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3. Qian XJ, Zhai RY, Dai DK, Yu P, Gao L: Treatment of malignant biliary obstruction by combined percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage with local tumor treatment. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Jan 14;12(2):331-5
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  • [Title] Treatment of malignant biliary obstruction by combined percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage with local tumor treatment.
  • AIM: To evaluate the utility of local tumor therapy combined with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for malignant obstructive biliary disease.
  • METHODS: A total of 233 patients with malignant biliary obstruction were treated in our hospital with PTBD by placement of metallic stents and/or plastic tubes.
  • After PTBD, 49 patients accepted brachytherapy or extra-radiation therapy or arterial infusion chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two patients underwent chemotherapy (11 cases of hepatic carcinoma, 7 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, 4 cases of metastatic lymphadenopathy), and 14 patients received radiotherapy (10 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 4 cases of pancreatic carcinoma), and 13 patients accepted brachytherapy (7 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 3 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, 4 cases of metastatic lymphadenopathy).
  • The survival rate of the local tumor treatment group at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months was 97.96%, 95.92%, 89.80%, and 32.59% respectively, longer than that of the non treatment group.
  • The difference of patency rate was not significant between treatment group and non treatment group.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that local tumor therapy could prolong the survival time of patients with malignant biliary obstruction, and may improve stent patency.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy. Drainage / methods. Jaundice, Obstructive / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brachytherapy. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16482640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4066049
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4. Tang T, Zheng JW, Chen B, Li H, Li X, Xue KY, Ai X, Zou SQ: Effects of targeting magnetic drug nanoparticles on human cholangiocarcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2007 Jun;6(3):303-7
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  • [Title] Effects of targeting magnetic drug nanoparticles on human cholangiocarcinoma xenografts in nude mice.
  • BACKGROUND: Targeting is a new therapeutic tool for malignant tumor as a result of combining nanotechnology with chemotherapeutics.
  • The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of magnetic nanoparticles enveloping a chemotherapeutic drug on human cholangiocarcinoma xenografts in nude mice.
  • Calculations were made 35 days after treatment in order to compare the volumes, inhibition ratios and growth curves of the tumors in each group.
  • Mice in each group were sacrificed randomly to collect tumor tissues and other organs for electron microscopy and pathological examination.
  • The tumor inhibition ratios for the high, medium and low dosage groups were 39.6%, 14.6% and 7.9%, respectively.
  • The tumor growth curve of groups 5, 4, and 2 changed slowly in turn.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Magnetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Nanoparticles. Neoplasm Transplantation. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 17548256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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5. Ishimura N, Isomoto H, Bronk SF, Gores GJ: Trail induces cell migration and invasion in apoptosis-resistant cholangiocarcinoma cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; 2006 Jan;290(1):G129-36
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  • Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising agent for cancer therapy; however, many cholangiocarcinoma cells are resistant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.
  • Resistance to apoptosis may unmask TRAIL signaling cascades favoring tumor biology.
  • Thus our aim was to examine whether TRAIL is expressed by human cholangiocarcinomas, and if so, to determine whether it promotes a malignant phenotype.
  • The effect of TRAIL on tumor cell migration, invasion, and proliferation was examined in three human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines.
  • TRAIL promoted tumor cell migration and invasion but did not induce cell proliferation.
  • These data demonstrate that TRAIL promotes cell migration and invasion via a NF-kappaB-dependent pathway in human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, an observation that has a potential negative implication for TRAIL in cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Cell Movement. Cholangiocarcinoma / metabolism. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Duct Neoplasms / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / cytology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Liver / cytology. Liver / metabolism. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Signal Transduction. TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand. Up-Regulation / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16166346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1857
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-59427
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNFSF10 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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6. Métairie S, Lucidi V, Castaing D: [Intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma]. J Chir (Paris); 2004 Sep;141(5):315-21
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  • [Title] [Intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Le cholangiocarcinome intra-hépatique.
  • Intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) is a rare tumor which arises from the epithelial cells of the intra-hepatic bile ducts; it may develop in a healthy liver and bile ducts or in bile ducts with malignant predisposition (Caroli's syndrome, primary sclerosing cholangitis).
  • It has the worst prognosis of any tumor arising in the liver.
  • Unlike hepatocellular carcinoma, no predisposing factors or high-risk populations have been demonstrated for cholangiocarcinoma other than intraphepatic choledocholithiasis such as is seen in east Asian populations.
  • The most common clinical sign is a palpable tumor mass emphasizing that the tumor is usually detected at an advanced stage.
  • CT scanning yields much clinical information but ultrasound-guided needle biopsy is necessary for diagnosis.
  • Aggressive surgical resection is the only treatment modality which has afforded even slight prolongation of survival; hepatic resection must be large with uninvolved resection margins.
  • When an IHCC is deemed resectable (localized tumor without hepatic metastases or intrahepatic or extrahepatic lymph node spread), pre-operative tumor embolization may be useful; when jaundice is present, percutaneous drainage of the dilated biliary system of the liver to be spared may also be necessary.
  • Neither adjuvant nor neo-adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy have shown proof of efficacity.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms. Cholangiocarcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Decision Trees. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15494665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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7. Olnes MJ, Erlich R: A review and update on cholangiocarcinoma. Oncology; 2004;66(3):167-79
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  • Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant neoplasm arising from the biliary epithelium that was first described by Durand-Fardel in 1840.
  • Today, it continues to defy diagnosis and treatment.
  • Surgical resection remains the only curative treatment, and high priorities are improving diagnostic methods, and clinical staging for resection once the disease is suspected.
  • Chemotherapy, palliative stenting, and radiation are reserved for patients who are not resectable, those with recurrence after surgery, and those who decline surgical intervention.
  • Recent trials using combination systemic chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemoradiation are promising, but require further study.
  • In this review we discuss epidemiology, etiologic factors, molecular pathogenesis, diagnosis, staging, and treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Particular focus is on recent studies into the cellular and molecular pathogenesis of the disease, recent chemotherapy trials, and newer methods of staging and screening for this devastating malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cholangiocarcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / complications. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 15218306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 128
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8. Tanaka S, Kubota M, Yagi M, Okuyama N, Ohtaki M, Yamazaki S, Hirayama Y, Kurosaki I, Hatakeyama K: An 11-year-old male patient demonstrating cholangiocarcinoma associated with congenital biliary dilatation. J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Jan;41(1):e15-9
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  • [Title] An 11-year-old male patient demonstrating cholangiocarcinoma associated with congenital biliary dilatation.
  • We herein report an 11-year-old male patient demonstrating advanced cholangiocarcinoma associated with congenital biliary dilatation (CBD).
  • This Japanese boy presented with abdominal pain lasting a few days, and a diagnosis of type IV-A CBD was made based on the findings of imaging studies using ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Intraoperative cholangiography revealed the presence of pancreaticobiliary maljunction of CP type.
  • Malignant cells were found in biopsy specimens from both the flat and polypoid lesions.
  • Because the distal stump of choledochus at anomalous confluent to the pancreatic duct also showed malignant cells, a pyloric preserved pancreaticoduodenectomy with lymph node dissection was thus performed.
  • Lymph node metastasis was found in one of the mesenteric lymph nodes, and vascular invasion was also found in the main tumor lesions of the dilated bile duct.
  • The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient has been followed with chemotherapy as an outpatient without any evidence of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / abnormalities. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age of Onset. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Cholangiography. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Pancreaticoduodenectomy

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  • (PMID = 16410082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Javle MM, Yu J, Khoury T, Chadha KS, Iyer RV, Foster J, Kuvshinoff BW, Gibbs JF, Geradts J, Black JD, Brattain MG: Akt expression may predict favorable prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 Nov;21(11):1744-51
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  • METHODS: Twenty-four consecutive cases of cholangiocarcinoma treated from 1996 to 2002 at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were included.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded tissue sections was performed using antibodies against Akt, p-Akt, MAPK, p-MAPK, COX-2, EGFR and p-EGFR.
  • RESULTS: Cyclooxygenase-2, Akt, and p-MAPK were commonly expressed in biliary cancers (100%, 96% and 87% of malignant cells, respectively).
  • There was a significant association between EGFR and p-EGFR (P = 0.027) and between Akt and p-Akt (P = 0.017) expression in tumor tissue.
  • Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model identified the use of chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.039, P = 0.0002), radiation (HR = 0.176, P = 0.0441) and Akt expression (HR = 0.139, P = 0.006) as the best predictors of overall prognosis.
  • Expression of Akt and use of systemic chemotherapy or radiation may correlate with improved survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. SEER Program. Signal Transduction

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  • [ErratumIn] J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Jan;22(1):145. Chadha, Krishdeep C [corrected to Chadha, Krishdeep S]
  • (PMID = 16984600.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62502
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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10. Lin ZY, Chuang WL, Chuang YH, Yu ML, Hsieh MY, Wang LY, Tsai JF: Discordant influence of amphotericin B on epirubicin cytotoxicity in primary hepatic malignant cells collected by a new primary culture technique. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 Feb;21(2):398-405
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  • [Title] Discordant influence of amphotericin B on epirubicin cytotoxicity in primary hepatic malignant cells collected by a new primary culture technique.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate whether amphotericin B (AmB) had any potential role in the systemic chemotherapy of primary hepatic malignancy using cancer cells collected by the authors' method of primary culture.
  • METHODS: The specimens obtained by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (22 G) from 15 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and one with cholangiocarcinoma were plated into culture flask without disaggregation by trypsin-ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid solution.
  • Six patients with HCC and one patient with cholangiocarcinoma (7/16, 44%) had successful culture and the cancer cells at the 4th passage were continuously exposed to therapeutic ranges of epirubicin (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 microg/mL) with or without the combination of 2.5 microg/mL AmB for 24 h. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was applied to evaluate the effects of the drugs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Amphotericin B has a discordant influence on epirubicin cytotoxicity in primary cultured hepatic malignant cells.
  • Application of AmB in the systemic chemotherapy of primary hepatic malignancy should be limited to patients with positive AmB effect evaluated by an in vitro sensitivity test such as the present method.
  • [MeSH-major] Amphotericin B / therapeutic use. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Epirubicin / adverse effects. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Cell Culture Techniques. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Drug Interactions. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16509865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 7XU7A7DROE / Amphotericin B
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11. Cavallaro A, Cavallaro V, Di Vita M, Cappellani A: Main bile duct carcinoma management. Our experience on 38 cases. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Mar-Apr;80(2):107-11
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  • [Title] Main bile duct carcinoma management. Our experience on 38 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is rare malignant tumors arising from cells of the biliary tract.
  • Traditionally extrahepatic CC is divided into klatskin tumors, intermediate tract and distal or iuxtapapillar tumors according to its location within the biliary tree.
  • Liver transplantation could offer long-term survival in selected patients when combined with chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and external drainage remain as the only treatment for inoperable patients.
  • RESULTS: Surprisingly four of them (2 with intermediate tract tumor and 2 with distal tract tumors) are still alive and apparently disease-free after 5 years since surgery.
  • Moreover another one patient with papillar tumor has reached 5 years survival despite has undergone surgery two times.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Hepatic Duct, Common
  • [MeSH-minor] Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures / methods. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Hepatectomy / methods. Humans. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Stents. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19681291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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12. Wu T: Cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin signaling in cholangiocarcinoma. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2005 Jul 25;1755(2):135-50
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  • Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly malignant epithelial neoplasm arising within the biliary tract and its incidence and mortality is rising.
  • Early diagnosis is difficult and there is presently no effective treatment.
  • Therefore, there is an urgent and practical need to develop novel chemopreventive strategy that simultaneously targets COX-2 signaling and other related key molecules in cholangiocarcinogenesis, such as EGFR or utilization of agents inhibiting COX-2 signaling in conjunction with other standard chemotherapy or radiation therapy; these approaches are expected to provide synergistic anti-tumor effect with lesser side effect.
  • In this context, the recently delineated interplay between COX-2-derived PG signaling and other growth-regulatory pathways, such as EGFR, ErbB2, IL-6/GP130, HGF/Met, TGF-beta/Smad, and iNOS is expected to provide important therapeutic implications.
  • Knowledge on these aspects will help develop more effective therapeutic strategy targeting COX-2 and related key signaling molecules.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / physiopathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / physiopathology. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism. Prostaglandins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cyclooxygenase 2. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Membrane Proteins. Signal Transduction


13. Furuse J, Okusaka T, Miyazaki M, Taniai H, Nimura Y, BT22 Study Group: A randomized study of gemcitabine/cisplatin versus single-agent gemcitabine in patients with biliary tract cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4579

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  • [Title] A randomized study of gemcitabine/cisplatin versus single-agent gemcitabine in patients with biliary tract cancer.
  • : 4579 Background: Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are not common but increasing in the US and Europe, and more prevalent in South America and Asia including Japan.
  • Gemcitabine (G) and cisplatin (C) are now deemed as key drugs based on the accumulated literature.
  • Treatments were repeated up to a maximum of 16 cycles of GC or 12 of G until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred.
  • Tumor response was evaluated using RECIST criteria by an independent review committee.
  • RESULTS: A total of 83 pts (19 extrahepatic bile duct cancer, 28 intrahepatic bile duct cancer, 32 gallbladder cancer and 4 ampullary carcinoma) were eligible for the study protocol defined analysis set (Full Analysis Set, FAS); GC-arm n=41 and G-arm n=42.
  • All pts completed at least one cycle of therapy, yielding a total of 247 cycles (median 6) in GC vs 203 (median 4) in G.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination therapy of GC would be an effective and well-tolerated chemotherapy regimen for Japanese pts with advanced BTC.

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  • (PMID = 27963070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Wiedmann M, Schoppmeyer K, Witzigmann H, Hauss J, Mössner J, Caca K: [Current diagnostics and therapy for carcinomas of the biliary tree and gallbladder]. Z Gastroenterol; 2005 Mar;43(3):305-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Current diagnostics and therapy for carcinomas of the biliary tree and gallbladder].
  • [Transliterated title] Aktuelle Diagnostik und Therapie von Gallengangs- und Gallenblasenkarzinomen.
  • Carcinoma of the biliary tree are rare tumours of the gastrointestinal tract with a rising incidence during the last years.
  • Biliary neoplasms are classified into intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumour, middle and distal extrahepatic tumours), gallbladder cancer, and ampullary carcinoma.
  • Transformation of normal into malignant bile duct tissue requires a chain of consecutive gene mutations, similar to the adenoma-dysplasia-carcinoma-sequence in colon cancer.
  • Abdominal ultrasound, combined non-invasive magnetic resonance cholangiography/tomography (MRC/MRT), and facultatively endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) for unclear diagnosis, represent the gold standard for primary diagnosis.
  • For ampullary carcinoma, endosonography and endoscopic biopsy are the diagnostic tools of choice.
  • In contrast, there has been no clinical benefit for adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies.
  • For palliation, bile duct stenting and photodynamic therapy are established methods.
  • Radio- and chemotherapy should be reserved for clinical studies.
  • New therapeutic approaches include brachytherapy, the use of modern chemotherapeutics, COX-2- and tyrosine kinase-receptor-inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms. Gallbladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Ampulla of Vater. Bile Ducts / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Biopsy. Brachytherapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Gallbladder / pathology. Hepatectomy. Hepatic Duct, Common. Humans. Klatskin Tumor / diagnosis. Klatskin Tumor / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Stents. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Z Gastroenterol. 2005 May;43(5):473-5 [15871071.001]
  • (PMID = 15765304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 153
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15. Kubicka S: [Cholangiocellular and gallbladder carcinoma]. Z Gastroenterol; 2004 May;42(5):397-402
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cholangiocellular and gallbladder carcinoma].
  • Risk factors for cholangiocellular and gallbladder carcinomas are bile stones and chronic inflammation of the biliary system.
  • Gallbladder cancer and intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinomas can be diagnosed with a high sensitivity by ultrasonography, CT and MRI, while the most sensitive diagnostic methods for perihilar or distal cholangiocellular carcinomas are ERC or MRC.
  • The only curative option for patients with gallbladder- or bile duct cancer is surgical resection.
  • Outside clinical studies there is currently no indication for neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy.
  • Gallbladder and bile duct carcinomas are moderately chemotherapy-sensitive tumors.
  • Higher response rates between 20 - 50 % have been observed in phase II studies with combination chemotherapy, in particular with the combination of gemcitabine/cisplatin.
  • Because of the low incidence of gallbladder and bile duct carcinomas there are currently no large phase III trails investigating the impact of chemotherapy on survival and quality of life or comparing the activity of different chemotherapy protocols.
  • Patients in good general physical conditions or with tumor-associated symptoms should be treated with palliative chemotherapy (whenever possible in clinical studies), while chemotherapy should be avoided in patients with severe non-tumor-associated morbidity.
  • Endoscopic procedures, such as PTC- or ERC-stenting and photodynamic therapy, are important supportive therapies which can help to maintain the bile flow and consequently improve survival and quality of life of patients with malignant bile duct obstructions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15136940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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16. Martin R, Jarnagin W: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Current management. Minerva Chir; 2003 Aug;58(4):469-78
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bile Duct Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Current management.
  • Peripheral/Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma (IHC), a malignant epithelial tumor originating from the intrahepatic bile ducts, is the second most common primary liver cancer after hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Unlike hepatocellular carcinoma, however, IHC is infrequently associated with chronic underlying liver disease.
  • Of the approximately 4000 patients seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with hepatic lesions since from 1995-2001, 7% had a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma and only 1% had IHC.
  • At present, complete resection is the only therapy that offers the possibility of long-term survival.
  • Single agent or combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy have not been shown to have a significant impact, either as primary treatment or as an adjuvant to resection.
  • This report reviews the relevant literature pertaining to IHC with emphasis on clinical presentation, radiologic evaluation, treatment and outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholestasis, Intrahepatic / etiology. Comorbidity. Humans. Jaundice, Obstructive / etiology. Liver Diseases / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14603159.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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18. Bajor J, Beró T, Garamszegi M, Grexa E, Anga B, Szilágyi K: [Common bile duct tumor in a young woman with ulcerative colitis]. Orv Hetil; 2001 Jun 10;142(23):1231-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Common bile duct tumor in a young woman with ulcerative colitis].
  • [Transliterated title] Ductus choledochus-tumor kialakulása fiatal colitis ulcerosás nóbetegben.
  • Bile duct carcinoma is a rare complication of ulcerative colitis.
  • The authors report a case of a 25 year old woman presenting with jaundice, 6 years after the diagnosis of colitis was made.
  • The cause of the extreme extra- and intrahepatic bile duct dilation was revealed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography showing polypoid tumor in the common bile duct.
  • The histological result taken during the surgical exploration proved the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma.
  • Subsequently adjuvant chemotherapy was instituted according to the PAV protocol.
  • This rare case proves, that a malignant bile duct tumor may develop in a young patient with ulcerative colitis without the presence of primary sclerosing cholangitis.
  • The authors emphasise the connection between ulcerative colitis and bile duct carcinoma and the importance of the close follow-up of every patient with ulcerative colitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Colitis, Ulcerative / complications. Common Bile Duct / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / complications. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / complications. Cholestasis / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 11433923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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19. Dubaniewicz A, Dubaniewicz A: [Cholangiocarcinoma--bile ducts cancer]. Wiad Lek; 2003;56(1-2):57-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cholangiocarcinoma--bile ducts cancer].
  • Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a malignant neoplasm deriving from intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Usually the tumor grows slowly and metastazes late locally and even less frequently extrahepaticly.
  • CC often causes symptoms by blocking the bile ducts, abdominal pain, weight loss, signs of portal hypertension, rare ascites and thrombophlebitis.
  • The increased expression of CEA, Ca19-9, as well as loss or reduction of sialomucin/sulfomucin concentration in the biliary lining epithelium may be indicative of malignant changes.
  • CC as usually non-vascularized nonencapsulated tumor with a large amount of fibrosis.
  • Recently, FDG positron emission tomography has been suggested to be a sensitive technique in identifying small bile duct cancers.
  • The adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy and transplantation are not satisfactory.
  • Palliative therapy includes surgical biliary-intestinal bypass procedures as well as operative and nonoperative techniques for biliary intestinal drainage.
  • Recently, the local treatment of CC by photodynamic therapy as a palliative strategy is very promising.
  • Ordinary CC is reported as a neoplasm with a poor prognosis.
  • Post resection 5-year survival is affirmed in about 25% of CC, whereas after palliative treatment only 1 year.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Bile Ducts / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Hepatitis, Chronic / complications. Humans. Liver / pathology. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12901270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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20. Huang TW, Wang CH, Hsieh CB: Effects of the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody cetuximab on cholangiocarcinoma of the liver. Onkologie; 2007 Mar;30(3):129-31
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant neoplasm arising from the biliary epithelium.
  • The disease is notoriously difficult to diagnose and is usually fatal because of its late clinical presentation and the lack of effective nonsurgical therapeutic modalities.
  • The overall survival rate, including in patients who underwent tumor resections, is poor, with less than 5% surviving more than 5 years.
  • The tumor cells of the cholangiocarcinoma express an epidermal growth factor receptor which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors.
  • CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old woman with cholangiocarcinoma of the liver developed spinal metastases.
  • The response to treatment was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and positron-emission tomography.
  • CONCLUSION: The patient with cholangiocarcinoma had a response to cetuximab-based therapies.
  • This may lead to another option for the treatment of hepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / secondary. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Cetuximab. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Liver Transplantation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thoracic Vertebrae / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17341899.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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21. Marienfeld C, Tadlock L, Yamagiwa Y, Patel T: Inhibition of cholangiocarcinoma growth by tannic acid. Hepatology; 2003 May;37(5):1097-104
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy of the biliary tract for which effective treatment is lacking.
  • TA inhibited proliferation of malignant human cholangiocytes in vitro.
  • Pretreatment with 50 microg/mL TA for 24 hours before xenograft implantation increased tumor latency by 2.5-fold compared with untreated controls, and decreased subsequent growth rates compared with controls in the absence of TA feeding.
  • TA warrants evaluation as a candidate for the treatment of human cholangiocarcinoma either by itself or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / pharmacology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Hydrolyzable Tannins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Division / drug effects. Chymotrypsin / metabolism. Cysteine Endopeptidases. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Multienzyme Complexes / antagonists & inhibitors. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 12717390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-9139
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK02678; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK60637
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Hydrolyzable Tannins; 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; EC 3.4.21.1 / Chymotrypsin; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
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