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3. Koike H, Morita T, Tamura Y: [Primary malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2004 May;95(4):675-8
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  • [Title] [Primary malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder: a case report].
  • We report a case of primary malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder.
  • Macrohematuria appeared, and the submucosal tumor was observed by cystoscopy, and A Transurethral bladder biopsy led to a histopathological diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma (diffuse lymphoma, large-sized cell type, B-cell type).
  • Clinical stage was IE, but as soon, she was get bilateral hydronephrosis and bladder-ileum fistula.
  • The administration of 6-course CHOP chemotherapy had an excellent effect of disappearing the tumor, bilateral hydronephrosis, and bladder-ileum fistula.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Stents. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15198002.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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4. Wirger A, Perabo FG, Burgemeister S, Haase L, Schmidt DH, Doehn C, Mueller SC, Jocham D: Flavopiridol, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6B):4341-7
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  • [Title] Flavopiridol, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
  • Flavopiridol is reported to have cytotoxic activity against a wide range of cancer cell lines and has demonstrated its efficacy in several clinical trials.
  • Flavopiridol seems a well-suited potential new agent for the treatment of bladder cancer.
  • We, therefore, evaluated whether flavopiridol inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cells and additionally examined the toxicity and efficacy of this drug in vivo in a rat bladder cancer model.
  • However, there was a difference in the response with regard to the grading of the tumor cells at higher doses.
  • The IC50 was found to be 150-350 nM in the well-differentiated RT4 and RTI12 cell lines after treatment with flavopiridol, in comparison to a IC50 of 1000 nMfor the poorly-differentiated cell lines T24 and SUP.
  • After exposure to flavopiridol, all tumor cell lines underwent significant apoptosis in comparison to untreated cells, beginning at a dose of 50 nM flavopiridol.
  • The treatment of rat urinary bladder cancer with flavopiridol demonstrated the best efficacy with an intermittent treatment of 0.1 mg/kg, 3 times weekly over a total of 3 weeks, resulting in 7/12 animals tumor-free and a trend for the remaining tumors to have lower stage and grade.
  • In summary, our results indicated that flavopiridol could be a useful therapeutic agent for bladder cancer, inhibiting tumor growth, malignant progression and inducing apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Flavonoids / pharmacology. Piperidines / pharmacology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344

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  • (PMID = 16309238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 45AD6X575G / alvocidib; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
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5. González E, Andrés A, Polanco N, Hernández A, Morales E, Hernandez E, Huerta A, Ortuño T, Gutiérrez Martínez E, Praga M, Morales JM: Everolimus represents an advance in immunosuppression for patients who have developed cancer after renal transplantation. Transplant Proc; 2009 Jul-Aug;41(6):2332-3
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  • [Title] Everolimus represents an advance in immunosuppression for patients who have developed cancer after renal transplantation.
  • Renal transplantation provides the best quality of life for the patients with chronic end-stage renal failure.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the proliferation signal inhibitor immunosuppressant drugs everolimus among patients who develop neoplasms after renal transplantation.
  • Treatment was initiated with everolimus with or without CNIs.
  • There was a low percentage of patients with relapse of their tumor.
  • One patient had a relapse of bladder cancer with tumor progression at 3 years; another patient with melanoma developed lymph node invasion.
  • The results suggested that tumor relapse was low.
  • The results suggested that immunosuppression with everolimus combined with low doses of CNIs or in single-drug therapy is safe immunosuppression for patients who develop posttransplant malignant diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Kidney Transplantation / immunology. Neoplasms / complications. Postoperative Complications. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Creatinine / blood. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Everolimus. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Mycophenolic Acid / therapeutic use. Proteinuria. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tacrolimus / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19715911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; 9HW64Q8G6G / Everolimus; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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6. Margulis V, Shariat SF, Ashfaq R, Sagalowsky AI, Lotan Y: Ki-67 is an independent predictor of bladder cancer outcome in patients treated with radical cystectomy for organ-confined disease. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Dec 15;12(24):7369-73
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  • [Title] Ki-67 is an independent predictor of bladder cancer outcome in patients treated with radical cystectomy for organ-confined disease.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the association of the cell proliferative marker Ki-67 with pathologic features and disease prognosis in patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 was done on serial cuts from tissue microarrays containing cystectomy specimens from 9 patients without bladder cancer and 226 consecutive patients with bladder TCC.
  • We also assessed malignant lymph nodes from 50 of the 226 cystectomy patients.
  • Ki-67 overexpression was associated with advanced pathologic stage, higher grade, lymphovascular invasion, and metastases to lymph nodes (P = 0.001, 0.040, 0.031, and 0.036, respectively).
  • In multivariate analyses, pathologic stage and lymph node metastases were independent predictors of disease recurrence and bladder cancer-specific mortality.
  • In the subgroup of patients with organ-confined disease (<pT(3) N(0); n = 91), excluding patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy, Ki-67 status was an independent predictor of both disease recurrence (risk ratio, 7.591; P = 0.001) and bladder cancer-specific mortality (risk ratio, 4.045; P = 0.041).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ki-67 overexpression is associated with features of aggressive bladder TCC and adds independent prognostic information to standard pathologic features for prediction of clinical outcome after radical cystectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Ki-67 Antigen / physiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Cystectomy / statistics & numerical data. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17189409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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9. Khaled H, Emara ME, Gaafar RM, Mansour O, Abdel Warith A, Zaghloul MS, El Malt O: Primary chemotherapy with low-dose prolonged infusion gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer: a Phase II trial. Urol Oncol; 2008 Mar-Apr;26(2):133-6
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  • [Title] Primary chemotherapy with low-dose prolonged infusion gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer: a Phase II trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine is an active agent in the treatment of bladder cancer.
  • After an infusion during 30 minutes, this enzyme will be saturated, therefore, accumulation of higher intracellular concentrations of the active gemcitabine triphosphate could be achieved by prolonging the infusion time of gemcitabine.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Based on previously published Phase I trials, the efficacy and safety of a combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine given as prolonged infusion were tried in a Phase II study of 57 untreated patients with stage III/IV bladder cancer, which is the most common malignant tumor among Egyptian males.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged infusion of gemcitabine and cisplatin is an effective treatment for advanced bilharzial-related bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18312930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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10. Povo-Martín I, Gallego-Vilar D, Bosquet-Sanz M, Miralles-Aguado J, Gimeno-Argente V, Rodrigo-Aliaga M, Gallego-Gómez J: [Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bladder. A literature review]. Actas Urol Esp; 2010 Apr;34(4):378-85
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  • [Title] [Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bladder. A literature review].
  • OBJECTIVES: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is an uncommon urinary tract tumor.
  • This paper is intended to provide an update on its diagnostic criteria, pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics, histological classification, prognostic factors, and alternative treatments.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: All published articles on MFH of the urinary bladder have been reviewed and a descriptive study has been done.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-nine cases of MFH of the bladder have been reported.
  • Stage T3 MFH was found in 72% of cases at the time of diagnosis.
  • MFH local recurrence and distant metastasis rates were 50% and 25% respectively after surgical treatment only.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MFH of the bladder is a tumor with high local and distant recurrence rates and a low survival rate, and therefore requires early and aggressive treatment.
  • Radical cystectomy with lymphadenectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy is considered to be the treatment of choice, eventually associated to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20470701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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11. Shah SC, Kusiak A, O'Donnell MA: Patient-recognition data-mining model for BCG-plus interferon immunotherapy bladder cancer treatment. Comput Biol Med; 2006 Jun;36(6):634-55
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  • [Title] Patient-recognition data-mining model for BCG-plus interferon immunotherapy bladder cancer treatment.
  • Bladder cancer is the fifth most common malignant disease in the United States with an annual incidence of around 63,210 new cases and 13,180 deaths.
  • The cost for providing care for patients with bladder cancer disease is high.
  • Bladder cancer treatment options such as immunotherapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, transurethral resection, and cystectomy, are used with varying success rates.
  • Data mining algorithms were used to analyze the effectiveness of immunotherapy treatment and to understand the prominent parameters and their interactions.
  • The extracted knowledge was used to build a patient recognition model for prediction of treatment outcomes.
  • The data was analyzed to understand the impact of various parameters on the treatment outcome.
  • A list of significant parameters such as cumulative tumor size, presence of residual disease, stages of prior bladder cancer, current state of bladder cancer, and the presence of current bladder cancer (T1) is provided.
  • The decision-making approach outlined in the paper supplemented with additional knowledge bases will lead to a comprehensive analytical road map of the BCG/IFN-alpha immunotherapy treatment.
  • It will provide individualized guidelines for each stage of the treatment as well as measure the success of the treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Algorithms. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Information Storage and Retrieval / methods. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Outcome Assessment (Health Care) / methods. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Databases as Topic. Decision Support Techniques. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Medical Records

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  • (PMID = 15978568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0010-4825
  • [Journal-full-title] Computers in biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comput. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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12. Manoharan M, Soloway MS: Optimal management of the T1G3 bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am; 2005 May;32(2):133-45
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  • [Title] Optimal management of the T1G3 bladder cancer.
  • TIG3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder represents a highly malignant tumor with a variable and unpredictable biologic potential.
  • The most critical aspect of management requires a detailed discussion with the patient regarding the treatment options.
  • Both the physician and the patient should be willing to reconsider the treatment options as the disease continues to evolve.
  • In most cases initial management involves complete resection of the tumor, accurate staging of the disease, and intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • The choice and timing of the decision to abandon bladder preservation and proceed with cystectomy should be continuously reconsidered on an individual patient basis, in concordance with the evolution of the disease (Fig. 1).
  • The goal is to spare the bladder when possible but not at the risk of death from metastatic disease.
  • Radical cystectomy in high-grade stage T1 transitional cell carcinoma offers excellent results in regard to the prevention of recurrence and progression and survival.
  • The discovery of reliable markers may contribute to better selection of patients for bladder sparing.
  • Until then, the optimal treatment for the T1G3 tumor remains controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cystectomy. Decision Trees. Humans. Immunotherapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 15862611.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-0143
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 113
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13. Hegele A, Kosche B, Schrader AJ, Sevinc S, Olbert PJ, Hofmann R, Kropf J: [Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Evaluation of plasma levels of cellular fibronectin as a stage-dependent marker]. Urologe A; 2008 Sep;47(9):1137-40
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  • [Title] [Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Evaluation of plasma levels of cellular fibronectin as a stage-dependent marker].
  • Up to now markers for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCC) are missing.
  • Fibronectin (FN) seems to play a key role in progression and invasion of malignant tumors.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the value of cellular FN (cFN), a more specific subform of produced FN, in different stages of TCC.cFN was determined using a highly sensitive immunoassay which we developed.
  • Blood samples were taken of 45 patients with the first diagnosis of TCC before undergoing TUR-B and 6 patients with metastatic TCC before chemotherapy; 70 patients with nonmalignant urological disorders served as a control group.Patients with TCC showed significantly elevated cFN plasma levels compared to controls (p<0.05).
  • Patients with metastatic TCC showed the highest, but not significantly elevated cFN plasma levels compared to patients with muscle-invasive TCC.The elevated cFN plasma levels in TCC underline the important role of cFN for tumor progression and its potential role as a marker for TCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Fibronectins / blood. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cystoscopy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Urinary Bladder / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18651122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fibronectins
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14. Kaya AO, Coskun U, Yildiz R, Gonul II, Karagulle K, Yaman E, Ozturk B: Primary pure small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder that responded to carboplatin plus etoposide: a case report and review of the literature. J BUON; 2009 Oct-Dec;14(4):703-6
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  • [Title] Primary pure small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder that responded to carboplatin plus etoposide: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Primary pure small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCB) is an extremely rare tumor and accounts for less than 1% of all malignant tumors of the urinary bladder.
  • This tumor exhibits more aggressive behavior than bladder transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Unfortunately, optimal treatment strategy for this malignancy is still unknown.
  • We present a patient with metastatic primary pure SCCB (stage IV) who responded to carboplatin plus etoposide combination chemotherapy and discuss the relevant current literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20148466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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15. Regalado JJ: Mixed micropapillary and trophoblastic carcinoma of bladder: report of a first case with new immunohistochemical evidence of urothelial origin. Hum Pathol; 2004 Mar;35(3):382-4
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  • [Title] Mixed micropapillary and trophoblastic carcinoma of bladder: report of a first case with new immunohistochemical evidence of urothelial origin.
  • This is the first report of mixed micropapillary and trophoblastic bladder carcinoma.
  • His tumor contained choriocarcinomatoid areas with syncytiotrophoblasts, classic micropapillary carcinoma, conventional high-grade urothelial carcinoma, and flat carcinoma in situ.
  • He underwent radical surgery; tumor stage was T4N2M0.
  • Despite postoperative combination chemotherapy, he developed pulmonary and retroperitoneal metastases and died 20 months after presentation.
  • The tumor was immunopositive for human chorionic gonadotropin and human placental lactogen in trophoblast and for cytokeratin 20 and high-molecular-weight cytokeratin in all tumor components.
  • Because high-molecular-weight cytokeratin is expressed by urothelium but is rarely found in placental trophoblast or germ-cell choriocarcinoma, its presence in trophoblastic bladder carcinoma is new evidence that the latter is a transformed neoplasm of urothelial origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Trophoblasts / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / analysis. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy. Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male. Urothelium / pathology. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15017598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
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16. Słojewski M: [Results of radical cystectomy for management of invasive bladder cancer with special reference to prognostic factors and quality of life depending on the type of urinary diversion]. Ann Acad Med Stetin; 2000;46:217-29
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  • [Title] [Results of radical cystectomy for management of invasive bladder cancer with special reference to prognostic factors and quality of life depending on the type of urinary diversion].
  • Bladder cancer is one of the main problems in urology in terms of diagnosis and treatment, due to its high incidence, high recurrence rate, and difficulties in prognosis of its natural history.
  • According to Polish epidemiological reports, bladder cancer was the fifth cause of death due to malignant diseases in 1993 (1.2% in females and 4.0% in males).
  • Radical cystectomy remained for over forty years the main method of treatment in cases of invasive bladder cancer.
  • Improvements in postoperative care, surgical techniques and methods of urine diversion made cystectomy a widely performed, low mortality procedure.
  • The objective was to study retrospectively the results of radical cystectomy in cases of invasive bladder cancer with an emphasis on negative prognostic factors affecting survival.
  • Ileal neobladders were created in 24 cases (25.2%) and in 25 patients (26.3%) other types of urine diversion were used.
  • Median follow-up time was 17.4 months.
  • Basing on the pathologic stage, patients were assigned to 2 groups: organ confined disease (pT2-3a, 41.3%) and perivesical or adjacent organ involvement (pT3b-4, 58.7%).
  • The tumor was graded G1, G2 and G3 in 3.4%, 22.5%, and 74.1%, respectively.
  • Different forms of adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, e.g. radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, intra-arterial chemotherapy, electrochemotherapy were used in 28 patients.
  • The highest mortality and the highest risk of cancer-related death occurred during the first year from operation (Fig. 1 and 2).
  • Radical cystectomy is the best method of treatment in invasive bladder cancer, although it offers a poor chance of curing the patient.
  • In other cases this is just a palliative procedure, thereby justifying the selection of simple methods of urine diversion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy / methods. Quality of Life. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Diversion / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11712306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1427-440X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Acad Med Stetin
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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17. Yang W, Zeng X, Chen C, Chen Z, Du G: Correlative expression of glutathione S-transferase-pi and multidrug resistance associated protein in bladder transitional cell carcinoma. J Tongji Med Univ; 2000;20(4):311-4
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  • [Title] Correlative expression of glutathione S-transferase-pi and multidrug resistance associated protein in bladder transitional cell carcinoma.
  • In order to elucidate the mechanisms of multidrug resistance (MDR) in bladder cancer, the expression of glutathione S-transferase-pi (GST-pi) and multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) in tissue samples resected from 44 patients and 6 normal bladder mucosa as control was detected by using immunohistochemical method, and the results were analyzed by computer-assisted image analyzing system (IAS) to achieve semi-quantitative data.
  • The results showed that the positive expression rate of GST-pi and MRP in bladder cancer was 72.7% (32/44) and 68.2% (30/44) respectively, significantly higher than those in normal bladder mucosa, being 16.7% and 33.3% respectively.
  • The rate of GST-pi positive staining was increased correspondingly with tumor grade and stage elevated, being higher in recurrent tumors treated by chemotherapy, but not significantly (P > 0.05).
  • It was suggested that the activation of GST-pi and MRP might occur during malignant transformation of normal mucosa, but tumors' differentiation and progression could not be the unique factors that influenced both overexpression.
  • Chemotherapy might be another important reason.
  • The correlation of both indicated that there was a common mechanism regulating their expression probably, which made them play a pivotal role in chemotherapy drug resistance of bladder cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / metabolism. Glutathione Transferase / biosynthesis. Isoenzymes / biosynthesis. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins / biosynthesis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Glutathione S-Transferase pi. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Urinary Bladder / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12840920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0257-716X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Tongji Medical University = Tong ji yi ke da xue xue bao
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Tongji Med. Univ.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins; EC 2.5.1.18 / GSTP1 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione S-Transferase pi; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase
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18. Mizutani Y, Wada H, Fukushima M, Yoshida O, Ukimura O, Kawauchi A, Miki T: The significance of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity in bladder cancer. Eur J Cancer; 2001 Mar;37(5):569-75
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  • [Title] The significance of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity in bladder cancer.
  • DPD is also the principal enzyme involved in the degradation of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which is one of the anticancer chemotherapeutic agents currently used in the treatment of bladder cancer.
  • We investigated the activity of DPD in 74 bladder cancers and the relationship between the DPD activity and the sensitivity to 5-FU.
  • The levels of DPD activity in bladder cancer and normal bladder tissues were determined by the 5-FU degradation assay.
  • MTT) assay. The activity of DPD was approximately 2-fold higher in bladder cancer tissues compared with normal bladder tissues.
  • DPD activity in invasive bladder cancers was approximately 2-fold higher than that in superficial cancers.
  • In addition, the levels of DPD activity in grade 2 and grade 3 bladder cancers were approximately 3-fold and 4-fold higher than that in grade 1 cancers, respectively.
  • Patients with superficial bladder cancer with a low DPD activity had a slightly longer postoperative tumour-free period than those with a high DPD activity over a 2-year follow-up period, but this was not significant.
  • There was an inverse correlation between DPD activity in bladder cancer cells and their sensitivity to 5-FU.
  • The present study has demonstrated that the level of DPD activity correlated with the progression of the stage and an increase in the grade of the bladder cancer.
  • These results suggest that an elevated DPD activity might be associated with the malignant potential of the bladder cancer.
  • In addition, it might be possible to overcome 5-FU insensitivity by using DPD inhibitors in the treatment protocols of 5-FU-based chemotherapy for bladder cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / enzymology. Oxidoreductases / metabolism. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP). Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11290431.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; EC 1.3.1.2 / Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP); U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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19. Chakravarti A, Winter K, Wu CL, Kaufman D, Hammond E, Parliament M, Tester W, Hagan M, Grignon D, Heney N, Pollack A, Sandler H, Shipley W: Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and Her-2 are predictors of favorable outcome and reduced complete response rates, respectively, in patients with muscle-invading bladder cancers treated by concurrent radiation and cisplatin-based chemotherapy: a report from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Jun 1;62(2):309-17
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  • [Title] Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and Her-2 are predictors of favorable outcome and reduced complete response rates, respectively, in patients with muscle-invading bladder cancers treated by concurrent radiation and cisplatin-based chemotherapy: a report from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group.
  • In many tumor types, overexpression of these proteins is associated with enhanced malignant potential.
  • Our objective in this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of EGFR and Her-2 expression in bladder cancer cases from four prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) bladder preservation trials using cisplatin-containing chemoradiation (RTOG 8802, 8903, 9506, and 9706).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Tumors from 73 cases from patients with muscle-invading T2-T4a bladder cancers had slides interpretable for EGFR staining; 55 cases had slides interpretable for Her-2 staining.
  • RESULTS: On univariate analysis, EGFR positivity was significantly associated with improved overall survival (p = 0.044); disease-specific survival (DSS) (p = 0.042); and DSS with intact bladder (p = 0.021).
  • On multivariate analysis adding tumor stage, tumor grade, whether a visibly complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) was done or not, and patient age to the model, EGFR positivity was significantly associated with improved DSS.
  • CONCLUSION: Epidermal growth factor receptor expression appears to correlate significantly with improved outcome in bladder cancer, whereas Her-2 expression is significantly associated only with reduced CR rates after chemoradiation.
  • Further investigations are warranted into how EGFR family members regulate response to chemoradiation in bladder cancer and their potential therapeutic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15890569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA32115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA37422
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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20. Ro JY, Shen SS, Lee HI, Hong EK, Lee YH, Cho NH, Jung SJ, Choi YJ, Ayala AG: Plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic study of 9 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 May;32(5):752-7
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  • [Title] Plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic study of 9 cases.
  • In this report, we summarized the clinicopathologic features of 9 cases of plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder, a rare variant of TCC.
  • The initial diagnosis of plasmacytoid TCC was made on transurethral resection in 8 cases and cystoscopic biopsy in 1.
  • One patient had TNM stage I disease, 2 had stage II disease, 3 had stage III disease, and 3 had stage IV disease.
  • Four patients were treated by radical cystectomy with chemotherapy, 2 by radical cystectomy alone, 1 each by chemotherapy or intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin infusion alone, and 1 did not receive any further therapy.
  • Microscopically, all tumors contained plasmacytoid cells, which composed 30% to 100% of the entire tumor.
  • The plasmacytoid tumor cells were characterized by eccentrically located nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm.
  • In summary, plasmacytoid TCC tends to present at an advanced stage and to have a poor prognosis.
  • Morphologic recognition and distinction from other plasmacytoid malignant neoplasms is critical for its clinical management and immunohistochemical studies may be required for differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Plasma Cells / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystoscopy. Cytoplasm / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18379419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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21. Ishibashi M, Nakayama K, Shamima Y, Katagiri A, Iida K, Nakayama N, Miyazaki K: [Two cases of endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) in which survival was prolonged by administration of MPA]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 May;35(5):857-61
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  • It accounts for 0.5% of all uterine corpus malignant tumors and 10% of all malignant non-epithelial tumors.
  • MPA is one effective hormonal treatment for ESS.
  • We describe two cases in which patients with metastatic low-grade ESS lesions had prolonged survival with MPA therapy.
  • Case 1 was a 50-year-old woman with a low-grade uterine endometrial stromal tumor who had been operated on at another hospital.
  • She had pelvis metastases with infiltration into the bladder, and pulmonary metastases.
  • She had an incomplete response to chemotherapy.
  • We initiated MPA therapy, which resulted in significant improvement in her metastatic lesions.
  • Case 2 was a 58-year-old woman with stage Ic low-grade ESS who presented with abnormal uterine bleeding.
  • Following surgery (TAH+BSO), MPA therapy was initiated and she had no recurrence.
  • Her cancer recurred with pelvic and paraaortic lymph node metastasis.
  • She was treated with chemotherapy, MPA and radiotherapy.
  • Her metastases improved, and the patient has continued to survive on MPA therapy alone.
  • These cases suggest that MPA might be an effective hormonal therapy for patients with low-grade ESS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 18487930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
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22. Bilim V, Kasahara T, Hara N, Takahashi K, Tomita Y: Role of XIAP in the malignant phenotype of transitional cell cancer (TCC) and therapeutic activity of XIAP antisense oligonucleotides against multidrug-resistant TCC in vitro. Int J Cancer; 2003 Jan 1;103(1):29-37
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  • [Title] Role of XIAP in the malignant phenotype of transitional cell cancer (TCC) and therapeutic activity of XIAP antisense oligonucleotides against multidrug-resistant TCC in vitro.
  • We also examined the therapeutic effect of xiap AS PODN on the cell cycle and apoptosis of multidrug-resistant T24 bladder cancer cells.
  • Seventy-nine of 108 (73.15%) tumor samples were positive for XIAP protein, but XIAP positivity was not correlated with tumor stage or grade.
  • Moreover, 4 bladder cancer cell lines (SCaBER, HT1376, T24 and RT4) expressed similar levels of XIAP. xiap AS PODN dose-dependently reduced the XIAP protein level and induced apoptosis, leading to decreased cell viability by 87%.
  • Thus, XIAP expression may be critical for maintaining the viability and drug resistance of TCC, and endogenous XIAP levels are sufficient to protect cells from apoptosis.
  • Our results suggest that XIAP may play an important role early in human TCC carcinogenesis. xiap AS may be a candidate for use as a cancer therapy for overcoming drug resistance in highly malignant TCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / therapeutic use. Proteins / genetics. Proteins / metabolism. Urologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urologic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis. Caspase Inhibitors. Caspases / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Enzyme Inhibitors / metabolism. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Thionucleotides / therapeutic use. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured. X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12455050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Caspase Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Thionucleotides; 0 / X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein; 0 / XIAP protein, human; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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23. Hameed DA, el-Metwally TH: The effectiveness of retinoic acid treatment in bladder cancer: impact on recurrence, survival and TGFalpha and VEGF as end-point biomarkers. Cancer Biol Ther; 2008 Jan;7(1):92-100
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  • [Title] The effectiveness of retinoic acid treatment in bladder cancer: impact on recurrence, survival and TGFalpha and VEGF as end-point biomarkers.
  • INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Being best-studied superficial bladder cancer (SBC) chemopreventives, retinoids' negative studies and toxicity were stumbling.
  • With proper understanding of retinoid metabolism, we aimed at investigating combined ketoconazole (a strong inhibitor of retinoic acid-catabolizing cytochrome P450s) all-trans retinoic acid (Keto-atRA) SBC treatment.
  • RESULTS: Keto-atRA treatment significantly improved survival time and decreased recurrence rate compared to control disease group, with tolerable and reversible side-effects.
  • Treatment normalized induced levels of VEGF and TGFalpha with a positive correlation between these cytokines.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven days after TURT visible tumor(s), combined atRA 1 mg/kg for five days a week + Keto 200 mg twice daily for five days a week for three months were given to 16 patients with SBC stages Ta and T1 with various grades.
  • Recurrence rate and survival time were compared to a retrospective group of 25 patients of comparable age, stage and grade with TURT as sole treatment for SBC.
  • Samples were collected just before TURT, one week after TURT, at the end of one month and at the end of three months of treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination and schedule used for Keto-atRA therapy effectively reduced recurrence rate and increased survival time of SBC patients probably through reduction of VEGF and TGFalpha as major mitogenic/angiogenic factors; possibly by eliminating malignant cells that produce them.
  • [MeSH-major] Ketoconazole / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Transforming Growth Factor alpha / analysis. Tretinoin / administration & dosage. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / physiology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Biol Ther. 2008 Jan;7(1):101-2 [18347420.001]
  • (PMID = 18347417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor alpha; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole
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24. Walterhouse D, Watson A: Optimal management strategies for rhabdomyosarcoma in children. Paediatr Drugs; 2007;9(6):391-400
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  • The fact that the tumor arises in a wide variety of primary sites, some of which are associated with specific patterns of local invasion, regional lymph node spread, and therapeutic response, requires physicians to be familiar with site-specific staging and treatment details.
  • In addition, rhabdomyosarcoma requires multimodality therapy that can be associated with significant acute toxicities and long-term effects, particularly when administered to young children.
  • The purpose of this review is to discuss 'optimal' management of this complicated tumor.
  • Since the tumor is relatively rare, requires highly specialized care, and important management questions remain to be answered, optimal management of rhabdomyosarcoma includes enrollment in clinical trials whenever possible.
  • Appropriate management begins with establishing the correct pathologic diagnosis, histologic subtype, primary site, extent of disease (International Society of Pediatric Oncology [SIOP]-TNM-Union Internationale Contre le Cancer stage or Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group [IRSG] stage), and extent of resection (IRSG group).
  • Cooperative groups throughout North America and Europe have defined risk-adapted treatment based on these factors; this treatment requires a coordinated management plan that includes surgery, chemotherapy, and usually radiotherapy.
  • The surgical approach for rhabdomyosarcoma is to excise the primary tumor whenever possible without causing major functional or cosmetic deficits.
  • Wide excision is difficult in some primary sites and can be complicated by the fact that the tumor grows in a locally infiltrative manner so that complete resection is often neither possible nor medically indicated.
  • The cooperative groups reduce the dose of radiation based on the response of the tumor to chemotherapy and delayed primary resection to differing degrees.
  • Response-adjusted radiation administration may reduce the long-term effects of radiotherapy, such as bone growth arrest, muscle atrophy, bladder dysfunction, and induction of second malignant neoplasms; however, it may also be associated with an increased risk of tumor recurrence.
  • All patients with rhabdomyosarcoma require chemotherapy.
  • Risk-adapted treatment involves reducing or eliminating the alklyating agent for patients with the most favorable disease characteristics.
  • Acute and long-term toxicities associated with these chemotherapy regimens include myelosuppression, febrile neutropenia, hepatopathy, infertility, and second malignant neoplasms.
  • It is hoped that newer therapies directed at specific molecular genetic defects will benefit all patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rhabdomyosarcoma. Soft Tissue Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18052409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1174-5878
  • [Journal-full-title] Paediatric drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Paediatr Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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25. Djeu JY, Wei S: Clusterin and chemoresistance. Adv Cancer Res; 2009;105:77-92
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Resistance to anticancer agents is one of the primary impediments to effective cancer therapy.
  • Chemoresistance occurs not only to clinically established therapeutic agents but also to novel targeted therapeutics.
  • Both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms have been implicated in drug resistance but it remains controversial which mechanisms are responsible that lead to failure of therapy in cancer patients.
  • Its role has been documented in prostate cancer for paclitaxel/docetaxel resistance as well as in renal, breast, and lung tumor cells.
  • Moreover, it is abnormally upregulated in numerous advanced stage and metastatic cancers spanning prostate, renal, bladder, breast, head and neck, colon, cervical, pancreatic, lung carcinomas, melanoma, and lymphoma.
  • It is noteworthy that only the cytoplasmic/secretory clusterin form (sCLU), and not the nuclear form, is expressed in aggressive late stage tumors, which is in line with its antiapoptotic function.
  • Resistance to targeted death-inducing molecules, tumor necrosis factor, Fas and TRAIL, or histone deacetylase inhibitors can also be mediated by sCLU.
  • Expression of sCLU may be an adaptive response to genotoxic and oxidative stresses but this adaptive response could pose a threat in malignant cells being treated with cytotoxic agents by enhancing their survival potential.
  • The actual mechanisms for sCLU induction are unclear but STAT1 is required for its constitutive upregulation in docetaxel-resistant tumor cells.
  • Thus, sCLU has a key role in preventing apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents and has the potential to be targeted for cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Clusterin / physiology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Resistance, Multiple. Humans. Oxidative Stress

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  • (PMID = 19879424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098080
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLU protein, human; 0 / Clusterin
  • [Number-of-references] 78
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS539156; NLM/ PMC3889866
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