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1. Sheng LM, Zhang LZ, Xu HM, Zhu Y: Ascending colon adenocarcinoma with tonsillar metastasis: a case report and review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Dec 14;14(46):7138-40
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  • [Title] Ascending colon adenocarcinoma with tonsillar metastasis: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Metastatic palatine tonsil cancer is extremely rare, with nearly 100 such tumors reported in the English literature.
  • The prognosis of metastatic palatine tonsil cancer is poor.
  • A 53-year-old man presented with painless left palatine tonsillar swelling and a cervical mass following right hemicolectomy for an ascending colon adenocarcinoma.
  • Physical examination showed an ulcerated mass located on the upper pole of the left palatine tonsil.
  • The patient was treated with palliative radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • Our case shows that immunohistochemical diagnosis of metastatic palatine tonsil cancer is essential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Colon, Ascending / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tonsillar Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19084924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 23
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2776847
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2. Prestwich RJ, Kancherla K, Oksuz DC, Williamson D, Dyker KE, Coyle C, Sen M: A single centre experience with sequential and concomitant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced stage IV tonsillar cancer. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:121

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A single centre experience with sequential and concomitant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced stage IV tonsillar cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Chemo-radiotherapy offers an alternative to primary surgery and adjuvant therapy for the management of locally advanced stage IV squamous cell carcinomas of the tonsil.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of the outcomes of 41 patients with locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated non-surgically at the Yorkshire Cancer Centre between January 2004 and December 2005.
  • Due to long radiotherapy waiting times, patients received induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil followed by either cisplatin concurrent chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone.
  • 35/41 patients (85%) received 2 or more cycles of induction chemotherapy.
  • Following induction chemotherapy, 32/41 patients (78%) had a clinical response.
  • Concomitant chemotherapy was given to 30/41 (73%).
  • There were no treatment related deaths.
  • Six (15%) patients had gastrostomy tubes placed before treatment, and 22 (54%) required nasogastric tube placement during or after treatment for nutritional support.
  • 17 patients required unplanned admissions during treatment for supportive care.
  • At 4 months post treatment assessment 35 out of 41 (85%) patients achieved complete clinical and radiographic response.
  • CONCLUSION: Cisplatin-based induction and concurrent chemoradiotherapy provides excellent tumour control with acceptable toxicity for patients with locally advanced tonsillar cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 21176154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3022575
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3. Dreilich M, Bergqvist M, Moberg M, Brattström D, Gustavsson I, Bergström S, Wanders A, Hesselius P, Wagenius G, Gyllensten U: High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and survival in patients with esophageal carcinoma: a pilot study. BMC Cancer; 2006;6:94
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  • BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus (HPV) in patients with esophageal carcinoma has previously been studied with an average detection rate of 15%, but the role of HPV in relation to survival is less clear.
  • In cervical cancer, lung cancer and tonsil cancer HPV viral load is a predictive factor for survival and outcome of treatment.
  • The primary aim was to study the spectrum of high-risk HPV types in esophageal tumors.
  • METHODS: We compared both the presence and the viral load of high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 39, 45, 52, 58, and 67 in relation to clinical data from patients with esophageal carcinoma.
  • Survival data and tumor samples were retrieved from 100 patients receiving treatment at the Department of Oncology, Uppsala Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
  • The tumor samples were investigated for HPV viral load using real-time PCR.
  • RESULTS: HPV 16 was detected in 16% of the patients; no other HPV type was detected.
  • Also, HPV 16 did not improve survival after treatment (radiotherapy or chemotherapy).
  • HPV 16 in esophageal carcinoma patients did not influence survival or improve therapy response.
  • However, given the size of the study there is a need to examine a larger cohort in order to understand in more detail the effect of high risk HPV types in esophageal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16620378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1475606
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4. Naidu SI, Vieira F, Samant S, Vang MC, Wan AY, Robbins TK: Targeted intra-arterial chemoradiation for advanced tonsil cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2005 Dec;133(6):882-7
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  • [Title] Targeted intra-arterial chemoradiation for advanced tonsil cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of combined radiation and targeted, intra-arterial (IA) cisplatin infusions (RADPLAT) in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tonsil.
  • STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study of treatment outcomes and toxicity of patients enrolled on the RADPLAT protocol, with specific analysis of patients with advanced SCC of the tonsil.
  • RESULTS: Thirty patients with advanced tonsil carcinoma (17 T(4), 12 T(3), 1 T(2)) were enrolled, and 24 of 30 patients completed at least 3 IA cisplatin infusions and a minimum of 63 Gy or radiation therapy (minimum therapy).
  • Two-year estimated overall and disease-specific survival was 42% and 50%, respectively, for all 30 patients (intent-to-treat group) and 49% and 58%, respectively, for the minimum therapy subgroup.
  • The 2-year estimated local and regional disease control was 87% and 90%, respectively, for the intent-to-treat group, and 100% and 90% for the minimum therapy subgroup.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Locoregional disease control achieved with this regimen appears to be significantly improved over that described in the literature for similarly staged tonsil cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Tonsillar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16360508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Hadjiiski L, Mukherji SK, Gujar SK, Sahiner B, Ibrahim M, Street E, Moyer J, Worden FP, Chan HP: Treatment response assessment of head and neck cancers on CT using computerized volume analysis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2010 Oct;31(9):1744-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment response assessment of head and neck cancers on CT using computerized volume analysis.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Head and neck cancer can cause substantial morbidity and mortality.
  • Our aim was to evaluate the potential usefulness of a computerized system for segmenting lesions in head and neck CT scans and for estimation of volume change of head and neck malignant tumors in response to treatment.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT scans from a pretreatment examination and a post 1-cycle chemotherapy examination of 34 patients with 34 head and neck primary-site cancers were collected.
  • The computerized system was developed in our laboratory.
  • The 34 tumors included tongue, tonsil, vallecula, supraglottic, epiglottic, and hard palate carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: The correlation between the automatic and manual estimates for both the pre- to post-treatment volume change and the percentage volume change for the 34 primary-site tumors was 0.95, with an average error of -2.4 ± 8.5% by automatic segmentation.
  • There was no substantial difference and specific trend in the automatic segmentation accuracy for the different types of primary head and neck tumors, indicating that the computerized segmentation performs relatively robustly for this application.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The tumor size change in response to treatment can be accurately estimated by the computerized segmentation system relative to radiologists' manual estimations for different types of head and neck tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiography. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20595363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA093517
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS495353; NLM/ PMC3767432
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6. Genden EM, Ferlito A, Scully C, Shaha AR, Higgins K, Rinaldo A: Current management of tonsillar cancer. Oral Oncol; 2003 Jun;39(4):337-42
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  • [Title] Current management of tonsillar cancer.
  • Traditionally, risk factors for the development of tonsil cancer include the use of alcohol and/or tobacco, however a significant proportion of new cases develop in young patients without these risk factors.
  • Irrespective of the etiology, in the majority of cases early carcinoma of the tonsil can effectively be treated using single modality therapy.
  • In contrast to early tonsillar disease, advanced tonsil cancer represents a clinical challenge that requires multimodality therapy.
  • While advanced lesions are often treated with a combination of radiation, chemotherapy, and surgical ablation, management of the neck and distant metastases continues to present a therapeutic dilemma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Radiotherapy Dosage. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Virus Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
  • (PMID = 12676252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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7. Jin YH, Park CK: Expression of cyclin B1 and cdc2 in nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and its prognostic implications. J Korean Med Sci; 2002 Jun;17(3):322-7
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  • To investigate the role of cyclin B1 and cdc2 in the pathogenesis and progression of malignant lymphoma, 68 cases of nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were examined about the expression of cyclin B1 and cdc2 along with p53 and Ki-67 by immunohistochemical method.
  • The mean labeling indices of cyclin B1 and cdc2 in malignant lymphoma were 31.9% and 68.0%, respectively.
  • In normal lymphoid tissues, cyclin B1 and cdc2 were expressed predominantly in the germinal center with mean labeling indices of 13.9% and 28.3%, respectively.
  • The expression of cdc2 and p53 in complete remission group to chemotherapy was lower than that of progressive disease group (p=0.047, p=0.049).
  • In conclusion, cyclin B1 and cdc2 appeared to be involved in the genesis or progression of malignant lymphoma and cdc2 can be a useful marker for response to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclin B1. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Palatine Tonsil / metabolism. Palatine Tonsil / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 12068134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDC2 Protein Kinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3054881
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8. Galati LT, Myers EN, Johnson JT: Primary surgery as treatment for early squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Head Neck; 2000 May;22(3):294-6
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  • [Title] Primary surgery as treatment for early squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil.
  • BACKGROUND: The management of tonsil carcinoma has gradually evolved such that the literature is replete with outcome summaries of this disease treated with primary RT and chemotherapy.
  • Recently there have been no reports of patient outcomes with primary surgical therapy.
  • Nonsurgical treatment is warranted when tumors are unresectable or if the patient refuses surgery.
  • Our policy has been to treat operable squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) of the tonsil with surgery.
  • The decision to use adjuvant therapy is based on the surgical and histologic findings.
  • We herein report our results with this treatment protocol.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of 162 patients with SCCA of the tonsil was performed.
  • Eighty-four patients were treated with surgery, which was followed by RT and/or chemotherapy if histologic signs of aggressive behavior were identified.
  • Patients were followed 2 to 15 years after treatment.
  • RESULTS: Of the 9 patients with stage I disease, 89% are without evidence of recurrent disease and 91% of patients with stage II tonsil cancers are also disease free.
  • The survival rates for stage III and stage IV cancer patients are 79 and 52%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that patients with early tonsil cancer can be effectively treated with surgery.
  • Surgery allows pathologic staging so that patients with advanced tumors can be treated with adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Tonsillar Neoplasms / mortality. Tonsillar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10748454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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9. Rusthoven KE, Raben D, Schneider C, Witt R, Sammons S, Raben A: Freedom from local and regional failure of contralateral neck with ipsilateral neck radiotherapy for node-positive tonsil cancer: results of a prospective management approach. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Aug 1;74(5):1365-70

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  • [Title] Freedom from local and regional failure of contralateral neck with ipsilateral neck radiotherapy for node-positive tonsil cancer: results of a prospective management approach.
  • PURPOSE: To review the outcomes of a prospective management approach using ipsilateral neck radiotherapy in the treatment of node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil with a well-lateralized primary lesion.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between August 2003 and June 2007, 20 patients who presented with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, without involvement of the base of the tongue or midline soft palate, and with Stage N1-N2b disease were prospectively treated with radiotherapy to the primary site and ipsilateral neck.
  • In addition, 18 patients received concurrent chemotherapy.
  • Acute and late toxicity were prospectively evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria.
  • Late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 2 xerostomia occurred in 1 patient (5%).
  • CONCLUSION: In carefully selected patients with node-positive, lateralized tonsillar cancer, treatment of the ipsilateral neck and primary site does not appear to increase the risk of contralateral nodal failure and reduces late morbidity compared with historical controls.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neck. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19168295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Yao M, Dornfeld KJ, Buatti JM, Skwarchuk M, Tan H, Nguyen T, Wacha J, Bayouth JE, Funk GF, Smith RB, Graham SM, Chang K, Hoffman HT: Intensity-modulated radiation treatment for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma--the University of Iowa experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Oct 1;63(2):410-21
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation treatment for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma--the University of Iowa experience.
  • PURPOSE: To review the University of Iowa experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma.
  • One patient was lost to follow-up 2 months after treatment and therefore excluded from analysis.
  • Of the remaining 150 patients, 99 were treated with definitive IMRT, and 51 received postoperative IMRT.
  • None of the patients treated with postoperative IMRT received chemotherapy.
  • Of 99 patients who had definitive IMRT, 68 patients received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • One patient received induction cisplatin-based chemotherapy, but no concurrent chemotherapy was given.
  • The prescribed doses to CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3 in the definitive cohort were 70-74 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy, respectively.
  • For high-risk postoperative IMRT, the prescribed doses to CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3 were 64-66 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy, respectively.
  • For intermediate-risk postoperative IMRT, the prescribed doses to CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3 were 60 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy.
  • There were 11 local-regional failures: 7 local failures, 3 regional failures, and 1 failure both in the primary tumor and regional lymph node.
  • The median time from treatment completion to local-regional recurrence was 4.7 months (range, 1.8 to 15.6 months).
  • Only one marginal failure was noted in a patient who had extensive tonsil cancer with tumor extension into the orbit and cavernous sinus.
  • Patients with oropharyngeal cancer did significantly better than patients with oral cavity and laryngeal cancer, with a 2-year local-regional control rate of 98%, compared with 78% for oral cavity cancer and 85% for laryngeal cancer (p = 0.005).
  • There was no significant difference in local-regional control for patients who received postoperative radiation or definitive radiation (p = 0.339) and for patients who had chemotherapy or not (p = 0.402).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results have confirmed the effectiveness of IMRT in head-and-neck cancer.
  • More studies are necessary to further improve the outcomes of laryngeal cancer as well as oral cavity cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iowa. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure. Universities

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  • (PMID = 16168834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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11. Mendenhall WM, Amdur RJ, Stringer SP, Villaret DB, Cassisi NJ: Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region: a preferred alternative to surgery? J Clin Oncol; 2000 Jun;18(11):2219-25
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  • [Title] Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region: a preferred alternative to surgery?
  • PURPOSE: There are no definitive randomized studies that compare radiotherapy (RT) with surgery for tonsillar cancer.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of RT alone and RT combined with a planned neck dissection for carcinoma of the tonsillar area and to compare these data with the results of treatment with primary surgery.
  • One hundred forty-one patients underwent planned neck dissection, and 18 patients received induction (17 patients) or concomitant (one patient) chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Five-year local control rates, by tumor stage, were as follows: T1, 83%; T2, 81%; T3, 74%; and T4, 60%.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that local control was significantly influenced by tumor stage (P =.0001), fractionation schedule (P =.0038), and external beam dose (P =.0227).
  • Local control after RT for early-stage cancers was higher for tonsillar fossa/posterior pillar cancers than for those arising from the anterior tonsillar pillar.
  • The incidence of severe late complications after treatment was 5%.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10829041.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Yin WH, Yu GY, Ma Y, Rao HL, Lin SX, Shao CK, Liang Q, Guo N, Chen GQ, Zhou W, Zhao T, Zhu MG: [Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of ten cases]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Aug;39(8):522-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) and its differential diagnosis.
  • Six of them were located in cervical and peritoneal lymph nodes and four in extranodal sites (including tonsil, pelvic cavity, tail of pancreas and spleen).
  • Histologically, the tumor cells had whorled, storiform or diffuse growth patterns.
  • Multinucleated tumor giant cells and intranuclear pseudoinclusions were occasionally seen.
  • There was a sprinkling of small lymphocytes and neutrophils within the tumor as well as in the perivascular region.
  • Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells were diffusely or focally positive for CD21, CD23, CD35 and D2-40, but negative for LCA, CD20, CD3, CD1a, HMB45 and CK.
  • The remaining 5 patients were alive and disease-free after surgical excision (+/- chemotherapy and radiotherapy).
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDCS is a rare low to intermediate-grade malignant tumor.
  • Appropriate application of FDC markers, such as CD21, CD35 and D2-40, would be helpful for arriving at a correct diagnosis.
  • Most cases are associated with good prognosis after surgical treatment, with or without chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dendritic Cell Sarcoma, Follicular / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived / metabolism. Dendritic Cell Sarcoma, Interdigitating / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Meningioma / pathology. Middle Aged. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / complications. Pemphigus / complications. Receptors, Complement 3b / metabolism. Receptors, Complement 3d / metabolism. Receptors, IgE / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21055030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Receptors, Complement 3b; 0 / Receptors, Complement 3d; 0 / Receptors, IgE; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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13. Pajor A, Murlewska A, Józefowicz-Korczyńska M: [Tonsillar carcinoma--clinical assessment and analysis of treatment results]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2002;56(3):319-22

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Tonsillar carcinoma--clinical assessment and analysis of treatment results].
  • The aim of the study was an evaluation of the clinical signs and treatment results of the patients with tonsillar cancer treated in the ENT Clinic Medical University in Łódź during 10 years (1985-1994).
  • Twenty four patients (55%) had tumor with T3-T4 stage and 21 patients (52.5%)--palpable lymph neck nodes.
  • The most frequent treatment modality was combined therapy (surgery with radio/chemotherapy) introduced in 25 persons (62.5%), surgery alone was performed in 10 cases (25%).
  • Distant metastases developed in 6 patients (15%) and the second primary neoplasm in 5 patients (12.5%).
  • We stress the importance of careful clinical assessment before planning the treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Tonsillar Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12162020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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14. Taxy JB: Squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland: a review of the diagnostic considerations. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2001 Jun;125(6):740-5
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  • (1) high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, (2) metastasis or direct invasion from a primary skin carcinoma, (3) metastasis from a distant primary carcinoma, or (4) a primary malignant neoplasm.
  • The latter is conventionally regarded as a diagnosis of exclusion after a history of squamous carcinoma elsewhere has been obtained or there is a positive mucin stain.
  • RESULTS: Two cases, 1 metastatic from a histologically identical squamous carcinoma from the ipsilateral tonsil and 1 with in situ squamous carcinoma in a duct, demonstrated positive mucicarmine stains.
  • Also irrespective of tumor origin, the clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment is similar.
  • Adjuvant therapy (eg, radical neck dissection, radiation, chemotherapy) is not uniformly applied.
  • The natural evolution of the tumor is aggressive, irrespective of clinical context.

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  • (PMID = 11371224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9985
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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15. Paulino AF, Singh B, Shah JP, Huvos AG: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Laryngoscope; 2000 Sep;110(9):1479-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC), an uncommon tumor with predilection for the upper aerodigestive tract, is a distinct variant of squamous carcinoma, because of its unique histological features and ominous clinical behavior.
  • Sites of origin included the larynx (4), tongue (3), pyriform sinus (3), nose (2), floor of mouth (2), mastoid (1), tonsil (1), epiglottis (1), nasopharynx (1), trachea (1), and palate (1).
  • Treatment modalities included surgery with or without chemotherapy or radiotherapy in 13 patients, chemotherapy with irradiation in 2, chemotherapy alone in 2, and radiotherapy alone in 3.
  • Four were alive with disease at the time of writing and five died of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: BSCC is a highly aggressive malignant tumor that presents in elderly patients who have a history of abuse of tobacco or alcohol, or both.
  • Greater number of patients must be studied and compared with age-matched and stage-matched controls of conventional squamous cell carcinoma to determine whether the poor clinical outcome is related more to high-stage presentation or to the tumor's high-grade malignant cytological features.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 10983946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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16. Buch RS, Geisbüsch R, Kunkel M: [Acral ischemia as a rare paraneoplastic syndrome in the terminal phase of mouth floor carcinoma]. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir; 2002 Sep;6(5):331-5
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  • [Transliterated title] Akrale Ischämie als seltene Paraneoplasie in der terminalen Erkrankungsphase eines Mundbodenkarzinoms.
  • BACKGROUND: The term "paraneoplastic syndrome" describes a clinically apparent disease associated with a malignant neoplasm, which is not a direct consequence of invasive tumor growth.
  • Symptoms evolved under palliative chemotherapy with gemcitabine for inoperable metachronous squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil following a history of two simultaneous carcinomas of the alveolar crest.
  • Digital ischemia was combined with severe pain, similar to Raynaud's syndrome, which required therapeutic intervention.
  • The treatment objective is to improve perfusion and simultaneously reduce pain.
  • [MeSH-major] Alveolar Process. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Fingers / blood supply. Ischemia / etiology. Maxillary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mouth Floor. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Palliative Care. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Necrosis. Raynaud Disease / therapy. Sympathectomy. Vasodilator Agents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12448236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-9417
  • [Journal-full-title] Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie : MKG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vasodilator Agents
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17. Ijichi K, Hasegawa Y, Ogawa T, Terada A, Hyodo I, Yamada H, Murakami S: [Investigation for cervical lymph node metastasis in unknown primary sites]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2005 Nov;108(11):1083-90
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  • In patients with cervical adenopathy, especially, those of cervical lymph node metastasis with no detectable primary tumor, diagnosis and treatment planning can become confused.
  • Primary sites were detected in 20 before treatment.
  • The other 36 patients clearly had no primary lesions when treatment started.
  • Primary sites were 5 cases of oropharynx, 2 of the parotid gland, and 1 each of larynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx, and malignant lymphoma detected in 11 after treatment for cervical lymph nodes.
  • Biopsy sites were the nasopharynx, palatine and lingual tonsil, and piriform sinus.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were the treatment of choice in many cases.
  • The primary site cannot be detected, treatment should initially involve cervical adenopathy with combined surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
  • After treatment, the patient should be followed up carefully to find the primary lesion.

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  • (PMID = 16359003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Yamamoto R, Hosokawa S, Yamatodani T, Morita S, Okamura J, Mineta H: [Eight cases of neuroendcrine carcinoma of the head and neck]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2008 Jul;111(7):517-22
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  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the head and neck is rare, and diagnosis may be difficult.
  • Three cases arose from the maxillary sinus, two from the ethmoid sinus, one from the parotid gland, one from the tonsil, and one from the larynx.
  • Histological analysis by hematoxylin-eosin staining tentatively revealed malignant lymphoma and undifferentiated carcinoma in two cases each, while immunohistological and/or electron microscopy analysis confirmed histological diagnosis.
  • All were treated by chemotherapy (VP-16, CDDP) and seven cases with radiotherapy based on the schedule of small cell carcinoma of the lung and two cases with lesional resection.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were effective locally.
  • Long-term survival thus requires the effective treatment of distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18697475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PE regimen
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19. Vargas H, Mouzakes J, Purdy SS, Cohn AS, Parnes SM: Follicular dendritic cell tumor: an aggressive head and neck tumor. Am J Otolaryngol; 2002 Mar-Apr;23(2):93-8
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  • [Title] Follicular dendritic cell tumor: an aggressive head and neck tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinicopathologic features of head and neck follicular dendritic cell (FDC) tumor and report the experience of this entity at our institution.
  • RESULTS: Thirty four cases of FDC tumor of the head and neck cases have been published.
  • Twenty five occurred in the cervical lymph nodes, 4 in the tonsils, 2 in the palate, 1 in the pharynx, 1 in the parapharyngeal region, and 1 in the thyroid gland.
  • Patients were treated with surgery (17), surgery and chemotherapy (8), and surgery and radiation (9).
  • After the primary treatment, 12 patients had no evidence of disease, whereas 5 were incurable.
  • Of these 13 patients who suffered recurrences, 4 had no evidence of disease after secondary treatment, 6 were alive with disease, and one was lost to follow up.
  • We add 2 unique cases to the 9 previously reported extranodal cases, 1 in the tonsil and 1 in the parotid gland.
  • CONCLUSION: FDC tumor is a rare malignant neoplasm that can present in the head and neck region in both lymph nodes and extranodal sites.
  • Surgery has been the mainstay of treatment and should include diligent control of surgical margins.
  • The role of adjuvant therapy remains controversial.
  • We believe that FDC tumor should be viewed and treated as a moderately aggressive head and neck tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery. Severity of Illness Index. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.)
  • (PMID = 11893977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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20. Yamaguchi E, Uchida M, Makino Y, Tachibana M, Sato T, Yamamoto Y, Kawashima K, Araki A, Maruyama R: Tonsillar metastasis of gastric cancer. Clin J Gastroenterol; 2010 Dec;3(6):289-95

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  • [Title] Tonsillar metastasis of gastric cancer.
  • Metastasis from a malignant tumor to the palatine tonsils is rare, with only 100 cases reported in the English-language literature.
  • Tonsillar metastasis from a gastric cancer is very rare.
  • We report here a case of palatine tonsillar metastasis after gastric cancer surgery.
  • The patient was an 88-year-old woman who had gastric cancer with abdominal wall invasion.
  • She had undergone a distal gastrectomy with abdominal wall resection and D2 lymph node dissection.
  • Histologically, the tumor was primarily a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • The patient developed pharyngeal discomfort and abdominal pain and was hospitalized during the follow-up period, 1 year 9 months post-operatively.
  • A mass of 2.5 cm was also observed in the right palatine tonsil.
  • It was diagnosed as a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, a metastasis from gastric cancer.
  • There was a concern of asphyxiation due to hemorrhage of the tumor; however, the tumor dislodged approximately 10 days after biopsy and tonsillar recurrence was not observed.
  • In the literature there are cases with tonsillar metastases where surgical treatment, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were performed and extension of survival was seen.
  • Tonsillar metastasis is a form of systemic metastasis of a malignant tumor, and there is a high risk for asphyxiation from tumor dislodgement or hemorrhage.
  • Thus, it is important to recognize tonsillar metastasis as an oncologic emergency.

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  • (PMID = 21841958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-7257
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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21. Simon C, Goepfert H, Rosenthal DI, Roberts D, El-Naggar A, Old M, Diaz EM Jr, Myers JN: Presence of malignant tumor cells in persistent neck disease after radiotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is associated with poor survival. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2006 Apr;263(4):313-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presence of malignant tumor cells in persistent neck disease after radiotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is associated with poor survival.
  • Non-surgical therapy consisting of external beam radiation with or without chemotherapy is an effective treatment for patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx with advanced neck disease (N2a or greater).
  • It is reported that nearly 50% of the neck dissection specimens contain residual viable tumor cells that may indicate partial radiation failure and as a consequence poor survival.
  • In order to address the significance of this finding, we conducted a nonrandomized retrospective study, including 35 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy followed by either a radical or modified radical (RND/MRND) or a selective neck dissection (SND) for clinically persistent neck disease 6 weeks after completing therapy for stage III/IV SCC of the oropharynx (base of the tongue =15, tonsil =12, soft palate =7 and pharyngeal wall =1).
  • All neck dissection specimens were reviewed according to histological criteria indicating viable residual tumor.
  • We observed an increased relative risk (RR) for local and regional failures in the patient population with viable cancer cells in the post-irradiation neck specimens (RR=6.7 and 4.1, respectively).
  • The presence of malignant tumor cells in residual disease in the neck correlated with poor disease-specific and overall survival (P =0.03 and P =0.01, respectively).
  • In conclusion, the presence of viable cancer cells in radiated neck nodes is a novel prognostic marker for disease-specific survival in patients treated for SCCs of the oropharynx with advanced neck disease and may serve as an identifier for patients who will benefit from post-treatment chemoprevention.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Survival. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16328403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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