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1. Kuo KT, Mao TL, Jones S, Veras E, Ayhan A, Wang TL, Glas R, Slamon D, Velculescu VE, Kuman RJ, Shih IeM: Frequent activating mutations of PIK3CA in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Am J Pathol; 2009 May;174(5):1597-601
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  • [Title] Frequent activating mutations of PIK3CA in ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
  • Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is one of the most malignant types of ovarian carcinomas, particularly at advanced stages.
  • Unlike the more common type of ovarian cancer, high-grade serous carcinoma, ovarian CCC is often resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy, and therefore an effective treatment for this tumor type at advanced stages is urgently needed.
  • In this study, we analyzed 97 ovarian CCCs for sequence mutations in KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, and CTNNB1 as these mutations frequently occur in other major types of ovarian carcinomas.
  • The samples included 18 CCCs for which affinity-purified tumor cells from fresh specimens were available, 69 microdissected tumors from paraffin tissues, and 10 tumor cell lines.
  • Sequence analysis of PIK3CA in 28 affinity-purified CCCs and CCC cell lines showed a mutation frequency of 46%.
  • We therefore suggest that the use of PIK3CA-targeting drugs may offer a more effective therapeutic approach compared with current chemotherapeutic agents for patients with advanced-stage and recurrent CCC.

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  • (PMID = 19349352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA121113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA129080-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129080-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA116184; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA103937-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA103937-05; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116184; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129080; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA103937
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2671248
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2. Nicholaou T, Ebert LM, Davis ID, McArthur GA, Jackson H, Dimopoulos N, Tan B, Maraskovsky E, Miloradovic L, Hopkins W, Pan L, Venhaus R, Hoffman EW, Chen W, Cebon J: Regulatory T-cell-mediated attenuation of T-cell responses to the NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX vaccine in patients with advanced malignant melanoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Mar 15;15(6):2166-73
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  • [Title] Regulatory T-cell-mediated attenuation of T-cell responses to the NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX vaccine in patients with advanced malignant melanoma.
  • We recently developed a vaccine consisting of full-length recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein formulated with ISCOMATRIX adjuvant, which generated strong humoral and T-cell-mediated immune responses and seemed to reduce the risk of disease relapse in patients with fully resected melanoma.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, circulating NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and proportions of regulatory T cells (Treg) were assessed in patients.
  • Although strong antibody responses were mounted, the generation of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses was significantly impaired.
  • Tregs were enumerated in the blood by flow cytometric detection of cells with a CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) and CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-) phenotype.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results point to a tumor-induced systemic immune suppression, showing a clear association between the stage of melanoma progression, the number of Treg in the blood, and the clinical and immunologic efficacy of the NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX cancer vaccine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Cancer Vaccines / immunology. Cholesterol / administration & dosage. Melanoma / therapy. Membrane Proteins / immunology. Phospholipids / administration & dosage. Saponins / administration & dosage. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Hypersensitivity, Delayed / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Vaccination

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  • (PMID = 19276262.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 066646/z/01/z
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CTAG1B protein, human; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / ISCOMATRIX; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / Saponins; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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3. Ray-Coquard I, Pautier P, Pujade-Lauraine E, Méeus P, Morice P, Treilleux I, Duvillard P, Alexandre J, Lhommé C, Selle F, Guastalla J: [Rare ovarian tumours: therapeutic strategies in 2010, national website observatory for rare ovarian cancers and delineation of referent centers in France]. Bull Cancer; 2010 Jan;97(1):123-35
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  • [Title] [Rare ovarian tumours: therapeutic strategies in 2010, national website observatory for rare ovarian cancers and delineation of referent centers in France].
  • [Transliterated title] Les tumeurs rares de l'ovaire: stratégies thérapeutiques en 2010, Observatoire francophone des tumeurs rares de l'ovaire et émergence des centres de références.
  • Majorities of the rare ovarian cancers were represented by germ cell tumours and sex cords ovarian tumours with borderline tumours, clear cell carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma and are extremely rare malignant diseases of the ovaries.
  • Tumors of the stromal (Leydig cells) and/or sex cords (Sertoli cells) represent approximately 7% of ovarian cancers and develop from the conjunctive tissue (respectively, interstitial and nurse cells) of the ovaries.
  • All together, they represented less than 5% of the adult malignant and non malignant ovarian tumours.
  • Treatment of rare ovarian tumors is currently as follows.
  • Surgery is the same as that for ovarian adenocarcinoma, with one major difference: conservation of reproductive function in women of reproductive age is usual case for this type of tumor.
  • Chemotherapy for germ cell and sex cords tumors, based on data reported in the literature is the same as that prescribed for testicular germ-cell tumors.
  • For rare epithelial carcinoma, carboplatin plus paclitaxel remains the standard attitude with a well-known less efficiency than for other epithelial subtypes.
  • Surgery, chemotherapy and possible surgical intervention for residual lesions are highly complex.
  • Too rare to be included in randomized studies, treatment of these tumors has benefited from the therapeutic advancements made against testicular germ-cell tumors or with publications using retrospective data.
  • Because of the rarity of these tumours a specialized website (www.ovaire-rare.org) was developed in France in 2002.
  • The other new scientific data concern surgical procedures for sex cords tumors, evidence for presence of FOXL2 mutation in adult granulosa cell tumors, the use of paclitaxel plus carboplatin for sex cords tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Care Facilities / organization & administration. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / therapy. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. France. Humans. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Rare Diseases / pathology. Rare Diseases / therapy. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20007069.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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4. Ikeda M, Iwamura M, Minei S, Ishikawa W, Kurosaka S, Baba S: [Late relapse and urothelial carcinoma of residual ureter 16 years after radical nephrectomy: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Jun;54(6):415-7

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  • [Title] [Late relapse and urothelial carcinoma of residual ureter 16 years after radical nephrectomy: a case report].
  • He had a history of left nephrectomy due to "malignant renal tumor", performed by a general surgeon at another hospital 16 years ago.
  • Since a definitive diagnosis of the kidney was uncertain, we speculated that the original renal disease was a renal pelvic cancer and had metastasized in the residual ureter and the lung.
  • We performed systemic chemotherapy followed by resection of residual ureter with bladder cuff Pathological examination revealed urothelial carcinoma.
  • However, the lung tumors did not respond to salvage chemotherapy and slowly progressed.
  • Bronchoscopic biopsy was performed 2 years later and histological finding showed clear cell type renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Nephrectomy. Ureteral Neoplasms / pathology. Ureteral Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18634437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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5. Cecchetto G, Alaggio R, Dall'Igna P, Bisogno G, Ferrari A, Gigante C, Casanova M, Sotti G, Zanetti I, Carli M: Localized unresectable non-rhabdo soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities in pediatric age: results from the Italian studies. Cancer; 2005 Nov 1;104(9):2006-12
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  • [Title] Localized unresectable non-rhabdo soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities in pediatric age: results from the Italian studies.
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment of initially unresectable nonrhabdo soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) in pediatric age is debated, due to their different chemosensitivity.
  • The authors objective was to evaluate clinical features and treatment results observed in a series of Italian patients over a 24-year period.
  • Therapeutic guidelines recommended an initial biopsy plus neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Nonchemosensitive (CTns) sarcomas, 31: fibrosarcoma, 11; malignant peripheral nerve sheet tumors, 10; liposarcoma, 2; hemangiopericitoma adult type, 2; epithelioid sarcoma, 2; and alveolar soft part sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, clear cell sarcoma, and sarcoma NOS, each 1.
  • Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was complete or partial in 10 of 20 evaluable CTs and in 8 of 26 evaluable CTns tumors.
  • Tumor size < 5 cm, distal site, and tumor grading for CTns sarcomas were often linked to a favorable outcome; no conclusive results were detected concerning age of the patients or T status of the tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multidisciplinary treatment without mutilating procedures allowed the cure of most patients with CTs and CTns-NRSTS.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Humans. Italy. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16161038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Chen YY, Tiang XY, Li Z, Luo BN, Huang Q: Sporadic meningioangiomatosis-associated atypical meningioma mimicking parenchymal invasion of brain: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:39
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  • We now report a case of meningioangiomatosis-associated meningioma with atypical and clear cell variant.
  • He had no stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 2.
  • Microscopically, parts of lesions were atypical and clear cell meningioma corresponding to WHO grade II.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of a meningioangiomatosis-associated meningioma with atypical and clear cell variant component to be described.
  • The patient had been followed-up for 11 months without adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • No tumor recurrence was found during this period.
  • We suggest that postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy should be given careful consideration to avoid over-treatment due to erroneously interpret as malignant meningioma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20565869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2904739
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7. Ohishi Y, Kaku T, Kaneki E, Wake N, Tsuneyoshi M: Malignant ovarian tumor composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, clear cell adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma with prominent neuroectodermal and rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation: a case study. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 May;105(2):548-52
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  • [Title] Malignant ovarian tumor composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, clear cell adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma with prominent neuroectodermal and rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation: a case study.
  • BACKGROUND: Cases of malignant ovarian tumor composed of müllerian-type epithelial tumor and malignant germ cell tumor are extremely rare.
  • CASE: We herein report the case of a 34-year-old woman with an ovarian tumor which was composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC), clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCC), squamous cell carcinoma, yolk sac tumor (YST) and immature teratoma with prominent neuroectodermal and rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation.
  • Even after systemic chemotherapy, this intriguing tumor recurred again and again, which is in contrast to pure germ cell tumor which is known to be sensitive to chemotherapy.
  • Correct diagnosis of this complex and aggressive tumor is paramount.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adult. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Neuroectodermal Tumors / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Teratoma / pathology


8. Ljuca D, Fatusić Z, Iljazović E, Ahmetović B: Monitoring of chemotherapy successfulness of platina/taxol chemotherapy protocol by using determination of serum urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in patients with ovarian carcinoma FIGO II and III stage. Bosn J Basic Med Sci; 2007 May;7(2):111-6
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  • [Title] Monitoring of chemotherapy successfulness of platina/taxol chemotherapy protocol by using determination of serum urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in patients with ovarian carcinoma FIGO II and III stage.
  • In about 70% of cases, ovarian carcinoma has been diagnosed at an advanced stage.
  • In that process, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) play a key role, that via plasmin activation lead to basal membrane and matrix degradation in surrounding of the tumor, enable to its invasion and metastasis.
  • Determination of serum concentration of those tumor markers can be useful in preoperative as well as in postoperative period.
  • Their serum concentrations in ovarian cancer patients may help in good monitoring of remission or progression during chemotherapy treatment.
  • In late 1950s and ear1y 1960s, when it was found out that malignant ovarian tumors were chemosensitive, their chemotherapy treatment has begun.
  • In the beginning it was used only mono-therapy, and by discovering new cytostatics it was replaced by poly-chemotherapy.
  • Now days, in the therapy of advanced stages of ovarian carcinoma combination of cisplatine or carboplatine with paclitaxel is considering as standard treatment.
  • Aim of this study was to determine serum uPA, suPAR and CEA in FIGO II and III patients with different histological type (serous, mucinous, clear cell tumor) before and after PT chemotherapy protocol during following three cycles.
  • In this prospective study we have analyzed 17 patients with ovarian carcinoma, those have been after surgery treated by chemotherapy.
  • Results of this study have shown that uPA, suPAR and CEA met criteria for prognostic markers for monitoring of successfulness of platina/taxol chemotherapy protocol for serous, mucinous and clear cell tumor FIGO II and III stage of ovarian carcinoma.
  • In case of PT chemotherapy protocol suPAR was better prognostic marker for monitoring of chemotherapy successfulness (Pearson coefficient 0,9 do 1,0; p<0,00l) than uPA (Pearson coefficient between 0,86 and 0,92; p<0,02) and CEA (Pearson coefficient 0,5 do 0,89; p<0,04).

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  • (PMID = 17489744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-8601
  • [Journal-full-title] Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bosn J Basic Med Sci
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PLAUR protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Atanackovic D, Nierhaus A, Neumeier M, Hossfeld DK, Hegewisch-Becker S: 41.8 degrees C whole body hyperthermia as an adjunct to chemotherapy induces prolonged T cell activation in patients with various malignant diseases. Cancer Immunol Immunother; 2002 Dec;51(11-12):603-13
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  • [Title] 41.8 degrees C whole body hyperthermia as an adjunct to chemotherapy induces prolonged T cell activation in patients with various malignant diseases.
  • Whole body hyperthermia (WBH) has been used as an adjunct to radio-/chemotherapy in patients with various malignant diseases.
  • Although clear evidence is still missing, it has been hypothesized that an activation of the immune system might contribute to the therapeutic effect of WBH.
  • To examine whether a treatment with 60-minute 41.8 degrees C WBH as an adjunct to chemotherapy (WBH-CT) induces an activation of T cells, blood samples were collected at numerous time points before and up to 48 h post-treatment.
  • Immediately after 41.8 degrees C WBH-CT treatment, a drastic increase in peripheral natural killer (NK) cells ( P<0.05) and CD56+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL; P<0.01) in the patients' peripheral blood was observed.
  • At 5 h post-treatment, the percentages of both effector cell types had returned to baseline levels.
  • This transient phenomenon was accompanied by a short period of reduced T cell activity, indicated by diminished serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) at 3 h post-WBH-CT ( P<0.05) and decreased lymphocytic proliferation at the same point in time.
  • This first phase was followed by a marked but short-lived increase in the patients' serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6; P<0.01) during the first 5 h following treatment, with a subsequent decrease to baseline levels at 24 h and significantly increased serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) at 0 h ( P<0.01), 3 h ( P<0.05), 5 h ( P<0.05) and 24 h ( P<0.01) post-WBH-CT.
  • Furthermore, the percentage of CD4+ T cells expressing the T cell activation marker CD69 increased nearly two-fold over time, reaching its maximum at 48 h ( P<0.05).
  • As an additional marker for T cell activation, serum levels of sIL-2R increased markedly ( P<0.01), reaching maximum levels at the same point in time.
  • Since similar changes were not observed in patients receiving chemotherapy alone, this is the first study to provide evidence for prolonged WBH-CT-induced activation of human T cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperthermia, Induced. Lymphocyte Activation. Neoplasms / immunology. Neoplasms / therapy. T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytokines / blood. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Lectins, C-Type. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 12439605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-7004
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; 0 / CD69 antigen; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Lectins, C-Type
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10. Qian J, Shi Y, Chen X: [Clinical analysis of 25 cases of malignant transformation of endometriosis of the ovary]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2000 Nov;35(11):667-9
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 25 cases of malignant transformation of endometriosis of the ovary].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment and prognostic factors of malignant transformation of endometriosis of the ovary.
  • METHODS: From 1981 to 1999, a total of 25 patients with malignant transformation of endometriosis of the ovary were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Histological type: of the 25 cases, 14 were endometrioid carcinomas, 2 were clear-cell carcinomas, 2 were adenoacanthoma, 1 was serous papillary adenocarcinomas, 6 were mixed epithelium tumor of ovary.
  • The exact area of histologic transition from benign to malignant epithelium was observed in 25 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The exact incidence and prevalence of malignant transformation in endomertriosis is unknown.
  • Radical tumor resection combined with chemotherapy is the main therapeutic approach for malignant transformation of endometriosis of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology. Ovarian Diseases / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11218895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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11. Lee EJ, Kim TW, Heo JW, Yu HG, Chung H: Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type with intraocular involvement: case report. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2010 Jan-Feb;20(1):215-7
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  • [Title] Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type with intraocular involvement: case report.
  • PURPOSE: To report an unusual presentation of disseminated, intraocular, extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NK/T-cell lymphoma), originating from nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma.
  • RESULTS: A 63-year-old woman who had been treated with systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy for NK/T-cell lymphoma in the nasal cavity presented with vitreous haze of the right eye.
  • Despite anti-inflammatory therapy, the right eye showed poor clinical response and received diagnostic vitrectomy.
  • The malignant cells were positive for CD3, CD8, and granzyme B.
  • A diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma in the vitreous was made; the tumor likely originated from nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma.
  • The patient was treated with intrathecal chemotherapy and intravitreal methotrexate injection.
  • The eye was clinically clear of malignant cells after the injections.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vitreous infiltration without uveoretinal involvement can be an unusual manifestation of intraocular NK/T-cell lymphoma.
  • Clinician awareness of possible ocular involvement may assist in the diagnosis of disseminated NK/T-cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Killer Cells, Natural. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Vitreous Body / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Vitrectomy

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  • (PMID = 19882515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-6721
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Ye L, Wu XL, Xu L, Huang Q, Sun L, He Y, Yang KX: [Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified: a clinicopathologic study]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Aug;36(8):516-20
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  • [Title] [Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified: a clinicopathologic study].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis and treatment options of ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified (NOS).
  • METHODS: Light microscopy and immunohistochemical study was carried out in 8 cases of ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS.
  • RESULTS: The 7 cases of benign ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS were composed mainly of polygonal cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and larger cells with vacuolated cytoplasm.
  • They resembled the architecture of normal adrenal gland, with formation of cell nests and trabeculae.
  • The single case of malignant ovarian steroid cell tumor had evidence of significant cellular pleomorphism, haemorrhage and coagulative tumor necrosis.
  • Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells expressed calretinin and alpha-inhibin.
  • Differential diagnosis included oxyphilic granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli cell tumor and clear cell carcinoma.
  • The treatment options of benign ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS was local excision or ipsilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, while the malignant counterpart should be treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, including administration of GnRH agonist.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS, is the most common type of ovarian steroid cell tumors.
  • Most of which are associated with a benign clinical outcome.
  • The treatment options of ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS depend on its malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Calbindin 2. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Ovariectomy / methods. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Thecoma / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17980097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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13. De Milito A, Fais S: Tumor acidity, chemoresistance and proton pump inhibitors. Future Oncol; 2005 Dec;1(6):779-86
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  • [Title] Tumor acidity, chemoresistance and proton pump inhibitors.
  • Tumor microenvironment may play a key role in tumor malignancy.
  • It is hypothesized that hypoxia and acidity may contribute to the progression from benign to malignant growth.
  • In particular, the unfavorable environment may induce the selection of tumor cells able to survive in acidic and hypoxic conditions.
  • In fact, the common components of the cancer phenotype result from active selection, and characteristics of tumor microenvironment may create the best condition for this selection.
  • Acidity, in particular, has been shown to have a role in resistance to chemotherapy, proliferation and metastatic behavior.
  • In fact, a mechanism of resistance to cytotoxic drugs may be the alteration of the tumor microenvironment through changes of the pH gradient between the extracellular environment and cell cytoplasm.
  • The extracellular pH of solid tumors is significantly more acidic than that of normal tissues, thus impairing the uptake of weakly basic chemotherapeutic drugs and reducing their effect on tumors.
  • An important determinant of tumor acidity is the anaerobic metabolism that allows selection of cells able to survive in an hypoxic-anoxic environment with the generation of lactate.
  • It appears clear that a complex framework of protein-protein, protein-lipid and lipid-lipid interactions underlay the pH homeostasis in mammalian cells.
  • Malignant tumor cells seem to hijack some of these mechanism to protect themselves from the acidic environment and to maintain acidity in an environment unsuitable for normal or more differentiated cells.
  • Recent data suggest that vacuolar-type (V-type) H(+)-ATPases, that pump protons across the plasma membrane, may have a key role in the acidification of the tumor microenvironment.
  • Some human tumor cells are characterized by an increased V-type H(+)-ATPase expression and activity, and pretreatment with proton pump inhibitors -- a class of H(+)-ATPase inhibitors -- sensitized tumor cell lines to the effect of a variety of anticancer drugs.
  • Proton pump inhibitor pretreatment has been associated with inhibition of V-type H(+)-ATPase activity and increase in both extracellular pH and pH of lysosomal organelles.
  • In vivo experiments in human/mouse xenografts have shown that oral pretreatment with proton pump inhibitors is able to sensitize human solid tumors to anticancer drugs.
  • These data suggest that tumor alkalinization may represent a key target of future antitumor strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid-Base Equilibrium. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Proton Pump Inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 16556057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6694
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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14. Orlova A, Tran T, Widström C, Engfeldt T, Eriksson Karlström A, Tolmachev V: Pre-clinical evaluation of [111In]-benzyl-DOTA-Z(HER2:342), a potential agent for imaging of HER2 expression in malignant tumors. Int J Mol Med; 2007 Sep;20(3):397-404
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  • [Title] Pre-clinical evaluation of [111In]-benzyl-DOTA-Z(HER2:342), a potential agent for imaging of HER2 expression in malignant tumors.
  • Imaging of expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) in breast carcinomas may help to select patients eligible for trastuzumab therapy.
  • The Affibody molecule Z(HER2:342) is a small (7-kDa) non-immunoglobulin affinity protein, which binds to HER2 with a picomolar affinity.
  • The specificity of 111In-benzyl-DOTA-Z(HER2:342) binding to HER2 was confirmed in vitro using HER2-expressing breast carcinoma BT474 and ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 cell lines.
  • Four hours post injection (pi), the tumor uptake of 111In-benzyl-DOTA-Z(HER2:342) (4.4+/-1.0% IA/g) was specific and the tumor-to-blood ratio was 23.
  • The use of benzyl-DTPA provided higher tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-liver ratios. gamma-camera imaging showed clear visualization of HER2-expressing xenografts using 111In-benzyl-DOTA-Z(HER2:342).
  • 111In-benzyl-DOTA-Z(HER2:342) has a potential for imaging of HER2 expression in malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Female. Humans. Indium Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Tissue Distribution. Transplantation, Heterologous


15. Taşkin EA, Taşkin S, Berker B, Erol E, Dünder I, Söylemez F: Aggressive mixed type endometrial carcinoma in a young woman with rapid progression and fatal outcome. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Jan;277(1):71-3

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  • [Title] Aggressive mixed type endometrial carcinoma in a young woman with rapid progression and fatal outcome.
  • INTRODUCTION: Endometrial carcinoma in young ages is uncommon and tends to be a well differentiated endometrioid type and has an excellent prognosis.
  • Nevertheless, in this report mixed type endometrial cancer including serous, clear cell and endometrioid components in a young patient with rapid progression and fatal outcome is presented.
  • Mixed type endometrial carcinoma was diagnosed and she was treated with comprehensive surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anemia / etiology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Menorrhagia / etiology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17639438.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Valdespino-Castillo VE, Ruiz-Jaime A: [Renal cell carcinoma with colon metastases: an infrequent site for metastases]. Cir Cir; 2008 Jul-Aug;76(4):339-42
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  • [Title] [Renal cell carcinoma with colon metastases: an infrequent site for metastases].
  • [Transliterated title] Cáncer de riñón con metástasis a colon. Un sitio poco frecuente de metástasis.
  • BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents approximately 3% of malignant tumors in adults and occurs in a M:F ratio of 1.5:1.0.
  • Clear cell carcinoma is the most frequent histological type, and 30% of renal carcinomas have metastasized at the time of diagnosis.
  • The objective of the present study is to report colon metastasis of clear cell carcinoma that required surgery and chemotherapy.
  • CLINICAL CASE: We report the case of a 60-year-old male with a history of metastatic RCC.
  • His treatment consisted of cytoreductive radical nephrectomy and interferon because of pulmonary disease.
  • Nevertheless, he presented with hematochezia and underwent colonoscopy where a splenic flexure tumor was demonstrated.
  • Biopsy reported a clear cell tumor.
  • Pathology report was clear cell carcinoma with involvement of the colon from the mucosa to serosa.
  • Currently, there is no evidence of tumor activity and the patient is being followed-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RCC metastases are most frequent in lung, liver, and bone and less frequent in brain, skin, and soft tissue.
  • Metastatic clear cell carcinoma requires surgery and immunotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colectomy / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Immunotherapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy / methods. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 18778546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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17. Bar JK, Harlozińska A: Morphological and phenotypic characterization of a new established ovarian carcinoma cell line (OvBH-1). Anticancer Res; 2000 Sep-Oct;20(5A):2975-80
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  • [Title] Morphological and phenotypic characterization of a new established ovarian carcinoma cell line (OvBH-1).
  • BACKGROUND: A limited number of permanent ovarian carcinoma cell lines have been described so far and the majority of them have been derived from ovarian ascitic fluid cells taken from patients with serous ovarian carcinoma usually after chemotherapy treatment.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cells for culture were obtained from ascitic fluid cells of a patient with ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
  • Immunophenotypic characterization of cells was performed using the following monoclonal antibodies against: intermediated cellular filaments (CK 6/18, CK 7, CK 1,5,6,8,10,14,18, V9) ovarian carcinoma-associated antigens (OC125, OV-TL3), carcinoembryonic antigen, p53 and c-erbB-2 oncoproteins.
  • RESULTS: In the established ovarian carcinoma cell line (OvBH-1) two morphologically distinct cell types were recognized.
  • Cytomorphologically the dominating type appears to frankly malignant features.
  • The second cell subtype showed a lower degree of malignant features.
  • The epithelial origin of both cell types was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining using antibodies against different cytokeratin epitopes.
  • The expression of tumor-associated antigens (CA125, OV-TL3) was found in both cell subtypes reflecting their origin from ovarian carcinoma.
  • The cell line was negative for CEA staining.
  • The genetic defects of cultured cells were revealed by detection of p53 and c-erbB-2 overexpression.
  • The level of both oncoproteins and especially c-erbB-2 was higher in the cell subtype with frankly malignant morphological features.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A new established, well characterized ovarian clear cell carcinoma line OvBH-1 provides an experimental model for further investigation of the biological alterations responsible for carcinogenesis and chemoresistance of this uncommon subtype of epithelial ovarian carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell. Ovarian Neoplasms. Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovary / metabolism. Phenotype


18. Michael H, Lucia J, Foster RS, Ulbright TM: The pathology of late recurrence of testicular germ cell tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 Feb;24(2):257-73
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  • [Title] The pathology of late recurrence of testicular germ cell tumors.
  • A total of 91 men had histologically documented late recurrences of testicular germ cell tumors characterized by a complete response to treatment with a subsequent disease-free interval of at least 2 years and no evidence of a second primary lesion.
  • Ninety percent of the patients for whom information was available received chemotherapy shortly after their initial diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumors; most of the other patients were known to have stage I disease initially.
  • Thus, teratoma was the most common type of neoplasm in late recurrences.
  • Excluding teratoma coexisting with other types of neoplasms, yolk sac tumor was the most frequent type of tumor in patients with late recurrence.
  • It occurred in 47% of patients, either alone or with teratoma, another nonteratomatous germ cell tumor type, or a "nongerm cell malignant tumor."
  • Unusual types of yolk sac tumor, including glandular, parietal, clear cell, and pleomorphic patterns, were seen frequently in late recurrences and often raised differential diagnostic problems with "nongerm cell" carcinomas.
  • A smaller number of late recurrences consisted of other types of neoplasms.
  • Twenty percent of patients with late recurrence had a nonteratomatous germ cell tumor other than yolk sac tumor, either alone, with yolk sac tumor, or with a "nongerm cell malignant tumor."
  • Most of these nonteratomatous germ cell tumors other than yolk sac tumor were embryonal carcinoma, although rarely seminoma and choriocarcinoma were encountered.
  • "Nongerm cell malignant tumors," including both sarcomas and carcinomas of various types, occurred in 23% of late-recurrence patients, either alone or with a nonteratomatous germ cell tumor.
  • Patients whose late recurrences consisted of pure "nongerm cell malignant tumor" or pure germ cell tumor (yolk sac tumor or other types) had a much worse prognosis: Only 36% to 37% were alive with no evidence of disease.
  • Patients with two different types of nonteratomatous malignancies in their late recurrences had a dismal clinical course: Only 17% with both yolk sac tumor and other nonteratomatous germ cell tumor had no evidence of disease, whereas no patient with both nonteratomatous germ cell tumor and "nongerm cell malignant tumor" was disease free.
  • Furthermore, late recurrence is not likely to respond to chemotherapy and is best treated by surgical excision when possible.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Embryonal / complications. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / therapy. Choriocarcinoma / complications. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / complications. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / therapy. Sarcoma / complications. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Seminoma / complications. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / therapy. Teratoma / complications. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 10680894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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19. Liu LN, Chen GY, Wang P, Zhang CH, Huang SF: [Papillary renal cell carcinoma: clinico-pathologic studies of 33 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Feb;27(2):102-5
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  • [Title] [Papillary renal cell carcinoma: clinico-pathologic studies of 33 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the morphologic features, differential diagnosis, prognosis and histogenesis of papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC).
  • Light microscopic observation, immunohistochemical assay of EMA, CK7, CD10, Vim, 34 beta E12 by tissue chip were performed.
  • RESULTS: Among 516 cases of renal epithelial tumors 33 cases of PRCC were detected.
  • Foam cells and psammoma bodies in stroma, and hemosiderin in tumor cells were characteristic.
  • Tumors were of two major types: basophilic type (n = 10), with small cuboid cell and pale cytoplasm (n = 10), 9 of them were low in Fuhrman grading; eosinophilic type (n = 22) with large columnar cells, rich in eosinophilic cytoplasm, 19 of them were high in Fuhrman grading.
  • The remaining case was of clear cell type.
  • The basophilic tumors were all positive for distal tubule marker EMA/CK7, none for proximal tubule marker CD10, 7 tumors positive for Vim.
  • CONCLUSION: PRCC was a distinct malignant entity with unique pathological features.
  • The prognosis of PRCC was worse than that of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Keratin-7. Keratins / metabolism. Kidney Tubules / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. Survival Rate. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15946550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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20. Dittmar T, Nagler C, Schwitalla S, Reith G, Niggemann B, Zänker KS: Recurrence cancer stem cells--made by cell fusion? Med Hypotheses; 2009 Oct;73(4):542-7
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  • [Title] Recurrence cancer stem cells--made by cell fusion?
  • It is now generally believed that a tumor has its origin in cancer stem cells (CSCs), which originated either from transformed tissue stem cells or transformed progenitor cells that have regained self-renewal activity.
  • CSCs share several characteristics of normal stem cells, such as self-renewal capacity, slow cell cycle activity, differentiation capacity, possessing an enhanced resistance towards cytotoxic agents and radiation, as well as tissue restoration capacity.
  • Due to the increased drug and radiation resistance and slow cell cycle activity concomitant with tumor initiation capacity it is generally assumed that recurrent cancers originate from first line therapy surviving CSCs.
  • But how does the CSC hypothesis explain "oncogenic resistance", which describes the phenomenon that most recurrent cancers are characterized by both an increased malignancy as well as resistance towards first line cancer therapy.
  • If so, the recurring tumor should be treatable by first line therapy, which is mostly not the case.
  • Thus, we conclude that "oncogenic resistance" demands a new type of tumor initiating cells, the so-called recurrence CSCs (rCSCs).
  • This type of tumor initiating cell originates during first line therapy and is characterized by giving rise to first line therapy resistant and highly malignant progenies.
  • Because several characteristics of "oncogenic resistance", such as increased drug resistance, increased resistance to apoptosis and an enhanced malignancy have been linked to cell fusion we further conclude that rCSCs might originate from this cellular event.
  • However, which cell types have to fuse with each other to ultimately give rise to rCSCs is not clear.
  • In any case, tumor tissues, particularly those being destructed by first line therapy comprise of a variety of fusogenic cells including tumor cells and CSCs as well as recruited monocytes/macrophages and bone marrow-derived stem cells.
  • The fusogenic properties of these cells concomitant with phenotypic heterogeneity, which is also a property of cell fusion, will then lead to the origin of rCSCs.
  • In accordance with Darwinian evolution only those cells will survive that can resist best to the selection pressure first line therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Fusion. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Models, Biological. Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms / physiopathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19564079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2777
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Prager GW, Poettler M, Schmidinger M, Mazal PR, Susani M, Zielinski CC, Haitel A: CD98hc (SLC3A2), a novel marker in renal cell cancer. Eur J Clin Invest; 2009 Apr;39(4):304-10
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  • [Title] CD98hc (SLC3A2), a novel marker in renal cell cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: In a variety of malignant diseases, molecular targeting represents a therapeutic option, whereby, when compared with chemotherapy, fewer side effects are thought to be expected.
  • Especially in renal cell cancer (RCC), tyrosine kinase-inhibitors have been established as useful and highly effective therapy.
  • However, tyrosine kinase-inhibitors currently approved for RCC treatment lack single molecule specificity and bear a variety of side effects of the gastro-intestinal tract, skin, heart and haematopoietic system.
  • Therefore, the identification of novel cell surface markers is sought, which might lead to novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Paraffin-embedded RCCs from a well characterized tissue bank were immunohistochemically quantified for embryonic transmembrane antigen CD98hc (SLC3A2) expression and semi-quantitative analyses were correlated with subtype or grade of differentiation.
  • RESULTS: We found increased CD98hc expression in different types of malign RCCs, among them clear cell (cc)RCC, papillary (p)RCC and chromophobe (ch)RCC, but lack of expression in the benign renal oncocytoma.
  • Furthermore, the more malignant type II pRCC significantly higher expressed CD98hc than the less malignant and more differentiated type I pRCC (type II 83.34%, type I 4.76% CD98hc positive, P < 0.00001; n = 51).
  • The established marker for type I pRCC, Cytokreatin 7, showed 95.24% expression in type I and 26.67% expression in type II pRCC (P < 0.00001, n = 51).
  • In pRCCs, CD98hc might represent a novel and reliable marker for type II pRCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19292886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2362
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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22. Dallenbach-Hellweg G, Schmidt D, Hellberg P, Bourne T, Kreuzwieser E, Dören M, Rydh W, Rudenstam G, Granberg S: The endometrium in breast cancer patients on tamoxifen. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2000 Apr;263(4):170-7
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  • We restudied histologically and immunohistochemically 17 endometrial carcinomas, 2 malignant mixed tumors and 180 endometria with benign changes during or after tamoxifen therapy.
  • 20-33% had foci of mucinous, clear cell or serous-papillary metaplasia.
  • None of 11 patients biopsied before starting tamoxifen therapy had advanced endometrial glandular proliferation in the second endometrial biopsy after tamoxifen treatment.
  • None of the 19 endometrial neoplasms after tamoxifen therapy was of the endometrioid type: 11 were mucinous adenocarcinomas, 4 clear cell carcinomas, 2 serous-papillary carcinomas, one carcinosarcoma and one malignant Mullerian mixed tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrium / drug effects. Tamoxifen / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / chemically induced. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / ultrasonography. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinosarcoma / chemically induced. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / ultrasonography. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / chemically induced. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / chemically induced. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / ultrasonography. Polyps. Retrospective Studies. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 10834325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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23. Kianmanesh R, O'toole D, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P, Belghiti J: [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors]. J Chir (Paris); 2005 May-Jun;142(3):132-49
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitement chirurgical des tumeurs endocrines gastro-entéro-pancréatiques.
  • They are classified into two principal types: gastrointestinal ET's (formerly called carcinoid tumors) which are the most common, and pancreaticoduodenal ET's.
  • Poorly-differentiated ET's have a poor prognosis and are treated by chemotherapy.
  • Surgical excision is the only curative treatment of well-differentiated ET's.
  • The surgical goals are to: 1. prolong survival by resecting the primary tumor and any nodal or hepatic metastases, 2. control the symptoms related to hormonal secretion, 3. prevent or treat local complications.
  • The most common sites of gastrointestinal ET's ( carcinoids) are the appendix and the rectum; these are often small (<1 cm), benign, and discovered fortuitously at the time of appendectomy or colonoscopic removal.
  • Ileal ET's, even if small, are malignant, frequently multiple, and complicated in 30-50% of cases by bowel obstruction, mesenteric invasion, or bleeding.
  • They are usually malignant and of advanced stage at diagnosis presenting as a palpable or obstructing mass or as liver metastases.
  • Insulinoma and gastrinoma (cause of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) are the most common functional ET's. 80% are sporadic; in these cases, tumor size, location, and malignant potential determine the type of resection which may vary from a simple enucleation to a formal pancreatectomy.
  • In 10-20% of cases, pancreaticoduodenal ET presents in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia (NEM type I), an autosomal-dominant genetic disease with multifocal endocrine involvement of the pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas, and adrenal glands.
  • For insulinoma with NEM-I, enucleation of lesions in the pancreatic head plus a caudal pancreatectomy is the most appropriate procedure.
  • For gastrinoma with NEM-I, the benefit of surgical resection for tumors less than 2-3 cm in size is not clear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / surgery. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / surgery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / diagnosis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Pancreatectomy. Postoperative Care. Postoperative Complications. Prognosis. Somatostatinoma / diagnosis. Somatostatinoma / surgery. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16142076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 236
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24. Abendstein B, Daxenbichler G, Windbichler G, Zeimet AG, Geurts A, Sweep F, Marth C: Predictive value of uPA, PAI-1, HER-2 and VEGF in the serum of ovarian cancer patients. Anticancer Res; 2000 Jan-Feb;20(1B):569-72
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  • BACKGROUND: Tissue levels of uPA, PAI-1, HER-2 and VEGF are known to have prognostic value in different malignant tumors.
  • The prognostic potential of serum concentrations of these markers is less clear and was investigated.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The response to 2nd line chemotherapy was studied in 61 patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.
  • Marker analyses were performed using specific and sensitive ELISA tests and the response to therapy was evaluated using multiple CA 125 determinations and including these values in a simple and comprehensive formula.
  • However, no marker showed a significant relation to the overall survival of patients, nor to treatment response.
  • Most likely additional sources contribute to the serum levels of the markers studied so that their levels are not only tumor specific.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / blood. Endothelial Growth Factors / blood. Lymphokines / blood. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / blood. Receptor, ErbB-2 / blood. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Cell Division. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic / blood. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors

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  • (PMID = 10769727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Endothelial Growth Factors; 0 / Lymphokines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
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25. Inoue A, Takahashi H, Harada H, Kohno S, Ohue S, Kobayashi K, Yano H, Tanaka J, Ohnishi T: Cancer stem-like cells of glioblastoma characteristically express MMP-13 and display highly invasive activity. Int J Oncol; 2010 Nov;37(5):1121-31
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  • Glioblastoma is the most malignant type of primary brain tumor that has been shown to contain a small population of cancer stem cells.
  • Recent studies have suggested that cancer stem cells cause tumor recurrence based on their resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • Although the highly invasive nature of glioblastoma cells is also implicated in the failure of current therapies, it is not clear whether cancer stem cells are involved in invasiveness.
  • In this study, we isolated tumor sphere-forming cells bearing cancer stem-like characteristics such as self-renewal, multipotency, drug-resistibility, and in vivo tumorigenicity, from the human glioblastoma cell line U251, under serum-free neural stem cell culture condition, and assessed their migratory and invasive ability.
  • The expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was specifically expressed in tumor sphere-forming cells derived from U251 and primary human glioma cells.
  • The results suggest that the highly invasive potential of cancer stem cells depends on MMP-13 enzymatic activity, thus MMP-13 might be a potential therapeutic target for glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / physiology. Cell Separation. Flow Cytometry. Gene Knockdown Techniques. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasms, Experimental / enzymology. Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Organ Culture Techniques. Rats. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 20878060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinase 13
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26. Fojo T: p53 as a therapeutic target: unresolved issues on the road to cancer therapy targeting mutant p53. Drug Resist Updat; 2002 Oct;5(5):209-16
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  • [Title] p53 as a therapeutic target: unresolved issues on the road to cancer therapy targeting mutant p53.
  • As a tumor suppressor, p53 has a central role in oncogenesis: it inhibits the growth of abnormal cells and thus prevents cancer development.
  • The frequent occurrence of p53 mutations in human cancer and its role as "guardian of the genome" has led to numerous investigations evaluating its role as a potential therapeutic target in terms of restoring wild type (wt) p53 and thereby either reverting the malignant phenotype or enhancing drug sensitivity.
  • As for attempts to enhance drug sensitivity, the evidence suggest that this too can be accomplished, but how best to accomplish it remains to be explored.
  • Research conducted in the last decade has firmly established the importance of p53 in mediating the cell cycle arrest that occurs following DNA damage.
  • However, during this same time, the role of p53 in mediating apoptosis has become increasingly less clear, even as the number of putative pro-apoptotic proteins transactivated by p53 has increased.
  • Similarly unclear is how p53 makes a choice between cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, raising the possibility that p53 alone is not responsible for this crucial decision.
  • Although the importance of p53 in maintaining an established malignant phenotype as well as its role in apoptosis and chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity are far from settled, a subset of cancers may respond to these strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Genes, p53 / drug effects. Mutation / drug effects. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / physiology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 12450786.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-7646
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Resist. Updat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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27. Hofmann J: Modulation of protein kinase C in antitumor treatment. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol; 2001;142:1-96
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  • [Title] Modulation of protein kinase C in antitumor treatment.
  • PKC isoenzymes were found to be involved in proliferation, antitumor drug resistance and apoptosis.
  • Therefore, it has been tried to exploit PKC as a target for antitumor treatment.
  • PKC alpha activity was found to be elevated, for example, in breast cancers and malignant gliomas, whereas it seems to be underexpressed in many colon cancers.
  • However, for inhibition of tumor proliferation it may be an advantage to induce apoptosis.
  • Oncogenes and growth factors can induce cell proliferation and cell survival, however, they can also induce apoptosis, depending on the cell type or conditions in which the cells or grown.
  • At present it seems that PKC inhibition alone without direct interaction with PGP will not lead to successful reversal of PGP-mediated drug efflux.
  • One possibility to improve chemotherapy would be to combine established antitumor drugs with modulators of PKC.
  • Many indicate that inhibition, others, that activation of PKC enhances the antiproliferative activity of anticancer drugs.
  • The problem is that the exact functions of the different PKC isoenzymes are not clear at present.
  • It is a major challenge in the future to reveal whether modulation of PKC can be used for the improvement of cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / enzymology. Protein Kinase C / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Humans. P-Glycoprotein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11190577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-4240
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews of physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C
  • [Number-of-references] 532
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28. D'Angelo E, Prat J: Classification of ovarian carcinomas based on pathology and molecular genetics. Clin Transl Oncol; 2010 Dec;12(12):783-7
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  • Malignant epithelial tumours (carcinomas) are the most common ovarian cancers and the most lethal gynaecological malignancies.
  • Based on light microscopy and molecular genetics, ovarian carcinomas are subdivided into at least five main subtypes that account for over 95% of cases and are inherently different diseases, as indicated by differences in epidemiological and genetic risk factors, precursor lesions, patterns of spread, molecular events during oncogenesis, response to chemotherapy and outcome.
  • For successful subtype-specific treatment, reproducible pathological diagnosis of tumour cell type is critical.
  • Recent investigations have also demonstrated that a significant number of cancers traditionally thought to be primary ovarian tumours (particularly serous, endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas) originate in the fallopian tube and the endometrium and involve the ovary secondarily.
  • In this review we summarise recent advances in the molecular pathology, which have greatly improved our understanding of the biology of ovarian carcinoma and are also relevant to patient management.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / classification. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / genetics. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21156408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; Ovarian epithelial cancer
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29. Schuijer M, Berns EM: TP53 and ovarian cancer. Hum Mutat; 2003 Mar;21(3):285-91
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  • Ovarian cancer represents the fourth most frequent type of cancer among females and is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer in the western world.
  • Specific emphasis is placed on genetic alterations and the prevalence of TP53 (p53) gene alterations in the distinct biological ovarian tumors (benign, borderline, and malignant) and histological subtypes (serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell), as well as in BRCA1-associated hereditary ovarian cancer.
  • Although multi-modality treatment regimens, including cytoreductive surgery and cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy, have usefully prolonged survival, the overall cure rate of the disease has not changed dramatically.
  • Ovarian cancer is difficult to eradicate completely by surgery and many patients have only a partial response to postoperative chemotherapy and/or many will develop chemotherapy resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12619114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-1004
  • [Journal-full-title] Human mutation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Mutat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] OMIM/ 191170
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA1 Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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30. Campling BG, el-Deiry WS: Clinical implications of p53 mutations in lung cancer. Methods Mol Med; 2003;75:53-77
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  • The process of bronchial carcinogenesis is characterized by accumulated genetic abnormalities which ultimately lead to malignant transformation of bronchial epithelial cells, followed by invasion and metastasis.
  • One of the most common and consistent of these genetic lesions is inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene by mutation or deletion.
  • The frequency of p53 alterations in lung cancer is highest in those subtypes of bronchial carcinomas that are most consistently associated with smoking, especially SCLC and squamous cell carcinomas.
  • The prognostic significance of p53 mutations in lung cancer is not entirely clear despite the multitude of clinical studies that have been carried out.
  • Furthermore, those tumors with mutant p53 may be relatively more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation.
  • For example, the observation that the introduction of wild-type p53 into lung cancer cells with mutant or deleted p53 may reverse the malignant phenotype despite the presence of multiple other genetic abnormalities (14) suggests that replacement of this gene may be an effective clinical strategy.
  • Preclinical and early clinical studies indicate that this is a promising approach, but clearly more effective means of gene delivery to the tumor cells are required (127-129), as discussed elsewhere in this volume.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Genes, p53 / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12407735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-1894
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Number-of-references] 129
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31. Chen WH, Cheng SP, Tzen CY, Yang TL, Jeng KS, Liu CL, Liu TP: Surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast: retrospective review of 172 cases. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Sep 1;91(3):185-94
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast: retrospective review of 172 cases.
  • They are composed of a benign epithelial component and a cellular, spindle cell stroma forming a leaf-like structure.
  • No one morphologic finding is reliable in predicting the clinical behavior of the tumor.
  • Clinical data analyzed included age, presenting symptoms and signs, tumor size, location, type of surgery, time to recurrence, and metastasis.
  • The pathologic diagnoses included 131 benign, 12 borderline, and 29 malignant lesions.
  • Stromal cellularity, stromal overgrowth, stromal atypia, mitotic activity, tumor margin, and heterologous stromal elements were significantly correlated with metastases (P = 0.032, 0.00008, 0.000002, 0.004, 0.005, and 0.046, respectively).
  • The role of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy remains to be defined.
  • Local excision, wide excision, or mastectomy with negative surgical margins yielded high local control rates (88.7%, 88.2%, and 100%, respectively), but local excision was associated with a relatively high percentage of positive surgical margins (18.3%).
  • Fifteen patients in our series had tumors with infiltrating tumor margin, severe stromal overgrowth, atypia, and cellularity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Wide excision with a clear margin may be the preferable initial therapy, even for malignant PTs.
  • Patients have tumors with infiltrating tumor margin, severe stromal overgrowth, atypia, and cellularity are at high risk for metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Taiwan / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16118768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Rusciano D: Differentiation and metastasis in melanoma. Crit Rev Oncog; 2000;11(2):147-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • As for most tumors, malignancy and metastatic spreading represent the deadly aspects of a tumor that, if eradicated before becoming invasive, can be easily cured.
  • Because traditional forms of chemotherapy have little effect on this type of tumor, differentiation therapy has been considered as a possible alternative, based on the consideration that malignancy and differentiation are usually inversely related.
  • No clear correlation has been reported between (epi)genetic changes induced by differentiating drugs and the increased malignant phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation / genetics. Melanoma / pathology. Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met / metabolism. Receptors, Corticotropin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11005510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-9675
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit Rev Oncog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin; 0 / Receptors, Melanocortin; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100a4 protein, mouse; 0 / Transcription Factors; 142662-27-9 / S100A4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met; EC 2.7.4.6 / Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP Phosphohydrolases; EC 3.6.5.2 / Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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33. Li CQ, Guo ZM, Liu WW, Zhang Q, Yang AK, Yang L: [Clinical analysis of myoepithelial carcinoma of head and neck]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Feb;45(2):124-7
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of myoepithelial carcinoma of head and neck].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical feature, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) in the head and neck.
  • RESULTS: All cases were operated, 4 underwent surgery alone, 2 underwent surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, 2 received surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy, 3 underwent surgery plus adjuvant chemoradiation.
  • There was spindle cell type in 5 cases, clear cell type, plasmacytoid cell type in 2 cases, epithelioid cell type, mixed type in 1 case.
  • The median follow-up time was 40 months.
  • AS to the last follow-up time, 8 patients died.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of the tumor were rapidly enlarging, invading the surrounding regions, high rates of lymph node metastasis, high rates of distance metastasis.
  • MC was a sort of malignant tumor.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be effective after operation.

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  • (PMID = 20398508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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34. Ulisse S, Baldini E, Sorrenti S, D'Armiento M: The urokinase plasminogen activator system: a target for anti-cancer therapy. Curr Cancer Drug Targets; 2009 Feb;9(1):32-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The urokinase plasminogen activator system: a target for anti-cancer therapy.
  • The uPA converts the proenzyme plasminogen in the serine protease plasmin, involved in a number of physiopathological processes requiring basement membrane (BM) and/or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, including tumor progression and metastasis.
  • Data accumulated over the past years have made increasingly clear that the uPAS has a multifunctional task in the neoplastic evolution, affecting tumor angiogenesis, malignant cell proliferation, adhesion and migration, intravasation and growth at the metastatic site.
  • In agreement with their role in cancer progression and metastasis, an increased expression of uPA, uPAR, and PAI-1 has been documented in several malignant tumors, and a positive correlation between the levels of one or more uPAS members and a poor prognosis has been frequently reported.
  • The involvement of the uPAS in cancer progression identifies its components as suitable targets for anti-cancer therapy.
  • Several therapeutical approaches aimed at inhibiting the uPA/uPAR functions have been shown to possess anti-tumor effects in xenograft models, including selective inhibitors of uPA activity, antagonist peptides, monoclonal antibodies able to prevent uPA binding to uPAR and gene therapy techniques silencing uPA/uPAR expression.
  • All these strategies, however, although promising, need definitive confirmation in humans as, up to now, only few uPA inhibitors entered clinical trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19200050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current cancer drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Cancer Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
  • [Number-of-references] 520
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35. Liu W, Tretiakova M, Kong J, Turkyilmaz M, Li YC, Krausz T: Expression of vitamin D3 receptor in kidney tumors. Hum Pathol; 2006 Oct;37(10):1268-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Recent studies have shown that vitamin D has important physiologic effects on proliferation and differentiation in a variety of benign and malignant cells.
  • Our preliminary immunohistochemical study showed that vitamin D receptor (VDR) was highly expressed in renal distal tubules and collecting ducts, whereas the renal proximal tubules and glomeruli did not express VDR.
  • Paraffin tissue microarray (TMA) blocks were constructed containing core cylinders from clear cell (52), papillary (35), chromophobe (20), sarcomatoid (20), and metastatic (59) renal cell carcinomas (RCCs).
  • In addition, 30 clear cell RCCs and 3 collecting duct carcinomas were also studied using conventional sections.
  • Furthermore, VDR messenger RNA and protein expression was also quantified using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis.
  • In contrast, VDR expression was focal/weak and present only in the peripheral regions of clear cell RCCs.
  • Vitamin D receptor was weakly positive in sarcomatoid variant RCCs (88% [14/16]) regardless of the type of associated original RCC.
  • Overall, VDR is a discriminative marker for renal cell tumors.
  • The preferential expression of VDR in chromophobe RCCs, oncocytomas, and collecting duct carcinomas is in agreement with the concept that these tumors differentiate toward epithelium lining the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts.
  • In addition, the focal and much weaker VDR expression in clear cell RCCs makes VDR valuable in distinguishing clear cell RCC from other types of RCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16949927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol
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36. Boruban MC, Jaishuen A, Sirisabya N, Li Y, Zheng HG, Deavers MT, Kavanagh JJ: Ovarian endometriosis associated with carcinoma and sarcoma: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(4):393-6
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  • [Title] Ovarian endometriosis associated with carcinoma and sarcoma: case report.
  • Endometriosis is a common clinical disorder that shares certain characteristics, metastasis and recurrence, with malignant neoplasms.
  • Most malignant ovarian tumors arising from endometriosis are clear cell carcinoma or endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • Few reports exist of sarcoma associated with endometriosis, and even fewer exist of multiple types of malignancies occurring simultaneously.
  • She was then referred to our institution for treatment recommendation.
  • The pathologic findings revealed bilateral endometrioid adenofibroma of low malignant potential, which was associated with endometrioid intraepithelial carcinoma in the left ovary and high-grade sarcoma in the right ovary.
  • The optimal treatment for endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer depends on the type of malignancy; simultaneously occurring multiple tumor types should be treated individually.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / etiology. Endometriosis / complications. Ovarian Diseases / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / etiology. Sarcoma / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / complications. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary






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