated-choice survey consisting of three hypothetical treatment choices for each of two patient types.
  • Each hypothetical treatment alternative included both chemotherapy and antiemetic regimens.
  • The two hypothetical patient types were (1) a 48-year-old woman with locoregional infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast and (2) a 78-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and multiple liver metastases.
  • In each choice question, oncologists were asked to select the better combination of chemotherapy and antiemetic prophylaxis between two treatment alternatives.
  • For the adjuvant breast cancer patient, the most aggressive chemotherapy is consistently the most important treatment consideration in all countries.
  • For the advanced lung cancer patient, the most aggressive chemotherapy, the less aggressive chemotherapy, and the most aggressive antiemetic prophylaxis are of similar importance in most countries.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Physicians appear more likely to prescribe a more aggressive chemotherapy regimen for a younger patient with a perceived curable tumor, regardless of the emetogenic properties of the chemotherapy.
  • Symptom management is more of a concern and chemotherapeutic efficacy relatively less of a priority in an older patient with advanced disease for whom chemotherapy is not curative.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiemetics / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 18762991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7339
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Care Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiemetics; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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6. Santiago RJ, Harris EE, Qin L, Hwang WT, Solin LJ: Similar long-term results of breast-conservation treatment for Stage I and II invasive lobular carcinoma compared with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: The University of Pennsylvania experience. Cancer; 2005 Jun 15;103(12):2447-54
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  • [Title] Similar long-term results of breast-conservation treatment for Stage I and II invasive lobular carcinoma compared with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: The University of Pennsylvania experience.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to determine the long-term results of breast-conservation treatment in women with early-stage, invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast.
  • METHODS: Between 1977 and 1995, 1093 women with Stage I and II invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 55 women with invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast underwent lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiation treatment.
  • Overall, 49% of the women received adjuvant systemic therapy (chemotherapy and/or hormones).
  • RESULTS: The median age was 52 years for patients in the invasive ductal group and 54 years for patients in the invasive lobular group.
  • The median follow-up was 8.7 years and 10.2 years for patients in the invasive ductal and invasive lobular groups, respectively.
  • A comparison of patients who had invasive lobular carcinoma with patients who had invasive ductal carcinoma showed no difference in the 10-year actuarial rates of overall survival (85% vs. 79%, respectively; P = 0.73), cause-specific survival (93% vs. 84%, respectively; P = 0.85), or freedom from distant metastases (81% vs. 80%, respectively; P = 0.76).
  • The 10-year rates of local failure were 18% for patients with invasive lobular carcinoma and 12% for patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (P = 0.24), and the 10-year rates of contralateral breast carcinoma development for the 2 groups were 12% and 8%, respectively (P = 0.40).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breast-conservation treatment yielded similar long-term results for women with early-stage, invasive lobular carcinoma and women with the more prevalent invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Time Factors


7. Kurosumi M, Tabei T, Inoue K, Takei H, Ninomiya J, Naganuma R, Suemasu K, Higashi Y, Tsuchiya E: Prognostic significance of scoring system based on histological heterogeneity of invasive ductal carcinoma for node-negative breast cancer patients. Oncol Rep; 2003 Jul-Aug;10(4):833-7
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of scoring system based on histological heterogeneity of invasive ductal carcinoma for node-negative breast cancer patients.
  • This study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of histological scoring system based on heterogeneity of invasive ductal carcinoma, for node-negative breast cancer patients.
  • We studied 108 patients of node-negative invasive ductal carcinoma with invasive tumor >5 mm.
  • Histological score of each patient was evaluated based on histological subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma and pattern of its heterogeneity.
  • Score of each subtype was defined as follows; papillotubular carcinoma: score 1, solid-tubular carcinoma: score 2 and scirrhous carcinoma: score 3.
  • These results suggested that assessment of histological heterogeneity of invasive ductal carcinoma could serve as independent potent prognostic factor for node-negative invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, and this method might be useful to decide indication of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12792731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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8. Bini A, Zompatori M, Ansaloni L, Grazia M, Stella F, Bazzocchi R: Bilateral recurrent pneumothorax complicating chemotherapy for pulmonary metastatic breast ductal carcinoma: report of a case. Surg Today; 2000;30(5):469-72
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  • [Title] Bilateral recurrent pneumothorax complicating chemotherapy for pulmonary metastatic breast ductal carcinoma: report of a case.
  • Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) is a rare complication of chemotherapy for pulmonary metastases and to the best of our knowledge, only 28 cases have been described, most of which occurred in patients with osteosarcoma or germ cell tumors.
  • We present herein the case of a 56-year-old woman in whom bilateral and recurrent SSP was caused by the rupture of pulmonary lacunae induced by chemotherapy, given for bilateral lung metastases secondary to breast carcinoma.
  • Our experience of this case led us to conclude that: patients with pulmonary metastases may develop bilateral and/or recurrent pneumothoraces following chemotherapy; computed tomography scan is essential for defining the cause of SSP; and closed chest tube drainage remains the therapy of choice, while chemical pleurodesis may also be used to prevent recidivant SSP.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pneumothorax / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Drainage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10819490.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CMF regimen; MMM protocol 2
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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9. Silva VA, Kataguiri P, Trufelli DC, Matos LL, Neves-Pereira JC, Campos JR: [Pulmonary hamartoma as a differential diagnosis of breast cancer metastasis: case report]. J Bras Pneumol; 2007 Nov-Dec;33(6):738-42
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary hamartoma as a differential diagnosis of breast cancer metastasis: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Hamartoma pulmonar como diagnóstico diferencial de metástase de carcinoma de mama: relato de caso.
  • We present the case of a 60-year-old female patient who had been in menopause for 14 years and presented a pulmonary nodule on chest X-ray diagnosed in the postoperative follow-up evaluation of breast cancer.
  • The patient had a history of mastectomy and ipsilateral axillary lymphadenectomy for invasive ductal breast carcinoma, as well as of hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • Recent studies show that 75% of patients who undergo surgery for pulmonary nodules after a curative mastectomy for breast cancer present lung metastases, 11.5% present primary lung cancer, and 13.5% present benign lesions, including hamartoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology. Lung Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18200376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicaça̋o oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bras Pneumol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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10. Fontana S, Ghilardi R, Barbaglio A, Amaddeo P, Faldi F, Pericotti S: Male breast cancer with mandibular metastasis. A case report. Minerva Stomatol; 2007 Apr;56(4):225-30
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  • [Title] Male breast cancer with mandibular metastasis. A case report.
  • Female breast cancer is one of the major causes of death among women while male breast cancer is relatively uncommon and accounts for about 1% of all breast cancers in both sexes.
  • Influencing factors are: gynecomasty, familiarity for male breast cancer, Jewish and African-American male population.
  • From the histological point of view, it is not different from the female breast cancer, except for the infiltrant ductal carcinoma, but with a much severe prognosis.
  • Breast cancer metastases to the jaws are rare, only 1%; the most common sites of metastases are: lungs(59-69%), liver (58-65%), bone (44-71%), pleura (23-37%), brain (9-22%) and kidney (4-17%).
  • At present, based on a literature research (May 2006), there have been just two other case reports of male breast cancer metastasis to the maxillofacial region, both to the mandible.
  • The case of a 69-year-old white man who in 2001 underwent a radical mastectomy due to ductal breast cancer is reported.
  • The histological examination was consistent with that of a metastatic deposit of adenocarcinoma of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Mandibular Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Androstadienes / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cortisone / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Furosemide / therapeutic use. Humans. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Omeprazole / administration & dosage. Osteolysis / drug therapy. Osteolysis / etiology. Phenobarbital / administration & dosage. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Toremifene / therapeutic use. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17452960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4970
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva stomatologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Stomatol
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androstadienes; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Taxoids; 107868-30-4 / exemestane; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; 7LXU5N7ZO5 / Furosemide; 7NFE54O27T / Toremifene; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; V27W9254FZ / Cortisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; YQE403BP4D / Phenobarbital; CMF regimen
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11. Sauer T: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extra mammary metastatic lesions in the breast: A retrospective study of 36 cases diagnosed during 18 years. Cytojournal; 2010;7:10
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extra mammary metastatic lesions in the breast: A retrospective study of 36 cases diagnosed during 18 years.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic tumors in the breast require treatment according to origin and type of tumor.
  • It is important to recognize these lesions in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in order to avoid unnecessary mastectomy or non-relevant chemotherapy.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytological features of metastatic tumors and possible criteria that could alert us as to the possibility of a metastasis from an extra mammary malignancy.
  • METHODS: The material included 36 confirmed or suspected metastases in the breast registered in the pathology files at Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, during 1990-2007.
  • There were a total of 6,325 cases of malignant breast FNAC, representing 30 men and 6,295 women.
  • All carcinomas were graded.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metastases from extra mammary sites are (relatively) common in males (23.3%).
  • A large proportion of them (88%) are high-grade adenocarcinomas and poorly differentiated carcinomas that may resemble grade 3 ductal carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 20806071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924528
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast / FNAC / cytological features / extra mammary / grade / metastases
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12. Aliaga A, Rousseau JA, Ouellette R, Cadorette J, van Lier JE, Lecomte R, Bénard F: Breast cancer models to study the expression of estrogen receptors with small animal PET imaging. Nucl Med Biol; 2004 Aug;31(6):761-70
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  • [Title] Breast cancer models to study the expression of estrogen receptors with small animal PET imaging.
  • Different animal models of estrogen positive tumors (ER+) were evaluated for their suitability to follow tumor response after various treatment protocols, using small animal positron emission tomography (PET).
  • ER+ human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T-47D, using MDA-MB-231 as ER-; control, and murine mammary ductal carcinomas MC4-L2, MC4-L3, and MC7-L1, were compared for their in vivo growth rate and retention of ER+ status.
  • F-18 activity values were obtained by small animal PET imaging and confirmed by tissue sampling and radioactivity counting.
  • Chemotherapy and hormone therapy delayed the growth of MC7-L1 and MC4-L2 tumors, confirming their suitability as an ER+ model for therapeutic interventions.
  • These data demonstrate that murine MC7-L1 and MC4-L2 tumors are suitable models for the monitoring of ER+ breast cancer therapy using small animal PET imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Estradiol / analogs & derivatives. Estradiol / pharmacokinetics. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Fluorine Radioisotopes. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / radionuclide imaging. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tissue Distribution

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 15246367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 84693-92-5 / 16-fluoroestradiol
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13. Nott SL, Huang Y, Kalkanoglu A, Harper K, Chen M, Paoni SF, Fenton BM, Muyan M: Designer monotransregulators provide a basis for a transcriptional therapy for de novo endocrine-resistant breast cancer. Mol Med; 2010 Jan-Feb;16(1-2):10-8
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  • [Title] Designer monotransregulators provide a basis for a transcriptional therapy for de novo endocrine-resistant breast cancer.
  • The main circulating estrogen hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2) contributes to the initiation and progression of breast cancer.
  • Ablation of the circulating E2 and/or prevention of ER functions constitute approaches for ER-positive breast cancer treatments.
  • These modalities are, however, ineffective in de novo endocrine-resistant breast neoplasms that do not express ERs.
  • We herein tested the prediction that specific regulation of ERE-driven genes by an engineered monomeric and constitutively active transcription factor, monotransregulator, provides a basis for the treatment of ER-negative breast cancer.
  • Using adenovirus infected ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells derived from a breast adenocarcinoma, we found that the monotransregulator, but not the ERE-binding defective counterpart, repressed cellular proliferation and motility, and induced apoptosis through expression of genes that required ERE interactions.
  • Similarly, the monotransregulator suppressed the growth of ER-negative BT-549 cells derived from a breast-ductal carcinoma.
  • Thus, specific regulation of genes bearing EREs could offer a therapeutic approach for de novo endocrine-resistant breast cancers.

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  • (PMID = 19946606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-3658
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113682; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113682
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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14. Tsunoda-Shimizu H, Hayashi N, Hamaoka T, Kawasaki T, Tsugawa K, Yagata H, Kikuchi M, Suzuki K, Nakamura S: Determining the morphological features of breast cancer and predicting the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy via diagnostic breast imaging. Breast Cancer; 2008;15(2):133-40
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  • [Title] Determining the morphological features of breast cancer and predicting the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy via diagnostic breast imaging.
  • BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has recently become common therapy for breast cancer.
  • This work studied whether or not the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy can be predicted from morphological features of breast cancer in initial diagnostic imaging.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 186 cases who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy at this hospital in 2006 were studied.
  • One is a type of invasive carcinoma that tends to grow along the mammary ducts (type A1), another is a type of expansively growing invasive carcinoma that is relatively well-defined (type A2), a third is a type of irregularly shaped mass that retracts surrounding tissue (type A3), and the fourth is a mixed type.
  • Thus, the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on carcinomas of the four types were compared on the basis of image and pathological findings.
  • Effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were classified into three categories of enlarged mass, pCR, and other, with the latter indicating no change or shrinkage.
  • RESULTS: Of the 186 total cases, 72 were classified as type A1, 31 as type A2, 52 as type A3, and 31 as a mixed type.
  • Seven of 31 cases of type A2 (22.6%) were cases of an enlarged mass, revealing a high percentage of such cases.
  • Dividing cases into type A2 and other types and looking at the proportion of cases of an enlarged mass thus indicated a significantly higher tendency. pCR was achieved in 6 of 31 cases with type A2 (19.4%).
  • Here, also, the proportion of type A2 cases was significantly higher.
  • CONCLUSION: Morphological features prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy can contribute to determining the effects of the therapy.
  • Expansively growing well-defined masses contain lesions at both extremes, tending to enlarge in some instances or instead allowing pCR, so the course of therapy must be carefully followed when performing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / classification. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / classification. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / classification. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Diagnostic Imaging. Epirubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Stereoisomerism. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18288570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; FEC protocol
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15. Molteni A, Ward WF, Ts'ao CH, Taylor J, Small W Jr, Brizio-Molteni L, Veno PA: Cytostatic properties of some angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors and of angiotensin II type I receptor antagonists. Curr Pharm Des; 2003;9(9):751-61
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  • [Title] Cytostatic properties of some angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors and of angiotensin II type I receptor antagonists.
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II (AII) type 1 receptor antagonists have strong cytostatic properties on in vitro cultures of many normal and neoplastic cells.
  • They are effective, in particular, in reducing the growth of human lung fibroblasts, renal canine epithelial cells, bovine adrenal endothelial cells, simian T lymphocytes, and of neoplastic cell lines derived from human neuroblastomas, a ductal pancreatic carcinoma of the Syrian hamsters, human salivary glands adenocarcinomas, and two lines of human breast adenocarcinomas.
  • ACE inhibitors and AII type 1 receptor antagonists are also effective in reducing excessive vascular neoformation in a model of injury to the cornea of rats and rabbits, and in controlling the excessive angiogenesis observed in the Solt-Farber model of experimentally induced hepatoma, in methylcholantrene or radiation-induced fibrosarcomas, in radiation-induced squamous cell carcinomas and in the MA-16 viral-induced mammary carcinoma of the mouse.
  • Moreover, AII regulates and enhances the activity of several growth factors including transforming growth factor B (TGFB) and smooth muscle actin (SMA); and many of these factors are reduced in tissues of animals treated with ACE inhibitors and AII type 1 receptor antagonists.
  • The ACE inhibitors containing a sulphydril (SH) or thiol radical in their moiety (Captopril and CL242817) seemed to be more effective in controlling fibrosis and the growth of some neoplastic cells than those ACE inhibitors without this thiol radical in their structure, even if the second group of these drugs show in vitro a stronger inhibitory effect on converting enzyme activity.
  • However, although these additional properties are pharmacologically relevant, the blockade of AII synthesis plays an essential role in the cytostatic activity of these two categories of drugs.
  • These observations underline that in addition to the beneficial effect of these drugs on the cardiovascular system, new potential applications are opening for their wider deployment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Angiotensin / physiology

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  • (PMID = 12570792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1381-6128
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical design
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Pharm. Des.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 24652; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 52750; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 64239; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 15612; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL 25106
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Angiotensin
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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16. Aziz SA, Pervez S, Khan S, Kayani N, Rahbar MH: Relationship of p53 expression with clinicopathological variables and disease outcome: a prospective study on 315 consecutive breast carcinoma patients. Malays J Pathol; 2001 Dec;23(2):65-71
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  • [Title] Relationship of p53 expression with clinicopathological variables and disease outcome: a prospective study on 315 consecutive breast carcinoma patients.
  • Breast cancer is an increasingly important cause of illness and death among women.
  • In recent years several novel prognostic determinants of breast cancer have been identified which includes p53.
  • Alterations of p53 are one of the most common abnormalities detected in primary breast cancer.
  • In this study alteration of p53 in primary carcinoma breast was correlated with other pathological variables and disease outcome.
  • In this prospective study the expression of p53 oncoprotein was analyzed immunohistochemically on 315 patient's tumour specimens of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast from 1992 to 1997.
  • A significant number of p53 patients developed local recurrence and distant metastases to brain, liver, lung and bone (p< 0.05).
  • The above findings have reinforced the view that p53 immunohistochemical detection is of help in detecting a subgroup of breast carcinoma patients who are at high risk.
  • This may also be of particular relevance in decisions regarding adjuvant chemotherapy to these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Hormones / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 12166594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0126-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hormones; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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17. Avilés Izquierdo JA, Martínez Sánchez D, Suárez Fernandez R, Lázaro Ochaita P, Longo-Imedio MI: Pigmented axillary nodule: carcinoma of an ectopic axillary breast. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Feb;31(2):237-9
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  • [Title] Pigmented axillary nodule: carcinoma of an ectopic axillary breast.
  • BACKGROUND: Ectopic mammary tissue appears in humans owing to an incomplete embryologic regression of the mammary ridges.
  • The same pathology that affects normally positioned breasts, including carcinoma, can occur in ectopic mammary tissue.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to present the case of a 43-year-old woman who developed a ductal mammary carcinoma of ectopic breast tissue.
  • METHODS: We describe the patient's history, the histologic diagnosis, and the therapy carried out.
  • RESULTS: The patient developed a ductal mammary carcinoma in the axilla, which is the most common site for the occurrence of carcinoma of ectopic breast tissue.
  • She has been sucessfully treated with surgery, lymphadenectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
  • Accessory mammary tissue is a relatively frequent incidental finding, whereas carcinoma of ectopic tissue is very rare.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoma occurring in ectopic breast tissue remains rare, but this diagnosis must be suspected when confronted with any axillary nodule.
  • The prognosis is similar to carcinoma of normal breast in the same tumor, node, metastasis stage, although it has a higher rate of lymph node involvement.
  • There is no consensus on the advisability of excising ectopic mammary tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15762222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Yin Y, Russell RG, Dettin LE, Bai R, Wei ZL, Kozikowski AP, Kopelovich L, Glazer RI: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta and gamma agonists differentially alter tumor differentiation and progression during mammary carcinogenesis. Cancer Res; 2005 May 1;65(9):3950-7
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  • [Title] Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta and gamma agonists differentially alter tumor differentiation and progression during mammary carcinogenesis.
  • These and other receptor-mediated actions pertain to their role in hypolipidemic and antidiabetic therapies and as potential targets for cancer chemopreventive agents.
  • The present study evaluated the chemopreventive activity of two highly potent and selective PPARgamma and PPARdelta agonists in a progestin- and carcinogen-induced mouse mammary tumorigenesis model.
  • Significantly, tumors from GW7845-treated mice were predominantly ductal adenocarcinomas, whereas tumors from GW501516-treated animals were adenosquamous and squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Only tumors from mice treated with the PPARgamma agonist expressed estrogen receptor-alpha in luminal transit cells, suggesting increased ductal progenitor cell expansion.
  • Tumors from mice treated with the PPARdelta agonist exhibited increased PPARdelta levels and activated 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), which co-associated, suggesting a link between the known oncogenic activity of PDK1 in mammary epithelium and PPARdelta activation.
  • These results indicate that PPARdelta and PPARgamma agonists produce diverse, yet profound effects on mammary tumorigenesis that give rise to distinctive histopathologic patterns of tumor differentiation and tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Ductal / prevention & control. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / prevention & control. Oxazoles / pharmacology. PPAR delta / agonists. PPAR gamma / agonists. Thiazoles / pharmacology. Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives. Tyrosine / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / chemically induced. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemically induced. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Mice

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  • [ErratumIn] Cancer Res. 2005 Jul 1;65(13):5989
  • [ErratumIn] Cancer Res. 2005 Oct 1;65(19):9108. Kopleovich, Levy [corrected to Kopelovich, Levy]
  • (PMID = 15867396.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25101
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / GW 501516; 0 / GW 7845; 0 / Oxazoles; 0 / PPAR delta; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazoles; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine
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19. Balu-Maestro C, Chapellier C, Bleuse A, Chanalet I, Chauvel C, Largillier R: Imaging in evaluation of response to neoadjuvant breast cancer treatment benefits of MRI. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2002 Mar;72(2):145-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging in evaluation of response to neoadjuvant breast cancer treatment benefits of MRI.
  • PURPOSE: To compare the value of conventional imaging modalities and MRI for determination of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty tumors (53 ductal carcinomas, seven invasive lobular carcinomas) in 51 patients were evaluated by physical examination, mammography, ultrasound, and MRI at baseline before therapy, after three courses of chemotherapy, and after six courses prior to surgery.
  • RESULTS: (i) MRI was the most reliable technique for evaluation of residual tumor size; this parameter was correctly estimated in 63% of cases by MRI versus, respectively 52, 38, and 43% by physical examination, mammography, and ultrasound, (ii) MRI correctly identified the response to chemotherapy in all cases of complete response (five cases), and in 45/55 cases of partial response (43 cases) or no response (12 cases), and (iii) among the 32 patients who underwent a mastectomy, MRI correctly revealed the multifocal nature of the disease for 12/15 multifocal lesions found at histological examination; both mammography and sonography were accurate in only six of the 15 cases.
  • CONCLUSION: MRI appears to be a valuable technique for assessment of response to chemotherapy and identification of multifocal disease prior to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Weights and Measures / methods. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Mammography. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Physical Examination. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Ultrasonography, Mammary


20. Calaf GM: Susceptibility of human breast epithelial cells in vitro to hormones and drugs. Int J Oncol; 2006 Feb;28(2):285-95
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  • [Title] Susceptibility of human breast epithelial cells in vitro to hormones and drugs.
  • Breast cancer is often hormone responsive with growth or regression of tumors modulated by endocrine manipulations.
  • Estrogens are known to control the growth of many mammary carcinomas in experimental animals, and humans.
  • Knowledge of tumor response to hormones will greatly improve the ability to plan therapy for breast cancer patients.
  • Chemoprevention of breast cancer has been mostly aimed at reducing the rate of cell division through administration of anti-hormones.
  • Tamoxifen has shown to be species, tissue, and cell-type specific.
  • Cell proliferation in mammary gland occurs in a non-random fashion since there are specific compartments with varied rates of proliferation represented by the terminal end buds that are ready for differentiation into alveolar buds.
  • Normal, benign lesions, and duct carcinomas of human breast tissues were processed for organ culture.
  • In the case of the normal breast tissue it was enzymatically digested and culture as organoid culture as well.
  • Several immortalized normal and malignant human breast cell lines were also used in these studies to analyze the effect of 17beta estradiol, progesterone, tamoxifen and anti-progestin RU486.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogen Antagonists / pharmacology. Tamoxifen / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast. Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Mifepristone / pharmacology. Organ Culture Techniques. Progesterone / pharmacology. Progestins / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16391781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Progestins; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 320T6RNW1F / Mifepristone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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21. Green JE, Shibata MA, Shibata E, Moon RC, Anver MR, Kelloff G, Lubet R: 2-difluoromethylornithine and dehydroepiandrosterone inhibit mammary tumor progression but not mammary or prostate tumor initiation in C3(1)/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic mice. Cancer Res; 2001 Oct 15;61(20):7449-55
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  • [Title] 2-difluoromethylornithine and dehydroepiandrosterone inhibit mammary tumor progression but not mammary or prostate tumor initiation in C3(1)/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic mice.
  • Female transgenic mice that express SV40 T/t antigens under the regulatory control of the rat C3(1) gene spontaneously develop multifocal mammary lesions that predictably evolve into invasive, hormone-independent carcinomas, whereas male mice are prone to develop prostate cancer.
  • Chemopreventive agents were administered to female C3(1)/SV40 large T-antigen mice from 7 to 19 weeks of age, during which time the mammary lesions developed and progressed to invasive carcinomas.
  • No significant differences in the numbers of preinvasive mammary intraepithelial neoplasia lesions (histologically similar to human ductal carcinoma in situ) were observed after 2 or 8 weeks of treatment between mice receiving either vehicle alone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), or 2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO).
  • However, a dose-response reduction in invasive carcinoma growth was observed for both DFMO, an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, and DHEA, the primary steroid precursor to both androgens and estrogens in primates.
  • Interestingly, despite its inhibitory effects on tumor development, DHEA caused a dose-dependent increase of serum estradiol levels that we have previously shown to increase mammary tumor formation in this model.
  • No effect on the development of the prostate cancer precursor lesions (prostate intraepithelial neoplasia) was observed when mice were treated with DHEA, DFMO, tocopherol acetate, selenomethionine, or 9-cis-retinoic acid, although the effects on late-stage prostate cancer development were not determined.
  • These results demonstrate that despite the expression of the highly transforming C3(1)/SV40 large T-antigen transgene, this transgenic model can be used to study the effects of chemopreventive agents on mammary cancer progression.
  • The tumor-inhibitory effects of DHEA and DFMO on mammary cancer growth appear to occur after the development of preinvasive lesions, suggesting that these agents inhibit tumor progression but not initiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Dehydroepiandrosterone / pharmacology. Eflornithine / pharmacology. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / prevention & control. Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / biosynthesis. Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / genetics. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Disease Progression. Estradiol / blood. Female. Gene Expression / drug effects. Male. Mice. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy. Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control. Rats. Transgenes / drug effects


22. Schmidberger H, Hermann RM, Hess CF, Emons G: Combination of anti-estrogenic therapy with radiation in breast cancer: simultaneous or sequential treatment? Onkologie; 2005 May;28(5):275-80
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  • [Title] Combination of anti-estrogenic therapy with radiation in breast cancer: simultaneous or sequential treatment?
  • Adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant endocrine therapy are commonly given to patients with invasive breast cancer or with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • Although both therapies have been well established through a number of randomized studies, little is known about a possible interaction of both treatment modalities if they are given simultaneously.
  • A number of in vitro studies indicated that tamoxifen treatment might reduce the intrinsic radiosensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
  • Conversely, estradiol treatment increased the intrinsic radiosensitivity of MCF-7 cells.
  • Retrospective analyses of prospectively randomized clinical studies did not indicate an antagonistic effect of tamoxifen on the effectiveness of ionizing radiation (XRT), since local control has been consistently higher when XRT was combined with tamoxifen, compared to treatment with XRT alone, regardless of whether tamoxifen was started simultaneously with radiotherapy or after completion of radiotherapy.
  • Currently there are no clinical data available that would suggest an adverse effect of adjuvant tamoxifen treatment started prior to or simultaneously with radiotherapy in breast cancer or DCIS.
  • However, since an antagonistic effect of tamoxifen and simultaneous chemotherapy has been reported recently, the issue of simultaneous.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiotherapy. Estrogen Antagonists / administration & dosage. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / radiation effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). Radiation Tolerance / drug effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 15867485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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23. Uğur Y, Sari O, Uğur O, Korkusuz P, Varoğlu E, Arslan N, Gürcan N, Yildirim M, Sökmensüer C, Aşan E, Aras T: Lack of correlation between Tc-99m-sestaMIBI uptake and cadherin expression in infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma as prognostic indicators. Ann Nucl Med; 2003 Jun;17(4):281-7
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  • [Title] Lack of correlation between Tc-99m-sestaMIBI uptake and cadherin expression in infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma as prognostic indicators.
  • Despite using various kinds of prognostic indicators, it is still not possible to predict the biological behavior of breast cancer in all patients.
  • Tc-99m-sestaMIBI (MIBI) uptake determined by breast scintigraphy and cadherin expression of tumor tissue revealed by immunohistochemistry are suggested as potential agents for this purpose.
  • We hypothesize that there can be a correlation between MIBI whose cellular mitochondrial content is claimed to play a significant role in its tumor uptake and cadherin whose downregulation causes an increase in mitochondrial activity in human mammary carcinoma cell lines.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the degree of MIBI tumor uptake and cadherin expression in infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma.
  • Correlation with response to chemotherapy and some known prognostic factors of breast cancer such as tumor size, number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes and microscopic grading was also done.
  • Fourteen patients who underwent scintimammography and subsequent surgical excisional biopsy that revealed infiltrating ductal carcinoma were enrolled in this study.
  • Also, no statistically significant correlation was noted between MIBI uptake and tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, microscopic grade, stage of the disease or response to chemotherapy.
  • Similarly, there was no statistically significant correlation between cadherin expression and tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, microscopic grade, stage of the disease or chemotherapy response.
  • The results of this study imply that there is no correlation between MIBI tumor uptake and cadherin expression with neither of them good enough to be used as prognostic indicators for breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast / radionuclide imaging. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Cadherins / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 12932110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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24. Larkin A, Moran E, Kennedy SM, Clynes M: Monoclonal antibody 5C3 raised against formalin fixed paraffin-embedded invasive breast tumour tissue: characterisation of its reactive antigen via immunoprecipitation and internal sequencing. J Immunol Methods; 2005 Aug;303(1-2):53-65
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  • [Title] Monoclonal antibody 5C3 raised against formalin fixed paraffin-embedded invasive breast tumour tissue: characterisation of its reactive antigen via immunoprecipitation and internal sequencing.
  • In an attempt to identify such an antigen, MAbs were generated by immunization with paraffin wax-embedded formalin-fixed invasive ductal breast tumour tissue from a patient who relapsed following an initial response to adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Extensive immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis of a range of cell lines and tissues including a series of pre- and post-chemotherapy treated invasive ductal breast carcinomas, with one of these MAbs, antibody 5C3, indicated that the 5C3 reactive antigen displayed a wide spectrum of reactivity amongst various human tumours.
  • A reduced level of 5C3 expression was observed in non-cancerous archival breast tissues and breast cell lines and normal murine tissues compared to the expression observed in infiltrating breast tumour cells.
  • Immunoprecipitation studies using the human ductal breast carcinoma cell line, ZR-75-1 resulted in the isolation of a 175 kDa reactive band which was excised from an SDS-PAGE gel and subjected to internal sequencing.
  • Sequencing analysis and database searching revealed that this 175 kDa band represented a cytokeratin heteropolymer, composed of type I cytokeratin 9 and type II cytokeratin 6.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / biosynthesis. Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Breast Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. HL-60 Cells. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / immunology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Spleen / pathology. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 16038928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1759
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunological methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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25. Gandhi A, Holland PA, Knox WF, Potten CS, Bundred NJ: Effects of a pure antiestrogen on apoptosis and proliferation within human breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Cancer Res; 2000 Aug 1;60(15):4284-8
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  • [Title] Effects of a pure antiestrogen on apoptosis and proliferation within human breast ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Adjuvant antiestrogen (AE) therapy has been proposed for all women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • However, many cases of DCIS are of the high-grade, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtype that are unlikely to respond to AE treatment.
  • Women (n = 23) with mammographic microcalcification suggestive of DCIS were identified at the time of surgery (day 0), a sample of representative tissue was obtained, divided into multiple 2x2x1-mm xenografts, and implanted s.c. into female BALB/c nu/nu mice (eight xenografts/mouse).
  • Fourteen days after implantation, four xenografts were retrieved and mice were randomly divided into one of three treatment groups: (a) insertion of a slow release 2-mg 17beta-estradiol pellet;.
  • After 2 weeks of treatment, the remaining four xenografts were retrieved from each mouse.
  • Retrieved xenografts containing DCIS were assessed for morphological evidence of apoptotic cell death [apoptotic index (AI)] and cell proliferation (by immunohistochemical detection of the Ki67 proliferation antigen LI).
  • AI and LI values within ER- DCIS did not differ between xenografts exposed to 17beta-estradiol or AE treatment compared with the controls or pretreatment values (mean AI and LI in estradiol-treated, antiestrogen-treated, and control groups 1.04% versus 0.98% versus 1.29% and 17.2% versus 20.5% versus 17.7% respectively).
  • In contrast, treatment of mice bearing ER+ DCIS xenografts with 17beta-estradiol raised both the AI (1.03% versus 0.40%, P = 0.03) and LI (11.0% versus 5.1%, P = 0.007) compared with controls.
  • AE therapy of ER+ DCIS xenografts did not affect proliferation but resulted in higher apoptosis than in controls (0.9% versus 0.4% respectively, P = 0.04).
  • AE therapy should be reserved for patients with estrogen receptor positive DCIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Estradiol / analogs & derivatives. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Cell Division / drug effects. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Transplantation. Receptors, Estrogen / physiology. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 10945643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 22X328QOC4 / fulvestrant; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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26. Rozenowicz Rde L, Santos RE, Silva MA, Rodrigues FF, Oliveira AL, Ulson LB, Oliveira VM, Aoki T: Cox-2 and its association with prognostic factors and response to primary chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. Rev Col Bras Cir; 2010 Oct;37(5):323-7
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  • [Title] Cox-2 and its association with prognostic factors and response to primary chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of cox-2 before primary chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC) and its association with initial tumor size, lymph node status, hormone receptors, expression of HER2 and the clinical and pathological response in patients with breast cancer.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study with 41 women with histopathological diagnosis of ductal breast carcinoma.
  • They underwent primary chemotherapy with FEC regimen (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide) at 500mg/m2, 75mg/m2 and 500 mg/m2, respectively.
  • Inclusion criteria were age range between 30 and 70 years, stage II to IIIA, absence of metastasis, primary tumor of the breast, single, unilateral, with ductal invasion at histology and absence of heart disease and pregnancy.
  • The evaluation of clinical response to treatment was performed during physical examination by measuring the major tumor axis with a pachymeter.
  • Measurements were taken at admission and after primary chemotherapy cycles.
  • After three chemotherapy sessions at intervals of 21 days the surgical procedure was carried out.
  • CONCLUSION: There was an association of the expression of Cox-2 to the factors associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, such as positive lymph node status, negative hormone receptors and HER2 expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / enzymology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / etiology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis


27. Brummer O, Stegner HE, Böhmer G, Kühnle H, Petry KU: HER-2/neu expression in Paget disease of the vulva and the female breast. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Nov;95(2):336-40
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  • [Title] HER-2/neu expression in Paget disease of the vulva and the female breast.
  • A 12% prevalence of invasive Paget carcinoma and a 4% prevalence of associated adenocarcinomas are described.
  • Furthermore, a high recurrence rate of 30% after surgical therapy is observed.
  • This study aims to search for therapeutic strategies for recurrent Paget disease, which are less mutilating and less aggressive than reexcision, x-ray therapy, or chemotherapy.
  • FDA for the treatment of patients with HER-2/neu-positive metastatic breast carcinomas.
  • In addition, we investigated five mammary Paget diseases.
  • Overexpression of HER-2/neu was demonstrated in all five cases of mammary Paget disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Using HercepTest as a standardized detection system, overexpression of HER-2/neu can be demonstrated in a majority of both noninvasive and invasive Paget disease of the vulva.
  • The use of Trastuzumab should be considered for the treatment of patients with recurrent Paget disease of the vulva with overexpression of HER-2/neu.
  • [MeSH-major] Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Paget's Disease, Mammary / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Female. Humans. Paraffin Embedding


28. Haji AG, Sharma S, Vijaykumar DK, Mukherjee P, Babu RM, Chitrathara K: Primary mammary small-cell carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2009 Jan;30(1):31-4
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  • [Title] Primary mammary small-cell carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature.
  • Only a few cases of primary small-cell carcinoma of the breast have been documented in the current medical literature.
  • We describe a case of a 68-year-old lady with left breast lump, which was diagnosed as breast cancer on fine-needle aspiration and core biopsy.
  • Metastatic workup was negative for disease elsewhere, and she received 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery (modified radical mastectomy).
  • Present surgical treatment options are similar to those in cases of invasive ductal breast cancer, as appropriate for the size and stage of the lesion.

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  • (PMID = 20668605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2902213
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Small cell carcinoma / mammary / neuroendocrine tumor
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29. Banerjee S, Bueso-Ramos C, Aggarwal BB: Suppression of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats by resveratrol: role of nuclear factor-kappaB, cyclooxygenase 2, and matrix metalloprotease 9. Cancer Res; 2002 Sep 1;62(17):4945-54
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  • [Title] Suppression of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats by resveratrol: role of nuclear factor-kappaB, cyclooxygenase 2, and matrix metalloprotease 9.
  • Because NF-kappaB suppression has been linked with chemoprevention, this prompted us to investigate the chemopreventive potential of resveratrol by testing it against mammary carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague Dawley rats.
  • Histopathological analysis of the tumors revealed that DMBA induced ductal carcinomas and focal microinvasion in situ (7 of 7), whereas treatment with resveratrol suppressed DMBA-induced ductal carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed that resveratrol suppressed the DMBA-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloprotease-9 expression in the breast tumor.
  • Treatment of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with resveratrol also suppressed the NF-kappaB activation and inhibited proliferation at S-G(2)-M phase.
  • Overall, our results suggest that resveratrol suppresses DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis, which correlates with down-regulation of NF-kappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, and matrix metalloprotease-9 expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Isoenzymes / physiology. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / prevention & control. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / physiology. NF-kappa B / physiology. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / physiology. Stilbenes / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene / antagonists & inhibitors. 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene / toxicity. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Animals. Blotting, Western. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinogens / antagonists & inhibitors. Carcinogens / toxicity. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Division / physiology. Cyclooxygenase 2. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors. Membrane Proteins. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 12208745.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Stilbenes; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; Q369O8926L / resveratrol
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30. Prat A, Parker JS, Karginova O, Fan C, Livasy C, Herschkowitz JI, He X, Perou CM: Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the claudin-low intrinsic subtype of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res; 2010;12(5):R68
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  • [Title] Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the claudin-low intrinsic subtype of breast cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: In breast cancer, gene expression analyses have defined five tumor subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, basal-like and claudin-low), each of which has unique biologic and prognostic features.
  • These main features of claudin-low tumors were also evaluated in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and genetically engineered mouse models.
  • RESULTS: Claudin-low tumors are characterized by the low to absent expression of luminal differentiation markers, high enrichment for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers, immune response genes and cancer stem cell-like features.
  • Clinically, the majority of claudin-low tumors are poor prognosis estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative (triple negative) invasive ductal carcinomas with a high frequency of metaplastic and medullary differentiation.
  • They also have a response rate to standard preoperative chemotherapy that is intermediate between that of basal-like and luminal tumors.
  • Interestingly, we show that a group of highly utilized breast cancer cell lines, and several genetically engineered mouse models, express the claudin-low phenotype.
  • Finally, we confirm that a prognostically relevant differentiation hierarchy exists across all breast cancers in which the claudin-low subtype most closely resembles the mammary epithelial stem cell.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results should help to improve our understanding of the biologic heterogeneity of breast cancer and provide tools for the further evaluation of the unique biology of claudin-low tumors and cell lines.

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  • (PMID = 20813035.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES010126; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50-CA58223-09A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA138255; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN43308; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058223; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-138255
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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31. Gold HT, Do HT, Dick AW: Correlates and effect of suboptimal radiotherapy in women with ductal carcinoma in situ or early invasive breast cancer. Cancer; 2008 Dec 1;113(11):3108-15
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  • [Title] Correlates and effect of suboptimal radiotherapy in women with ductal carcinoma in situ or early invasive breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The study aimed to identify factors associated with less-than-optimal radiotherapy (RT) and its impact on disease-free survival in women aged 66+ years diagnosed with stage I breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • METHODS: The subjects were women diagnosed from 1991 to 1999 in the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database who underwent breast-conserving surgery and RT within 12 months postdiagnosis.
  • The authors conducted descriptive and multivariate survival analyses, and considered age, race, poverty, marital status, comorbidity indices, rural/urban, radiation oncologist density, comedo necrosis histology (DCIS only), chemotherapy receipt (stage I only), and RT completion (3+ weeks of treatment) and delay (8+ weeks postsurgery without chemotherapy; 4+ weeks postchemotherapy).
  • Those living in high poverty areas were less likely to complete RT (P < .03), as were those undergoing chemotherapy (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.15-2.88).
  • Stage I breast cancer patients with delayed RT were more likely to experience a subsequent breast event (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30), and those with incomplete RT had a higher rate of overall mortality (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.06-1.63).
  • Factors associated with lower subsequent breast events included older age, lower poverty, and being married.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RT should be facilitated to ensure completion and timeliness, especially for early invasive breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / mortality. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Multivariate Analysis. Radiotherapy Dosage. SEER Program. Time Factors


32. Rizzo P, Miao H, D'Souza G, Osipo C, Song LL, Yun J, Zhao H, Mascarenhas J, Wyatt D, Antico G, Hao L, Yao K, Rajan P, Hicks C, Siziopikou K, Selvaggi S, Bashir A, Bhandari D, Marchese A, Lendahl U, Qin JZ, Tonetti DA, Albain K, Nickoloff BJ, Miele L: Cross-talk between notch and the estrogen receptor in breast cancer suggests novel therapeutic approaches. Cancer Res; 2008 Jul 1;68(13):5226-35
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  • [Title] Cross-talk between notch and the estrogen receptor in breast cancer suggests novel therapeutic approaches.
  • High expression of Notch-1 and Jagged-1 mRNA correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer.
  • Elucidating the cross-talk between Notch and other major breast cancer pathways is necessary to determine which patients may benefit from Notch inhibitors, which agents should be combined with them, and which biomarkers indicate Notch activity in vivo.
  • Ductal and lobular carcinomas commonly expressed Notch-1, Notch-4, and Jagged-1 at variable levels.
  • However, in breast cancer cell lines, Notch-induced transcriptional activity did not correlate with Notch receptor levels and was highest in estrogen receptor alpha-negative (ERalpha(-)), Her2/Neu nonoverexpressing cells.
  • In vivo, gamma-secretase inhibitor treatment arrested the growth of MDA-MB231 tumors and, in combination with tamoxifen, caused regression of T47D:A18 tumors.
  • Our data indicate that combinations of antiestrogens and Notch inhibitors may be effective in ERalpha(+) breast cancers and that Notch signaling is a potential therapeutic target in ERalpha(-) breast cancers.

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  • [ErratumIn] Cancer Res. 2008 Sep 1;68(17):7246. Song, Lynda L [added]
  • (PMID = 18593923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM075159-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA084065; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG025531; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA84065; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM075159; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG2553101
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / NOTCH1 protein, human; 0 / NOTCH4 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS545990; NLM/ PMC4445363
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33. Lalić H, Volavsek C, Radosević-Stasić B: Chromosomal instability and double minute chromosomes in a breast cancer patient. Acta Med Okayama; 2004 Feb;58(1):51-8
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  • [Title] Chromosomal instability and double minute chromosomes in a breast cancer patient.
  • Cytogenetic analysis was performed in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a woman with ductal breast carcinoma, who as a hospital employee was exposed professionally for 15 years to low doses of ionizing radiation.
  • The most important finding after the chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy was the presence of double minutes (DM) chromosomes, in combination with other chromosomal abnormalities (on 200 scored metaphases were found 2 chromatid breaks, 10 dicentrics, 11 acentric fragments, 2 gaps, and 3 double min chromosomes).
  • The data rejected this possibility, but the retroactive analysis showed that the patient even at the time of employment had a moderately increased number of chromosomal aberrations (3.5%) consisting of 3 isochromatids and 4 gaps, suggesting that her initial genomic instability enhanced the later development.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Chromosomal Instability. Chromosome Aberrations

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  • (PMID = 15157012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0386-300X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Okayama
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med. Okayama
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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34. Bandić D, Juretić A, Sarcević B, Separović V, Kujundzić-Tiljak M, Hudolin T, Spagnoli GC, Cović D, Samija M: Expression and possible prognostic role of MAGE-A4, NY-ESO-1, and HER-2 antigens in women with relapsing invasive ductal breast cancer: retrospective immunohistochemical study. Croat Med J; 2006 Feb;47(1):32-41
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  • [Title] Expression and possible prognostic role of MAGE-A4, NY-ESO-1, and HER-2 antigens in women with relapsing invasive ductal breast cancer: retrospective immunohistochemical study.
  • AIM: To evaluate the possible prognostic role of the expression of MAGE-A4 and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigens in women diagnosed with invasive ductal breast cancer and determine the expression of HER-2 antigen.
  • METHODS: The expression of MAGE-A4, NY-ESO-1, and HER-2 antigens was evaluated immunohistochemically on archival paraffin-embedded samples of breast cancer tissue from 81 patients.
  • All patients had T1 to T3, N0 to N1, M0 tumors and underwent postoperative radiotherapy and, if indicated, systemic therapy (chemotherapy and hormonal therapy).
  • RESULTS: The three groups of women were comparable in terms of age, type of operation, tumor size, tumor grade, number of metastatically involved axillary lymph nodes, Nottingham prognostic index (NPI), progesterone receptor (PR) status, and adjuvant hormonal therapy.
  • There were significantly fewer women who received adjuvant chemotherapy in the 5-year relapse-free group than in other two groups (7 vs 23 with locoregional relapse and 25 with bone metastases; P<0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16489695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1332-8166
  • [Journal-full-title] Croatian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Croat. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTAG1B protein, human; 0 / MAGEA4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2080373
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36. Quilon JM, Gaskin TA, Ludwig AS, Alley C: Collision tumor: invasive ductal carcinoma in association with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in the same breast. South Med J; 2006 Feb;99(2):164-7
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  • [Title] Collision tumor: invasive ductal carcinoma in association with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in the same breast.
  • Synchronous occurrence of multiple neoplastic processes is uncommon and the relationship between breast cancer with lymphoproliferative diseases is unusual as well.
  • Furthermore, breast involvement by malignant lymphoma is a rare event and primary breast mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is even rarer.
  • We report a patient with synchronous occurrence of malignant lymphoma of MALT type and ductal carcinoma of the breast, presenting as "collision tumor," invading each other and occurring as a single mass in the breast.
  • Involvement of the sentinel lymph node by MALT lymphoma was demonstrated with no evidence of metastatic carcinoma.
  • Staging bone marrow biopsy did not show involvement by malignant lymphoma or carcinoma.
  • Our patient was treated with chemotherapy for the lymphoma.
  • She also received radiotherapy and aromatase inhibitor as adjuvant therapy for the breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • [CommentIn] South Med J. 2006 Feb;99(2):108-10 [16509544.001]
  • (PMID = 16509555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-4348
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Tamiolakisl D, Venizelos I, Lambropoulou M, Jivannakis T, Seliniotakis E, Tsikouras P, Limberis V, Tsalkidis A, Papadopoulos N: Gains and losses of HLA class II (DR) and CD4 in atypical hyperplasia, carcinoma in situ and infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove); 2004;47(4):257-62
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  • [Title] Gains and losses of HLA class II (DR) and CD4 in atypical hyperplasia, carcinoma in situ and infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast.
  • AIM: Breast cancer is a frequent cause of death among women with gynaecologic malignancies despite the introduction of combination chemotherapy.
  • There is therefore a need for new therapeutic strategies for patients with breast cancer, such as cellular immunotherapy.
  • In this immunohistochemical study we analyzed the epithelial expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (HLA-DR) on atypical and malignant primary mammary epithelial cells, as well as the magnitude of the stromal T lymphocytes (T4 subset) at the tumor site.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The study was carried out retrospectively in tumor tissue from 82 patients with mammary lesions (31 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia -ADH-, 12 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ -DCIS- and 39 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified -IDC-NOS).
  • Medullary carcinomas were not included in our investigation.

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  • (PMID = 15844251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1211-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica (Hradec Kralove)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens
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38. Hurley J, Franco S, Gomez-Fernandez C, Reis I, Velez P, Doliny P, Harrington W Jr, Wilkinson J, Kanhoush R, Lee Y: Breast cancer and human immunodeficiency virus: a report of 20 cases. Clin Breast Cancer; 2001 Oct;2(3):215-20; discussion 221
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  • [Title] Breast cancer and human immunodeficiency virus: a report of 20 cases.
  • Carcinoma of the breast is the most common malignancy in women in the United States.
  • More than 40% of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection develop cancer during their illness, but breast cancer has seldom been reported.
  • Twenty patients with breast cancer and HIV infection seen at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital between January 1988 and August 2000 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Seventeen patients had a previous or concurrent diagnosis of HIV at the time of the breast cancer diagnosis.
  • All stages of breast cancer were seen: ductal carcinoma in situ (2 patients), stage I (1 patient), stage II (9 patients), stage III (6 patients), and stage IV (2 patients).
  • Seven patients received chemotherapy with very poor tolerance.
  • Of the 18 patients who presented with local disease, 7 have died: 2 of breast cancer, 4 of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and 1 of cardiac arrest.
  • Breast cancer in the HIV-positive population is similar to that seen in seronegative women.
  • The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy are not clear.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / virology. HIV Seropositivity / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cause of Death. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Florida / epidemiology. Hospitals, University. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Premenopause. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


39. Taal BG, Peterse H, Boot H: Clinical presentation, endoscopic features, and treatment of gastric metastases from breast carcinoma. Cancer; 2000 Dec 1;89(11):2214-21
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  • [Title] Clinical presentation, endoscopic features, and treatment of gastric metastases from breast carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy in women.
  • METHODS: Endoscopic features and treatment options were evaluated retrospectively for 51 patients with gastric metastases of breast carcinoma.
  • Histology showed mainly lobular breast carcinoma (n = 36) compared with ductal carcinoma (n = 10) and other types (n = 5), contrary to the usual distribution.
  • The overall response to systemic therapy was 46% (17 of 37 treated patients).
  • Median survival from detection of gastric metastases was 10 months, with a 2-year survival rate of 23%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gastric metastases usually derive from lobular rather than ductal breast carcinoma.
  • Chemotherapy or hormonal treatment may result in fair palliation in selected patients, although many patients are heavily pretreated.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Gastroscopy. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11147591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Madej B, Balak B, Winkler I, Burdan F: Cancer of the accessory breast--a case report. Adv Med Sci; 2009;54(2):308-10
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  • [Title] Cancer of the accessory breast--a case report.
  • Breast neoplasm may develop in ectopically located glandular tissue.
  • This paper presents an interesting and rare case of a 50-year-old female who despite regular mammography screening examination developed an invasive accessory breast cancer.
  • Oligobiopsy and additional examinations showed an invasive stage IIIB ductal breast cancer (Bloom II, G-2).
  • The increased level of cancer antigen 15.3 was found.
  • The patient was submitted to pre-operative chemotherapy.
  • She also underwent surgery and subsequently post-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • On the basis of the presented case, it could be concluded that the accessory mammary glands are out of the image of screening breast examinations.
  • Accessory breast cancer is usually diagnosed by clinical examination and ultrasonography.
  • Preventive resection of accessory breast in women at high risk of developing breast cancer can be considered as the treatment of choice in most patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Female. Humans. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Nipples / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis


41. Kossoy G, Anisimov VN, Ben-Hur H, Kossoy N, Zusman I: Effect of the synthetic pineal peptide epitalon on spontaneous carcinogenesis in female C3H/He mice. In Vivo; 2006 Mar-Apr;20(2):253-7
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  • Epitalon was injected at a dose of 0.1 microg, 5 times a week.
  • Treatment with Epitalon decreased the number of tumor-bearing mice with malignant tumors and prevented the development of metastases.
  • Spontaneous tumors of the reproductive organs (mammary glands and ovaries) were predominant in both groups of mice (control and experimental).
  • The mammary gland tumors were different variants of invasive ductal carcinomas.
  • Treatment with Epitalon slowed down the development of metastases from spontaneous tumors, and no metastases were found in the experimental mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligopeptides / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / prevention & control. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mice. Mice, Inbred C3H

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  • (PMID = 16634527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Oligopeptides; O65P17785G / alanyl-glutamyl-aspartyl-glycine
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42. Plunkett TA, Hanby AM, Miles DW, Rubens RD: Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: response to docetaxel (Taxotere) chemotherapy. Ann Oncol; 2001 Mar;12(3):411-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: response to docetaxel (Taxotere) chemotherapy.
  • In places large and small cells merged and focally the former component infiltrated the epidermis in a manner akin to Paget's disease of the breast.
  • The majority of the tumour was high grade; using the modified Bloom and Richardson grading system, usually applied to mammary ductal carcinomas, the tumour graded as 3.
  • Metastatic disease developed nine months following primary surgical treatment.
  • The metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma was resistant to epirubicin but responded to docetaxel chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There are no data to support the use of adjuvant therapy in the management of eccrine porocarcinoma.
  • The use of the modified Bloom and Richardson grading system may define cases at high risk of relapse in which adjuvant therapy might be considered.
  • The treatment was well tolerated and resulted in marked symptomatic and radiological responses.
  • Treatment with docetaxel should be considered in future cases of this rare tumour.

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  • (PMID = 11332156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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43. Wasserberg N, Morgenstern S, Schachter J, Fenig E, Lelcuk S, Gutman H: Risk factors for lymph node metastases in breast ductal carcinoma in situ with minimal invasive component. Arch Surg; 2002 Nov;137(11):1249-52
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  • [Title] Risk factors for lymph node metastases in breast ductal carcinoma in situ with minimal invasive component.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Clinical and pathological variables may be predictors of axillary dissemination in T1mic and T1a breast carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS: All patients diagnosed as having ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with microinvasion between January 1, 1988, and December 30, 1998.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pathology slides were reviewed according to the 1997 Cancer Staging Manual put forth by the American Joint Committee on Cancer.
  • Modified radical mastectomy was performed in 29 patients (18 with T1mic and 11 with T1a) and breast-preserving surgery in 28 (19 with T1mic and 9 with T1a).
  • Forty-seven patients received adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy alone, or with hormones or chemotherapy).
  • One patient was unavailable for follow-up, another died of disseminated disease, and a third developed contralateral primary carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The significant rate of axillary metastases in T1a and T1mic breast tumors makes axillary staging a must.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 12413311.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Kakagia D, Trichas M, Papadopoulos N, Tsalkidis A, Jivannakis T, Tamiolakis D: Ulcerative locally advanced breast cancer: the efficacy of combined anthracycline-based and hormonal therapy. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2004;25(6):716-8
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  • [Title] Ulcerative locally advanced breast cancer: the efficacy of combined anthracycline-based and hormonal therapy.
  • AIM: In the literature there are numerous large prospective studies on patients with locally advanced breast cancer, however little is reported on the management of ulcerative breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the employment of combined anthracycline-based chemotherapy and hormonal therapy in ulcerative locally advanced mammary carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four patients, aged from 67 to 83 years, presented with ulcerative breast cancer resulting in breast destruction.
  • Histological examination of biopsy specimens revealed highly differentiated estrogen receptor-positive ductal carcinomas.
  • Due to their religious beliefs all patients refused any other treatment but chemotherapy.
  • In these patients hemostasis and reduction of bacterial overgrowth were followed by administration of anthracycline-based chemotherapy and hormonal therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: There is clinical evidence from this study that the combination of anthracycline-based palliative chemotherapy coupled with tamoxifen is beneficial for patients with inoperable ulcerative breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Charcoal / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Greece / epidemiology. Humans. Silver / administration & dosage. Skin Ulcer / pathology. Skin Ulcer / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15597849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 16291-96-6 / Charcoal; 3M4G523W1G / Silver; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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45. Quadros CA, Vasconcelos A, Andrade R, Ramos RS, Studart E, Nascimento G, Trajano A: Good outcome after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and extended surgical resection for a large radiation-induced high-grade breast sarcoma. Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2006;3:18
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  • [Title] Good outcome after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and extended surgical resection for a large radiation-induced high-grade breast sarcoma.
  • This article is a case report of a high grade, radio-induced, breast malignant fibrous histiocytoma (undifferentiated high grade pleomorphic sarcoma), which developed in a 44-year old female, seven years after breast conservative surgery and radiotherapy for a T1N0M0 invasive left breast ductal carcinoma.
  • The sarcoma presented as a fast growing tumour, 9.5 cm in the largest diameter, with skin, left breast, chest wall muscle and rib invasion.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed with epirubicin and ifosfamide.
  • Extended radical surgery according to oncological standards and soft tissue reconstruction were carried out.

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  • (PMID = 16824232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1538603
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46. Mainka P, Kahlert S, Kirchner T, Mayr D, Diebold J: [Basal and myoepithelial phenotype of metastatic mammary carcinomas. A prognostic factor in the palliative situation?]. Pathologe; 2008 Nov;29 Suppl 2:363-9
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  • [Title] [Basal and myoepithelial phenotype of metastatic mammary carcinomas. A prognostic factor in the palliative situation?].
  • [Transliterated title] Basaler und myoepithelialer Phänotyp des invasiven Mammakarzinoms. Prognostischer Faktor in der palliativen Situation?
  • AIMS: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of basal and myoepithelial phenotype in breast carcinomas (BBC and MBC) in the palliative situation.
  • METHODS: Paraffin-embedded material from 244 primary breast carcinomas of patients with subsequent metastatic disease was stained immunohistochemically for CK 5/6, CK14, smooth-muscle actin, p63, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor.
  • CONCLUSION: The association of BBC and MBC with reduced OASM in metastatic breast carcinomas is not independent from established prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Palliative Care. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / pathology. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Keratin-14 / analysis. Keratin-5 / analysis. Keratin-6 / analysis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / mortality. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / mortality. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology


47. Torres B, Sotomayor L, Sanchez-Cazau D, Vazquez-Torres O: Right hemidiaphragm paralysis as a rare complication of a central venous port catheter insertion. Bol Asoc Med P R; 2007 Jan-Mar;99(1):31-7
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  • Central Venous Port Catheters are increasingly used in critically ill patients for intravenous treatments and nutrition, and lately, a main focus of oncology patients receiving chemotherapy.
  • In this case report we describe the acute presentation of a right hemidiaphragm paralysis in an oncology patient with recurrent breast ductal carcinoma as an immediate rare complication of a right subclavian vein catheterization and port insertion.

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  • (PMID = 17616043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-4849
  • [Journal-full-title] Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bol Asoc Med P R
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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48. Loo WT, Jin LJ, Cheung MN, Chow LW, Wang M: Combination of radiological and biochemical methods to assess bone mineral density of mandible in fully edentulous patients after chemotherapy: a 5-year prospective study. Expert Opin Investig Drugs; 2010 Apr;19 Suppl 1:S109-15
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  • [Title] Combination of radiological and biochemical methods to assess bone mineral density of mandible in fully edentulous patients after chemotherapy: a 5-year prospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is of concern in breast cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy.
  • This study compared the bone mineral density (BMD) index of the mandible and hip hinge between patients who were undergoing chemotherapy or breast cancer, and fully edentulous Chinese patients without cancer over a period of 5 years.
  • METHOD: 120 fully edentulous patients with an average age of 69 who had undergone mastectomy for grade two or three non-metastatic invasive breast ductal carcinoma.
  • The 118 fully edentulous cancer-free patients were included as a control group.
  • The first assessment point was 6 months after chemotherapy treatment.
  • The serum and urine level of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), as well as liver and renal function tests were determined.
  • RESULT: The cancer patients demonstrated a statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase in bone resorption of mandible and hip, and an increase in BAP and ICTP levels when compared with the control group.
  • CONCLUSION: Breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy displayed significant resorption of mandibular bones compared with the healthy control, which might result in difficulties in fitting dentures, as it would cause pain and mucosal friction.
  • Thus, concurrent therapy to decrease mandibular bone loss and special considerations in dentures are warranted for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Bone Density / drug effects. Mouth, Edentulous / complications. Osteoporosis / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorptiometry, Photon. Aged. Bone Resorption / chemically induced. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Case-Control Studies. China. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Denture, Complete. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Hip / pathology. Humans. Mandible / pathology. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Prosthesis Fitting / methods. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20374022.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7658
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on investigational drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Investig Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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49. Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Hortobágyi GN, Esteva FJ: Adjuvant therapy with trastuzumab for HER-2/neu-positive breast cancer. Oncologist; 2006 Sep;11(8):857-67
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy with trastuzumab for HER-2/neu-positive breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the U.S. and western Europe.
  • Amplification of the her-2/neu gene occurs in approximately 25% of invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast.
  • In experimental models, transfection of the her-2/neu gene results in transformation of mammary epithelial cells.
  • In human breast cancer, amplification of the her-2/neu gene results in protein over expression and poor prognosis.
  • Patients whose tumors have her-2/neu gene amplification have a shorter disease-free survival time than patients whose tumors exhibit a normal her-2/neu gene copy number. her-2/ neu gene amplification identifies a biologically unique subset of aggressive breast tumors that are sensitive to growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by anti-HER-2/neu-targeted therapies.
  • Trastuzumab therapy prolongs the survival of patients with metastatic HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer when combined with chemotherapy and has recently been demonstrated to lead to dramatic improvements in disease-free survival when used in the adjuvant therapy setting in combination with or following chemotherapy.
  • HER-2/neu testing, patient selection, cardiotoxicity, duration of therapy, and directions for future research are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Trastuzumab


50. Fazeny-Dörner B, Piribauer M, Wenzel C, Fakhrai N, Pirker C, Berger W, Sedivy R, Rudas M, Filipits M, Okamoto I, Marosi C: Cytogenetic and comparative genomic hybridization findings in four cases of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2003 Oct 15;146(2):161-6
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  • [Title] Cytogenetic and comparative genomic hybridization findings in four cases of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • To assess a potential common pattern of genetic alterations in chemotherapy-resistant tumors we analyzed four tumors from breast cancer patients (patients 1-4) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, by comparative genome hybridization (CGH) and conventional chromosome banding analysis.
  • In CGH analysis, the patients showed typical imbalances for ductal breast cancer: gains of 1q (3 patients), 5q (2 patients), 8q (3 patients), and X (4 patients) and losses of 1p33 approximately p36 (3 patients), 16q (3 patients), 17p (3 patients), 19 (4 patients), and 22q (4 patients).
  • Other recurrent imbalances of atypical pattern for ductal breast cancer were gain of 4q21 approximately q32 (2 patients), 20q21 approximately q22 (2 patients), and 21 (2 patients) and loss of 20p (3 patients).
  • Three patients showed involvement of several regions bearing genes of drug resistance (MDR1 [HUGO symbol: ABCB1], BCRP [HUGO symbol: ABCG2], MRP1 [HUGO symbol: ABCC1], RFC1); the fourth patient displayed an amplification in the region of MYC (alias c-myc), thus providing--at the level of the light microscope--an explanatory background for the ability of their tumors to survive anthracycline-, taxane- and cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy.
  • Conventional cytogenetic analysis and CGH displayed highly coincidental findings in the tumors of four patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Genome, Human. Humans. Karyotyping. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Nucleic Acid Hybridization

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  • (PMID = 14553951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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51. Eros N, Karolyi Z, Kovács A, Matolcsy A, Barna T, Kelényi G: Large B-cell lymphoma of the leg in a patient with multiple malignant tumours. Acta Derm Venereol; 2003;83(5):354-7
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  • A patient who had primary gastric B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, invasive ductal breast cancer and a basocellular carcinoma of the forehead in her medical history was studied.
  • Three years after polychemotherapy and irradiation of the breast cancer, a rapidly enlarging, ulcerated violaceous tumour developed on the patient's left leg.
  • Despite surgical excision, interferon-alpha2b treatment and chlorambucil + prednisone chemotherapy, a relapse occurred in the previously affected site, whereafter the patient received radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications. Lymphoma, B-Cell / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Forehead. Humans. Leg Ulcer / etiology. Leg Ulcer / therapy

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  • (PMID = 14609103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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52. Morvan A, de Korvin B, Bouriel C, Carsin A, Tas P, Bendavid C, Dupré PF, Kerbrat P, Mesbah H, Poree P, Levêque J: [MRI evaluation of residual breast carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy]. J Radiol; 2010 Jun;91(6):693-9
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  • [Title] [MRI evaluation of residual breast carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du sein traité par chimiothérapie néoadjuvante: évaluation du reliquat tumoral par l'IRM mammaire.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate the sensibility and specificity of MRI in the detection and size measuring of residual breast cancer in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 32 women, who underwent breast MRI before and after neoadjuvant treatment.
  • There was no false negative case and four false positive cases (Two ductal carcinomas in situ and two scars-like fibrosis).
  • When MRI outcomes were compared with the presence or absence of invasive or in situ residual carcinoma, only one false negative case was noticed (one "in situ" residual tumor).
  • Underestimations of tumor size were due to non-continuous tumor regression or invasive lobular carcinoma or association of invasive carcinoma and intra ductal breast cancer.
  • Over estimations of tumor size were due to chemotherapy-induced changes.
  • CONCLUSION: MRI is a sensitive but poorly specific method to assess the pathological complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Estimation of tumor size and detection of isolated residual in situ carcinoma are fare.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20808270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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53. Lauby G: Carcinomatous meningitis in a patient with metastatic breast cancer. Clin Lab Sci; 2001;14(3):141-4
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  • [Title] Carcinomatous meningitis in a patient with metastatic breast cancer.
  • The importance of laboratory utilization in the diagnosis of metastasis is explored using a case study of a 39-year-old female with metastatic breast carcinoma to the brain.
  • Tissue from the breast was examined both before and after chemotherapy.
  • The breast tissue showed infiltrating mammary carcinoma, ductal type, with 8/11 auxiliary lymph nodes showing metastasis.
  • Based on cytological and hematological results, a diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatosis was determined and treatment was started.
  • Following the intrathecal chemotherapy, serial cerebrospinal fluid examinations showed the percentage of malignant cells decreased and no cells were detected 11 days after treatment.
  • Metastasis, including meningeal carcinomatosis is a common occurrence with breast carcinoma.
  • An effective chemotherapeutic treatment is evaluated for this disease when an accurate diagnosis is made.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 11517623.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical laboratory science : journal of the American Society for Medical Technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lab Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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54. Koda M, Lenczewski A, Sulkowska M, Kanczuga-Koda L, Wincewicz A, Tomaszewski J, Sulkowski S: The effect of chemotherapy on status of estrogen receptors in primary tumors and lymph node metastases of human ductal breast cancer. Oncol Rep; 2007 Feb;17(2):385-91
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  • [Title] The effect of chemotherapy on status of estrogen receptors in primary tumors and lymph node metastases of human ductal breast cancer.
  • The aim of the study was the evaluation of ERalpha and ERbeta expression in primary tumors and lymph node metastases of breast cancer as well as the assessment of the influence of preoperative chemotherapy on these receptors with regard to changes in morphological appearance of primary tumors and their metastases.
  • Immunohistochemical examinations were conducted on surgically removed ductal invasive breast cancers and their lymph node metastases of 135 patients.
  • Seventy-one patients were spared preoperative chemotherapy which was administered to other 64 patients.
  • Primary breast cancers with preoperative chemotherapy showed lower mean percentage of cells with a positive reaction to ERalpha and ERbeta as compared to primary tumors without preoperative chemotherapy.
  • There were positive correlations among primary tumors and lymph node metastases regardless of preoperative chemotherapy applied.
  • On the other hand, ERalpha and ERbeta expressions were negatively correlated in primary tumors without chemotherapy in contrast to primary tumors after chemotherapy.
  • Furthermore, it was observed that preoperative chemotherapy was responsible for significantly less damage to lymph node metastases of breast cancer in comparison to primary tumors.
  • Although preoperative chemotherapy did not severely impair estrogen receptor expression, presented changes of their distribution are a sufficient reason for simultaneous labeling of estrogen receptors in both primary tumors and metastases due to various sensitivity to chemotherapy of primary cancers in comparison with involved lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor alpha / biosynthesis. Estrogen Receptor beta / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17203178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta
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55. Schmidberger H, Hermann RM, Hess CF, Emons G: Interactions between radiation and endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2003 Sep;10(3):375-88
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  • [Title] Interactions between radiation and endocrine therapy in breast cancer.
  • Adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant endocrine therapy are commonly given to patients with invasive breast cancer or with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • Although both therapies have been well established through a number of randomized studies, little is known about a possible interaction of both treatment modalities if they are given simultaneously.
  • A number of in vitro studies have indicated that tamoxifen treatment might reduce the intrinsic radiosensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
  • Conversely, estradiol treatment increases the intrinsic radiosensitivity of MCF-7 cells.
  • Retrospective analyses of randomized clinical studies have not indicated an antagonistic effect of tamoxifen on the effectiveness of XRT, since local control has been consistently higher when XRT was combined with tamoxifen, compared with treatment with XRT alone, regardless of whether tamoxifen was started simultaneously with radiotherapy or after completion of radiotherapy.
  • Currently there are no clinical data available that would suggest an adverse effect of adjuvant tamoxifen treatment started prior to or simultaneously with radiotherapy in breast cancer or DCIS.
  • However, since an antagonistic effect of tamoxifen and simultaneous chemotherapy has been reported recently, the issue of simultaneous versus sequential radiation and tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer should be addressed in further studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiotherapy. Drug Interactions. Radiation Tolerance
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 14503914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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56. Newcomb PA, Titus-Ernstoff L, Egan KM, Trentham-Dietz A, Baron JA, Storer BE, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ: Postmenopausal estrogen and progestin use in relation to breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2002 Jul;11(7):593-600
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  • [Title] Postmenopausal estrogen and progestin use in relation to breast cancer risk.
  • Epidemiological evidence now consistently supports a modest increase in breast cancer risk among women using postmenopausal hormones, usually estrogens.
  • Less is known regarding how the addition of progestin affects breast cancer risk.
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the type and duration of postmenopausal therapy and breast cancer risk.
  • The subjects were 5298 postmenopausal women (age range, 50-79 years) with a new diagnosis of invasive breast cancer from statewide tumor registries.
  • Participants completed a structured telephone interview covering hormone use and breast cancer risk factors.
  • The RR for breast cancer increased with longer durations of hormone use, about 2%/year for estrogen alone (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03) and 4%/year for estrogen-progestin use (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08).
  • Estrogen-progestin use that was both recent and long term (>5 years in duration) was more strongly associated with breast cancer risk (RR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.15-2.14) than similar use of estrogen alone (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.17-1.65).
  • In estrogen-progestin users, risks were similar for sequential and continuous use regimens but perhaps stronger for lobular than ductal breast cancer.
  • Estrogen-progestin use, both sequential and continuous, appears to be more strongly associated with risk of breast cancer than use of estrogen alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / chemically induced. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Hormone Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Progestins / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Cohort Studies. Confidence Intervals. Drug Combinations. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Massachusetts / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Postmenopause. Probability. Reference Values. Reproducibility of Results. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Wisconsin / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 12101105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47147; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47305; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA69664
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Progestins
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57. Gao X, Fisher SG, Emami B: Risk of second primary cancer in the contralateral breast in women treated for early-stage breast cancer: a population-based study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Jul 15;56(4):1038-45
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  • [Title] Risk of second primary cancer in the contralateral breast in women treated for early-stage breast cancer: a population-based study.
  • PURPOSE: To study the potential risk factors, including radiotherapy (RT) for contralateral breast cancer (CBC), in patients treated for early-stage breast cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973-1996) was used to study the incidence of CBC after breast cancer.
  • Information on the use of hormonal therapy and chemotherapy was not available in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.
  • RESULTS: A CBC was documented in 5679 (4.2%) of the 134501 localized invasive or intraductal breast cancer patients surviving at least 3 months.
  • In multivariate analysis, medullary carcinoma (RR = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.37), black race (RR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.08-1.33), and age >55 years at initial diagnosis (RR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22) were associated with increased CBC risk.
  • A total of 1234 (3.3%) of 37,379 patients who received RT developed CBC, and 4445 (4.6%) of 97122 patients who did not receive RT developed CBC.
  • CONCLUSION: CBC is not uncommon after breast cancer, especially for certain subsets of patients.
  • This minimal increase in CBC risk should not affect clinical decision-making in treatment selection for patients with localized invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Unnecessary radiation exposure to the contralateral breast should be avoided for all patients with early-stage breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Radiation Injuries / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / etiology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Risk Factors. SEER Program. United States / epidemiology

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003 Jul 15;56(4):920-1 [12829125.001]
  • (PMID = 12829139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Chen J, Gomes AR, Monteiro LJ, Wong SY, Wu LH, Ng TT, Karadedou CT, Millour J, Ip YC, Cheung YN, Sunters A, Chan KY, Lam EW, Khoo US: Constitutively nuclear FOXO3a localization predicts poor survival and promotes Akt phosphorylation in breast cancer. PLoS One; 2010 Aug 20;5(8):e12293
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  • [Title] Constitutively nuclear FOXO3a localization predicts poor survival and promotes Akt phosphorylation in breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The PI3K-Akt signal pathway plays a key role in tumorigenesis and the development of drug-resistance.
  • Cytotoxic chemotherapy resistance is linked to limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Examination of FOXO3a and phosphorylated-Akt (P-Akt) expression in breast cancer tissue microarrays showed nuclear FOXO3a was associated with lymph node positivity (p = 0.052), poor prognosis (p = 0.014), and P-Akt expression in invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • Using tamoxifen and doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cell lines as models, we found that doxorubicin- but not tamoxifen-resistance is associated with nuclear accumulation of FOXO3a, consistent with the finding that sustained nuclear FOXO3a is associated with poor prognosis.
  • We also established that doxorubicin treatment induces proliferation arrest and FOXO3a nuclear relocation in sensitive breast cancer cells.
  • However FOXO3a induction has little effect on cell proliferation, indicating that FOXO3a or its downstream activity is deregulated in the cytotoxic drug resistant breast cancer cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together these data suggest that lymph node metastasis and poor survival in invasive ductal breast carcinoma are linked to an uncoupling of the Akt-FOXO3a signaling axis.
  • In these breast cancers activated Akt fails to inactivate and re-localize FOXO3a to the cytoplasm, and nuclear-targeted FOXO3a does not induce cell death or cell cycle arrest.
  • As such, sustained nuclear FOXO3a expression in breast cancer may culminate in cancer progression and the development of an aggressive phenotype similar to that observed in cytotoxic chemotherapy resistant breast cancer cell models.

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  • (PMID = 20808831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C37/A5606
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924889
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59. Clemons M, Danson S, Howell A: Tamoxifen ("Nolvadex"): a review. Cancer Treat Rev; 2002 Aug;28(4):165-80
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  • Tamoxifen has been used in the management of breast cancer for over 30 years.
  • Since its introduction for the treatment of advanced breast cancer, its indications have increased to include the treatment of early breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ, and more recently for breast cancer chemoprevention.
  • Tamoxifen has a good tolerability profile and moreover, unlike many other endocrine therapies, it is efficacious in both pre- and postmenopausal women.
  • It is the combination of efficacy and tolerability that allows tamoxifen to maintain its position as the hormonal treatment of choice for most patients with oestrogen-receptor positive breast cancer.
  • Ongoing studies will provide further information about the optimal duration of tamoxifen therapy and how it compares with the newer aromatase inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Estrogen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aromatase Inhibitors. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Enzyme Inhibitors. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 12363457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
  • [Number-of-references] 155
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60. Papantoniou V, Tsiouris S, Koutsikos J, Ptohis N, Lazaris D, Zerva C: Increased serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in relapsed ductal breast carcinoma. Hell J Nucl Med; 2006 Jan-Apr;9(1):36-8
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  • [Title] Increased serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in relapsed ductal breast carcinoma.
  • Increased serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is a quite uncommon manifestation of breast cancer both on early disease and on relapse.
  • A 53-year-old woman with invasive ductal breast carcinoma underwent left-sided mastectomy.
  • Surgery and histopathology revealed infiltration by breast adenocarcinoma and she was treated with chemotherapy.
  • At that time serum tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 15-3 were within normal range.
  • In an attempt to search for a second neoplasm possibly of gastrointestinal (GI) origin, abdominal computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography (MRCP), endoscopy of the upper GI tract and colonoscopy were performed, as well as measurement of serum CA 19-9.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection confirmed an extensive metastatic infiltration of these nodes by breast adenocarcinoma.
  • The interest of this case lies on the unexpected high serum CA 19-9 values found in a breast relapsed adenocarcinoma and in the important contribution of SM in diagnosing the axillary lymph node metastatic infiltration.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Carcinoma, Ductal / blood. Carcinoma, Ductal / secondary. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 16617392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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61. Zhang LB, Xu YX, Geng JL, Zhang YH: [Treatment analysis of 26 patients with breast ductal carcinoma in situ]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2003 Mar;25(2):195-7
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  • [Title] [Treatment analysis of 26 patients with breast ductal carcinoma in situ].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the appropriate surgical treatment for breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • Among them, 3 patients were treated by simple mastectomy, 23 patients by mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection, 8 patients by chemotherapy and one patient by radiotherapy after operation.
  • After surgery, 3 patients developed lymph edema of the arm.
  • Conservative breast surgery without lymph node dissection is feasible for most DCIS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery

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  • (PMID = 12795854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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62. Ben Hassouna J, Damak T, Ben Slama A, Chargui R, Ben Dhiab T, Khomsi F, Gamoud A, Boussen H, Rahal K: Breast carcinoma arising within fibroadenomas. Report of four observations. Tunis Med; 2007 Oct;85(10):891-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast carcinoma arising within fibroadenomas. Report of four observations.
  • BACKGROUND: Fibroadenoma is a frequent benign breast tumor affecting young woman.
  • The incidence of a carcinoma within adenofibromas is estimated at 0.1 to 0.3%.
  • AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients with breast carcinoma arising within adenofibroma and to determine the clinical characteristics and the prognosis of this rare entity.
  • OBSERVATIONS: We retrospectively report on four cases of carcinomas arising in mammary fibroadenomas.
  • The treatment consisted of a conservative treatment in two cases and a mastectomy plus axillary node dissection in the two others.
  • Radiotherapy was indicated in all cases and chemotherapy done in three cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Every benign mammary nodule must necessarily be verified surgically to avoid misdiagnosing any carcinomatous area because at this stage its prognosis is better.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Cyst / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 18236815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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