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1. Korula A, Varghese J, Thomas M, Vyas F, Korula A: Malignant phyllodes tumour with intraductal and invasive carcinoma and lymph node metastasis. Singapore Med J; 2008 Nov;49(11):e318-21
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  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumour with intraductal and invasive carcinoma and lymph node metastasis.
  • Phyllodes tumours constitute 2-3 percent of fibroepithelial breast tumours, with a 1-2 percent rate of malignancy.
  • Carcinoma in a phyllodes tumour is distinctly uncommon, but has been known to occur in benign phyllodes tumours.
  • We describe a 51-year-old woman with a malignant phyllodes tumour with foci of intraductal carcinoma within the tumour and adjacent breast tissue.
  • Though the carcinoma was found to be invasive based on the presence of carcinomatous lymph node metastasis, extensive sampling did not yield an invasive component within the breast, probably because of the marked stromal overgrowth of the phyllodes.
  • A malignant phyllodes tumour with foci of intraductal carcinoma and axillary lymph node metastases was diagnosed rather than carcinosarcoma.
  • Chemotherapy and irradiation were included in the postoperative management.
  • Coexistence of phyllodes tumour and carcinoma is rare, and extensive sampling may be necessary to find the foci of carcinoma within an extensive and obviously malignant stromal overgrowth.
  • There is little consensus on the treatment and prognosis in these cases, and it is recommended that treatment be tailored to individual patients, based on the presence of invasion, lymph node metastasis and/or distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / pathology. Breast / surgery. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19037540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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2. Sugie T, Takeuchi E, Kunishima F, Yotsumoto F, Kono Y: A case of ductal carcinoma with squamous differentiation in malignant phyllodes tumor. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(3):327-32
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  • [Title] A case of ductal carcinoma with squamous differentiation in malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • Carcinoma derived from the lining epithelial cells in malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare neoplasm of the breast and belongs to the category of carcinosarcoma.
  • We report a case of ductal carcinoma with squamous differentiation arising in malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • A 54-year-old woman was admitted with a rapidly enlarging left breast mass.
  • A breast tumor with a diameter of 6 cm was located mainly in the left outer area of the breast.
  • Mammography revealed a high-density mass with an irregular margin and ultrasound showed a cystic tumor.
  • She underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by a modified radical mastectomy with a skin flap.
  • Histopathological examination revealed that the invasive ductal carcinoma with squamous differentiation originated from the lining epithelial cells in malignant phyllodes tumor and that there was no transition area between the carcinomatous and the sarcomatous component.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17690514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Grenier J, Delbaldo C, Zelek L, Piedbois P: [Phyllodes tumors and breast sarcomas: a review]. Bull Cancer; 2010 Oct;97(10):1197-207
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumors and breast sarcomas: a review].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs phyllodes et sarcomes du sein: mise au point.
  • Phyllodes tumors and sarcomas of the breast are non-epithelial tumors of the breast.
  • Phyllodes tumors are benign tumors, tumors of intermediate malignancy or malignant tumors.
  • The differential diagnosis with a very proliferant fibroadenoma may be difficult.
  • Histological sub-type, type of surgery (definitive or not) and stromal proliferation determine the prognosis.
  • Surgery (often radical) is the standard treatment.
  • Radiotherapy is recommended in case of high-grade tumor and after conservativetreatment.
  • All histological types exist with a predominance of histiofibrocytome type tumors.
  • Grade, involved margins and sometimes tumor necrosis are major prognostics factors.
  • Among the various sub-types, angiosarcoma is characterized by a high risk of occurrence in irradiated fields and by a poor prognosis with a high risk of lung metastases.
  • The treatment is mostly based on mastectomy without lymph node dissection given the exceptional flooding axillary.
  • In some situations, a conservative treatment can be discussed, based on tumor size, grade and volume of the breast.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is not a standard but should be discussed in the forms at high risk of relapse (like angiosarcoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / secondary. Hemangiosarcoma / therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20855241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
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4. Parker SJ, Harries SA: Phyllodes tumours. Postgrad Med J; 2001 Jul;77(909):428-35
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumours.
  • Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial lesions that account for less than 1% of all breast neoplasms.
  • With the non-operative management of fibroadenomas widely adopted, the importance of phyllodes tumours today lies in the need to differentiate them from other benign breast lesions.
  • All breast lumps should be triple assessed and the diagnosis of a phyllodes tumour considered in women, particularly over the age of 35 years, who present with a rapidly growing "benign" breast lump.
  • Treatment can be by either wide excision or mastectomy provided histologically clear specimen margins are ensured.
  • Approximately 20% of patients with malignant phyllodes tumours develop distant metastases.
  • The role of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal manipulation in both the adjuvant and palliative settings remain to be defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11423590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-5473
  • [Journal-full-title] Postgraduate medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postgrad Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 111
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1760996
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5. Yamamoto S, Ito T, Miki M, Serizawa H, Maekawa S, Furusato M: Malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate. Int J Urol; 2000 Oct;7(10):378-81
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  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate.
  • We report a case of malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate which is the eleventh reported case in the world.
  • Phyllodes tumor of the prostate is extremely rare and histologically resembles mammary phyllodes tumor.
  • Phyllodes tumor of the prostate is classified into benign, borderline and malignant, but health professionals should carefully follow up the borderline cases in case they take a malignant clinical course.
  • This case was the first to be treated by pre- and postoperative radiation therapy.
  • Although the patient had a slight response to radiation therapy, he eventually developed metastasis.
  • Because malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate is a very aggressive tumor, people with the condition should undergo systemic chemotherapy as adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Prostatectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11144506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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6. Büchler T, Vorzilková E, Koukolík F, Melínova H, Abrahámová J: [Malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes with brain metastases]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(6):446-8
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  • [Title] [Malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes with brain metastases].
  • [Transliterated title] Maligní forma cystosarcoma phyllodes s metastázami do mozku.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes is an uncommon type of breast tumour.
  • Benign, borderline, and malignant subtypes have been described.
  • Central nervous system metastases of the malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes are rare and associated with poor prognosis.
  • We report on a patient with malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes who developed metastatic disease six years after resection of the primary breast tumour.
  • Partial regression of a brain metastasis was achieved using radiotherapy but the patient later died due to widespread metastatic disease which was uncontrollable by systemic chemotherapy.
  • Because metastatic malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes are largely resistant to treatment, the most important objective is to provide optimal management of the primary tumour before dissemination occurs.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21351423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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7. Soumarová R, Seneklová Z, Horová H, Vojkovská H, Horová I, Budíková M, Růzicková J, Jezková B: Retrospective analysis of 25 women with malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes--treatment results. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2004 May;269(4):278-81
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  • [Title] Retrospective analysis of 25 women with malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes--treatment results.
  • PURPOSE: Mastectomy without axillary dissection should be the standard treatment in patients with malignant form of cystosarcoma phyllodes.
  • The role of postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy remains to be fully established.
  • We evaluate treatment results in a group of patients with cystosarcoma phyllodes (CP) treated at our Institute.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this report we analyze treatment outcome in 25 patients with malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes treated at Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute between 1970 and 1995.
  • Mean tumor size was 10 cm in diameter.
  • Time to local relapse after surgery was 4-11 months.
  • CONCLUSION: A specific protocol for the treatment of cystosarcoma phyllodes is missing, probably due to rarity of the disease.
  • The treatment of local recurrent disease remains unsuccessful in most CP patients.
  • We recommend postoperative irradiation on the chest wall in patients with malignant form of CP, because adjuvant radiotherapy decreased the incidence of local relapse in our group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Czech Republic / epidemiology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15205980.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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8. Morales-Vásquez F, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Broglio K, Lopez-Basave HN, Gallardo D, Hortobagyi GN, De La Garza JG: Adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and dacarbazine has no effect in recurrence-free survival of malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast. Breast J; 2007 Nov-Dec;13(6):551-6
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  • [Title] Adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and dacarbazine has no effect in recurrence-free survival of malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast treated at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of Mexico.
  • Twenty-eight patients with malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast enrolled in a observational study from January 1993 to December 2003 to receive four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin 65 mg/m(2) over 48 hours intravenous infusion and dacarbazine 960 mg/m(2) over 48 hours intravenous infusion (n = 17) versus observation (n = 11).
  • The median tumor size was 13 cm (range, 3-30 cm), and 46% of the tumors were in the left breast.
  • The 5 year RFS rate was 58% (95% CI = 36% and 92%) for the patients who received adjuvant therapy and 86% (95% CI = 63% and 100%) for the patients who did not (p = 0.17).
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and dacarbazine did not affect patient survival.
  • Future studies to identify relevant molecular targets should be implemented in order to define effective therapies for phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Phyllodes Tumor / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17983394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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9. Ueyama Y, Abe Y, Ohnishi Y, Sawa N, Hatanaka H, Handa A, Tokuda Y, Yamazaki H, Kijima H, Tamaoki N, Nakamura M: In vivo chemosensitivity of human malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes xenografts. Oncol Rep; 2000 Mar-Apr;7(2):257-60
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  • [Title] In vivo chemosensitivity of human malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes xenografts.
  • Malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes (MCSP) is a rare breast tumor.
  • Chemotherapeutic regimens for treatment of MCSP have not been established.
  • We studied the chemosensitivity of these two MCSP tumor xenografts to anticancer drugs in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / pharmacology. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Phyllodes Tumor / drug therapy. Vincristine / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. P-Glycoprotein / biosynthesis. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 10671667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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10. Sakura M, Tsukamoto T, Yonese J, Ishikawa Y, Aoki N, Fukui I: Successful therapy of a malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate after postoperative local failure. Urology; 2006 Apr;67(4):845.e11-3
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  • [Title] Successful therapy of a malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate after postoperative local failure.
  • A 19-year-old student who had presented with acute urinary retention was referred to our hospital with biopsy diagnosis of proliferating mesenchymal tumor of the prostate.
  • Histologic diagnosis of the tumor was prostatic malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • Five months after the operation, bilateral obturator lymph node metastases appeared, which were treated with etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin chemotherapy.
  • After a good response was achieved with four cycles of the chemotherapy, pelvic irradiation was added.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Phyllodes Tumor / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16600350.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Khan SA, Badve S: Phyllodes tumors of the breast. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2001 Apr;2(2):139-47
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • Phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast with a very variable, but usually benign, course.
  • Formerly known as cystosarcoma phyllodes, the designation "phyllodes tumor" with appropriate qualification regarding malignant potential based on pathologic features is now the agreed-upon term.
  • The most important diagnostic distinction is from fibroadenoma--phyllodes tumors require complete excision with free margins even when pathologic features suggest benignity because of a proclivity to local recurrence.
  • The most important component of therapy is wide surgical excision, and mastectomy is necessary only when free margins cannot be achieved without it.
  • The role of radiation therapy and chemotherapy is not established and has not been studied in randomized trials due to the rarity of the tumor.
  • At present, there is no consensus that patients with high-grade phyllodes tumors of the breast will benefit from either of these modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 12057132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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12. Confavreux C, Lurkin A, Mitton N, Blondet R, Saba C, Ranchère D, Sunyach MP, Thiesse P, Biron P, Blay JY, Ray-Coquard I: Sarcomas and malignant phyllodes tumours of the breast--a retrospective study. Eur J Cancer; 2006 Nov;42(16):2715-21
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  • [Title] Sarcomas and malignant phyllodes tumours of the breast--a retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Although most breast cancers are adenocarcinomas of the mammary gland, primary breast sarcomas may also arise from mammary gland mesenchymal tissue.
  • Phyllodes tumours represent a specific subset of these breast soft tissue tumours.
  • They are composed of a connective tissue stroma and epithelial elements.
  • Pathological presentation ranges from grade I to malignant phyllodes tumours (grade III) where the stromal component clearly exhibits a sarcoma pattern.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: SAPHYR (SArcoma and PHYllode Retrospective) is a retrospective study of the experience of Leon Bérard Cancer Centre (Lyon, France) from 1966 to August 2004.
  • No survival difference was found between malignant phyllodes (grade III) and other primary breast sarcomas (angiosarcomas excluded).
  • Histology revealed three significantly (p=0.0003) different prognostic groups: phyllodes grade I and II (DFS=57%), angiosarcomas (DFS=7%) and phyllodes grade III and other primary breast sarcomas (DFS=45%).
  • DISCUSSION: Phyllodes tumours and primary breast sarcomas are totally different from epithelial breast cancers and should be considered as a distinct group of rare tumours.
  • The first goal of treatment is to achieve negative margins (R0).
  • We propose to treat the patients according to the clinical practice guidelines in use for soft tissue sarcomas and address them to a reference centre for sarcoma.
  • Treating rare tumours in the same place should permit us to standardise pathological data and to include patients into multicentric radiotherapy or chemotherapy protocols to improve overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor. Sarcoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17023158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Tan EY, Tan PH, Yong WS, Wong HB, Ho GH, Yeo AW, Wong CY: Recurrent phyllodes tumours of the breast: pathological features and clinical implications. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Jun;76(6):476-80
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  • [Title] Recurrent phyllodes tumours of the breast: pathological features and clinical implications.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumours (PT) of the breast are fibro-epithelial neoplasms that are known to recur locally in up to 19% of patients.
  • Although the majority of recurrences are histologically similar to the initial tumour, a malignant recurrence is possible.
  • Malignant tumours can metastasize through the haematogenous route and metastases are associated with a poor prognosis as they are poorly responsive to conventional chemotherapy.
  • Data, including age at the time of diagnosis, clinical presentation, histological features, type of surgery carried out, clinical progression and characteristics of locally recurrent disease, were analysed.
  • Comparisons were made between those with benign, borderline and malignant tumours, as well as between those who developed a malignant recurrence and those who did not.
  • RESULTS: The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 39.6 +/- 7.4 years and the mean tumour size was 6.0 +/- 5.1 cm.
  • A total of 22 patients were classified as having benign tumour, 9 as having borderline tumour and 6 as having malignant tumour.
  • Tumour grade did not influence the tumour size, the adequacy of surgical margins or the time interval to local recurrence or the number of recurrences.
  • Although malignant tumours tended to recur earlier, this was not found to be statistically significant.
  • The majority of recurrent tumours were histologically similar to the initial tumour; however, seven patients (19%) developed a malignant recurrence from an initially benign or borderline tumour.
  • Distant metastasis developed only in patients with malignant tumours and accounted for all three mortalities in the study.
  • However, surgery for locally recurrent tumours, as well as malignant tumours, should aim to achieve adequate surgical margins to reduce the risk of local recurrence, particularly that of a malignant recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] ANZ J Surg. 2006 Oct;76(10):956. Hoon, Tan Puay [corrected to Tan, Puay Hoon]; Hui, Ho G [corrected to Ho, Gay Hui]
  • (PMID = 16768772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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14. Fajdić J, Gotovac N, Hrgović Z, Kristek J, Horvat V, Kaufmann M: Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Onkologie; 2007 Mar;30(3):113-8
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.
  • BACKGROUND: This article compares experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of phyllodes tumors from 2 regional institutions with the relevant literature.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 2,848 breast cancer patients were treated in our institutions, 36 (1.44%) for phyllodes tumors.
  • The average tumor size was 5.1 cm (range 1.4-19.6).
  • Wide excision with tumor-free margins was carried out in 29 (80.5%) cases and mastectomy in 7 (19.4%) cases.
  • RESULTS: Histology showed the phyllodes tumors to be benign in 27 (75.0%), malignant in 6 (16.6%), and borderline in 3 (8.3%) cases.
  • In this period, recurrences of 3 (8.3%) malignant and 2 (5.6%) benign phyllodes tumors were diagnosed and treated.
  • The steroid receptor status was of no prognostic value in our patients, and chemotherapy was used in only 1 (2.7%) patient.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study shows that tumor size, margin infiltration, mitotic activity and degree of cellular atypia are important prognostic factors.
  • Although wide local excision is usually the treatment of choice, tumor recurrence is common.
  • Axillary lymphadenectomy in malignant phyllodes tumors is, in our opinion, still controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mammography. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17341897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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15. Kok KY, Telesinghe PU, Yapp SK: Treatment and outcome of cystosarcoma phyllodes in Brunei: a 13-year experience. J R Coll Surg Edinb; 2001 Aug;46(4):198-201
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  • [Title] Treatment and outcome of cystosarcoma phyllodes in Brunei: a 13-year experience.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes is a rare tumour of the breast whose clinical behaviour does not correlate well with histological findings.
  • The optimal treatment of this tumour remains controversial.
  • A retrospective study on the treatment and outcome of women diagnosed with cystosarcoma phyllodes between 1986 and 1998 in Brunei was undertaken.
  • There were 19 (73%) histologically benign lesions, 3 (12%) borderline lesions and 4 (15%) malignant lesions.
  • Four patients (16%) had recurrences after surgery (1 benign, 1 borderline and 2 malignant lesions).
  • Mean time to recurrence was 9 months.
  • For malignant lesions, simple mastectomy without routine axillary dissection is recommended.
  • More research is required to determine the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the management of malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes [corrected].
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biopsy, Needle. Brunei. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Developing Countries. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] J R Coll Surg Edinb 2001 Dec;46(6):339
  • (PMID = 11523709.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-8835
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J R Coll Surg Edinb
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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16. Chen WH, Cheng SP, Tzen CY, Yang TL, Jeng KS, Liu CL, Liu TP: Surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast: retrospective review of 172 cases. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Sep 1;91(3):185-94
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast: retrospective review of 172 cases.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Phyllodes tumors (PTs) are uncommon biphasic breast tumors that usually occur in adult females.
  • No one morphologic finding is reliable in predicting the clinical behavior of the tumor.
  • Clinical data analyzed included age, presenting symptoms and signs, tumor size, location, type of surgery, time to recurrence, and metastasis.
  • The pathologic diagnoses included 131 benign, 12 borderline, and 29 malignant lesions.
  • Stromal cellularity, stromal overgrowth, stromal atypia, mitotic activity, tumor margin, and heterologous stromal elements were significantly correlated with metastases (P = 0.032, 0.00008, 0.000002, 0.004, 0.005, and 0.046, respectively).
  • The role of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy remains to be defined.
  • Local excision, wide excision, or mastectomy with negative surgical margins yielded high local control rates (88.7%, 88.2%, and 100%, respectively), but local excision was associated with a relatively high percentage of positive surgical margins (18.3%).
  • Fifteen patients in our series had tumors with infiltrating tumor margin, severe stromal overgrowth, atypia, and cellularity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Wide excision with a clear margin may be the preferable initial therapy, even for malignant PTs.
  • Patients have tumors with infiltrating tumor margin, severe stromal overgrowth, atypia, and cellularity are at high risk for metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Taiwan / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16118768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Pandey M, Mathew A, Kattoor J, Abraham EK, Mathew BS, Rajan B, Nair KM: Malignant phyllodes tumor. Breast J; 2001 Nov-Dec;7(6):411-6
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  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • The study aims to evaluate the survival and prognosis of patients with malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • Between 1982 and 1998, 37 women with malignant phyllodes tumor were treated at the Regional Cancer Center, Trivandrum.
  • Patient, disease, and treatment factors were compared using log-rank test.
  • Twenty-five patients received postoperative radiotherapy, and 2 received chemotherapy in addition.
  • However, patients with tumor size more than 5 cm (hazard ratio 2.9) were found to have increased hazard, whereas those receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (hazard ratio 0.6), married women (hazard ratio 0.4), and those women over the age of 35 years (hazard ratio 0.7) showed a decreased hazards.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes is a rare malignancy of the female breast.
  • Surgery with adequate margins is the primary treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Phyllodes Tumor / mortality

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  • (PMID = 11843853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Agrawal V, Sharma D, Wadhwa N: Case report: Malignant phyllodes tumor of prostate. Int Urol Nephrol; 2003;35(1):37-9
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  • [Title] Case report: Malignant phyllodes tumor of prostate.
  • Malignant phyllodes tumor of prostate is described in a 78 year old man.
  • With a diagnosis of benign hyperplasia of prostate.
  • Postoperative biopsy showed phyllodes tumor of the prostate with metastastic deposits in the anterior abdominal wall.
  • He received chemotherapy with Vincristine, Mitomycin C, Adriamycin and Cisplatin every 21st day for six cycles in addition to orchiectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14620281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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19. Guerrero MA, Ballard BR, Grau AM: Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: review of the literature and case report of stromal overgrowth. Surg Oncol; 2003 Jul;12(1):27-37
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  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: review of the literature and case report of stromal overgrowth.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes constitutes only 0.3-0.9% of all breast tumors.
  • The term "sarcoma" was initially used because of its fleshy appearance, a more modern term is Phyllodes tumor (PT).
  • The behavior of PT constitutes a spectrum from benign and locally recurrent to malignant and metastatic.
  • In a general surgical series, 6.2% of the tumors were malignant.
  • The microscopic appearance of PT is that of epithelial elements and connective tissue stroma.
  • The metastatic spread of malignant PT is mainly hematogenous to lung, with infrequent lymphatic involvement.
  • Wide local excision with 2 cm margins is the treatment of choice.
  • In 20% of both benign and malignant cases, PT will locally recur.
  • There is no proven benefit of radiation or chemotherapy, although radiotherapy may be useful in selected cases.
  • We present a case of a sarcomatous overgrowth in a malignant phyllodes tumor involving multiple histologic types.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12689668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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20. Udelnow A, Leinung S, Dannenberg C, Trantakis Ch, Schober R, Schönfelder M, Würl P: [A giant malignant tumour of the skull-Case report and differential diagnosis]. Zentralbl Chir; 2002 Mar;127(3):243-5
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  • [Title] [A giant malignant tumour of the skull-Case report and differential diagnosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Ein gigantischer maligner Tumor der Kalotte - Fallbericht und Differentialdiagnose.
  • The case of a 72-year-old woman with a high-partially located tumor grown within a half year to a magnitude of 8.5 x 11 x 11 cm is reported.
  • The patient remembered a mastectomy and axillary lymphadenectomy followed by chemotherapy and radiation 8 years ago.
  • Searching for the pathohistological evaluation of the former breast tumor, a cystosarcoma phylloides malignum could be found out.
  • The tumor described here can be identified as a metastasis of this rare neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary. Skull Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Craniotomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Parietal Lobe / pathology. Parietal Lobe / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11935491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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21. Suzuki-Uematsu S, Shiraishi K, Ito T, Adachi N, Inage Y, Taeda Y, Ueki H, Ohtani H: Malignant phyllodes tumor composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component: a case report and review of malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases. Breast Cancer; 2010 Jul;17(3):218-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumor composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component: a case report and review of malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases.
  • Here we present a case of malignant phyllodes tumor which was composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component.
  • A 52-year-old Japanese female noted a rapid increase of her right breast tumor.
  • The tumor, 10 x 10 cm in the largest dimension, had somewhat of a pushing margin, and showed a flesh-like appearance with marked necrosis.
  • Microscopically, the tumor showed proliferation of atypical ovoid- or spindle-shaped cells in a myxoid matrix.
  • Multiple sectioning revealed that the tumor had only focal occurrence of elongated tubular structures, and the occurrence of a small component of benign phyllodes tumor, leading to the aforementioned final diagnosis.
  • Although the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy, no responsiveness was obtained.
  • We reviewed 15 malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases reported in Japan.
  • The estimated 2.2-year survival rate following detection of metastasis was 11%, thus confirming the aggressiveness of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Simple. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19350353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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22. Pandey M, Mathew A, Abraham EK, Rajan B: Primary sarcoma of the breast. J Surg Oncol; 2004 Sep 1;87(3):121-5
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  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Primary sarcoma occurring in breast is rare and comprises 0.5-1% of all breast neoplasm.
  • Majority of the series include both stromal and cystosarcoma phyllodes, only a few hundred cases of sarcomas other then cystosarcoma are reported.
  • There were eight cases of angiosarcoma, four cases of spindle cell sarcoma, two each of pleomorphic sarcoma and stromal sarcoma, and one each of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and sarcoma (NOS).
  • Two patients received chemotherapy.
  • After a mean follow-up time of 34.5 months (median 25 months), eight patients failed.
  • Surgical treatment should consist of at least simple mastectomy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hemangiosarcoma / drug therapy. Hemangiosarcoma / radiotherapy. Hemangiosarcoma / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / drug therapy. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / radiotherapy. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / radiotherapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] J Surg Oncol. 2004 Oct 1;88(1):50-1 [15384090.001]
  • (PMID = 15334638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Darvishian F, Ginsberg MS, Klimstra DS, Brogi E: Carcinoid tumorlets simulate pulmonary metastases in women with breast cancer. Hum Pathol; 2006 Jul;37(7):839-44
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  • We identified 12 women with a history of breast cancer and biopsy-proven PCTs, who were treated at our institution in a period of 12 years.
  • The breast cancer was invasive carcinoma in 10 cases (9 ductal and 1 lobular) and ductal carcinoma in situ and malignant phyllodes tumor in 1 case each.
  • Six women received radiotherapy; 5, chemotherapy; and 4, hormonal treatment, alone or in combination.
  • None of the patients had known metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis of PCTs.
  • Three patients subsequently developed recurrent disease, including 2 with extramammary spread.
  • Pulmonary carcinoid tumorlets are radiologic and histologic mimickers of pulmonary metastases in patients with a history of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


24. Coffin CM, Cassity J, Viskochil D, Randall RL, Albritton K: Non-neurogenic sarcomas in four children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1. Am J Med Genet A; 2004 May 15;127A(1):40-3
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  • [Title] Non-neurogenic sarcomas in four children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • It is well known that children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have a higher risk for non-neurogenic sarcomas than the general population, in addition to an increased risk for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.
  • When non-neurogenic sarcomas occur in early childhood, a subsequent malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor can occur as a second malignant neoplasm, especially after alkylating agent chemotherapy and irradiation.
  • This report includes the clinicopathologic features of non-neurogenic sarcomas and secondary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in the context of four cases of NF1.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / genetics. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / secondary. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Prognosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15103715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4825
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Lam KC, Yeo W: Chemotherapy induced complete remission in malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate metastasizing to the lung. J Urol; 2002 Sep;168(3):1104-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chemotherapy induced complete remission in malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate metastasizing to the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Phyllodes Tumor / drug therapy. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12187238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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