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1. McCarthy MM, Sznol M, DiVito KA, Camp RL, Rimm DL, Kluger HM: Evaluating the expression and prognostic value of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jul 15;11(14):5188-94
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  • [Title] Evaluating the expression and prognostic value of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 in breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The cell surface receptors tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1) and TRAIL-R2 transmit apoptotic signals, and agents that activate these receptors are in clinical development.
  • We sought to determine the expression and prognostic value of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 in early-stage breast cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tissue microarrays containing specimens from 655 breast cancer patients with 20-year follow-up were employed and evaluated with our automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) system.
  • The system uses cytokeratin to define pixels as breast cancer (tumor mask) within the array spot, and measures intensity of TRAIL receptor expression using Cy5 conjugated antibodies within the mask.
  • TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 expression were similarly studied on 95 unmatched normal breast specimens.
  • On multivariate analysis, high TRAIL-R2 expression remained an independent prognostic marker, as did nodal status and tumor size.
  • TRAIL-R2 expression was stronger in malignant specimens than in normal breast epithelium (P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: High TRAIL-R2 expression was independently associated with decreased survival in breast cancer.
  • The biological basis and the sensitivity of high TRAIL-R2 expressing cells to TRAIL agonists and/or chemotherapy are subject to further investigation.
  • Evaluation of TRAIL-R2 expression in early-stage breast cancer may identify a subset of patients requiring more aggressive or pathway-targeted adjuvant treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / biosynthesis. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16033835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / K0-8 ES11571; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA100825-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / TNFRSF10A protein, human; 0 / TNFRSF10B protein, human
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2. Yee LD, Williams N, Wen P, Young DC, Lester J, Johnson MV, Farrar WB, Walker MJ, Povoski SP, Suster S, Eng C: Pilot study of rosiglitazone therapy in women with breast cancer: effects of short-term therapy on tumor tissue and serum markers. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Jan 1;13(1):246-52
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  • [Title] Pilot study of rosiglitazone therapy in women with breast cancer: effects of short-term therapy on tumor tissue and serum markers.
  • PURPOSE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a steroid nuclear receptor that is activated by natural compounds such as specific fatty acids and synthetic drugs such as thiazolidinedione antidiabetic agents.
  • Expressed in normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells, activation of PPARgamma is associated with antiproliferative effects on human breast cancer cells in preclinical studies.
  • The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that PPARgamma ligand therapy might inhibit tumor growth and progression in human breast cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted a pilot trial of short-term (2-6 weeks) treatment with the thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone in 38 women with early-stage (T(is)-T(2), N(0-1), M(0)) breast cancer, administered between the time of diagnostic biopsy and definitive surgery.
  • RESULTS: Short-term treatment with rosiglitazone (8 mg/d) did not elicit significant effects on breast tumor cell proliferation using Ki67 expression as a measure of cell proliferation and surrogate marker of tumor growth and progression.
  • Treatment with rosiglitazone resulted in increased serum adiponectin (P < 0.001), decreased insulin levels (P = 0.005), and increased insulin sensitivity (P = 0.004).
  • CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that short-term rosiglitazone therapy in early-stage breast cancer patients leads to local and systemic effects on PPARgamma signaling that may be relevant to breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use. Thiazolidinediones / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17200362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00034
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone
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3. von Felbert V, Córdoba F, Weissenberger J, Vallan C, Kato M, Nakashima I, Braathen LR, Weis J: Interleukin-6 gene ablation in a transgenic mouse model of malignant skin melanoma. Am J Pathol; 2005 Mar;166(3):831-41
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  • [Title] Interleukin-6 gene ablation in a transgenic mouse model of malignant skin melanoma.
  • Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been shown to inhibit the growth of early stage and to promote the proliferation of advanced stage melanoma cells in vitro.
  • In patients with metastasizing melanomas, highly increased IL-6 blood levels correlate with a poor response to chemotherapy and a worse overall prognosis, suggesting that IL-6 promotes melanoma progression in vivo.
  • While MT-ret transgenic animals develop severe melanosis of the skin and subcutis and subsequent melanomas at an incidence of 80% during their first year of life, MT-ret mice devoid of IL-6 developed preneoplastic melanosis and consecutive melanomas significantly less frequently (47%; P < 0.05).
  • Immunoblot analysis revealed that ret transgene expression was not reduced in the skin of mice lacking IL-6, indicating that the observed decrease of melanoma incidence and of tumor sizes was not because of a down-regulation of transgene expression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biopsy. Blotting, Western. Cell Culture Techniques. Cytokines / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation. Genotype. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. Inflammation. Lectins / metabolism. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Necrosis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions. STAT3 Transcription Factor. Signal Transduction. Skin / pathology. Time Factors. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Transgenes

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  • (PMID = 15743795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Lectins; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Stat3 protein, mouse; 0 / Trans-Activators; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1602365
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4. Stendahl M, Nilsson S, Wigerup C, Jirström K, Jönsson PE, Stål O, Landberg G: p27Kip1 is a predictive factor for tamoxifen treatment response but not a prognostic marker in premenopausal breast cancer patients. Int J Cancer; 2010 Dec 15;127(12):2851-8
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  • [Title] p27Kip1 is a predictive factor for tamoxifen treatment response but not a prognostic marker in premenopausal breast cancer patients.
  • Loss of p27 has been linked to malignant features in tumours; however, the exact role of p27 deregulation in breast cancer regarding prognostic and treatment predictive information has not been fully clarified.
  • We have evaluated p27 expression in 328 primary, Stage II breast cancers from premenopausal patients who had been randomised to either tamoxifen treatment or no adjuvant treatment after surgery. p27 was associated with the oestrogen receptor and cyclin D1, and p27 downregulation was associated with high proliferation.
  • Our study suggests that p27 downregulation is associated with tamoxifen resistance in premenopausal breast cancer but is not linked to impaired prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Premenopause. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 UICC.
  • (PMID = 21351264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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5. Ellis MJ, Miller WR, Tao Y, Evans DB, Chaudri Ross HA, Miki Y, Suzuki T, Sasano H: Aromatase expression and outcomes in the P024 neoadjuvant endocrine therapy trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Jul;116(2):371-8
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  • [Title] Aromatase expression and outcomes in the P024 neoadjuvant endocrine therapy trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Expression of aromatase by malignant breast epithelial cells and/or the surrounding stroma implies local estrogen production that could influence the outcome of endocrine therapy for breast cancer.
  • METHODS: A validated immunohistochemical assay for aromatase was applied to samples from the P024 neoadjuvant endocrine therapy trial that compared tamoxifen and letrozole.
  • The presence of aromatase expression by tumor or stromal cells was correlated with tumor response, treatment induced changes in proliferation index (Ki67), relapse-free survival (RFS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS).
  • RESULTS: Tumor and stromal aromatase expression were highly correlated (P = 0.0001).
  • Tumor cell aromatase, as a semi-continuous score, also correlated with smaller tumor size at presentation (P = 0.01) higher baseline ER Allred score (P = 0.006) and lower Ki67 levels (P = 0.003).
  • There was no significant relationship with clinical response or treatment-induced changes in Ki67.
  • However, in a Cox multivariable model that incorporated a post-treatment tumor profile (pathological T stage, N stage, Ki67 and ER status of the surgical specimen), the presence of tumor aromatase expression at baseline sample remained a favorable independent prognostic biomarker for both RFS (P = 0.01, HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.6 for absent expression) and BCSS (P = 0.008, HR 3.76, 95% CI 1.4-10.0).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Autocrine estrogen synthesis may be most characteristic of smaller, more indolent and ER-rich breast cancers with lower baseline growth rates.
  • However, response to endocrine treatment may not depend on whether the estrogenic stimulus has a local versus systemic source.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Aromatase / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Double-Blind Method. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Ki-67 Antigen / drug effects. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome. Triazoles / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18941892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Triazoles; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 7LKK855W8I / letrozole; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2696016
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6. Kumi-Diaka J, Hassanhi M, Brown J, Merchant K, Garcia C, Jimenez W: CytoregR inhibits growth and proliferation of human adenocarcinoma cells via induction of apoptosis. J Carcinog; 2006;5:1
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  • BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the devastating neovascular diseases that incapacitate so many people the world over.
  • Recent reports from the National Cancer Institute indicate some significant gain therapy and cancer management as seen in the increase in the 5-year survival rate over the past two decades.
  • Although near-perfect cure rate have been reported in the early-stage disease, these data reveal high recurrence rate and serious side effects including second malignancies and fatalities.
  • Most of the currently used anticancer agents are only effective against proliferating cancer cells.
  • Thus attention has been focused on potential anti-cancer agents capable of killing cancer cells independent of the cell cycle state, to ensure effective elimination of most cancer cells.
  • The objective of this study was to test the chemosensitivity and potential mechanism of action of a novel cancer drug, CytoregR, in a panel of human cancer cells.
  • RESULTS: CytoregR induced significant dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth in all the cells; with significant differences in chemosensitivity (P < 0.05) between the target cells becoming more apparent at 48 hr exposure.
  • CytoregR showed no significant effect on normal cells relative to the tumor cells.
  • CONCLUSION: CytoregR exerted a dose-and time-dependent growth inhibitory effect in all the target cells through induction of apoptosis via the CPP32 death pathway, independent of hormonal sensitivity of the cells.
  • The present data indicate that not only could CPP32 provide a potential target for regulation of cytoregR-induced apoptosis but also that cytoregR could play a significant role in chemotherapeutic regimen in many human malignant tumors.

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  • (PMID = 16401338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-3163
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Carcinog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1343545
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7. Soucek-Hadwiger B, Döller W: [Secondary malignant lymphedema]. Wien Med Wochenschr; 2006 May;156(9-10):309-13
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  • [Title] [Secondary malignant lymphedema].
  • The diagnosis of a secondary malignant lymphoedema which is caused by tumor infiltration or tumor compression is a very important sign for an unknown primary, but also for a tumor relapse.
  • Only an early diagnosis and introduction of a tumor-specific therapy is able to prevent the progress of this disease.
  • As the secondary lymphedema is a chronic progressive disease, the early beginning of the "Complex physical Oedematherapy" is necessary, which consists of a combination of manual lymph drainage, compression by the use of bandages and special stockings for compression, physical training to improve mobility, dermatological care and drug therapy.
  • Therefore the therapeutic goal is to reach a stable disease without symptoms, which means reducing the lymphedema to "Stadium 0, latent stage".
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphedema / therapy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Palliative Care. Postoperative Complications / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Long-Term Care. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging


8. Zanetti-Dällenbach R, Wight E: [Chemotherapy for gynecological malignancies--a contraindication during pregnancy?]. Ther Umsch; 2005 Jan;62(1):53-60
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  • [Title] [Chemotherapy for gynecological malignancies--a contraindication during pregnancy?].
  • [Transliterated title] Chemotherapie bei gynäkologischen Tumoren--kontraindiziert in der Schwangerschaft?
  • Even though a malignant tumor during pregnancy is very rare it occurs in 0.02-0.1%.
  • The coincidence of malignant disease with pregnancy leads to an enormous emotional burden to the patient, the couple and the medical staff.
  • Surgery for malignant tumors during pregnancy seems to be save.
  • Chemotherapy is regarded to be save during the second and third trimester but it should not be applied during the first trimester because of its teratogenic effects.
  • The most frequent malignant disorders during pregnancy are cervical cancer, breast cancer, melanoma and Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • We discuss possible treatment options for breast cancer and gynecological tumors during pregnancy.
  • Ovarian Cancer is a rare event during pregnancy.
  • Because of frequent prenatal visits most of them are diagnosed at an early stage, with good prognosis.
  • In case of advanced stage of ovarian cancer chemotherapy besides surgery is necessary.
  • To treat breast cancer during pregnancy a mastectomy with axillary lymphonodectomy is necessary to avoid radiotherapy.
  • Indications for chemotherapy are the same as for not pregnant patients.
  • For invasive cervical cancer surgery or radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy is indicated after induced abortion or cesarean section.
  • Early termination of pregnancy is of no survival benefit to the mother in case of breast cancer and ovarian cancer.
  • In these cases systemic therapy during pregnancy and delivery at 34 weeks is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Drug-Induced / etiology. Abnormalities, Drug-Induced / prevention & control. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / contraindications. Genital Neoplasms, Female / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy. Risk Assessment / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Fetus / drug effects. Humans. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Pregnancy. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15702707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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9. Liu J, Yu RC, Rao XQ: [Study on effect of moxibustion and guben yiliu III combined with chemotherapy in treating middle-late stage malignant tumor]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi; 2001 Apr;21(4):262-4
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  • [Title] [Study on effect of moxibustion and guben yiliu III combined with chemotherapy in treating middle-late stage malignant tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the complementary function of moxibustion and Guben Yiliu III (GBYL), a Chinese herbal composite preparation, in combination with chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Eighty-one patients of middle-late stage malignant tumor were randomly divided into three groups, 16 in the control group treated with chemotherapy alone, 35 in the TCM group treated with chemotherapy combined GBYL and 30 in the TCM combined moxibustion group.
  • The therapeutic effect of treatment was evaluated according to the immediate effect, living quality scoring, etc.
  • RESULTS: The comprehensive living quality score and Karnofsky score dropped significantly in the control group after treatment with significant increase of pain score and decrease of tongue figure score (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: GBYL combined or not combined with moxibustion could improve the living quality of patients received chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 12577352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-5370
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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10. Huber S, Wagner M, Zuna I, Medl M, Czembirek H, Delorme S: Locally advanced breast carcinoma: evaluation of mammography in the prediction of residual disease after induction chemotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2000 Jan-Feb;20(1B):553-8
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  • [Title] Locally advanced breast carcinoma: evaluation of mammography in the prediction of residual disease after induction chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the mammographic features of locally advanced breast carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and to evaluate morphological criteria that determine the value of mammography in therapy monitoring.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the pre- and post-therapeutic mammograms of 44 patients with stage III-breast carcinoma with regard to tumor characteristics and malignant calcifications and compared to histopathological results.
  • RESULTS: Delineation of the tumor proved to be the most significant criterion.
  • In 34 tumors more than 50% of the lesion was defined; these showed a high correlation between the mammographically determined tumor diameter and that determined on histopathological examination (r = 0.77).
  • Less than 50% of the mass was definable in 14 tumors; here the correlation between mammographically and histopathologically determined tumor diameter was low (r = -0.19).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic value of mammography in the evaluation of tumor response to induction chemotherapy depends primarily on the extent to which the tumor can be delineated from the adjacent breast tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Mammography
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcinosis / etiology. Calcinosis / radiography. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Neoplasm, Residual. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10769724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
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11. Naik RP, Jin D, Chuang E, Gold EG, Tousimis EA, Moore AL, Christos PJ, de Dalmas T, Donovan D, Rafii S, Vahdat LT: Circulating endothelial progenitor cells correlate to stage in patients with invasive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Jan;107(1):133-8
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  • [Title] Circulating endothelial progenitor cells correlate to stage in patients with invasive breast cancer.
  • Tumor growth and metastasis is dependent on the formation and assembly of new blood vessels, a process known as neo-angiogenesis.
  • Both pre-existing and circulating vascular cells have been shown to contribute to the assembly of tumor neo-vessels in specific tumors.
  • Mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from the bone marrow constitutes a crucial step in the formation of de novo blood vessels, and levels of peripheral blood EPCs have been shown to be increased in certain malignant states.
  • However, the role of circulating EPCs in breast cancer is largely unknown.
  • We recruited twenty-five patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer at Weill Cornell Breast Center to participate in a pilot study investigating the correlation of circulating EPCs to extent of disease and initiation of chemotherapy.
  • For each patient, a baseline sample was drawn before systemic treatment, and for seventeen of those patients, a second sample was taken after the first round of chemotherapy.
  • Breast cancer patients with stage III & IV disease had statistically higher levels of circulating EPCs than did patients with stage I & II disease (median = 165,000 EPCs/5 x 10(6)MNCs vs. median = 6,920 EPCs/5 x 10(6)MNCs, respectively, P < 0.0001).
  • In addition, in late-stage patients, levels of EPCs demonstrated a statistically significant drop after initiation of chemotherapy (median = 162,500 EPCs/5 x 10(6)MNCs [pre] vs. median = 117,500 EPCs/5 x 10(6)MNCs [post], P = 0.01).
  • These results suggest that circulating EPCs may serve as a potential tumor biomarker in breast cancer and that EPCs may represent a plausible target for future therapeutic intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Stem Cells / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy. Female. Flow Cytometry / methods. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism. Middle Aged. Peptides. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18043899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01RR00047
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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12. Gupta S, Tandon VR, Kapoor B, Gupta A, Gupta GD, Khajuria V: Effects of tamoxifen therapy on plasma lipid profile in patients of breast cancer. J Assoc Physicians India; 2006 Mar;54:183-6
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  • [Title] Effects of tamoxifen therapy on plasma lipid profile in patients of breast cancer.
  • AIM: To evaluate the effects of tamoxifen therapy on plasma lipid profile in patients of breast cancer.
  • METHOD: A total of 55 postoperative patients of breast cancer were given tablet tamoxifen 20mg orally daily for 6 months.
  • Estimation of plasma lipid by standard method was carried out in both pre-menopausal and postmenopausal new patients of early stage breast cancer at 0 day, 3rd month and 6th months of therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that tamoxifen to favorably alter the markers of cardiovascular risk in both pre-menopausal and postmenopausal patients of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cholesterol, HDL / blood. Cholesterol, LDL / blood. Cholesterol, VLDL / blood. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Triglycerides / blood

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  • (PMID = 16800341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol, HDL; 0 / Cholesterol, LDL; 0 / Cholesterol, VLDL; 0 / Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Triglycerides; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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13. Chao KK, Vicini FA, Wallace M, Mitchell C, Chen P, Ghilezan M, Gilbert S, Kunzman J, Benitez P, Martinez A: Analysis of treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity using the MammoSite breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial-breast irradiation: the william beaumont hospital experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Sep 1;69(1):32-40
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  • [Title] Analysis of treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity using the MammoSite breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial-breast irradiation: the william beaumont hospital experience.
  • PURPOSE: To review our institution's experience of treating patients with the MammoSite (Cytyc Corp., Marlborough, MA) breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI), for determining short-term treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From January 2000 to April 2006, 80 patients treated with breast-conserving therapy (BCT) received adjuvant radiation using the MammoSite (34 Gy in 3.4-Gy fractions prescribed to 1.0 cm from the balloon surface).
  • Twenty-three patients (29%) had Stage 0 breast cancer, 46 (57%) had Stage I breast cancer, and 11 (14%) had Stage II breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: Two ipsilateral breast-tumor recurrences (IBTRs) (2.5%) developed for a 3-year actuarial rate of 2.9% (no regional failures were observed).
  • Younger age at diagnosis was the only variable associated with IBTR (continuous variable, p = 0.044; categorical variable [<55 years vs. >/=55 years], p = 0.012).
  • Patients with applicator-to-skin spacing <7 mm and those who received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy exhibited lower rates of good/excellent cosmetic results, though the association was not statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Early-stage breast-cancer patients treated with adjuvant APBI using the MammoSite catheter exhibited a 3-year treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity similar to those observed with other forms of interstitial APBI at this length of follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Breast / radiation effects. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Dose Fractionation. Esthetics. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 May 1;71(1):317; author reply 317-8 [18406902.001]
  • (PMID = 17467920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Dal Cortivo L, Cottu PH, Lotz JP, Robert I, Extra JM, Miclea JM, Marty M, Marolleau JP: Residual tumor cell contamination in peripheral blood stem cells collections of 117 breast cancer patients evaluated by immunocytochemical technique. J Hematother Stem Cell Res; 2001 Dec;10(6):855-62
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  • [Title] Residual tumor cell contamination in peripheral blood stem cells collections of 117 breast cancer patients evaluated by immunocytochemical technique.
  • During the last years, high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell support have been thought to improve the treatment of poor-prognosis breast cancer.
  • Nevertheless, the question remained as to whether the reinfusion of contaminating residual malignant cells could contribute to relapse.
  • By using an immunocytochemical method, we have analyzed the tumor cell contamination of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) collected from advanced breast cancer patients.
  • We studied 153 PBSC samples from 117 stage III and IV breast cancer patients and compared two screening methods-the usual microscopic observation and the automated cellular image analysis system (ACIS-assisted) screening.
  • With manual observation, we found that 7 of 117 patients (5.9%) presented circulating epithelial tumor cells in 9 of 153 (5.8%) PBSC analyzed, whereas automated screening allowed positive detection in 15 of the same 117 patients (12.8%) and in 18 of the 153 PBSC (11.7%).
  • No difference was found between presence or absence of circulating tumor cells and previous chemotherapy treatment (p = 0.5) or stage TNM (p = 0.13) in this group of poor-prognosis breast cancer.
  • We did not find incidence of infusion of contaminated PBSC on overall survival or time to progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / cytology. Leukapheresis / standards. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Blood Cells / cytology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Immunohistochemistry / standards. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11798511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-8165
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hematotherapy & stem cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hematother. Stem Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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15. Pierce LJ, Hutchins LF, Green SR, Lew DL, Gralow JR, Livingston RB, Osborne CK, Albain KS: Sequencing of tamoxifen and radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery in early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jan 1;23(1):24-9
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  • [Title] Sequencing of tamoxifen and radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery in early-stage breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Tamoxifen (TAM) is thought to exert a cytostatic effect on hormone-sensitive breast cancer cells.
  • Some preclinical studies show reduced radiosensitivity in irradiated malignant mammary epithelial cells when pretreated with TAM; other studies refute these results.
  • Recent randomized clinical trials suggest an antagonistic effect of TAM on cytotoxic therapy, with improved disease-free survival (DFS) with sequential versus concurrent TAM.
  • An exploratory analysis was undertaken to evaluate the optimal sequencing of TAM and radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Southwest Oncology Group trial 8897 (Intergroup 0102) randomly assigned node-negative women with T1-3 breast cancers to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, fluorouracil (CAF); CAF --> TAM; cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil (CMF); and CMF --> TAM.
  • RT was allowed either before adjuvant therapy (sequential [SEQ] RT; 107 patients) or after chemotherapy but concurrent with TAM (concurrent [CONC] RT; 202 patients).
  • Survival data were adjusted for receptor status, age, and tumor size.
  • Patterns of failure showed no increase in in-breast recurrence rates between CONC RT and SEQ RT groups, with 10-year local recurrence rates of 7% for CONC RT and 5% for SEQ RT (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.26 to 2.04; P = .54).
  • CONCLUSION: The current analysis does not suggest an adverse effect on local or systemic control with CONC versus SEQ TAM and RT in node-negative breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Radiotherapy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Sep 1;23(25):6266-7; author reply 6267 [16135499.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 20;23(18):4239-41; author reply 4241-2 [15961779.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jan 1;23(1):1-4 [15545667.001]
  • (PMID = 15545669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA20319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA37981; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA38926; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46282
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CAF protocol
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16. Wang YJ, Wang N, Wang B, Qin WX, Xue CY: [Comparison of clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of triple-negative with Her-2-overexpressing breast cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 May;31(5):346-50
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  • [Title] [Comparison of clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of triple-negative with Her-2-overexpressing breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and disease-free survival of triple-negative breast cancer with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-overexpressing (Her-2-overexpressing) breast cancer.
  • METHODS: 770 breast cancer patients were surgically treated between 1998 and 2003 in Changhai Hospital, Shanghai.
  • The differences between triple-negative breast cancer and Her-2-overexpressing breast cancers were analyzed in p53 and E-cadherin status, age, tumor size, tumor location, histological types and grading, lymph node metastasis, AJCC stage, chemotherapy and surgical procedures,as well as identified prognostic factors with regards to disease-free survival.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-six (12.5%) patients with triple-negative phenotype, and 164 (21.3%) with Her-2-overexpressing one were identified from the 770 breast cancer patients.
  • When compared with Her-2-overexpressing breast cancer patients, triple negative breast cancer patients experienced more lymph node metastases (71.9% vs. 58.5%, P = 0.034), and had a higher percentage of more than 10 lymph nodes metastases (26.0% vs. 12.2%, P = 0.034); and showed a higher percentage of histological grade 3 (67.7% vs. 42.1%, P<0.0001).
  • Furthermore, the tumor size was found to be related to lymph node metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer patients (P = 0.024).
  • CONCLUSION: Compared with Her-2-overexpressing breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer is more malignant and has a poorer disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cadherins / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


17. Ramon Y Cajal T, Mazarico J, Lopez Pousa A, Quintana M, Sala N, Altabas M, Sebio A, Robert L, Alonso C, Barnadas A: Clinical features and outcome in primary breast sarcomas (BS): Analysis of a single-institution experience. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e21520

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical features and outcome in primary breast sarcomas (BS): Analysis of a single-institution experience.
  • Controversy remains about local and adjuvant treatment.
  • METHODS: We analyzed clinicopathological variables, treatment and outcome of 33 BS patients treated at our institution from 1966 to 2007.
  • Tumor size 57 (0-230) mm.
  • Pathology: 17 cistosarcoma phylodes (CPh), 9 angiosarcoma, 2 extraesqueletical osteosarcoma, 2 fibrosarcomas, 1 liposarcoma, 1 leiomiosarcoma, 1 malignant fibrous histiocitoma (2.9%).
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 9 and 7 patients.
  • Pathological stage I- 12%, II- 65%, III- 9%, IV-3% Results: Median follow-up 71 (5-239) months.
  • In the univariate analysis we didn't found statistical differences according to clinical & pathological factors, stage and recurrence, on OS or PFS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CPh have better prognosis than other BS although its stage or size tends to be higher.
  • Radical surgery in BS should be always considered as first treatment option.
  • High-grade non-phylodes BS types may be considered for adjuvant chemotherapy although there were non-statistical differences in OS.

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  • (PMID = 27963450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Konstantinovsky S, Nielsen S, Vyberg M, Kvalheim G, Nesland JM, Reich R, Davidson B: Angiogenic molecule expression is downregulated in effusions from breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2005 Nov;94(1):71-80
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  • [Title] Angiogenic molecule expression is downregulated in effusions from breast cancer patients.
  • The objective of this study was to analyze site-related expression of angiogenic molecules in breast carcinoma, with the aim of characterizing phenotypic alterations along the clinical progression from primary tumor to pleural effusion.
  • A total of 49 malignant pleural effusions and 68 corresponding solid tumors were studied for protein and mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor KDR, interleukin-8 (IL-8), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and the alphaV integrin subunit using immunohistochemistry, mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • In univariate survival analysis, bFGF protein expression in effusions (p = 0.015), PEA3 mRNA expression in primary tumors (p = 0.02) and previous radiation therapy (p = 0.034) predicted shorter disease-free survival.
  • PEA mRNA expression in primary tumors (p = 0.002) and previous chemotherapy (p = 0.048) predicted poor overall survival, with a similar trend for advanced disease stage at diagnosis (p = 0.05).
  • Our data provide evidence regarding molecular changes that occur along the progression of breast carcinoma from primary tumor to effusion, and suggest altered requirement of angiogenic factors in body cavities.
  • The poor disease-free survival for patients with bFGF-positive effusions suggests a role for this growth factor in mediating tumor survival rather than angiogenesis at this site.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenic Proteins / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Case-Control Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / metabolism. Humans. Integrin alphaV / metabolism. Interleukin-8 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / cytology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Survival Rate. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16142438.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenic Proteins; 0 / Integrin alphaV; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / transcription factor PEA3; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
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19. Han S, Park K, Kim HY, Lee MS, Kim HJ, Kim YD, Yuh YJ, Kim SR, Suh HS: Clinical implication of altered expression of Mad1 protein in human breast carcinoma. Cancer; 2000 Apr 1;88(7):1623-32
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  • [Title] Clinical implication of altered expression of Mad1 protein in human breast carcinoma.
  • The authors undertook this study to investigate the clinical implication of Mad1 expression in human breast carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The authors performed immunohistochemical assays for Mad1 and Myc proteins in human breast carcinoma, along with tissues from normal breast and benign diseases.
  • Intensity and area of Mad1 expression significantly decreased in DCIS and invasive cancers, whereas high levels of Mad1 expression were persistent in benign breast lesions.
  • Expression of Mad1 was not associated with tumor size, lymph node status, or stage of disease.
  • Mad1 expression was closely linked to differentiation of the cancer cells and inversely correlated with Myc expression (P = 0.042).
  • In survival analysis, Mad1 was a significant factor in predicting recurrence of the disease, but not overall survival after CMF chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In human breast carcinoma cells, expression of Mad1 seems to be down-regulated, whereas expression of Myc is amplified.
  • Altered expression of Mad1 may play a role in the malignant transformation of human mammary epithelial cells and represent an aggressive phenotype in human breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carrier Proteins. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Phosphoproteins / biosynthesis. Repressor Proteins
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Cycle. Cell Cycle Proteins. Cell Division. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Down-Regulation. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / biosynthesis. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 10738221.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / MAD1L1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / Repressor Proteins
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20. Zhang BN, Shao ZM, Qiao XM, Li B, Jiang J, Yang MT, Wang S, Song ST, Zhang B, Yang HJ: [A prospective multicenter clinical trial of breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer in China]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Nov;27(11):680-4
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  • [Title] [A prospective multicenter clinical trial of breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer in China].
  • OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of breast conserving therapy (BCT) and establish a multimodality BCT model for early breast cancer in China.
  • METHODS: A prospective multicenter case control study consisting of 4461 patients was carried out by the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and nine other hospitals across China from November, 2001 to November, 2004, the result of BCT and mastectomy on early stage breast cancer were compared.
  • Patients entry-primary tumor < or = 3 cm, primary tumor in periphery quadrant, pathology showed infiltrating carcinoma and clinical absence of locoregional lymphatic or distant metastasis.
  • Patients rejection-multiple center cancer or diffused malignant calcified spots, previous radical radiation therapy in the chest, accompanying collogenolytic vascular granuloma and simultaneous pregnancy.
  • RESULTS: Of these 4461 patients, breast conserving surgery was performed in 872 (19.5%) patients who were eligible for BCT, accounting for 9.0% of all operated breast cancer patients during the same period.
  • Cosmetic evaluation of breast in BCT group was carried out postoperatively at points of six months, one year and two years with 89.7%, 91.1% and 86.6% of the patients assessed as excellent or fine cosmetic state respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Breast conserving therapy for early stage breast cancer is feasible in China, with no ominous effect on the survival and recurrence rate.
  • Breast conserving therapy is able to improve not only the quality of life but also enhance the confidence of the patients, in addition to quasi-perfect cosmetic results.
  • Standard comprehensive BCT involving multi-centers all concentrating on combination treatment should be widely adopted in China in the future.
  • However, breast conserving surgery should selectively be used only for early stage breast cancer, and should be combined with postoperative radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy in order to guarantee success.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Mastectomy, Segmental

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  • (PMID = 16438891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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21. Bergman L, Beelen ML, Gallee MP, Hollema H, Benraadt J, van Leeuwen FE: Risk and prognosis of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen for breast cancer. Comprehensive Cancer Centres' ALERT Group. Assessment of Liver and Endometrial cancer Risk following Tamoxifen. Lancet; 2000 Sep 9;356(9233):881-7
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  • [Title] Risk and prognosis of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen for breast cancer. Comprehensive Cancer Centres' ALERT Group. Assessment of Liver and Endometrial cancer Risk following Tamoxifen.
  • BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen increases the risk of endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: We did a nationwide case-control study on the risk and prognosis of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen use for breast cancer.
  • Information on tamoxifen use and other risk factors for endometrial cancer was obtained from 309 women with endometrial cancer after breast cancer (cases), and 860 matched controls with breast cancer but without endometrial cancer.
  • For 276 cases, we obtained tissue blocks of endometrial cancer to review the diagnosis, and used immunohistochemistry to examine hormone-receptor status and overexpression of p53.
  • Risk of endometrial cancer increased with longer duration of tamoxifen use (p < 0.001), with relative risks of 2.0 (1.2-3.2) for 2-5 years and 6.9 (2.4-19.4) for at least 5 years compared with non-users.
  • Endometrial cancers of stage III and IV occurred more frequently in long-term tamoxifen users (> or = 2 years) than in non-users (17.4% vs 5.4%, p=0.006).
  • Long-term users were more likely than non-users to have had malignant mixed mesodermal tumours or sarcomas of the endometrium (15.4% vs 2.9%, p < or = 0.02), p53-positive tumours (31.4% vs 18.2%, p=0.05), and negative oestrogen-receptor concentrations (60.8% vs 26.2%, p < or = 0.001).
  • 3-year endometrial-cancer-specific survival was significantly worse for long-term tamoxifen users than for non-users (76% for > or = 5 years, 85% for 2-5 years vs 94% for non-users, p=0.02).
  • INTERPRETATION: Long-term tamoxifen users have a worse prognosis of endometrial cancers, which seems to be due to less favourable histology and higher stage.
  • However, the benefit of tamoxifen on breast-cancer survival far outweighs the increased mortality from endometrial cancer.
  • Nevertheless, we seriously question widespread use of tamoxifen as a preventive agent against breast cancer in healthy women.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemically induced. Estrogen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):65-6; author reply 67 [11197376.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):66-7 [11197379.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):68 [11197381.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):68 [11197382.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2000 Sep 9;356(9233):868-9 [11036885.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):67-8 [11197380.001]
  • (PMID = 11036892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0140-6736
  • [Journal-full-title] Lancet (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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22. Sarkar S, Mazumdar A, Dash R, Sarkar D, Fisher PB, Mandal M: ZD6474, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of EGFR and VEGFR-2, inhibits MAPK/ERK and AKT/PI3-K and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Cancer Biol Ther; 2010 Apr 15;9(8):592-603
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  • [Title] ZD6474, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of EGFR and VEGFR-2, inhibits MAPK/ERK and AKT/PI3-K and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells.
  • Abnormalities in gene expression and signaling pathways downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) contribute to the progression, invasion, and maintenance of the malignant phenotype in human cancers, including breast.
  • Consequently, the dual kinase inhibitor of EGFR and VEGFR ZD6474 represents a promising biologically-based treatment that is currently undergoing clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Patients suffering from breast cancers have a poor prognosis because of the lack of effective agents and treatment strategies.
  • We hypothesized that inhibition of phosphorylation of the EGFR and VEGFR by ZD6474 would inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis.
  • This hypothesis was tested using human breast cancer cell lines.
  • ZD6474 inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, by blocking cell progression at the G(0)-G(1) stage, through downregulation of expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E.
  • ZD6474 inhibited anchorage independent colony formation using soft agar assays, and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro using Boyden chamber assays.
  • In a xenograft model using human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, ZD6474 inhibited tumor growth and induced cancer-specific apoptosis.
  • Collectively, these data imply that ZD6474 a dual kinase inhibitor has potential for the targeted therapy of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Piperidines / pharmacology. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Quinazolines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Oncogene Protein v-akt / antagonists & inhibitors. Oncogene Protein v-akt / metabolism. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase / antagonists & inhibitors. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / antagonists & inhibitors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Biol Ther. 2010 Apr 15;9(8):604-6 [20160495.001]
  • (PMID = 20139705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA104177
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-((1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)methoxy)quinazolin-4-amine; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.1.137 / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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23. Davidson B, Shafat I, Risberg B, Ilan N, Trope' CG, Vlodavsky I, Reich R: Heparanase expression correlates with poor survival in metastatic ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Feb;104(2):311-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression of Heparanase, an enzyme involved in cancer metastasis and angiogenesis, in ovarian and breast carcinoma cells in effusions.
  • METHODS: Heparanase protein expression was analyzed in malignant effusions from ovarian (=200) and breast (=41) carcinoma patients using immunocytochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Heparanase was expressed at the cell membrane in 106/200 (53%) ovarian and 22/41 (54%) breast carcinomas.
  • Cytoplasmic expression was found in 180/200 (90%) ovarian and 26/41 (63%) breast carcinomas.
  • In univariate survival analysis of ovarian carcinoma patients with post-chemotherapy effusions, membrane expression in >5% of tumor cells correlated with shorter overall survival (OS, p=0.013).
  • FIGO stage (p=0.03 for all patients, p=0.045 for those with post-chemotherapy specimens) and response to first-line chemotherapy (p<0.0001 for all patients, p=0.049 for those with post-chemotherapy specimens) were the clinical parameters related to OS.
  • In Cox analysis of this subset of patients, heparanase expression (p=0.02) and response to chemotherapy (p=0.049) were independent predictors of poor OS.
  • Heparanase expression did not correlate with survival in breast carcinoma.
  • The correlation between heparanase expression and poor survival in ovarian carcinoma suggests a role for this molecule in ovarian cancer metastasis and supports its role as a marker of aggressive clinical behavior at disease recurrence.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Ascitic Fluid / enzymology. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Cell Membrane / enzymology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17030350.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.2.1.- / heparanase; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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24. Kisselbach C, Ristic AD, Pankuweit S, Karatolius K, Maisch B: [Women and pericardial neoplastic manifestations of the heart and pericardium]. Herz; 2005 Aug;30(5):409-15; quiz 429-30
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  • Despite the proportions, most women believe that heart disease is a man's disease and that they will die of breast cancer.
  • Data on epidemiology and incidence are rare: there is only an estimated incidence of cardiac neoplasm at necropsy ranging from 0,001% to 0,3%.
  • The most common tumor entity is benign cardiac myxoma.
  • Malignant heart tumors are less common.
  • Most often they are different types of sarcomas, which have a poor outcome and affect more males than females.
  • Metastatic tumors of the heart are 100 times more common than the primary ones.
  • They originate mainly from melanomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and cancer, especially of the lung or breast.
  • Indeed in women breast cancer is the most common metastatic tumor associated with pericardial effusion.
  • To prevent death from tamponade, pericardiocentesis, in addition to the systemic chemotherapy, is mandatory, best when instillation of chemotherapeutics (cisplatin or thiotepa) or radioisotopes is given into the pericardial sac to prevent recurrence of the effusion.
  • However, more of the malignant tumors may be curable if exactly diagnosed at an earlier stage.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of all patients with cardiac and pericardial neoplasm exactly diagnosed by endomyocardial or epicardial biopsy and pericardiocentesis, using hospital medical records and a biopsy and pericardiocentesis registry from 2000-2005 with 297 patients.
  • RESULTS: In 76 cases (25.6%) a neoplasm was the reason for a pericardial effusion.
  • 36 women suffered from the breast carcinoma (47%) and 40 males lung cancer (42%) as the firstly metastatic tumor.
  • By contrast, the preventive checkup and aftercare will gain more prognostic importance, especially in case of breast cancer, to earlier recognize a secondary cardiac neoplasm by biopsy and pericardiocentesis with intrapericardial treatment of neoplastic pericarditis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / epidemiology. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Registries. Risk Assessment / methods

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  • (PMID = 16132244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-9937
  • [Journal-full-title] Herz
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Herz
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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25. Silver SA, Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Mezzetti TP, Tavassoli FA: Mesonephric adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix: a study of 11 cases with immunohistochemical findings. Am J Surg Pathol; 2001 Mar;25(3):379-87
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  • We describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 11 examples of this neoplasm, which occurred in women between the ages of 35 and 72 years (mean, 52 years).
  • Eight tumors were stage IB, and one each was stage IIB and IVB; in one, the stage was unknown.
  • Microscopically, the carcinomas showed various morphologies, most commonly a small tubular pattern or a ductal pattern resembling endometrioid adenocarcinoma; one tumor had an associated malignant spindle cell component.
  • The patients with stage IIB and IVB disease had local recurrences after 2.2 and 0.7 years and died of progressive disease at 3.2 and 0.8 years, respectively.
  • In a patient with stage IB disease, a mediastinal metastasis and a malignant pleural effusion developed 5.6 years after diagnosis, and the patient died of disease at 6.2 years.
  • Another patient with stage IB disease and a positive vaginal cuff margin that recurred locally after 1.7 years received chemotherapy and was alive and clinically free of disease at 2.5 years.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate






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