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1. Bensouda Y, El Hassani K, Ismaili N, Lalya I, Boutayeb S, Benjaafar N, El Gueddari BK, Errihani H: Primary nasopharyngeal Hodgkin's disease: case report and literature review. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:116

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This confirmed the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal Hodgkin's disease of a mixed cellularity subtype.
  • Our patient received four cycles of chemotherapy, which yielded a 75% response.
  • This was followed by irradiation of his Waldeyer's ring and supraclavicular lymph nodes.

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  • [Cites] J Laryngol Otol. 1988 Dec;102(12):1179-81 [3066837.001]
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  • (PMID = 20420699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2886079
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2. Iyengar P, Mazloom A, Shihadeh F, Berjawi G, Dabaja B: Hodgkin lymphoma involving extranodal and nodal head and neck sites: characteristics and outcomes. Cancer; 2010 Aug 15;116(16):3825-9
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  • They reviewed the records for site of involvement, pathology, treatment, and survival.
  • Specifically, 10 of 34 patients had disease in the tonsils, 9 in the nasopharynx, 8 in the thyroid, 3 in the parotid, 2 in the adenoids, and 1 each in Waldeyer's ring and nasal antrum.
  • Median age at diagnosis was 31.5 years, average age at diagnosis was 38 years, and 22 of 34 were male; 23 had stage I or II disease.
  • Five of 34 received chemotherapy alone, 5 received radiation alone, and 24 received combination therapy.
  • The most commonly used chemotherapy regimens were ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) and MOPP (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone).
  • Chemotherapy and primary/adjuvant radiotherapy offer excellent local and systemic control.
  • The extent to which nodal disease is present in the neck does not alter outcomes when combined modality therapy is offered.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20564093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Laskar S, Bahl G, Muckaden MA, Pai S, Nair R, Gupta S, Shet T, Gujral S, Arora B, Sengar M, Shrivastava SK, Dinshaw KA: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of Waldeyer's ring in children: outcome using chemotherapy and involved field radiotherapy. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Oct;20(8):613-8

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  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of Waldeyer's ring in children: outcome using chemotherapy and involved field radiotherapy.
  • AIM: To evaluate the prognostic factors and treatment outcome of children with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of Waldeyer's ring treated at a single institution.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two children with NHL of Waldeyer's ring treated at our institute between January 1990 and December 2001 were included in this analysis.
  • Treatment comprised a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in most of the patients (75%).
  • Among these patients, 71% received a radiotherapy dose of > or = 45 Gy.
  • Patients treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy had a better outcome than patients treated with chemotherapy alone (disease-free survival: 87.1% vs 56.2%, P = 0.056).
  • The complete response (P = 0.003), disease-free survival (P = 0.001) and overall survival (P = 0.001) rates were significantly better for patients receiving a radiotherapy dose > or = 45 Gy.
  • CONCLUSION: The age at diagnosis, the size of the tumour, and the presence of B-symptoms significantly influenced the outcome of children with NHL of Waldeyer's ring in this study.
  • A combined modality treatment, comprising chemotherapy and radiotherapy, resulted in a satisfactory outcome in patients with this rare neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / radiotherapy. Male. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18585015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Laskar S, Mohindra P, Gupta S, Shet T, Muckaden MA: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring: clinicopathologic and therapeutic issues. Leuk Lymphoma; 2008 Dec;49(12):2263-71
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  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring: clinicopathologic and therapeutic issues.
  • Extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in head and neck region is most commonly seen in the Waldeyer's ring.
  • Waldeyer's ring is a unique subtype of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), which shows rarity of low-grade or MALT-type lymphomas and a high incidence of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
  • As compared with T-cell subtypes, B-cell phenotypes are less likely to present with mucosal ulceration, epitheliotropism and angioinvasion.
  • Stage of disease, histology and use of combined modality treatment have been proposed as significant prognostic factors.
  • Treatment has evolved from the use of extended field radiotherapy (RT) alone to the use of combined chemotherapy and RT leading to almost doubling of survival.
  • Advances in pathology and further risk stratification of patients into prognostic groups could lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies to improve outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / therapy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19052973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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7. McGovern SL, Williams MD, Weber RS, Sabichi A, Chambers MS, Martin JW, Chao KS: Three synchronous HPV-associated squamous cell carcinomas of Waldeyer's ring: case report and comparison with Slaughter's model of field cancerization. Head Neck; 2010 Aug;32(8):1118-24
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  • [Title] Three synchronous HPV-associated squamous cell carcinomas of Waldeyer's ring: case report and comparison with Slaughter's model of field cancerization.
  • METHODS: We report the case of a 46-year-old man with 3 simultaneous primary malignancies of Waldeyer's ring: HPV-positive SCC of both tonsils and the nasopharynx, with bilateral neck metastases.
  • RESULTS: The patient received induction chemotherapy followed by definitive radiotherapy and remains free of disease at 18 months.

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19572386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Yong W, Zhang Y, Zheng W, Wei Y: Prognostic factors and therapeutic efficacy of combined radio-chemotherapy in Waldeyer's ring non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Chin Med J (Engl); 2000 Feb;113(2):148-50
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors and therapeutic efficacy of combined radio-chemotherapy in Waldeyer's ring non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To improve the prognosis and therapeutic efficacy of Waldeyer's ring non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL-WR), combined radio-chemotherapy was used to treat the patients with NHL-WR and prognostic factors were analyzed.
  • METHODS: Ninety patients with stage I-IV NHL-WR were treated with combined radio-chemotherapy.
  • 4000 cGy to 6000 cGy were given to Waldeyer's ring structure and involved cervical nodes.
  • The combination chemotherapy consisted of COPP (cyclophosphamide [CTX], vincristine [VCR], procarbazine [PCZ], prednisone [PDN]) or CHOP (CTX, ADM, VCR and PDN).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combined radio-chemotherapy can improve the 5-year survival rate for the patients with NHL-WR, especially for stage I, II patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11775540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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9. Gurkaynak M, Cengiz M, Akyurek S, Ozyar E, Atahan IL, Tekuzman G: Waldeyer's ring lymphomas: treatment results and prognostic factors. Am J Clin Oncol; 2003 Oct;26(5):437-40
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  • [Title] Waldeyer's ring lymphomas: treatment results and prognostic factors.
  • Optimal management of patients with localized Waldeyer's ring (WR) lymphoma remains controversial due to the lack of randomized studies and heterogenous grouping of most reported series.
  • In this retrospective study, we have evaluated the possible prognostic factors and treatment outcome of WR non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy was the primary modality of therapy for intermediate or high-grade lymphoma.
  • Chemotherapy was median 6 courses of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine, and prednisolone) in 26 patients and CEOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, etoposide, and prednisone).
  • Radiotherapy volume was involved field and the median dose was 40 Gy.
  • Two patients developed recurrence, both salvaged with further chemotherapy.
  • Our results suggest that combined chemotherapy and involved field radiotherapy is appropriate treatment for stage I-II WR lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 14528067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Isobe K, Kawakami H, Tamaru J, Yasuda S, Uno T, Aruga T, Kawata T, Shigematsu N, Hatano K, Takagi T, Mikata A, Ito H: Consolidation radiotherapy following brief chemotherapy for localized diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a prospective study. Leuk Lymphoma; 2003 Sep;44(9):1535-9
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  • [Title] Consolidation radiotherapy following brief chemotherapy for localized diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a prospective study.
  • Many physicians administer involved field radiation therapy (RT) following brief chemotherapy for localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Involved field irradiation usually implies treatment to the involved nodal regions with and without the contiguous lymphatic region, however, there is no agreements about its definition.
  • Here we assess the appropriateness of RT irrespective of lymph node regions (localized field) following chemotherapy for patients with early stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • The localized field encompassed all original gross tumor volumes before chemotherapy with at least a 2- to 3-cm margin irrespective of lymphatic regions.
  • We also evaluated the suitable radiation dose on the basis of response to chemotherapy.
  • Twenty five eligible patients were treated with 3 cycles of chemotherapy (CHOP) followed by RT.
  • All 25 patients had disease confined to Waldeyer's ring and/or cervical lymph nodes.
  • Twenty two patients in complete response following chemotherapy received 30 Gy, and the remaining 3 in partial response received 40 Gy.
  • One developed central nervous system involvement and subsequently died of his disease.
  • The other had mediastinal and submental lymph node relapse at 32 months, and is alive after salvage chemotherapy.
  • Our study demonstrated that it should be possible to reduce treatment volume to less than the conventional involved field, and to limit the dose of RT in the range of 30-40 Gy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Radiotherapy, High-Energy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prospective Studies. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14565656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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11. Koukourakis G, Kouloulias V: Lymphoma of the testis as primary location: tumour review. Clin Transl Oncol; 2010 May;12(5):321-5
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  • [Title] Lymphoma of the testis as primary location: tumour review.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as a primary testicular neoplasm accounts approximately 9% of all testicular malignant tumours and about 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • This neoplasm is the most common malignant tumour of the testis in the elderly.
  • Despite the fact that responses to doxorubicin- containing chemotherapy, especially in early stages, show good results, relapses are often seen, and the prognosis of this tumour is very poor.
  • Testicular lymphoma often disseminates to other extranodal organs, such as contralateral testis, central nervous system (CNS), lung, pleura, Waldeyer's ring and soft tissue.
  • For patients with limited disease, the recommended first-line treatment is orchiectomy followed by rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) combination chemotherapy, with central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis and prophylactic irradiation of the contralateral testis.
  • Here we present a review of this tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20466616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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12. Mohammadianpanah M, Vasei M, Mosalaei A, Omidvari S, Ahmadloo N: Malignant spinal cord compression in cancer patients may be mimicked by a primary spinal cord tumour. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl); 2006 Dec;15(5):497-500
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  • [Title] Malignant spinal cord compression in cancer patients may be mimicked by a primary spinal cord tumour.
  • Although it is quite rare, second primary neoplasms in cancer patients may present with the signs and symptoms of malignant spinal cord compression.
  • A 50-year-old man developed intramedullary ependymoma of the cervical spinal cord 1.5 years following chemoradiation for Waldeyer's ring lymphoma.
  • The clinical and radiological findings were suggestive of malignant process.
  • He underwent operation, and the tumour was subtotally resected.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervical Vertebrae. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Quadriplegia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17177910.001).
  • [ISSN] 0961-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cancer Care (Engl)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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13. Anselmo AP, Cavalieri E, Cardarelli L, Gianfelici V, Osti FM, Pescarmona E, Maurizi Enrici R: Hodgkin's disease of the nasopharynx: diagnostic and therapeutic approach with a review of the literature. Ann Hematol; 2002 Sep;81(9):514-6
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  • [Title] Hodgkin's disease of the nasopharynx: diagnostic and therapeutic approach with a review of the literature.
  • The lymphoid tissues of Waldeyer's ring, including the nasopharynx, are rarely involved in Hodgkin's disease (HD).
  • All patients were treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and achieved complete remission.
  • We believe that two to four cycles of a chemotherapeutic regimen and involved field radiotherapy at an intermediate-high dosage (25-30 Gy) could be the first line treatment for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 12373352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 4
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14. Yariş N, Kutluk T, Yalçin B, Akyüz C, Büyükpamukçu M: Nasal-paranasal-oronasopharyngeal lymphomas in childhood: the role of staging system on prognosis. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Jul-Aug;17(5):345-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Treatment results were analyzed to see the effects of the staging in NPONP lymphomas.
  • The Murphy staging system was used at diagnosis and all cases were restaged according to the TNM system: primary tumor, regional lymph node, and metastasis.
  • The survival rates were analyzed by grouping the patients according to the treatment and stages.
  • The disease was located in Waldeyer's ring, the sinonasal region, and the nasopharynx in 45.4, 27.3, and 27.3% of patients, respectively.
  • Treatment protocols were intensified in most of the early-stage disease treated with modified LSA2-L2 regimen and better survival rates were obtained in these patients.
  • The intensification of the treatment by using intrathecal treatment and doxorubicin in patients with early-stage disease at NPONP location seems effective.
  • It should be revised to predict the prognosis and decision-making for treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2000 Oct-Nov;17(7):517-20 [11033725.001]
  • (PMID = 10914044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; LSA2-L2 protocol
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15. Motegi S, Okada E, Nagai Y, Tamura A, Ishikawa O: Skin manifestation of mantle cell lymphoma. Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):435-8
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  • Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that commonly affects extranodal sites.
  • The most commonly affected sites are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract and Waldeyer's ring, however, skin is rarely involved.
  • Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for CD20 (L26), CD5, CD43 and cyclin D1, but negative for CD45RO (UCHL-1), CD3, CD10 and CD23.
  • Our patient showed a significant improvement of skin lesions and lymphadenopathy with a combination chemotherapy.
  • Awareness of skin manifestations of MCL is essential for dermatologists to establish an early diagnosis and perform appropriate treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16935806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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16. Oguchi M, Ikeda H, Isobe K, Hirota S, Hasegawa M, Nakamura K, Sasai K, Hayabuchi N: Tumor bulk as a prognostic factor for the management of localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a survey of the Japan Lymphoma Radiation Therapy Group. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 Aug 1;48(1):161-8
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  • [Title] Tumor bulk as a prognostic factor for the management of localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a survey of the Japan Lymphoma Radiation Therapy Group.
  • The 5-year event-free (EFS) and overall survival rates (OAS) were calculated, and univariate and multivariate analyses were done to identify which of the following factors, namely, gender, age, performance status (PS), serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, Stage (I vs. II), tumor bulk (maximum diameter), and treatment, were significant from the viewpoint of prognosis.
  • RESULTS: A total of 1141 patients with Stage I and II NHL were treated by the Japanese Lymphoma Radiation Therapy Group between 1988 and 1992.
  • Of them, 787 patients, who were treated using definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for intermediate- and high-grade lymphomas in working formulation, constituted the core of this study.
  • Primary tumors arose mainly from extranodal organs (71%) in the head and neck (Waldeyer's ring: 36% and sinonasal cavities: 9%).
  • 0001), radiation therapy alone (p < 0.0001), PS = 2-4 (p = 0.0011), (sex male, p = 0.0078), a bulky tumor more than 6 cm in maximum diameter (p = 0.0088), elevated LDH (p = 0.0117), and stage II (p = 0.0642).
  • A median dose of 42 Gy was delivered mainly to the involved fields.
  • Short-course chemotherapy was provided in 549 (70%) patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Extranodal presentation, especially Waldeyer's ring and sinonasal cavities, is encountered more frequently in Japan than in Western countries.
  • Tumor bulk is an important prognostic factor in patients with localized aggressive extranodal NHL.
  • Short course chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy was associated with prolonged survival in patients with localized aggressive NHLs of extranodal origin and 0-1 risk factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10924986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CHOP protocol; MACOP-B protocol
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17. MacDermed D, Thurber L, George TI, Hoppe RT, Le QT: Extranodal nonorbital indolent lymphomas of the head and neck: relationship between tumor control and radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Jul 1;59(3):788-95
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  • [Title] Extranodal nonorbital indolent lymphomas of the head and neck: relationship between tumor control and radiotherapy.
  • The tumor head-and-neck location was Waldeyer's ring, 14; salivary glands, 16; thyroid, 4; and other sites, 6.
  • Patients received combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
  • Local therapy included surgery alone in 6 patients, radiotherapy alone in 7, and surgery plus radiotherapy in 12.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that significant prognostic factors for survival were tumor site (favoring salivary and thyroid, p = 0.02) and age (favoring younger, p = 0.04).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15183482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Chen SW, Chang ST, Lu CL, Hwang WS, Tsao CJ, Huang WT, Chang KY, Chuang SS: Upper aerodigestive tract lymphoma in Taiwan. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Oct;63(10):888-93
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  • The male to female ratio was 2:1, and the median age was 61.5 years (range 8-87); 73% of cases occurred in Waldeyer's ring or the oral cavity.
  • Most patients received chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy.
  • The 5-year overall survival rate was comparable to other reports, and raised LDH at diagnosis was the only significant prognostic factor identified.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child. Epidemiologic Methods. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Female. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / virology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / therapy. Mouth Neoplasms / virology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20876320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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19. Nishioka T, Tsuchiya K, Nishioka S, Kitahara T, Ohmori K, Homma A, Aoyma H, Shindoh M, Shirato H: Pilot study of modified version of CHOP plus radiotherapy for early-stage aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the head and neck. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Nov 1;60(3):847-52
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  • The primary site was Waldeyer's ring, a neck node, or an extranodal site in 14, 11, and 16 patients, respectively.
  • Chemotherapy consisted of 40 mg/m(2) i.v. pirarubicin (THP-Adriamycin), 750 mg/m(2) i.v. cyclophosphamide, and 1.0 mg/m(2) i.v. vincristine, on Day 1 and 40 mg/m(2) p.o. prednisone on Days 1-5.
  • The combination chemotherapy was given twice at a 14-day interval.
  • Radiotherapy was given to involved areas at a fraction size of 2.0-2.5 Gy up to a total of 40 Gy within 4-5 weeks.
  • The 5-year progression-free survival rate for patients with Waldeyer's ring primaries was 93%.
  • Patients with tumor <5 cm in size had greater 5-year progression-free survival than those with tumor >5 cm in size (85% vs. 33%, p <0.05, log-rank test).
  • Grade 4 neutropenia was seen in 12% of patients; however, 93% of patients (38 of 41) received chemotherapy as scheduled with the support of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pilot Projects. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Recurrence. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15465202.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol, modified
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20. Gustavsson A, Osterman B, Cavallin-Ståhl E: A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Acta Oncol; 2003;42(5-6):605-19
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  • [Title] A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU).
  • This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is based on data from seven randomized trials.
  • Addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy does not indicate any improvement in overall outcome.
  • Although randomized and non-randomized studies favour combined modality treatment with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy instead of radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone in localized disease, no firm conclusions can be drawn.
  • Optimal dose for radiation alone or after chemotherapy has not been established.
  • The value of TBI for treatment of NHL has not been proven.
  • There is no proof that fractionated TBI in conjunction with high-dose chemotherapy is superior to chemotherapy regimens alone.
  • High-dose methotrexate therapy seems to lead to longer survival than radiotherapy alone.
  • There is fairly good support for primary chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate followed by radiotherapy in patients below 60 years.
  • To minimize the risk of neurotoxicity of combined modality treatment it has been proposed to use chemotherapy alone and delay radiotherapy for relapse, especially in patients above 60 years, or use it in chemotherapy-resistant disease.
  • Optimal chemotherapy regimen is not defined and the role of radiotherapy remains to be determined.
  • There is some support for combined modality treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for aggressive lymphomas in Waldeyer's ring with limited disease.
  • Radioimmunotherapy is a new treatment modality with systemic radiation for patients with advanced NHL, where conventional external beam radiotherapy plays only a minor role.
  • One randomized clinical trial is published, showing superior therapy results with radiolabelled antibody compared with the corresponding unlabelled antibody.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Sweden. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14596518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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21. Treaba DO, Eklund JW, Wayne J, Nelson BP, Winter JN: Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting with tongue involvement: a case report and review of the literature. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2006 Mar;6(5):410-3
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  • We report an unusual case of mixed cellularity classical Hodgkin's lymphoma with prominent involvement of the base of the tongue at diagnosis.
  • Waldeyer's ring involvement by Hodgkin's lymphoma is uncommon with < 200 cases reported in the English literature and only 5 previous reports of Hodgkin's lymphoma involving the tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16640820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9190
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA60553-12
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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22. Vitolo U, Ferreri AJ, Zucca E: Primary testicular lymphoma. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2008 Feb;65(2):183-9
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  • Although good results with doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy, followed or not by radiotherapy, have been reported, a high proportion of patients with stage I-II diseases experience aggressive relapses, and patients with advanced disease have a very poor prognosis.
  • PTL has a propensity to disseminate to other extranodal organs, including the controlateral testis, CNS, skin, Waldeyer's ring, lung, pleura, and soft tissue.
  • Orchidectomy followed by R-CHOP combination, with CNS prophylaxis, and prophylactic irradiation of the contralateral testis is the recommended first-line treatment for patients with limited disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Recurrence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17962036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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23. Verma N, Lazarchick J, Gudena V, Turner J, Chaudhary UB: Testicular lymphoma: an update for clinicians. Am J Med Sci; 2008 Oct;336(4):336-41
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  • Testicular lymphoma has a predilection for widespread dissemination to unusual sites, including the central nervous system, contralateral testis, Waldeyer's ring, skin, and lung.
  • Doxorubicin based chemotherapy with prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy and radiation to the contralateral testis seems most promising.
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18854677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9629
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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24. Gutiérrez-García G, Colomo L, Villamor N, Arenillas L, Martínez A, Cardesa T, García-Herrera A, Setoain X, Rodríguez S, Ghita G, Abrisqueta P, Giné E, Bosch F, Campo E, Montserrat E, López-Guillermo A: Clinico-biological characterization and outcome of primary nodal and extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era. Leuk Lymphoma; 2010 Jul;51(7):1225-32
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  • To study the main clinico-biological characteristics and the outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) according to the primary site (nodal vs. extranodal), we included 262 patients consecutively diagnosed with DLBCL in a single institution, 5 years before and after immunochemotherapy was considered as the standard treatment.
  • The primary site was the lymph node in 140 patients (53%), Waldeyer's ring (WR) in 22, gastrointestinal (GI) in 33, and other extranodal in 67.
  • The IPI, treatment, and primary site were the main variables for OS in multivariate analysis.
  • In nodal cases, IPI and treatment maintained value, whereas only IPI predicted OS in extranodal cases.
  • In conclusion, immunochemotherapy treatment dramatically improved the outcome of patients with nodal DLBCL; however, its effect was less in primary extranodal cases, so the prognosis of patients with nodal and extranodal lymphomas has been equalized in the rituximab era.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Rituximab. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20497002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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25. Oh SY, Kim WS, Kim JS, Kim SJ, Lee S, Lee DH, Won JH, Hwang IG, Kim MK, Lee SI, Chae YS, Yang DH, Kang HJ, Choi CW, Park J, Kim HJ, Kwon JH, Lee HS, Lee GW, Eom HS, Kwak JY, Lee WS, Suh C, Kim HJ: Multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphoma: organ-specific relationships and the prognostic factors. Consortium for improving survival of lymphoma study. Int J Hematol; 2010 Oct;92(3):510-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphoma: organ-specific relationships and the prognostic factors. Consortium for improving survival of lymphoma study.
  • According to a previous review, multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphomas (MZLs) are present in 10-30% of patients.
  • In this study, we conducted retrospective analyses of multiple MALT organs involving MZLs (MM-MZLs) to identify their clinical features, treatment, prognosis, and specific relationships among involved organs.
  • The most common site of involvement was the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (25 patients, 45.5%) followed by the lung (40%), Waldeyer's ring (WR) (27.3%), and ocular area (25.5%).
  • As much as 48 patients received chemotherapy-based treatment.
  • Median time to progression (TTP) was 2.3 years (95% CI 1.4-3.2 years).
  • The majority of cases could be controlled effectively via chemotherapy-based treatment, and prolonged survival was achieved in those patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / therapy

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  • [Cites] Am J Hematol. 2007 Jun;82(6):446-52 [17266060.001]
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  • (PMID = 20838958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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