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1. Yanagisawa N, Baba K, Yamagoe M, Iwamoto T: Conservative treatment of childhood phimosis with topical conjugated equine estrogen ointment. Int J Urol; 2000 Jan;7(1):1-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conservative treatment of childhood phimosis with topical conjugated equine estrogen ointment.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the application of topical conjugated equine estrogen for the treatment of boys with phimosis.
  • Conjugated equine estrogen (Premarin) 0.1% ointment was applied on the prepuce once daily.
  • The treatment was continued until the prepuce was fully retractable.
  • The patient was examined each second week up to a maximum treatment of 8 weeks.
  • Retractability and the appearance of the foreskin were graded before and after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) / therapeutic use. Phimosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 10701883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] AUSTRALIA
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens, Conjugated (USP); 0 / Ointments
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2. Choe JM: Paraphimosis: current treatment options. Am Fam Physician; 2000 Dec 15;62(12):2623-6, 2628

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paraphimosis: current treatment options.
  • Paraphimosis is a urologic emergency, occurring in uncircumcised males, in which the foreskin becomes trapped behind the corona and forms a tight band of constricting tissue.
  • Often iatrogenically induced, paraphimosis can be prevented by returning the prepuce to cover the glans following penile manipulation.
  • Treatment often begins with reduction of edema, followed by a variety of options, including mechanical compression, pharmacologic therapy, puncture technique and dorsal slit.
  • [MeSH-major] Paraphimosis / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11142469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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3. Yilmaz E, Batislam E, Basar MM, Basar H: Psychological trauma of circumcision in the phallic period could be avoided by using topical steroids. Int J Urol; 2003 Dec;10(12):651-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. BETAMETHASONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the efficacy of topical steroids in the treatment of phimosis and evaluate patients using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) test with the aim of eliminating castration anxiety of circumcision in the phallic period.
  • On the 5th day of treatment, parents were told to retract the prepuce and were given hygiene routine instructions.
  • Patients were seen immediately after treatment and again 2 months later.
  • RESULTS: In group II, 16 of the 50 children had non-retractable prepuce.
  • Forty-two cases of phimosis were corrected after treatment.
  • Eight patients received further monthly treatment and five benefited from the second course of treatment.
  • In group III, 17 of the 48 patients had non-retractable prepuce and four had satisfactory results.
  • Forty-four patients received placebo treatment for another month and eventually, 40 children underwent circumcision in this group.
  • CONCLUSION: Topical steroids for the treatment of phimosis is a highly effective treatment alternative to surgery.
  • The treatment is suitable for patients from any religious or cultural background.
  • [MeSH-major] Anxiety / prevention & control. Betamethasone / administration & dosage. Circumcision, Male / adverse effects. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Phimosis / drug therapy. Psychosexual Development

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  • (PMID = 14633068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone
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4. Nicolai JP, Meek MF: [Treatment of phimosis without circumcision and reconstruction of the prepuce following circumcision]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Oct 29;149(44):2446-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of phimosis without circumcision and reconstruction of the prepuce following circumcision].
  • [Transliterated title] Behandeling van fimosis zonder circumcisie en reconstructie van het preputium na circumcisie.
  • Phimosis of the prepuce can be treated without performing a circumcision.
  • The most common and most effective treatment option is the local application ofcorticosteroid ointment.
  • Should this be insufficiently effective, then the constricted ring can be interrupted with two Z-plasties, which is sufficient to expose the glans penis painlessly.
  • In cases where reconstruction of the prepuce is indicated, this can be accomplished with a distally inverted flap of penile shaft skin combined with the application of free skin grafts.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Circumcision, Male / methods. Penis / surgery. Phimosis / drug therapy. Phimosis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Humans. Male. Skin Transplantation / methods. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006 Feb 4;150(5):276 [16493998.001]
  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Oct 29;149(44):2450-3 [16285359.001]
  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Oct 29;149(44):2465-9 [16285363.001]
  • (PMID = 16285358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Comment; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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5. Añibarro Laca E, Pérez-Irezabal Pindado JC, Ibáñez Calle T, Llarena Ibarguren R: [Metastases from a rectal adenocarcinoma to the prepuce]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Sep;59(7):737-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Metastases from a rectal adenocarcinoma to the prepuce].
  • [Transliterated title] Metastasis subcutáneas en prepucio secundarias a adenocarcinoma de recto.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report one case of metastatic dissemination of a rectal adenocarcinoma to the prepuce.
  • METHODS: 61-year-old patient with the diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma treated 18 months before by surgery and chemotherapy.
  • He presents with a painful enlargement of the penis associated with outgrowing erythematous lesions in the skin of the prepuce that bled on touch and did not allow the vision of the meatus and the glans penis.
  • Physical examination showed the presence of hypogostric, penile and scrotal lymphedema.
  • RESULTS: The pathologic study reported a moderately differentiated intestinal type adenocarcinoma with high mitotic index infiltrating the squamous cell flat epithelium of the prepuce.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although extremely rare, tumor implants in the prepuce secondary to extra urologic tumors are exceptional.
  • Surgical excision confirms the origin and may avoid bleeding and discomfort, and also may help with catheterization, which is many times necessary in the final stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Penile Neoplasms / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Esp Urol. 2006 Nov;59(9):926; author reply 927 [17190224.001]
  • (PMID = 17078400.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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6. Wen YC, Wu HH, Chen KK: Pan-urethral wart treated with 5-fluorouracil intraurethral instillation. J Chin Med Assoc; 2006 Aug;69(8):391-2
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Physical examination showed cauliflower lesions over the orifice of the urethra and frenulum base of the penile prepuce.
  • 5-FU solution (500 mg in normal saline 50 mL) urethral instillation with massage at the ventral side of the penile shaft for 20 minutes was given once a week for 7 doses.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Urethral Diseases / drug therapy. Warts / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16970277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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7. Buechner SA: Common skin disorders of the penis. BJU Int; 2002 Sep;90(5):498-506
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Common skin disorders of the penis.
  • This review highlights the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of the most common dermatoses of the male genitalia.
  • The most common causal agents for condyloma acuminatum are low-risk HPV 6 and 11; high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 are associated with premalignant and malignant lesions.
  • Treatment for genital warts remains unsatisfactory; recurrences are common.
  • Imiquimod, a new topical immunotherapeutic agent, which induces interferon and other cytokines, has the potential to be a first-line therapy for genital warts.
  • Scabies and pediculosis are transmitted by skin-to-skin contact and sexual transmission is common, with the penis and scrotum favourite locations for scabious lesions.
  • Oral ivermectin, a highly active antiparasitic drug, is likely to be the treatment of choice, but until approval is granted it should be reserved for special forms of scabies.
  • Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs as atrophic white patches on the glans penis and foreskin.
  • The penile form is a common cause of phimosis in uncircumcised men; involvement of the urethral meatus may lead to progressive meatal stenosis.
  • Plasma cell balanitis is a benign, idiopathic condition presenting as a solitary, smooth, shiny, red-orange plaque of the glans and prepuce of a middle-aged to older man.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ, e.g. erythroplasia of Queyrat and Bowen's disease, cannot be excluded clinically; their apparent clinical benignity may lead to lengthy periods of misdiagnosis and biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis.
  • SCC is the most common malignancy of the penis and the role of oncogenic HPV-types has been also established in SCC of the penis.
  • Prevention of SCC of the penis presupposes an identification of risk factors, early detection of all pre-cancerous lesions and treatment of phimosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Penile Diseases. Skin Diseases
  • [MeSH-minor] Balanitis / diagnosis. Balanitis / therapy. Humans. Male. Mite Infestations / diagnosis. Mite Infestations / therapy. Penile Neoplasms / diagnosis. Penile Neoplasms / therapy. Skin Diseases, Parasitic / diagnosis. Skin Diseases, Parasitic / therapy. Skin Diseases, Viral / diagnosis. Skin Diseases, Viral / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12175386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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8. Berdeu D, Sauze L, Ha-Vinh P, Blum-Boisgard C: Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for phimosis: a comparison of surgical and medicinal approaches and their economic effect. BJU Int; 2001 Feb;87(3):239-44

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for phimosis: a comparison of surgical and medicinal approaches and their economic effect.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of surgery and topical steroids as treatments for phimosis (defined as a clinically verifiable, pathological, cicatricial stenosis of the prepuce) and to evaluate the financial basis of these treatments.
  • METHODS: Data on treatment using topical steroids was obtained from published reports and those for circumcision from claims by private hospitals for children < 13 years old registered at the health insurance department of our facility.
  • The estimate of the French national financial cost of the treatments for 1998 was calculated from public and private institutional information.
  • RESULTS: Treatment with topical steroids for 4-8 weeks was successful in approximately 85% of patients (mean age 5 years) and had no side-effects; the remaining 15% were treated by circumcision.
  • Topical steroid therapy costs (in French francs) F 360 per patient.
  • CONCLUSION: As topical pharmacological treatment avoids the disadvantages, trauma and potential complications of penile surgery, including anaesthesia-related risks, the use of topical steroids as a primary treatment appears to be justified in boys with clinically verifiable phimosis.
  • This treatment could reduce costs by 75%, which represents a potential annual saving of approximately F 150 million.
  • [MeSH-major] Phimosis / drug therapy. Phimosis / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11167650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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9. Cascio S, Colhoun E, Puri P: Bacterial colonization of the prepuce in boys with vesicoureteral reflux who receive antibiotic prophylaxis. J Pediatr; 2001 Jul;139(1):160-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bacterial colonization of the prepuce in boys with vesicoureteral reflux who receive antibiotic prophylaxis.
  • Antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with VUR was not effective in reducing the bacterial colonization of the prepuce.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotic Prophylaxis. Circumcision, Male. Penis / microbiology. Vesico-Ureteral Reflux / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Child, Preschool. Humans. Incidence. Male. Risk Assessment. Urinary Tract Infections / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 11445813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3476
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary
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10. Jiang Y, Zhang S, Wang J, Wan K, Wang C: [Laboratory research of the influence of keyouling on the proliferation of human prepuce epidermis cells and condyloma acuminatum cells]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2004 Mar;10(3):237-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laboratory research of the influence of keyouling on the proliferation of human prepuce epidermis cells and condyloma acuminatum cells].
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the mechanism of the Chinese medicine Keyouling in the treatment of condyloma axuminatum (CA).
  • METHODS: Human prepuce epidermis cells and CA cells were primarily cultured and subcultured.
  • We determined the proliferation of human prepuce epidermis cells and CA cells, and observed the influence of Keyouling with different concentrations on the proliferation of human prepuce epidermis cells and CA cells by means of MTT colourimetry assay.
  • RESULTS: The absorbance was directly proportional to the numbers of human prepuce epidermis cells (r = 0.9850, P < 0.001) and CA cells (r = 0.9892, P < 0.001).
  • Keyouling had no effect on proliferation of the human prepuce epidermis cells, but it had significant inhibition on CA cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Condylomata Acuminata / drug therapy. Drugs, Chinese Herbal / therapeutic use. Penile Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Division / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Penis / drug effects. Skin / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15080076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal
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11. Ceballos-González S, Torres-Cantero C, Trujillo-Hernández B, Muñiz J, Huerta M, Trujillo X, Vásquez C: [Comparative effectiveness of 0.1% metilprednisolone aceponate and 0.05% betamethasone dipropionate among children with nonretractable prepuce]. Gac Med Mex; 2006 Mar-Apr;142(2):121-4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHYLPREDNISOLONE .

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  • [Title] [Comparative effectiveness of 0.1% metilprednisolone aceponate and 0.05% betamethasone dipropionate among children with nonretractable prepuce].
  • [Transliterated title] Comparación de la efectividad entre la aplicación de aceponato de metilprednisolona 0.1% y dipropionato de betametasona 0.05% en niños con prepucio no retráctil.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical improvement between treatment with metilprednisolone aceponate vs. betamethasone dipropionate among children with nonretractable prepuce.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between August 2001 and November 2002, we carried out a double blind and controlled clinical trial in 34 children with a diagnosis of nonretracable prepuce.
  • Children were randomly assigned to one of the following groups and topical treatment was administered: Group A; metilprednisolone aceponate 0.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of clinical improvement was similar between the two groups of topical steroid treatment administered.
  • [MeSH-major] Betamethasone / analogs & derivatives. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Methylprednisolone / analogs & derivatives. Penile Diseases / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16711546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 826Y60901U / betamethasone-17,21-dipropionate; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone; ET54W9J4U2 / methylprednisolone aceponate; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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12. Chitale S, Sethia K: Dry gangrene of the foreskin after second attempt at prepuce-sparing surgery for congenital penile curvature: case report and literature review. J Sex Med; 2008 Dec;5(12):2951-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DICLOFENAC .

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  • [Title] Dry gangrene of the foreskin after second attempt at prepuce-sparing surgery for congenital penile curvature: case report and literature review.
  • INTRODUCTION: Dry gangrene of the foreskin following corrective surgery for congenital penile curvature (CPC) or Peyronie's disease is extremely rare.
  • It is noted as a consequence of intraoperative penile degloving.
  • METHODS: A 32-year-old man with CPC underwent prepuce-sparing corrective surgery for penile curvature on two occasions resulting in dry gangrene of the foreskin following the second attempt.
  • CONCLUSION: Gangrene of the foreskin is most likely to occur as a complication after a second attempt at prepuce-sparing surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Foreskin / pathology. Penile Induration / surgery. Penis / abnormalities. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy. Postoperative Complications / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Floxacillin / therapeutic use. Gangrene. Humans. Male. Patient Satisfaction. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Reoperation. Veins / transplantation. Wound Healing / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18221279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of sexual medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sex Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 43B2M34G2V / Floxacillin
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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13. Schäfer T, Kukies S, Stokes TH, Levin LS, Donatucci CF, Erdmann D: The prepuce as a donor site for reconstruction of an extravasation injury to the foot in a newborn. Ann Plast Surg; 2005 Jun;54(6):664-6
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  • [Title] The prepuce as a donor site for reconstruction of an extravasation injury to the foot in a newborn.
  • This is the first report of successful utilization of the prepuce as a skin graft to reconstruct a full thickness skin necrosis due to a phenobarbital extravasation to the forefoot of a newborn.
  • [MeSH-minor] Circumcision, Male. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Necrosis / chemically induced. Penis / surgery. Seizures / drug therapy. Seizures / etiology. Stroke / complications

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  • (PMID = 15900157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-7043
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; YQE403BP4D / Phenobarbital
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14. Sheen MC, Sheu HM, Jang MY, Chai CY, Wang YW, Wu CF: Advanced penile verrucous carcinoma treated with intra-aortic infusion chemotherapy. J Urol; 2010 May;183(5):1830-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHOTREXATE .

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  • [Title] Advanced penile verrucous carcinoma treated with intra-aortic infusion chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: Traditional treatment for advanced penile verrucous carcinoma is penectomy.
  • To preserve the penis we used intra-aortic infusion chemotherapy for advanced verrucous carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1991 to 2009 we treated 6 men with penile verrucous carcinoma with continuous intra-aortic infusion of 50 mg methotrexate every 24 hours (average 550 mg, range 400 to 800).
  • After continuous methotrexate infusion no further anticancer drug was given to complete responders.
  • RESULTS: After treatment 4 patients achieved a complete response and were disease-free 3 years 9 months to 17 years 10 months (median 11 years 3 months) after therapy.
  • The patient with a shaft tumor subsequently underwent total penectomy due to unbearable penile pain 4 years after infusion with various drugs without an appreciable response.
  • He has survived 12 years 5 months after initial treatment.
  • The other patient with glans and prepuce tumors had progression with bilateral inguinal metastases despite 1 1/2 years of infusion therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intra-aortic infusion chemotherapy is a simple, effective method to treat penile verrucous carcinoma with the uniqueness of preserving the anatomical structure and sexual function in complete responders.
  • For penile verrucous carcinoma, especially in younger patients, intra-aortic infusion chemotherapy may be considered organ sparing treatment before penectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Aorta, Abdominal. Carcinoma, Verrucous / drug therapy. Infusions, Intra-Arterial / methods. Methotrexate / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Penile Neoplasms / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome. Vitamin B Complex / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2010 May;183(5):1835 [20303106.001]
  • (PMID = 20303107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 12001-76-2 / Vitamin B Complex; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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15. Maw RD, Kinghorn GR, Bowman CA, Goh BT, Nayagam AT, Nathan M: Imiquimod 5% cream is an acceptable treatment option for external anogenital warts in uncircumcised males. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2002 Jan;16(1):58-62
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Imiquimod .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod 5% cream is an acceptable treatment option for external anogenital warts in uncircumcised males.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the safety and efficacy of imiquimod (Aldara) 5% cream in the treatment of prepuce-associated warts in uncircumcised males.
  • METHODS: An open-label study in six UK medical centres with 35 uncircumcised males with prepuce-associated warts treated with imiquimod 5% cream three times per week for up to 16 weeks.
  • RESULTS: Three times weekly application of imiquimod was found to be safe, with erythema as the most commonly reported local skin reaction.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Imiquimod cream at a dosing regimen of three times per week, is effective and has an acceptable safety profile in the treatment of prepuce associated warts and other external anogenital warts in uncircumcised males.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Condylomata Acuminata / drug therapy. Interferon Inducers / therapeutic use. Penile Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Adult. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ointments. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11952292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 0 / Ointments; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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16. Elmore JM, Baker LA, Snodgrass WT: Topical steroid therapy as an alternative to circumcision for phimosis in boys younger than 3 years. J Urol; 2002 Oct;168(4 Pt 2):1746-7; discussion 1747
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. BETAMETHASONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical steroid therapy as an alternative to circumcision for phimosis in boys younger than 3 years.
  • PURPOSE Topical steroids are an effective alternative to circumcision for the treatment of phimosis.
  • In no case could the prepuce be retracted to visualize the meatus.
  • Patients were treated with 0.05% betamethasone cream applied to the distal aspect of the prepuce twice daily for 1 month.
  • RESULTS: Of the boys 20 (74%) had fully retractable foreskins after 1 month of treatment with betamethasone and 5 (18%) had a partial response at 1 month, with the prepuce becoming fully retractable during month 2 of therapy.
  • Of the 2 patients in whom treatment failed 1 subsequently underwent circumcision while the parents of the other refused further therapy.
  • Given proven efficacy in children older than 3 years, topical steroid therapy represents a potential alternative to circumcision regardless of the age of the patient, type of phimosis or relative indication for treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Betamethasone / administration & dosage. Circumcision, Male. Phimosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Infant. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12352350.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone
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17. Vincent MV, Mackinnon E: The response of clinical balanitis xerotica obliterans to the application of topical steroid-based creams. J Pediatr Surg; 2005 Apr;40(4):709-12
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROCORTISONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • All had been referred by their general practitioners with symptoms of penile pathology and then subsequently had a clinical diagnosis of BXO made.
  • The boys were initially assessed after 3 months of treatment and then at various intervals depending on their response.
  • When the treatment period was prolonged by an average of 14 months, the total number of boys showing resolution increased to 17 (30.4%).
  • All boys showing resolution had clinically mild BXO limited to the prepuce only.
  • Those patients with established scar formation on the foreskin showed no significant improvement.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Topical steroids seem to offer a reliable option only in the management of mild BXO limited to the prepuce in boys with minimal scar formation.
  • This treatment is ineffective in the face of established scarring.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Balanitis / drug therapy. Betamethasone / therapeutic use. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Mar;41(3):606; author reply 606-7 [16516649.001]
  • (PMID = 15852285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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18. van Basten JP, de Vijlder AM, Mensink HJ: [The use of corticosteroid cream to treat phimosis]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2003 Aug 9;147(32):1544-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Behandeling van fimosis met corticosteroïdcrème.
  • If an unretractable prepuce causes hygienic problems, and also in the case of dermatopathology, topical corticosteroid application may be an effective alternative to circumcision.
  • A total of 1121 boys with an unretractable prepuce were treated with a topical corticosteroid, which was mostly applied twice daily.
  • After a treatment duration of 4 to 8 weeks, about 75% of the patients achieved complete retractability of the prepuce.
  • Different types of corticosteroids gave similar results.
  • Topical corticosteroid application for the treatment of unretractable prepuce complaints seems to be effective and safe, and is therefore recommended before surgical intervention is considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Phimosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Circumcision, Male. Humans. Hygiene. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12942843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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19. Zwolińska E, Janik P, Ratajczak D: [Analysis of treatment results of boys referred to outpatient paediatric surgery centre with recognition of phimosis]. Wiad Lek; 2008;61(7-9):195-200
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. BETAMETHASONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Analysis of treatment results of boys referred to outpatient paediatric surgery centre with recognition of phimosis].
  • The problem with prepuce retraction is caused not only by its narrowing, called phimosis, but also frequently by the inner prepuce adhesion to glans.
  • The spontaneous prepuce retraction is received in 80% cases of boys up to the age of two, whereas in remaining cases, after the age of two it is necessary to take up the medical treatment.
  • The purpose of the research was to estimate the effectiveness of conservative therapy using steroid ointments which was undertaken in boys referred to Outpatient Paediatric Surgery Centre with recognition of phimosis.
  • At the first appointment the boys were divided into 3 main groups: I--children with foreskin adhesion without visible stenosis (near 20%), who had the prepuce adhesion released in a local anaesthetic with Emla cream; II--children with narrowed foreskin (phimosis) who were treated with the use of conservative therapy by means of topical steroids (about 70%); III--children with stenosed prepuce (phimosis) developed to a large extent, who were immediately qualified to a surgery therapy without trying the conservative therapy (near 10%).
  • RESULTS: Among all patients about 1/5 needed the prepuce adhesion releasing with the use of Emla ointment only.
  • High efficiency of conservative treatment with topical steroids was revealed both in primary and acquired phimosis.
  • Reduction of the therapy time of children treated with topical steroids because of primary phimosis in relation to those treated surgically was taken into account.
  • CONCLUSION: Conservative treatment of phimosis is highly effective and safe method which may also be an initial stage to operative treatment or to cure scarring after surgical treatment as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Betamethasone / administration & dosage. Penis / growth & development. Phimosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Male. Ointments / administration & dosage. Outpatients / statistics & numerical data. Poland. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19172831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Ointments; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone
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20. ter Meulen PH, Delaere KP: A conservative treatment of phimosis in boys. Eur Urol; 2001 Aug;40(2):196-9; discussion 200
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Clobetasol .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A conservative treatment of phimosis in boys.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of topical applications of clobetasol propionate cream in the treatment of phimosis in boys and a comparison of the results presented with an overview of the current studies.
  • The prepuce was treated for 1 month, with an attempt at prepuce retraction after 14 days.
  • The boys were evaluated after 1 month of treatment and every 3 months during follow-up.
  • RESULTS: Of the 94 boys, 91 were available for follow-up, of whom 42 boys (46.1%) achieved complete retraction of the prepuce, 24 (26.4%) had only preputial adhesions and 4 (4.4%) had partial retraction.
  • The treatment was continued in 13 boys with good results eventually.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Local application of clobetasol propionate cream is a simple, safe and effective treatment for phimosis in boys and avoids circumcision and its associated risks.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Clobetasol / administration & dosage. Clobetasol / analogs & derivatives. Phimosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11528198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids; ADN79D536H / Clobetasol
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21. Bissada NK, Yakout HH, Fahmy WE, Gayed MS, Touijer AK, Greene GF, Hanash KA: Multi-institutional long-term experience with conservative surgery for invasive penile carcinoma. J Urol; 2003 Feb;169(2):500-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multi-institutional long-term experience with conservative surgery for invasive penile carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis occurs on the glans, prepuce, glans and prepuce, coronal sulcus and shaft.
  • Penile squamous cell carcinoma subsequently invades local structures, corpora cavernosa and the urethra, and metastasizes to the inguinal lymph nodes.
  • Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis usually requires total or partial penectomy.
  • We studied the effect of primary tumor resections tailored to the anatomical extent of the cancer with preservation of uninvolved structures in select patients with invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 patients between 39 and 82 years old were treated with unconventional conservative surgical excision of the primary penile lesion.
  • Patient age, tumor extent and grade, operative details, outcome and length of followup were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Tumor size ranged from 1.5 to 8 cm. in diameter.
  • Chemotherapy was given to 7 patients with extensive inguinal lymphadenopathy and to 2 of 5 with pathologically positive lymph nodes.
  • Tumor resection with no sacrifice of function was performed in 2 patients in whom 3 small recurrences developed.
  • Of the 7 patients with advanced lymphadenopathy 5 and of 5 patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes at presentation 1 died of the cancer but had no local recurrence in the penis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In a minority of patients with anatomically suitable penile cancer conservative surgical techniques are safe and provide equal tumor control compared to conventional resections.
  • The anatomical situation and tumor characteristics should dictate the choice of treatment for the primary penile lesion.
  • Inguinal lymph nodes should be managed by appropriately established guidelines but should not influence the extent of primary penile lesion resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Penile Neoplasms / surgery. Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12544296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Palmer LS, Palmer JS: The efficacy of topical betamethasone for treating phimosis: a comparison of two treatment regimens. Urology; 2008 Jul;72(1):68-71
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. BETAMETHASONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The efficacy of topical betamethasone for treating phimosis: a comparison of two treatment regimens.
  • OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of two different topical betamethasone treatment regimens with respect to outcome and untoward effects in boys with phimosis.
  • All boys had severe phimosis (prepuce unretractable to evaluate meatus) before treatment.
  • The degree of phimosis was graded 1 month after treatment as severe, moderate (prepuce retractable to less than 50% glanular exposure), or mild (penile adhesions).
  • Treatment failure was defined as persistent severe phimosis.
  • RESULTS: A total of 200 consecutive patients from each treatment group were included.
  • Two patients with severe phimosis before treatment were diagnosed with congenital urethral malformations (hypospadias and epispadias) after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The topical application of betamethasone is a highly efficacious, safe, and well-tolerated treatment of phimosis in this large series of boys.
  • [MeSH-major] Betamethasone / administration & dosage. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Phimosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 18455770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone
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23. Moreno-Arias GA, Camps-Fresneda A, Llaberia C, Palou-Almerich J: Plasma cell balanitis treated with tacrolimus 0.1%. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Dec;153(6):1204-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Plasma cell balanitis or balanitis of Zoon (BZ) is a frequent diagnosis in mature men and lesions are generally localized on the glans but may involve the prepuce; its aetiology remains unknown.
  • OBJECTIVES: To present our experience with tacrolimus 0.1% ointment in the treatment of two patients with BZ refractive to other topical treatments.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment is an effective and safe treatment for BZ.
  • [MeSH-major] Balanitis / drug therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Tacrolimus / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16307659.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Ointments; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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24. Al Rajabi W, Venturini M, Sala R, Calzavara-Pinton P: Wegener's granulomatosis of the penis: genital presentation of systemic disease. Dermatology; 2006;212(4):370-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Wegener's granulomatosis of the penis: genital presentation of systemic disease.
  • This case concerns a 50-year-old man in whom WG caused an asymptomatic erosion on the glans penis and prepuce.
  • Histological examination of a nodular lesion on the left leg showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis of small and medium-size vessels, suggesting the diagnosis of WG.
  • Cases in which isolated unspecific erosive lesions of the penis are the only symptoms of WG have been seen in only 4 other patients so far, and a correct diagnosis was only possible due to a careful follow-up study.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis / diagnosis. Penis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16707888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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25. Das S, Tunuguntla HS: Balanitis xerotica obliterans--a review. World J Urol; 2000 Dec;18(6):382-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Many cases of BXO occurring after circumcision may be cases of secondary phimosis due to BXO not being recognized at the time of surgery.
  • Biopsy of the lesions is not essential in all cases and is indicated to differentiate from penile cancer and in atypical cases.
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of BXO are very important in preventing the urological complications of the diseases such as urethral stricture.
  • Treatment of BXO depends on the anatomic location of the lesions and their extent and severity, together with the rapidity of progression of the disease process.
  • The treatment may vary from topical corticosteroids, laser vaporization in early cases to meatoplasty and urethroplasty in extensive cases.
  • Topical pharmacotherapy is useful in the early stages to reduce the initial symptoms and slow down the progression, but is not effective in all cases and is not the curative treatment of disease.
  • Meatal stenosis, phimosis, scar adhesions, fissures, erosions of glans and prepuce and involvement of the urethra are indications for surgical treatment.
  • Surgery seems to be the only treatment that can relieve the symptoms of advanced disease.
  • Excision of the scleroatrophic tract and grafting of the glans base, coronal sulcus, and the end of the shaft give a complete relief of pain during erection and intercourse in circumcised patients with balanopreputial adhesions and restore the elasticity of the skin of penile shaft.
  • The complete excision of the stricture and flap urethroplasty seems to be better than a 2-stage procedure.
  • However, at the present time, it is not possible to say that surgery can completely resolve this chronic and progressive disease.

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  • (PMID = 11204255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-4983
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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26. Maqueo JA, Cortés-González JR, Gómez-Guerra LS: [Localization and size as prognostic factors of response to treatment with 5% imiquimod cream in non circumcised males with penile condyloma acuminata]. Arch Esp Urol; 2008 Jul-Aug;61(6):711-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Imiquimod .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Localization and size as prognostic factors of response to treatment with 5% imiquimod cream in non circumcised males with penile condyloma acuminata].
  • [Transliterated title] Localización y tamaño como factores pronósticos de respuesta al tratamiento con imiquimod crema al 5% en hombres no circuncidados con condiloma acuminado peneano.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relevance of size and location of penile condylomatous lesions as prognostic factors to Imiquimod 5% cream treatment response in uncircumcised men.
  • METHODS: Twenty-two patients with condylomatous lesions in the glans, prepuce and penile shaft were included in this study.
  • Treatment with Imiquimod 5% cream 3 times per week was given and follow up was at the first and second week and afterwards every second week.
  • A complete response was observed in 75% (9) of patients with lesions on glans and prepuce.
  • The same response rate was observed in patients with penile shaft lesions.
  • Non responders were classified after 12 weeks of treatment and alternative treatment was advocated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Site and size of penile lesions of condyloma acuminata had no relevance as prognostic factors for treatment response of Imiquimod 5% cream.
  • If Imiquimod was the treatment selected, alternative therapeutic approaches should be advised if no response is seen after the fourth week of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Condylomata Acuminata / drug therapy. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Penile Diseases / drug therapy. Penile Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18705193.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Dosage Forms; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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27. Deng ZN, Chen ZG, Feng YP: [Three-piece inflatable penile prosthesis implantation for the treatment of penile erectile dysfunction]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2003 Apr;9(2):109-10, 114
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Three-piece inflatable penile prosthesis implantation for the treatment of penile erectile dysfunction].
  • OBJECTIVES: To introduce the method and experience of three-piece inflatable penile prosthesis for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED).
  • RESULTS: There were no rejection, mechanical problems, urethral injury and penile skin necrosis after surgery.
  • There were 2 cases of post-operative infection (4.17%), 10 cases of prepuce edema(20.8%), 8 cases of penile pain(16.67%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Three-piece inflatable penile prosthesis was more compatible to human physiology.
  • It was indicated for all kinds of ED, especially suitable for refractory and drug incurable ED patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Erectile Dysfunction / therapy. Penile Implantation. Penile Prosthesis

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  • (PMID = 12749129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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28. Zavras N, Christianakis E, Mpourikas D, Ereikat K: Conservative treatment of phimosis with fluticasone proprionate 0.05%: a clinical study in 1185 boys. J Pediatr Urol; 2009 Jun;5(3):181-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conservative treatment of phimosis with fluticasone proprionate 0.05%: a clinical study in 1185 boys.
  • OBJECTIVE: Circumcision has been the traditional method of choice in the treatment of boys with phimosis.
  • These studies advocate the use of topical steroids in the phimotic foreskin.
  • We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of a medium potency corticosteroid in boys with different types of prepuce retractabilty.
  • RESULTS: A total of 1185 boys with a diagnosis of phimosis were treated with fluticasone proprionate 0.05%.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results show that fluticasone proprionate 0.05%, a mild potent corticosteroid, is effective and safe in the treatment of boys with different types of phimosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Androstadienes / administration & dosage. Dermatologic Agents / administration & dosage. Phimosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adolescent. Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans / drug therapy. Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Fluticasone. Follow-Up Studies. Foreskin / drug effects. Foreskin / pathology. Humans. Male. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19097823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androstadienes; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; CUT2W21N7U / Fluticasone
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29. Ebert AK, Rösch WH, Vogt T: Safety and tolerability of adjuvant topical tacrolimus treatment in boys with lichen sclerosus: a prospective phase 2 study. Eur Urol; 2008 Oct;54(4):932-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety and tolerability of adjuvant topical tacrolimus treatment in boys with lichen sclerosus: a prospective phase 2 study.
  • Although in most cases only the prepuce is affected, meatal and urethral involvement may require major surgical reconstruction with substantial morbidity.
  • OBJECTIVE: Because the frequency of such complicated courses is still unclear, an adjuvant postoperative treatment is highly desirable.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Among 222 penile surgeries, in 25 cases LS was confirmed histologically and 20 of those patients participated in the adjuvant treatment study.
  • The 18 patients with possible early LS were followed up only without any treatment.
  • RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: All 20 LS patients completed the topical treatment without any relevant side-effects.
  • Two relapses occurred in the treatment group and were clinically cured with an additional 3-wk cycle of topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study showing that tacrolimus 0.1% ointment applied immediately after surgery of fully established LS is a tolerable and most probably safe adjuvant novel treatment option.
  • Because the therapy led to disease control in all treated individuals for >1 yr (median), this study establishes the groundwork for future trials with expanded treatment and follow-up periods to verify the true clinical benefit of tacrolimus in patients after LS surgery.
  • Lichenoid tissue reactions suggestive of early LS seem to require no adjuvant treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / drug therapy. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / surgery. Tacrolimus / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Male. Prospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2008 Oct;54(4):937 [18374473.001]
  • (PMID = 18374471.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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30. Ruocco E, Cutrì FT, Baroni A: Bowenoid papulosis at the site of prior herpes progenitalis. Skinmed; 2004 Nov-Dec;3(6):347-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A 35-year-old dentist came to the authors' attention for papular and vegetating lesions that had appeared on his penile shaft over the last 2 months.
  • Interestingly, the patient reported a clear medical history of herpes progenital is (only one episode) that had involved the right side of his glans and prepuce 4 years ago.
  • An immunomodulating treatment with imiquimod was started in the attempt to cure both the genital warts and Bowenoid papulosis lesions (imiquimod was applied three times a week for 8 weeks).
  • At the end of the treatment, the genital warts had disappeared, whereas many Bowenoid papulosis lesions were still present on the right side of the penis (Figure 3).
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Herpes Genitalis / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Drug Therapy, Combination. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Nitrogen / therapeutic use. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15538089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-9740
  • [Journal-full-title] Skinmed
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skinmed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; N762921K75 / Nitrogen
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31. Kumar B, Narang T, Dass Radotra B, Gupta S: Plasma cell balanitis: clinicopathologic study of 112 cases and treatment modalities. J Cutan Med Surg; 2006 Jan-Feb;10(1):11-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Plasma cell balanitis: clinicopathologic study of 112 cases and treatment modalities.
  • METHODS: One hundred twelve patients with a clinical diagnosis of plasma cell balanitis were studied between January 1985 and April 2003.
  • Lesions involved the prepuce and glans in the majority of patients (66; 58.92%), the prepuce only in 26 patients (23.21%), and the glans only in 20 patients (17.85%).
  • Tissue for histopathology was available in 96 patients.
  • The treatment modalities are also reviewed, and the importance of circumcision as the treatment of choice is emphasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Balanitis / drug therapy. Balanitis / surgery. Circumcision, Male. Plasma Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17241566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Hafez ES, Hafez SD: Erectile dysfunction: anatomical parameters, etiology, diagnosis, and therapy. Arch Androl; 2005 Jan-Feb;51(1):15-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Erectile dysfunction: anatomical parameters, etiology, diagnosis, and therapy.
  • Functional anatomy of the human penis involves various parameters: cavernous tissue, covering integument, prepuce foreskin, corpora cavernosa, corpus spongiosum, glans, facia, arterial supply, venous drainage, lymph drainage, musculature, and nerve supply.
  • Several drugs are associated with ED: antiandrogenic, anticholinergic, antidepressants, antihypertensive, major tranquilizers, anxiolytics, and certain medicines/metabolites.
  • Another diagnostic procedure for ED involves color floro and spectural Doppler imaging after papaverine-induced erection in impotent men.
  • Sildenafil cilrate (Viagra) is an effective therapy of ED in men.
  • Clinical trials were conducted on self-injection of vasoactive drugs, apomorphine SL, and tadalafil in diabetic men.
  • Medical therapy of ED includes: medicated urethral system for erection (MUSE), intravenous pharmacotherapy, arterial revascularization, vacuum devices, two- and three-component inflatable penile prosthesis, semi-rigid penile prosthesis in situ, and inflatable one-piece penile prosthesis.
  • Surgical therapy include procedures to correct Peyronie's penile deformity and penile deformity, procedures to avoid inevitable shortening accompanying Nesbit's disease, and for penile lengthening.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Penis / anatomy & histology. Penis / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 15764414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5016
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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33. Yang SS, Tsai YC, Wu CC, Liu SP, Wang CC: Highly potent and moderately potent topical steroids are effective in treating phimosis: a prospective randomized study. J Urol; 2005 Apr;173(4):1361-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Parents of the boys were instructed to retract the foreskin gently without causing pain, and to apply the topical steroids over the stenotic opening of the prepuce twice daily for 4 weeks, then for another 4 weeks if no improvement was achieved.
  • Retractibility of the prepuce was graded from 0 to 5.
  • Response to treatment was arbitrarily defined as improvement in the retractibility score of more than 2 points.
  • RESULTS: Mean treatment and followup periods were 4.3 and 19.1 weeks, respectively.
  • Pretreatment retractibility score did not affect treatment outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Betamethasone Valerate / therapeutic use. Clobetasol / analogs & derivatives. Clobetasol / therapeutic use. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Phimosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Child. Child, Preschool. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Prospective Studies. Single-Blind Method. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15758802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 8U0H6XI6EO / clobetasone butyrate; 9IFA5XM7R2 / Betamethasone Valerate; ADN79D536H / Clobetasol
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34. Bassett RJ, Burton GG, Robson DC: Antibiotic responsive ulcerative dermatoses in German Shepherd Dogs with mucocutaneous pyoderma. Aust Vet J; 2004 Aug;82(8):485-9
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  • Mucocutaneous pyoderma is a disease of unknown aetiology affecting mucocutaneous skin and is responsive to antibacterial therapy.
  • It is reported to affect the lips, nasal planum, nares, perioral skin and less commonly, the eyelids, vulva, prepuce and anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Dog Diseases / drug therapy. Pyoderma / veterinary. Skin Ulcer / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Female. Pedigree

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  • (PMID = 15359964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0005-0423
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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35. Zampieri N, Corroppolo M, Zuin V, Bianchi S, Camoglio FS: Phimosis and topical steroids: new clinical findings. Pediatr Surg Int; 2007 Apr;23(4):331-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Phimosis has been defined as unretractable foreskin without adherences and/or a circular band of tight prepuce preventing full retraction.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy (response rate) of topical steroids for the treatment of tight phimosis at different age stages.
  • After using the same medication with different dosage schemes, a retrospective analysis was carried out to assess the efficacy of topical steroids in the treatment of tight phimosis.
  • Remission of phimosis, with a complete exposure and without a narrowing behind the glans, was considered a complete response to treatment.
  • A successful treatment was closely related to the age of patients at the beginning of steroid application.
  • The results showed that treatment with topical steroids, which in general gives good results, proved to be much more successful in patients aged between 4 and 8 years, suggesting the efficacy of an early beginning of the treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Betamethasone / administration & dosage. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Phimosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Elasticity / drug effects. Follow-Up Studies. Foreskin / drug effects. Foreskin / physiopathology. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17308904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone
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36. Ku WH, Chiu BS, Huen KF: Outcome and recurrence in treatment of phimosis using topical betamethasone in children in Hong Kong. J Paediatr Child Health; 2007 Jan-Feb;43(1-2):74-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome and recurrence in treatment of phimosis using topical betamethasone in children in Hong Kong.
  • We also looked into the effect of daily retraction and cleansing of prepuce on preventing recurrence of phimsosis.
  • The number of treatment course received, short-term and long-term outcome, side effects and the effect of daily foreskin retraction were studied.
  • RESULTS: The success rate of first treatment course was 81.5%, and 60.2% of boys remained free from phimosis upon latest assessment.
  • We found a significant and linear relationship between daily foreskin retraction and sustained resolution of phimosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Topical steroid is an effective and safe treatment for phimosis, especially when combined with a good hygiene practice of the foreskin with daily cleansing and retraction.
  • A trial of topical steroid treatment should be offered upon considering circumcision.
  • [MeSH-major] Betamethasone / administration & dosage. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Phimosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17207060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1034-4810
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of paediatrics and child health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Paediatr Child Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone
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37. Makedonsky IA: The use of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) for penile reconstruction in bladder exstrophy and total epispadias patients. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Dec;16(6):428-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The use of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) for penile reconstruction in bladder exstrophy and total epispadias patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: The effect of intramuscular human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administration on penile enlargement before genital surgery, its influence on penile skin histology and testicular descent were investigated.
  • 30 patients were administered 250-500 IU HCG intramuscularly 2 times per week for 3 weeks before reconstructive surgery.
  • Skin specimens of the prepuce of 18 circumcised patients were used as controls.
  • Post treatment testicle position was evaluated.
  • RESULTS: HCG caused a mean increase in penile length of 1.8 cm (p < 0.01) and in circumference of 1.2 cm (p < 0.05) as well as improved local vascularity in all patients.
  • Compared to the controls, the penile skin of exstrophy/epispadias patients showed a significant decrease in the average amount per field of EGF and Her2/neu positive material (controls 81% [mean 79, SE 2.3] vs. 31% [mean 28, SE 3.6; p < 0.001]).
  • Treatment with HCG led to an increase in average EGF and Her2/neu positive material by 10% (mean 8, SE 2; p < 0.05).
  • The potential side effects of HCG treatment were monitored 3 to 6 months postoperatively.
  • Basal testosterone and LH levels were obtained in patients before and during therapy and postoperatively.
  • CONCLUSION: Mean EGF and Her2/neu values are decreased in the penile skin of exstrophy/epispadias patients.
  • The use of preoperative HCG administration leads to an increase in EGF and Her2/neu values and significantly contributes to successful reconstruction in these patients, especially in cases with a paucity of penile skin and in patients who have undergone previous repairs.
  • Temporary penile stimulation by HCG in patients with bladder exstrophy combined with cryptorchidism allows the penile operation to be carried out earlier and contributes to testicular descent while demonstrating negligible side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Bladder Exstrophy / surgery. Chorionic Gonadotropin / therapeutic use. Cryptorchidism / surgery. Epispadias / surgery. Penis / anatomy & histology. Penis / drug effects. Skin / anatomy & histology. Skin / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17211793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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38. Oberkirchner U, Linder KE, Zadrozny L, Olivry T: Successful treatment of canine necrolytic migratory erythema (superficial necrolytic dermatitis) due to metastatic glucagonoma with octreotide. Vet Dermatol; 2010 Oct;21(5):510-6
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of canine necrolytic migratory erythema (superficial necrolytic dermatitis) due to metastatic glucagonoma with octreotide.
  • The dog exhibited erosions, ulcers and crusts on the paws, pressure points, muzzle, periocular area and prepuce.
  • Because metastasis precluded surgery, treatment was initiated with subcutaneous octreotide (2 μg/kg twice daily).
  • During the following month, both dosage (1-3.7 μg/kg) and frequency (two to four times daily) of the octreotide injections were adjusted to permit control of clinical signs while maintaining adequate appetite.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / drug therapy. Glucagonoma / veterinary. Necrolytic Migratory Erythema / veterinary. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pancreatic Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anorexia / chemically induced. Anorexia / veterinary. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Dogs. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / pathology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / veterinary

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.
  • (PMID = 20500495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-3164
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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39. Ghysel C, Vander Eeckt K, Bogaert GA: Long-term efficiency of skin stretching and a topical corticoid cream application for unretractable foreskin and phimosis in prepubertal boys. Urol Int; 2009;82(1):81-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term efficiency of skin stretching and a topical corticoid cream application for unretractable foreskin and phimosis in prepubertal boys.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of topical application of a potent corticoid cream and skin stretching in the treatment of unretractable foreskin, pinpoint phimosis, balanopreputial adhesions and lichen sclerosus in prepubertal boys.
  • METHODS: 462 prepubertal boys (mean age 4.7 years) with unretractable foreskin applied a topical potent corticoid cream together with skin stretching twice daily for 6 weeks.
  • RESULTS: 400/462 boys (86%) had a retractable prepuce after 6 weeks of treatment.
  • After a median follow-up of 22 months, the treatment continued to be successful in 383/462 boys (83%).
  • In 76/462 boys the foreskin was unretractable, of which 35 preferred surgical treatment.
  • 12/462 boys presented with lichen sclerosus and the non-surgical treatment appeared efficient in 9/12 (67%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that local application of a potent corticoid cream and skin stretching is a safe, simple and effective long-term treatment for all types of unretractable foreskin in prepubertal boys.
  • The efficiency of the treatment was not related to the age of the patient or the type of unretractable foreskin.
  • [MeSH-major] Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans / therapy. Betamethasone / administration & dosage. Foreskin / drug effects. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / therapy. Phimosis / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Circumcision, Male. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Infant. Male. Ointments. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19172103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Ointments; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone
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40. Gahr S, Ocker M, Ganslmayer M, Zopf S, Okamoto K, Hartl A, Leitner S, Hahn EG, Herold C: The combination of the histone-deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A and gemcitabine induces inhibition of proliferation and increased apoptosis in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Int J Oncol; 2007 Sep;31(3):567-76
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  • The prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer is poor.
  • Established chemotherapy shows only limited efficacy and significant side effects.
  • The human pancreatic carcinoma cells YAPC, DANG and Panc-89 and primary human foreskin fibroblasts as non-malignant controls were cultured under standardized conditions and incubated with gemcitabine und TSA alone (10(-4) to 10(-8) M) or together (10(-6) to 10(-7) M).
  • Combination of TSA and gemcitabine shows promise for treatment of pancreatic cancer in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Hydroxamic Acids / administration & dosage. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Caspase 3 / biosynthesis. Caspase 8 / biosynthesis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Separation. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / biosynthesis. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17671683.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 3X2S926L3Z / trichostatin A; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 8; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
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41. Marques TC, Sampaio FJ, Favorito LA: Treatment of phimosis with topical steroids and foreskin anatomy. Int Braz J Urol; 2005 Jul-Aug;31(4):370-4; discussion 374
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of phimosis with topical steroids and foreskin anatomy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To correlate topical steroidal treatment of stenosed foreskin with the different degrees of glans exposure and the length of time the ointment is applied.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 95 patients with phimosis, divided according to the degree of foreskin retraction.
  • Group A presented no foreskin retraction, group B presented exposure of only the urethral meatus, group C presented exposure of half of the glans, and group D presented exposure of the glans, which was incomplete because of preputial adherences to the coronal sulcus.
  • Patients were submitted to application of 0.05% betamethasone ointment on the distal aspect of the prepuce twice daily for a minimum of 30 days and a maximum of 4 months.
  • RESULTS: Of 95 patients, 10 (10.52%) abandoned the treatment and 15 patients in groups C and D were excluded from the study.
  • Among the remaining 70 patients, only 4 patients (5.7%) in group A did not obtain adequate glans exposure after treatment.
  • In group A (38 patients), fully retractable foreskins were obtained in 19 patients (50%) after 1 month of treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment was successful in 94.2% of patients, irrespective of the type of foreskin anatomy.
  • The improvement may require several months of treatment.
  • Patients with impossibility of urethral meatus exposure present around 10% treatment failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Betamethasone / therapeutic use. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Phimosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Male. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16137407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-5538
  • [Journal-full-title] International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Braz J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone
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42. Orsola A, Caffaratti J, Garat JM: Conservative treatment of phimosis in children using a topical steroid. Urology; 2000 Aug 1;56(2):307-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conservative treatment of phimosis in children using a topical steroid.
  • OBJECTIVES: From 1997 through 1998, we conducted a prospective study to evaluate the long-term outcome of using topical steroids in the treatment of childhood phimosis.
  • METHODS: Both the parents and their children were instructed to apply 0.05% betamethasone cream topically twice a day for 1 month and to retract the prepuce after the fifth day of treatment.
  • Results were evaluated at the end of the treatment and 6 months later.
  • At initial presentation, 61 boys had a phimotic but retractable prepuce, 37 had a nonretractable phimotic ring, and 39 had a pinpoint opening.
  • Patients with a history of previous forcible foreskin retractions were considered to have secondary phimosis.
  • By 6 months following treatment, 90% (124 children) had an easily retractable prepuce without a phimotic ring.
  • In all cases, the treatment was well tolerated without local or systemic side effects.
  • All the patients with persistent or recurrent phimosis were found to be noncompliant with the suggested daily foreskin care.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Topical steroid for the treatment of phimosis is a safe, simple, and inexpensive procedure that avoids surgery and its associated risks.
  • We emphasize the importance of proper and regular foreskin care and hypothesize on the mechanism of action of the steroids.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Betamethasone / therapeutic use. Phimosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Glucocorticoids. Humans. Male. Penis / growth & development. Penis / physiology. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10925099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone
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43. Stinco G, Piccirillo F, Patrone P: Discordant results with pimecrolimus 1% cream in the treatment of plasma cell balanitis. Dermatology; 2009;218(2):155-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Discordant results with pimecrolimus 1% cream in the treatment of plasma cell balanitis.
  • Plasma cell balanitis of Zoon is a chronic, benign, inflammatory dermatosis of the glans penis and prepuce.
  • The treatments described to date have provided only partially successful results.
  • We report 3 cases of plasma cell balanitis refractory to several treatments with steroids and antifungals treated with pimecrolimus 1% cream applied twice daily: 1 patient had a complete resolution, 1 patient had a marked response but relapsed during the treatment and the last patient had a partial response due to the development of a side effect that precociously required to stop the treatment.
  • Additional experiences are needed to determine if topical pimecrolimus is an effective and safe treatment for plasma cell balanitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Balanitis / drug therapy. Balanitis / pathology. Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Plasma Cells. Tacrolimus / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Emollients / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Reproducibility of Results. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18832808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Emollients; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 7KYV510875 / pimecrolimus; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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44. Kitsukawa S, Ito T, Hosoda S, Samejima T, Otsuru N, Matsumoto T, Yamamoto Y, Noda K, Matsumoto T, Aizawa T: [Early effect of non-surgical treatment using betamethasone valerate ointment for phimosis in childhood]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 May;52(5):337-41
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. BETAMETHASONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Early effect of non-surgical treatment using betamethasone valerate ointment for phimosis in childhood].
  • We evaluated the early efficacy of non-surgical treatment using 0.07% betamethasone valerate ointment on, 34 boys with phimosis between January 2001 and June 2005.
  • Patients were treated with 0.07% betamethasone valerate ointment applied to the distal aspect of the prepuce every other day for 2-6 weeks.
  • During the treatment period, patients were instructed to retract the foreskin to penis root without overstraining.
  • The overall success rate was 94.1% and therapeutic effects were observed in 58.8% of the patients in two weeks.
  • Treatment using betamethasone valerate ointment is very effective, easy and safe.
  • We recommend this treatment for patients with phimosis and/or those with recurring balanoposthitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Betamethasone / administration & dosage. Phimosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Infant. Male. Ointments

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  • (PMID = 16758721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Ointments; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone
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45. Chabannes E, Wallerand H, Bernardini S, Debière F, Allouc H, Bittard H: [Malignant penile melanoma]. Prog Urol; 2000 Feb;10(1):101-5; discussion 105-6
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  • [Title] [Malignant penile melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Mélanome malin du pénis.
  • The authors report the case of a very large, obstructive malignant melanoma (MM.) of the prepuce, encasing all of the distal extremity of the penis, and discovered at a late metastatic stage (regional lymph node metastasis).
  • Palliative treatment, consisting of partial penectomy associated with a complementary induction and maintenance chemotherapy did not achieve any objective response at one year. MM. of the penis are rare urological tumours, including MM of the penis and MM of the male urethra (exclusively mucosal involvement).
  • The diagnosis of MM of the penis must be considered in any case of black or brown lesion of the glans, which is the most frequent site.
  • The prognosis is determined by the clinical stage (BRACKEN and DIOKNO classification) and by the depth and level of tumour invasion (BRESLOW index and CLARK's degree of dermal invasion).
  • The 5-year survival is inversely proportional to the tumour thickness.
  • The treatment of MM of the penis is surgical; the extent of resection and the indication for lymph node dissection depend on the patient's age, sexuality, and the stage of the disease and depth of tumour invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 10785929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
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46. Kotchetkov R, Cinatl J, Krivtchik AA, Vogel JU, Matousek J, Pouckova P, Kornhuber B, Schwabe D, Cinatl J Jr: Selective activity of BS-RNase against anaplastic thyroid cancer. Anticancer Res; 2001 Mar-Apr;21(2A):1035-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Selective activity of BS-RNase against anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is an aggressive solid tumor that fails to adequately respond to any known chemotherapeutic regimen.
  • The development of effective chemotherapy agents would provide the best chance for long-term survival of patients.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxic effects of bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) against thyroid carcinoma cell lines with different degrees of differentiation in comparison to non-malignant cells, including human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) and retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE), were tested using the MTT dye reduction assay.
  • RESULTS: All the tumor cell lines exhibited marked sensitivity against BS-RNase in comparison to HFF and RPE cells.
  • In vivo treatment induced significant tumor regression after the course of 20 consecutive days.
  • No apparent toxic effects of BS-RNase toward non-malignant cells were observed during the in vivo treatment.
  • After cessation of therapy (day 20) tumor volume continued to decrease and the tumor was no longer detectable after 30 days of treatment induction in all animals.
  • CONCLUSION: BS-RNase may have beneficial effects for treatment of aggressive anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Endoribonucleases / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD95 / biosynthesis. Apoptosis. Cattle. Fas Ligand Protein. Female. Humans. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neoplasms, Experimental. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11396137.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Fasl protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 3.1.- / Endoribonucleases; EC 3.1.27.- / ribonuclease SPL
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47. Hostetler KY, Rought S, Aldern KA, Trahan J, Beadle JR, Corbeil J: Enhanced antiproliferative effects of alkoxyalkyl esters of cidofovir in human cervical cancer cells in vitro. Mol Cancer Ther; 2006 Jan;5(1):156-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Enhanced antiproliferative effects of alkoxyalkyl esters of cidofovir in human cervical cancer cells in vitro.
  • The E6 and E7 oncoproteins reduce cellular levels of the p53 and the retinoblastoma (pRb) tumor suppressors, respectively, and represent an important component of the malignant phenotype.
  • Several groups have shown that treatment with cidofovir suppresses levels of E6 and E7, restoring cellular p53 and pRb levels, in turn slowing cell replication and increasing the susceptibility of the cancer cells to radiation and apoptosis.
  • Recently, our group synthesized alkoxyalkyl esters of cidofovir, which were found to be >100 times more active than unmodified cidofovir in vitro against various double-stranded DNA viruses, including cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, adenoviruses, cowpox, vaccinia, and variola viruses.
  • We compared the activity of octadecyloxyethyl-cidofovir (ODE-CDV) and oleyloxyethyl-cidofovir (OLE-CDV) with that of unmodified cidofovir against both HPV-negative and HPV-positive cervical cancer cells.
  • We compared the antiproliferation activity in CaSki, HeLa, and Me-180 cells, prototypical HPV-positive cell lines bearing the HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-68 high-risk subtypes, with the activity in C33A cells, a cervical cancer cell line lacking HPV, and in nonmalignant primary human foreskin fibroblast cells.
  • OLE-CDV and ODE-CDV were several logs more potent than cidofovir in CaSki, Me-180, HeLa, and C33A cervical cancer cells as determined by 2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt proliferation assay.
  • ODE-CDV and OLE-CDV were 500 to 17,000 times more active than cidofovir in inhibiting the growth of cervical cancer cells.
  • ODE-CDV and OLE-CDV showed selectivity for cervical cancer cells versus nonmalignant human foreskin fibroblast cells and warrant further investigation as potential therapies for cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cytosine / analogs & derivatives. Organophosphonates / pharmacology. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Esters / chemistry. Esters / pharmacology. Female. Fibroblasts / drug effects. HeLa Cells. Humans. Tumor Cells, Cultured


48. Gahr S, Peter G, Wissniowski TT, Hahn EG, Herold C, Ocker M: The histone-deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 and the CDK-inhibitor CYC-202 promote anti-tumor effects in hepatoma cell lines. Oncol Rep; 2008 Nov;20(5):1249-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The histone-deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 and the CDK-inhibitor CYC-202 promote anti-tumor effects in hepatoma cell lines.
  • Effective therapies for advanced stages of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have yet to be developed.
  • Human hepatoma cell lines Hep3B and HepG2 as well as primary human foreskin fibroblasts as non-malignant controls were cultured under standardized conditions and incubated with increasing concentrations of CYC-202 and MS-275 as single agents and in combination.
  • In conclusion, combination therapy with the biomodulators MS-275 and CYC-202 is a promising treatment option for HCC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Caspase 3 / drug effects. Caspase 8 / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 18949429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Purines; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / roscovitine; 1ZNY4FKK9H / entinostat; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 8
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49. Ocker M, Neureiter D, Lueders M, Zopf S, Ganslmayer M, Hahn EG, Herold C, Schuppan D: Variants of bcl-2 specific siRNA for silencing antiapoptotic bcl-2 in pancreatic cancer. Gut; 2005 Sep;54(9):1298-308
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  • [Title] Variants of bcl-2 specific siRNA for silencing antiapoptotic bcl-2 in pancreatic cancer.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic cancer remains a devastating diagnosis with only limited therapeutic options.
  • We therefore investigated how far siRNA specific for bcl-2 may serve as a therapeutic option for pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo.
  • METHODS: siRNAs targeting two different regions in the bcl-2 gene were transfected to YAP C and DAN G pancreatic carcinoma cells and human foreskin fibroblasts.
  • Pancreatic cancer xenografts in male nude mice were treated intraperitoneally with siRNAs daily for 24 days. siRNA pharmacokinetics in vivo were assessed using radioactively labelled siRNAs.
  • Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects were observed in tumour cells but not in fibroblasts or non-malignant tissues. siRNA permutations and diverse overhangs influenced gene silencing efficacy. siRNA was quickly distributed to all organs and excreted via the kidney and liver.
  • Bcl-2 specific siRNA is a promising adjunctive treatment for pancreatic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Silencing. Genes, bcl-2. Genetic Therapy / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. RNA, Small Interfering / therapeutic use. Transfection / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] 3' Untranslated Regions. 5' Untranslated Regions. Animals. Apoptosis / genetics. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Humans. Kidney / metabolism. Liver / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 16099798.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-5749
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / 5' Untranslated Regions; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1774673
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50. Velazquez EF, Barreto JE, Rodriguez I, Piris A, Cubilla AL: Limitations in the interpretation of biopsies in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Surg Pathol; 2004 Apr;12(2):139-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Limitations in the interpretation of biopsies in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Surgeons often perform small or superficial penile biopsies that are difficult to classify definitely with regard to a benign or malignant nature, and if malignant, cannot always be accurately subclassified.
  • Staging and therapeutic decisions rely on the identification, in these materials, of pathologic parameters related to prognosis.
  • In this study, we evaluated the accuracy and completeness of pathologic information obtained from biopsies of 57 consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SSC) of the penis, and compared it with the information obtained from penectomies.
  • The evaluated parameters were as follows: cancer diagnosis, histologic type, tumor grade, depth of invasion (anatomical levels), and vascular invasion.
  • Levels of invasion were lamina propria, corpus spongiosum, and corpus cavernosum in the glans; and lamina propria, dartos, and skin in the foreskin.
  • In 2 patients with well-differentiated tumors a diagnosis of cancer could not be established in biopsy material.
  • In 17 cases (30%) there was a biopsy-penectomy discordance of histologic types, especially of verruciform and mixed carcinomas.
  • In summary, biopsies were useful for cancer diagnosis except in 2 differentiated variants of penile squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We conclude that clinical and pathologic staging of penile cancer, at least in our material, cannot depend on biopsy information alone.
  • Data from biopsies may be insufficient to make a decision whether to perform a groin dissection, or for prognostic evaluation in those patients in whom other treatment modalities (such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy) are being considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Penis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 15173919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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