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1. Fakhr IM, Khalil el-SA, El-Baradie TS, Shaalan MA, Shalaby LM, Nassif SL, Farahat IG: The role of surgical management in pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs), NCI case series. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2008 Mar;20(1):70-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of surgical management in pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs), NCI case series.
  • PURPOSE: To review the experience of a tertiary referral center in pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) in the last 8 years and to investigate the impact of surgery and site of disease on prognosis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the cases of pediatric germ cell tumors at National Cancer Institute over an 8 years period.
  • Yolk sac tumor and malignant teratoma were the commonest histologic subtypes in our series.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 28 out of 33 patients (84.8%), following surgery, including all patients with extragonadal disease.
  • Complete surgical resection showed better disease free survival, while those with irresectable disease had comparable overall survival while none could be rendered disease free with chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: The initial surgical approach to malignant GCTs at all sites should be complete resection when possible; the morbidity of extensive surgical resection should be weighed carefully against the good tumor control with chemotherapy.
  • The site of primary disease plays a role in the prognosis of pediatric germ cell tumors with the extragonadal pelvic tumors being the worst regarding resectability.
  • Good tumor response can be achieved with surgery and chemotherapy even for advanced stage and metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19847284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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2. Robertson KA, Bullock HA, Xu Y, Tritt R, Zimmerman E, Ulbright TM, Foster RS, Einhorn LH, Kelley MR: Altered expression of Ape1/ref-1 in germ cell tumors and overexpression in NT2 cells confers resistance to bleomycin and radiation. Cancer Res; 2001 Mar 1;61(5):2220-5
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  • [Title] Altered expression of Ape1/ref-1 in germ cell tumors and overexpression in NT2 cells confers resistance to bleomycin and radiation.
  • The human AP endonuclease (Ape1 or ref-1) DNA base excision repair (BER) enzyme is a multifunctional protein that has an impact on a wide variety of important cellular functions including oxidative signaling, transcription factor regulation, and cell cycle control.
  • In a pilot study, we have examined Ape1/ref-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in sections of germ cell tumors (GCTs) from 10 patients with testicular cancer of various histologies including seminomas, yolk sac tumors, and malignant teratomas.
  • Ape1/ref-1 was expressed at relatively high levels in the tumor cells of nearly all sections.
  • We hypothesized that elevated expression of Ape1/ref-1 is responsible in part for the resistance to therapeutic agents.
  • To answer this hypothesis, we overexpressed the Ape1/ref-1 cDNA in the GCT cell line NT2/D1 using retroviral gene transduction with the vector LAPESN.
  • Using an oligonucleotide cleavage assay and immunohistochemistry to assess Ape1/ref-1 repair activity and expression, respectively, we found that the repair activity and relative Ape1/ref-1 expression in GCT cell lines are directly related.
  • (b) elevated expression of Ape1/ref-1 in testicular cancer cell lines results in resistance to certain therapeutic agents; and (c) Ape1/ref-1 expression in GCT cell lines determined by immunohistochemistry and repair activity assays parallels the level of protection from bleomycin.
  • We further hypothesize that elevated Ape1/ref-1 levels observed in human testicular cancer may be related to their relative resistance to therapy and may serve as a diagnostic marker for refractory disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Repair. DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase. Deoxyribonuclease IV (Phage T4-Induced). Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Gene Transfer Techniques. Humans. Retroviridae / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11280790.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76643; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS38506; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R43 CA83507; etc
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; EC 3.1.21.2 / Deoxyribonuclease IV (Phage T4-Induced); EC 4.2.- / Carbon-Oxygen Lyases; EC 4.2.99.18 / APEX1 protein, human; EC 4.2.99.18 / DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase
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3. Billmire D, Vinocur C, Rescorla F, Colombani P, Cushing B, Hawkins E, London WB, Giller R, Lauer S: Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors: an intergroup study. J Pediatr Surg; 2001 Jan;36(1):18-24
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  • [Title] Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors: an intergroup study.
  • PURPOSE: This review was conducted to determine clinical characteristics and response to therapy in this rare pediatric neoplasm.
  • METHODS: An intergroup Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) 9049/Children's Cancer Study Group (CCG) 8882 randomized trial was conducted to evaluate response rate and survival with chemotherapy using etoposide, bleomycin, and high or standard dose cisplatin for high-risk malignant germ cell tumors at extragonadal sites.
  • RESULTS: Of the 38 children with malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors (MGCT), 36 had sufficient data to be included in this review.
  • Yolk sac tumor was the only malignant element in girls.
  • Boys had yolk sac tumor in 7, germinoma in 3, choriocarcinoma in 2, and mixed malignant elements in 15.
  • Four patients had biopsy and chemotherapy without tumor resection, and only 1 survived.
  • Fourteen patients had resection at diagnosis followed by chemotherapy with 12 survivors.
  • Eighteen patients had biopsy followed by chemotherapy and postchemotherapy tumor resection with 13 survivors.
  • Tumor size in response to chemotherapy for these 18 patients was stable or increased in 6, and decreased in 12 (mean decrease of 57% in greatest dimension).
  • Ten patients died: 5 of tumor (all boys > or =15 yr), 2 of sepsis, and 3 of second malignancy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant MGCT is a complex tumor of varied histology with frequent coexistence of benign elements.
  • Lesions often have incomplete regression with chemotherapy alone.
  • Tumor resection may be undertaken at diagnosis or after attempted shrinkage with chemotherapy.
  • Aggressive attempt at complete tumor resection should be offered to all patients even if bulky tumor persists after induction chemotherapy with expectation of a significant salvage rate.
  • Boys > or =15 years may be a high-risk subgroup for mortality from tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11150432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3468
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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4. Isaacs H Jr: Perinatal (fetal and neonatal) germ cell tumors. J Pediatr Surg; 2004 Jul;39(7):1003-13
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  • [Title] Perinatal (fetal and neonatal) germ cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Germ cell tumors are relatively common in the fetus and neonate and are the leading neoplasms in some perinatal reviews.
  • The purpose of this study is to focus on the fetus and neonate in an attempt to determine the various ways germ cell tumors differ clinically and morphologically from those occurring in the older child and adult and to show that certain types of tumors have a better prognosis than others.
  • METHODS: The author conducted a retrospective review of perinatal teratomas and other germ cell tumors reported in the literature and of patients treated and followed up at Children's Hospital San Diego and Children's Hospital Los Angeles.
  • The incidence of teratoma with yolk sac tumor either at presentation or at recurrence was 5.8%, and the survival rate was 39%.
  • Sacrococcygeal teratomas had the highest incidence of yolk sac tumor at 10%.
  • Recurrent disease in the form of either teratoma or yolk sac tumor developed in 5% of patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Some germ cell tumors of the fetus and neonate have a better prognosis than others.
  • Neonates with gastric teratomas have the best survival rates, and those with intracranial germ cell tumors the worst.
  • Fetuses with teratomas detected antenatally have 3 times the mortality rate compared with postnatally diagnosed neonates.
  • Surgical resection alone may be adequate therapy for teratomas with nonmetastatic, microscopic foci of yolk sac tumor.
  • In the nonteratoma group, patients with pure yolk sac tumor and gonadoblastoma have a much better outcome than those with choriocarcinoma, which has a very low survival of rate of 12%.
  • Currently, the use of platinum-based combination chemotherapy has significantly improved the survival rate of infants with advanced malignant germ cell tumor disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple / epidemiology. Fetal Diseases / classification. Fetal Diseases / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / classification. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Comorbidity. Digestive System Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Los Angeles / epidemiology. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Sacrococcygeal Region. Spinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Survival Rate. Teratoma / epidemiology. Ultrasonography, Prenatal

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  • (PMID = 15213888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Rescorla F, Billmire D, Stolar C, Vinocur C, Colombani P, Cullen J, Giller R, Cushing B, Lauer S, Davis M, Hawkins E, Shuster J, Krailo M: The effect of cisplatin dose and surgical resection in children with malignant germ cell tumors at the sacrococcygeal region: a pediatric intergroup trial (POG 9049/CCG 8882). J Pediatr Surg; 2001 Jan;36(1):12-7
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  • [Title] The effect of cisplatin dose and surgical resection in children with malignant germ cell tumors at the sacrococcygeal region: a pediatric intergroup trial (POG 9049/CCG 8882).
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate (1) the efficacy of standard or high-dose cisplatin with etoposide and bleomycin and (2) the role of surgical resection in infants and children with malignant germ cell tumors of the sacrococcygeal region (SCT).
  • METHODS: Seventy-four of 317 children presenting to Pediatric Oncology Group (POG)/Children's Cancer Group (CCG) institutions from 1990 through 1996 with malignant germ cell tumors had malignant SCT.
  • Forty-four (59%) had evidence of metastatic disease at time of diagnosis.
  • Presentation by type (Altman classification) was I, 0; II, 2; III, 30; and IV, 42.
  • The initial procedure was biopsy in 45 and resection in 29.
  • Patients were assigned randomly to receive 4 cycles of chemotherapy with etoposide (E) and bleomycin (B) and either high-dose cisplatin (200 mg/m(2) per cycle;.
  • After completion of chemotherapy, 42 of 45 initially treated with biopsy underwent resection.
  • RESULTS: Overall 4-year survival rate is 90% (SE = 4%) and 4-year event-free survival (EFS) is 84% (SE = 6%).
  • Event-free survival data for subgroups of interest are as follows: 4-yr EFS% (SE) P Values Mets (44) 88 (6).48 No Mets (30) 80 (8) HDP EB (37) 89 (6).21 P EB (37) 78 (7) Initial Resection (29) 90 (7).50 Delayed Resection (42) 83 (7) Complete Resection (49) 90 (5).19 CR/PR Partial Resection (22) 77 (10) Biopsy Only (3) 33 (27).005 (3 way) CONCLUSIONS:.
  • (1) The current survival rate of malignant sacrococcygeal tumors is excellent even with metastases. (2) Delayed surgical resection is not associated with an adverse outcome. (3) In this subset the treatment comparison was inconclusive however, followed the trend in the overall study of more than 300 children in which the high-dose cisplatin group had superior EFS (P<.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Sacrococcygeal Region
  • [MeSH-minor] Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11150431.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3468
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Terenziani M, Massimino M, Casanova M, Cefalo G, Ferrari A, Luksch R, Spreafico F, Polastri D, Fontanelli R, Piva L, Fossati-Bellani F: Childhood malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: a monoinstitutional experience. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Jun;81(3):436-40
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  • [Title] Childhood malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: a monoinstitutional experience.
  • OBJECTIVES: We reviewed our 23-year monoinstitutional exprience with childhood malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCT), with respect to survival and iatrogenic sequelae.
  • METHODS: Twenty-nine patients (median age 12 years) with newly diagnosed MOGCT were treated: all girls but 2 underwent surgery as initial treatment.
  • According to the FIGO classification, 9 girls were classified as stage I, 4 as II, 11 as III, and 3 as IV, and 2 were not evaluable because they were submitted to primary chemotherapy.
  • Twenty-four received chemotherapy with VAC, PVB, or PEB regimens, according to the ongoing protocols through the years.
  • Three stage I girls did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy because of their histology (2 dysgerminomas, 1 immature teratoma) and stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11371135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Billmire D, Vinocur C, Rescorla F, Colombani P, Cushing B, Hawkins E, Davis M, London WB, Lauer S, Giller R, Children's Oncology Group: Malignant retroperitoneal and abdominal germ cell tumors: an intergroup study. J Pediatr Surg; 2003 Mar;38(3):315-8; discussion 315-8
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  • [Title] Malignant retroperitoneal and abdominal germ cell tumors: an intergroup study.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This randomized study examined survival (S) and event-free survival (EFS) rates using high-or standard-dose cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy and surgical resection for this subset of germ cell tumors.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six of 317 patients enrolled on the POG 9049/COG 8882 intergroup study for malignant germ cell tumors had abdomen or retroperitoneum as the primary site.
  • Patients had biopsy or resection at diagnosis and randomization to chemotherapy including etoposide, bleomycin, and either standard-dose (PEB) or high-dose cisplatin (HDPEB).
  • Surgical management included primary resection in 5, resection after chemotherapy in 13, and biopsy or partial resection in 7 patients.
  • Deaths include one from sepsis, one from malignant tumor progression, and one from bulky disease caused by benign components despite response of the malignant elements to chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant germ cell tumors arising in the abdomen and retroperitoneum have an excellent prognosis despite advanced stage in most children.
  • Aggressive resection need not be undertaken at diagnosis, but a concerted attempt at complete surgical removal after chemotherapy is important to distinguish viable tumor from necrotic tumor or benign elements that will not benefit from further chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Life Tables. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 12632341.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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8. Billmire D, Vinocur C, Rescorla F, Cushing B, London W, Schlatter M, Davis M, Giller R, Lauer S, Olson T, Children's Oncology Group (COG): Outcome and staging evaluation in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in children and adolescents: an intergroup study. J Pediatr Surg; 2004 Mar;39(3):424-9; discussion 424-9
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  • [Title] Outcome and staging evaluation in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in children and adolescents: an intergroup study.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to perform an evaluation of outcome and the role of surgical staging components in malignant germ cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary in children and adolescents.
  • METHODS: From 1990 to 1996, 2 intergroup trials for malignant GCT were undertaken by Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) and Children's Cancer Study Group (CCG).
  • Stage I-II patients were treated with surgical resection and 4 cycles of standard dose cisplatin (100 mg/m2/cycle), etoposide, and bleomycin (PEB) chemotherapy.
  • Stage III-IV patients were treated with surgical resection and randomly assigned to chemotherapy with PEB or high-dose cisplatin (200 mg/m2/cycle) with etoposide and bleomycin (HDPEB).
  • Patients unresectable at diagnosis had second-look operation after 4 cycles of chemotherapy if residual tumor was seen on imaging studies.
  • More aggressive procedure than recommended by guidelines included total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in 6 patients and retroperitoneal node dissection in 10 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric ovarian malignant GCT (stages I-IV) have excellent survival with conservative surgical resection and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15017564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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9. Palenzuela G, Martin E, Meunier A, Beuzeboc P, Laurence V, Orbach D, Frappaz D: Comprehensive staging allows for excellent outcome in patients with localized malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary. Ann Surg; 2008 Nov;248(5):836-41
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  • [Title] Comprehensive staging allows for excellent outcome in patients with localized malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: The management of malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary (OMGCT) requires multidisciplinary expertise.
  • Relapses occurred in 8 of 24 stage I tumors that were observed (0/8 stage Ia; 5/13 stage Ix (P = 0.044) and 3/3 stage Ic) versus 0/14 stage I treated by adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.0015).
  • The risk of relapse was significantly increased if patients underwent postsurgical observation ((HR) = 4.5 (95% CI, 1.5 to 13.3)), and when the tumor contained yolk sac tumor (HR = 7.3 (95% CI, 2.3 to 22.7)).
  • There was no significant prognostic value for age, stage, level of tumor markers at diagnosis, type of surgery, and type of chemotherapy.
  • Patients with stages Ix and Ic tumors may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Dysgerminoma / surgery. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18948812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Lo Curto M, Lumia F, Alaggio R, Cecchetto G, Almasio P, Indolfi P, Siracusa F, Bagnulo S, De Bernardi B, De Laurentis T, Di Cataldo A, Tamaro P: Malignant germ cell tumors in childhood: results of the first Italian cooperative study "TCG 91". Med Pediatr Oncol; 2003 Nov;41(5):417-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors in childhood: results of the first Italian cooperative study "TCG 91".
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: About 20% of patients with germ cell tumor (GCT) are still resistant to therapy.
  • The site of the primary tumor was gonadal in 59, extragonadal in 36.
  • The treatment was surgery alone in 31; surgery plus radiotherapy in 1; chemotherapy +/- surgery in 63.
  • Post-chemotherapy resection in 19 (10 complete, 9 partial).
  • The chemotherapy regimen was carboplatin 400 mg/m2/day on days 1, 2; etoposide 150 mg/m2/day on days 1, 2; ifosfamide 1,500 mg/m2/day on days 21, 22; dactinomycin 1.5 mg/m2/day on day 21; vincristine 1.5 mg/m2/day on day 21.
  • Three patients died because of toxicity and two non-responders (to primary chemotherapy), died of progression; among the remaining 90 patients 20 relapsed, 9 are in second remission, 2 are alive with disease, and 9 died of disease progression (one from progression and intracranial hemorrhage).
  • All the pts who had complete resection of the primary tumor at diagnosis or at delayed surgery, remained in remission.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multivariate analysis showed that the primary site of tumor was the only independent prognostic factor for survival and EFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Confidence Intervals. Female. Humans. Incidence. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sex Distribution. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 14515380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Suita S, Shono K, Tajiri T, Takamatsu T, Mizote H, Nagasaki A, Inomata Y, Hara T, Okamura J, Miyazaki S, Kawakami K, Eguchi H, Tsuneyoshi M, Committee for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area: Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan. J Pediatr Surg; 2002 Dec;37(12):1703-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the prognostic factors and optimal treatments for malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT) in childhood.
  • The prognostic factors and treatments were assessed based on the 5-year survival rate. RESULTS:.
  • (1) Stage: 100% for stage I (n = 54), 75.0% for stage II (n = 4), 67.3% for stage III (n = 14), and 54.8% for stage IV (n = 33); Unknown: n = 12. (2) Primary site: 93.4% for the testis (n = 52), 86.7% for the ovary (n = 31), 56.9% for the sacrococcygeal (n = 21), and 60.6% for others (n = 12); unknown: n = 1. (3) Surgical intervention for primary tumor: 100% for stage I with a complete resection (n = 53), 78.4% for stage III, IV with a complete resection (n = 26), and 33.3% for stage III, IV with an incomplete resection (n = 21). (4) Type of chemotherapy for the stage III and IV: 83.9% for the PVB (cisplatin, vinblastin, bleomycin; n = 13), 66.7% for the VAC (vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide; n = 6), and 47.1% for other regimens (n = 25).
  • Radical complete resection alone is a sufficient treatment for localized MGCT.
  • The PVB regimen is optimal chemotherapy for advanced MGCT; however, high-risk cases still may require more aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2003 Sep;170(3):1040 [12926414.001]
  • (PMID = 12483635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Popadiuk S, Korzon M, Szumera M, Chybicka A, Szmyd K, Dzierzega M, Kowalczyk JR, Wiśniewska-Slusarz H, Trelińska J, Wozniak W, Bilska K, Wysocki M, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Lopatka B: [Malignant germ cell tumours. Multicenter prospective trial in Polish Pediatric Group for Solid Tumours (years 1998-2000)]. Przegl Lek; 2004;61 Suppl 2:29-32

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant germ cell tumours. Multicenter prospective trial in Polish Pediatric Group for Solid Tumours (years 1998-2000)].
  • Germ cell tumors constitute about 3% of all pediatric malignancies.
  • Mixed germ cell tumor and yolk sac tumor prevelaged.
  • Primary tumor was localized in gonads (59%) and in sacrococcygeal region (30%).
  • 77 children completed therapy, 15 continue treatment and 3 were lost from follow-up.
  • RESULTS: Among children who were off therapy, 70 (91%) are alive in a complete remission (second remission in 3 cases).
  • Median time of follow-up is 31 months from the beginning of treatment and 25 months after completion of therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: The outcome of malignant germ cell tumors treatment in Poland is favourable and comparable to results showed by other study groups in the world.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Poland. Prospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15686043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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13. Popadiuk S, Korzon M, Chybicka A, Szmyd K, Balwierz W, Trelinska J, Kowalczyk J, Wisniewska-Slusarz H, Woźniak W, Bilska K, Wachowiak J, Wysocki M, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Szumera M, Sznurkowska K, Renke J: [Analysis of risk factor treatment failures in therapeutic programme for malignant germ cell tumours in children. Multicentre prospective study of Polish Pediatric Group for Solid Tumours 1998--2006]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2007 Jul-Sep;11(3 Pt 2):301-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Analysis of risk factor treatment failures in therapeutic programme for malignant germ cell tumours in children. Multicentre prospective study of Polish Pediatric Group for Solid Tumours 1998--2006].
  • AIMS: The aim of the study was the analysis of risk factors of therapeutic failures in children with malignant germ cell tumours treated within the multicentre programme of PPGGL from 1999--2006.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigated group included 18 (14.3%) patients, of 123 who have finished the treatment of malignant germ cell tumour, in whom no remission was obtained or relapse occurred.
  • RESULTS: Among 18 patients with therapeutic failures 12 died.
  • Two patients from the high risk group died of complications of the treatment--sepsis during neutropenia after chemotherapy and one after haemorrhage to the central nervous system.
  • The most frequent histology in this group was mixed germ cell tumour with component of yolk sac tumour or carcinoma embrionale.
  • All the patients are alive in remission after second line therapy, with 78 months (median) of follow-up.
  • The main risk factor for therapeutic failures in malignant germ cell tumours was primary chemoresistance in inoperable tumours of the sacrococcygeal region.
  • 2. The mortality of treatment complications was low.
  • 3. The relapse of cancer was not a risk factor for therapeutic failure due to the high probability of second remission 4.
  • Therapeutic failures are mainly observed in patients with mixed germ cell tumour with components of yolk sac tumour or carcinoma embrionale.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Poland. Risk Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18663271.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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14. Goetz CM, Schmid I, Pietsch T, Peraud A, Haas RJ: Mixed malignant germ cell tumour of the lateral ventricle in an 8-month-old girl: case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst; 2002 Nov;18(11):644-7
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  • [Title] Mixed malignant germ cell tumour of the lateral ventricle in an 8-month-old girl: case report and review of the literature.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a huge intracerebral malignant germ cell tumour (GCT) which appeared in the lateral ventricles of an 8-month-old girl.
  • Chemotherapy induced a marked regression of the tumour.
  • After chemotherapy complete resection of the tumour remnant was easily achieved.
  • Histology showed only mesenchymal differentiated tumour tissue and the embryonal carcinoma could no longer be detected.
  • CONCLUSION: The majority of cranial mixed malignant GCTs affects patients older than 4 years of age.
  • To our knowledge this is the youngest patient in whom an intracranial malignant GCT containing an embryonal carcinoma has been diagnosed and successfully treated.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Lateral Ventricles / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm, Residual. Reoperation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12420127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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15. Calaminus G, Göbel U, Schrum J, Wittkugel O, Westphal M, Timmermann B: Proton beam therapy for loco-regional control of a recurrent mixed malignant germ cell tumor of the skull in a 22-month-old girl. Klin Padiatr; 2010 May;222(3):175-9
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  • [Title] Proton beam therapy for loco-regional control of a recurrent mixed malignant germ cell tumor of the skull in a 22-month-old girl.
  • BACKGROUND: Germ cell tumors (GCT) situated in the head and neck region are very rare and occur predominantely in newborns or young infants.
  • Recurrent CTs are often resectable only by mutilating surgery and the need for alternative treatment strategies is obvious.
  • In this situation radiation therapy is the most important treatment option for loco-regional tumor control, but bear in this area the risk of possible impairment of brain function and face deformation as long term effects.
  • CASE REPORT: In a girl with a connatal expansive growing teratoma of the skull the tumor recurred in spite of repeated surgery as mixed malignant GCT at the age of 15 months.
  • Tumor control could not be achieved with chemotherapy and additional surgery seemed not promising.
  • Therefore high dose proton beam therapy (PT) (54 Gy) has been administered to the child at the age of 22 months and led to local tumor control with only mild side effects.
  • CONCLUSION: PT treatment may be an option for specific clinical conditions in germ cell tumors where local tumor control cannot be achieved by chemotherapy and/or surgery and long lasting side effects of conventional radiotherapy due to tumor localization and age have to be considered.
  • However, PT should be implemented in treatment protocols for specific situations to guarantee supervised application, central documentation and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Orbital Neoplasms / congenital. Orbital Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Protons / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Skull Base Neoplasms / congenital. Skull Base Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Teratoma / congenital. Teratoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Blepharoptosis / etiology. Child, Preschool. Craniotomy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 20514623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3824
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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16. Göbel U, Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Schmidt P, Haas RJ, MAKEI and MAHO Study Groups of the German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, and the SIOP CNS GCT Study Group: Management of germ cell tumors in children: approaches to cure. Onkologie; 2002 Feb;25(1):14-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of germ cell tumors in children: approaches to cure.
  • The introduction of cisplatinum chemotherapy and current advances in the surgical treatment have resulted in a dramatic improvement of the prognosis of children with malignant germ cell tumors (GCT).
  • Cisplatinum chemotherapy generally results in sufficient systemic tumor control, but local relapses may still occur in patients who did not receive adequate local treatment.
  • Therefore, the therapeutic consideration must take into account age, primary site of the tumor, and its histology.
  • In gonadal tumors, there is a high chance of primary complete resection since these tumors tend to be encapsulated, and particularly testicular GCT are often detected at a low tumor stage.
  • In these tumors, a neoadjuvant or preoperative chemotherapy after clinical diagnosis by imaging and evaluation of tumor markers significantly facilitates complete resection on delayed surgery.
  • In addition, the impact of chemotherapy on local tumor control may be enhanced by locoregional hyperthermia.
  • In intracranial GCT, radiotherapy significantly contributes to local tumor control, and doses are stratified according to histology.
  • These general considerations have been integrated into national and international cooperative treatment protocols.
  • In most current protocols, treatment is stratified according to an initial risk assessment that includes the parameters age, site, histology, stage, completeness of resection and the tumor markers alpha(1)-fetoprotein (AFP) and human choriogonadotropin (beta-HCG).
  • Moreover, the previously high-risk groups may now expect a favorable prognosis with this risk-adapted treatment, whereas an increasing number of low-risk patients are treated expectantly or with significantly reduced chemotherapy.
  • As current biologic studies reveal distinct genetic patterns in childhood GCT, it can be expected that further combined clinical and genetic studies will be valuable for risk assessment of childhood GCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 11893878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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17. Göbel U, Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Haas RJ, Schmidt P, Harms D: Germ-cell tumors in childhood and adolescence. GPOH MAKEI and the MAHO study groups. Ann Oncol; 2000 Mar;11(3):263-71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Germ-cell tumors in childhood and adolescence. GPOH MAKEI and the MAHO study groups.
  • In mature and immature teratoma the treatment is surgical.
  • In case of a microscopically complete tumor resection there is no role for adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy irrespective of the histological grade of immaturity.
  • Malignant germ-cell tumors (GCT) account for 2.9% of all malignant tumors of children younger than 15 years of age.
  • In patients with extensive tumor growth, metastatic disease or secreting intracranial tumors a delayed tumor resection after preoperative chemotherapy is preferable.
  • In these patients malignant non-seminomatous GCT may be diagnosed clinically due to the increased serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of the tumor markers AFP and/or beta-HCG.
  • Current risk adapted treatment protocols containing cisplatinum allow long-term remissions in about 80% including patients with bulky or metastatic tumors.
  • In the cisplatinum era the prognostic factors like histology, primary site of the tumor and initial tumor stage have partly lost their former impressive significance in infants and children.
  • On the other hand the completeness of the primary tumor resection according to oncological standards has been established as the most powerful prognostic parameter superior to tumor marker levels or primary site of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 10811491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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18. Schneider DT, Wessalowski R, Calaminus G, Pape H, Bamberg M, Engert J, Waag K, Gadner H, Göbel U: Treatment of recurrent malignant sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors: analysis of 22 patients registered in the German protocols MAKEI 83/86, 89, and 96. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Apr 01;19(7):1951-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of recurrent malignant sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors: analysis of 22 patients registered in the German protocols MAKEI 83/86, 89, and 96.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate therapeutic options for recurrent malignant sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors (GCT) following three-agent, cisplatinum-based, first-line chemotherapy and tumor resection.
  • One patient, who relapsed with pure teratoma, was excluded from the analysis of adjuvant treatment.
  • Twelve patients achieved complete remission (CR) after surgery (n = 12) and adjuvant platinum chemotherapy (n = 10).
  • All patients who achieved only a partial remission developed a second relapse.
  • Altogether, 10 patients survived disease free, and 12 patients died as a result of tumor progression (n = 11) or therapy-related complications (n = 1).
  • The completeness of salvage surgery and clinical remission status after first salvage treatment were the most important prognostic parameters.
  • In addition, patients in first or second relapse with locally advanced or poorly responding tumors benefited from preoperative chemotherapy in combination with regional hyperthermia (RHT).
  • In some patients after microscopically incomplete resection, irradiation at doses > 45 Gy contributed to a favorable outcome.
  • CONCLUSION: The complete resection of the local recurrence represents the cornerstone of salvage treatment.
  • Preoperative platinum-based chemotherapy, combined with RHT in some patients, facilitates complete tumor resection.
  • Radiotherapy should be reserved for those patients with microscopically incomplete tumor resection.
  • As the chance of cure decreases with further relapses, it is important to establish a stringent therapeutic strategy to avoid significant treatment delays and, most importantly, insufficient local therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Algorithms. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Sacrococcygeal Region. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 11283127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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19. Nakamura H, Takeshima H, Makino K, Kuratsu J: Evaluation of residual tissues after adjuvant therapy in germ cell tumors. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2007;43(2):82-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of residual tissues after adjuvant therapy in germ cell tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: Germ cell tumors are the tumors sensitive for adjuvant therapy such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • We evaluated the pathological findings of these heterogeneous tumors to determine the persistence of residual viable tumor cells after adjuvant therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1988 and 2005, we treated 31 patients with germinoma or germinoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells (STGC) and 15 patients with non-germinomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCTs).
  • RESULTS: Post-treatment, 3 group 1 and 12 group 2 patients manifested residual tumors.
  • The pathological diagnosis in group 1 patients was mature teratoma, pineal cyst, and fibrous tissue with calcification; in group 2 it was yolk sac tumor (n = 1), immature teratoma (n = 3), mature teratoma (n = 4), and necrosis or fibrous tissue (n = 4).
  • While no group 1 patients manifested tumor cells, MIB-1-positive viable tumor cells were present in resected tissues from one-third of the group 2 patients (3 immature teratomas and 1 yolk sac tumor).
  • CONCLUSION: The absence of viable tumor cells in residual tissue indicates that the combination of cisplatin-based chemo- and radiotherapy was effective in our germinoma patients.
  • On the other hand, in patients with NGMGCTs, these cells persisted despite this combination therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Protocols. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Giant Cells / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Trophoblasts / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17337917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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20. De Backer A, Madern GC, Oosterhuis JW, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, Hazebroek FW: Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Apr;46(4):459-64
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  • [Title] Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian germ cell tumors are rare in childhood.
  • The aim of this study is to review clinical presentation, management, and outcome in a two-center series of girls with ovarian germ cell tumor.
  • PROCEDURE: The records of 66 patients (median age 9 years) with histologically proven ovarian germ cell tumor (either benign or malignant), treated over a 44-year-span, were reviewed.
  • Sixteen patients had an emergency operation for tumor torsion.
  • Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was the most frequently performed procedure (n = 46), and ovarian-sparing tumorectomy was performed in 9 patients (one bilaterally).
  • Surgical removal of the tumor with or without the ovary and/or adnex was the sole treatment in 55 patients, chemotherapy was administered in 10 and radiotherapy + chemotherapy in one.
  • Two patients, with malignant disease, died.
  • The 64 survivors are now between 8 months and 44 years after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With a recurrence rate of 4.5% and a mortality rate of 3%, this series confirms the excellent prognosis for girls with ovarian germ cell tumor (GCT).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16206211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Terenziani M, D'Angelo P, Bisogno G, Boldrini R, Cecchetto G, Collini P, Conte M, De Laurentis T, Ilari I, Indolfi P, Inserra A, Piva L, Siracusa F, Spreafico F, Tamaro P, Lo Curto M: Teratoma with a malignant somatic component in pediatric patients: the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Apr;54(4):532-7
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  • [Title] Teratoma with a malignant somatic component in pediatric patients: the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Teratoma with a malignant somatic component (TMSC) is rare but described in adults, whereas information on pediatric presentation is sparse.
  • PROCEDURE: The Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica identified 14 cases of TMSC.
  • RESULTS: The series (9 female, 5 male) showed the following disease: testis (2), sacrococcygeal (3), ovary (3), retroperitoneum (3), mediastinum (2), and foot soft tissue (1).
  • Distribution of the somatic component was: carcinoma (4), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (1), neuroblastoma (3), rhabdomyosarcoma (3), rhabdomyosarcoma plus liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, neurogenic sarcoma (1), chondrosarcoma plus neuroectodermal sarcoma (1), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis for germ cell tumors (GCTs) containing MSC is worse than that for GCTs.
  • The pediatric disease appears to be more heterogeneous in tumor site distribution and MSC histology than in adults.
  • Chemotherapy optimized for histology should include reagents directed to the somatic malignancy, if chemosensitive.
  • Malignant GCT warrants GCT-directed chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Italy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20049928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Weissbach L, Schönberger S, Okpanyi V, Leuschner I, Poremba C, Göbel U: Survival after an antiangiogenetic therapy and surgery in a wide spread growing teratoma originating from a testicular mixed malignant germ cell tumor. Klin Padiatr; 2009 May-Jun;221(3):136-40
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  • [Title] Survival after an antiangiogenetic therapy and surgery in a wide spread growing teratoma originating from a testicular mixed malignant germ cell tumor.
  • Growing teratoma is still an often unsolved problem especially in male with mixed malignant GCTs of the testis or the mediastinum.
  • This specific situation with progressive tumor growth and simultaneous normalization of tumor markers during or after treatment of malignant GCTs with teratomatous elements is judged as a fatal situation if this situation can not be controlled by extensive surgery, as teratoma are not sensible to chemotherapy or irradiation.
  • Here, we report the case history of a 17-year old male patient with a testicular malignant GCT and wide spread lymph node metastases, who developed a rapidly progressive growing teratoma within the lymph node metastases.
  • Within the molecular profile of the tumor we could find a cytogenetic picture typically found in malignant adult GCTs.
  • In view of the bulky abdominal, thoracic and cervical metastases and the uncontrolled tumor progression, the situation was considered incurable.
  • However, following an individual treatment attempt, this patient was treated with a four-agent combination of drugs with antiangiogenetic potential as well as low-dose cyclic chemotherapy.
  • We therefore would like to highlight this treatment approach in unresectable growing teratoma and would like to stimulate further research and collaboration to come to an optimized treatment suggestion for this group of poor prognostic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Lymph Nodes / blood supply. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Recombinant Proteins. Reoperation. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Thalidomide / administration & dosage. Thalidomide / adverse effects. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects

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  • [CommentIn] Klin Padiatr. 2009 May-Jun;221(3):134-5 [19437359.001]
  • (PMID = 19437360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3824
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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23. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Reinhard H, Gutjahr P, Kremens B, Harms D, Göbel U: Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors in children and adolescents: results of the German cooperative protocols MAKEI 83/86, 89, and 96. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Feb;18(4):832-9
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  • [Title] Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors in children and adolescents: results of the German cooperative protocols MAKEI 83/86, 89, and 96.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate children and adolescents with primary mediastinal teratoma and malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs).
  • Teratoma (n = 21) were resected, and no adjuvant treatment was given.
  • Malignant GCTs (n = 26) were treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy and resection.
  • RESULTS: In all patients with teratoma, tumor markers were normal.
  • In 23 of 26 patients with malignant GCTs, alpha-fetoprotein and/or beta-human chorionic gonadotropin were elevated.
  • Twelve of 26 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy after initial resection, which was complete in six of 12 patients, whereas delayed resection after preoperative chemotherapy was complete in 10 of 11 patients (P =.03).
  • Three of 26 patients did not undergo tumor resection.
  • For all malignant GCTs, the 5-year survival rate was 0.87 +/- 0.05 (median follow-up, 51 months), with an EFS of 0.83 +/- 0.05.
  • In children with malignant GCT, the prognosis is favorable with a therapeutic strategy of delayed resection after preoperative chemotherapy.
  • In most children, the diagnosis can be based on elevated tumor markers and imaging.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / analysis. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 10673525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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24. Biskup W, Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Leuschner I, Göbel U: Teratoma with malignant transformation: experiences of the cooperative GPOH protocols MAKEI 83/86/89/96. Klin Padiatr; 2006 Nov-Dec;218(6):303-8
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  • [Title] Teratoma with malignant transformation: experiences of the cooperative GPOH protocols MAKEI 83/86/89/96.
  • BACKGROUND: The designation of a teratoma with malignant transformation (TMT) refers to the occurrence of somatic non-germ cell malignancies within a teratoma.
  • While TMT is a rare but well recognised phenomenon in adult germ cell tumors (GCT), data on TMT in pediatric GCTs are lacking.
  • Patients with malignant germ cell tumor components were excluded from this analysis.
  • Resection was performed in seven patients (including both coccygeal tumors) and adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in one of them.
  • Two patients relapsed after resection, but both were cured with chemotherapy.
  • Two patients suffered from advanced tumors and both were treated with primary chemotherapy.
  • One patient was cured from the malignant component (astrocytoma), but the teratomatous components persisted.
  • The other patient died as a result of progression of her malignant medulloepithelioma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant transformation of pure teratomas constitutes a very rare entity in children and adolescents that is most commonly observed in postpubertal girls with ovarian teratoma.
  • Compared to adult patients, similar malignant entities can be observed in association with teratoma.
  • In localised tumors, complete resection appears to be adequate, whereas chemotherapy should be considered in patients with R1- or R2-resection.
  • Cisplatinum-based chemotherapy was effective as two of four relapsed patients survived tumor free.
  • However, the ideal regimen has not yet been established and the known sensitivity of the histologic components to cytostatic drugs has to be considered in the choice of treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytogenetic Analysis. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Sacrococcygeal Region / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17080331.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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25. Wessalowski R, Schneider DT, Mils O, Hannen M, Calaminus G, Engelbrecht V, Pape H, Willers R, Engert J, Harms D, Göbel U: An approach for cure: PEI-chemotherapy and regional deep hyperthermia in children and adolescents with unresectable malignant tumors. Klin Padiatr; 2003 Nov-Dec;215(6):303-9
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  • [Title] An approach for cure: PEI-chemotherapy and regional deep hyperthermia in children and adolescents with unresectable malignant tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Elevated temperatures of 40 - 44 degrees C increase the actions of various anticancer drugs including N-lost derivatives, cytotoxic antibiotics and platinum analoga.
  • In clinical usage thermochemotherapy (TCH) should facilitate surgical resection and ameliorate local tumor control.
  • Among these, 24 patients had extracranial non-testicular germ cell tumors and 15 patients soft tissue or chondrosarcomas.
  • INDICATION: locoregional relapse (n = 29) or unresectable tumor after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 10).
  • Among these two groups, there were ten patients with poor response or progressive disease under primary or relapse chemotherapy.
  • Tumor site: pelvis (30), abdomen (4), head and neck (2), proximal leg (2) and lumbar spine (1).
  • TCH was followed by surgical tumor resection in 28/39 patients and/or radiotherapy in 13/39 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: TCH shows substantial therapeutic efficacy and facilitates complete tumor resection in 14 out of 28 operated patients.
  • Multimodal treatment including TCH, surgical resection and/or radiotherapy leads to sustained remission in the majority of patients with locoregional tumor recurrence.
  • The therapeutic effect is most pronounced, if TCH is administered at first relapse.
  • Therefore, a more valid assessment of treatment efficacy can only be made by a matched-pair comparison in cooperation with the clinical registers.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Chondrosarcoma / therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Germinoma / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Hyperthermia, Induced. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Lumbar Vertebrae. Pelvic Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma / therapy. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Karnofsky Performance Status. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


26. Carver BS, Al-Ahmadie H, Sheinfeld J: Adult and pediatric testicular teratoma. Urol Clin North Am; 2007 May;34(2):245-51; abstract x
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  • [Title] Adult and pediatric testicular teratoma.
  • Teratoma has a diverse biological potential, with propensity for local growth, distant metastases, and transformation to somatic malignant cell types.
  • Because of the chemoresitant nature of teratomas, complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice.
  • Since the biology of teratoma is unpredictable and it is frequently found in the retroperitoneum following chemotherapy for nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors, complete control of the retroperitoneum is advocated for all patients regardless of residual mass size.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17484929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-0143
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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27. Göbel U, Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Koch S, Teske C, Harms D: The malignant potential of teratomas in infancy and childhood: the MAKEI experiences in non-testicular teratoma and implications for a new protocol. Klin Padiatr; 2006 Nov-Dec;218(6):309-14
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  • [Title] The malignant potential of teratomas in infancy and childhood: the MAKEI experiences in non-testicular teratoma and implications for a new protocol.
  • Since 1982, mature and immature teratomas have been recruited into the MAHO and MAKEI protocols of the German Society for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH) for testicular and non-testicular germ cell tumors in order to study the epidemiology and clinical behaviour of teratomas.
  • Patients were registered in the epidemiologic German Childrens Cancer Registry and the GPOH Childrens Tumor Registry for pathological review.
  • Patients with immaturity grade 2 and 3 according to Gonzales-Crussi were eligible for adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • 1) EFS after complete tumor resection has been estimated to 0.96 +/- 0.01 in both observation periods.
  • 2) Incomplete tumor resection remains the main risk factor for relapse (EFS 0.55 +/- 0.09).
  • 4) In MAKEI 83/86/89 four newborns with teratoma died due to perioperative complications and nine children as a result of tumor progression, whereas in MAKEI 96 no newborn died, only one child died from tumor progression, and another child died during long time observation for another reason (meningitis).
  • 5) In accordance to the experience of the MAKEI 83/86/89 studies, no child of the MAKEI 96 study presented with yolk sac tumor at recurrence if adjuvant chemotherapy was administered during first-line treatment because of immaturity.
  • In contrast, more than half of the children with tumor recurrence after watch and wait strategy had yolk sac tumor in addition to teratoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Prospective Studies. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Sacrococcygeal Region. Sex Factors. Treatment Outcome. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 17080332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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28. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Wessalowski R, Pathmanathan R, Harms D, Göbel U: Therapy of advanced ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumors. Klin Padiatr; 2002 Jul-Aug;214(4):173-8
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  • [Title] Therapy of advanced ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors are rare tumors that develop from the gonadal non-germ cell component such as granulosa, Sertoli or Leydig cells.
  • Among these, juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT) constitute the largest subgroup of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors during childhood and adolescence.
  • In local disease (FIGO stage I), the beneficial role of tumor-ovarectomy is well established.
  • In contrast, life expectancy in patients with advanced JGCT (FIGO stage >/= II) is short even after complete tumor resection.
  • The current literature provides only limited and inconclusive data regarding the value of adjuvant chemotherapy in such patients with advanced disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Therefore, we analyzed the patients with FIGO stage >/= II JGCT who were prospectively documented as follow-up patients of the German MAKEI trials for non-testicular germ cell tumors and received the recommended cisplatin-based chemotherapy in an adjuvant setting.
  • Two patients received laparoscopic tumor resection, which was incomplete in both.
  • All patients received 4 or 6 cycles of adjuvant cisplatin-based three-agent chemotherapy in analogy to the current therapeutic concept applied in malignant germ cell tumors.
  • One patient with a large tumor and multiple peritoneal metastases additionally received 40 Gy abdominal irradiation.
  • RESULTS: All patients achieved complete clinical remission after initial surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • One patient developed a metachronous tumor of the contralateral ovary after 126 months follow-up and is still alive but currently in therapy of another recurrence.
  • Another patient suffered a tumor recurrence after 12 months but achieved a second complete remission with cisplatin chemotherapy after a follow-up of currently 4 months.
  • One patient achieved complete clinical remission but suffered a diffuse peritoneal tumor recurrence with massive ascites and finally died as a result of tumor progression.
  • In summary, at the time of this report 6 of 7 patients are alive after a median of 47 (15 - 138) months.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis clearly demonstrates that advanced JGCT can be successfully treated with surgery followed by adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, this study reveals encouraging therapeutic perspectives in these otherwise fatal tumors that merit further investigation in a prospective cooperative trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12165898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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29. Leong MY, English M, McMullan D, Ramani P: Aberrant expression of beta-HCG in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2008 May-Jun;11(3):230-4
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  • [Title] Aberrant expression of beta-HCG in anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
  • We report a case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) showing aberrant expression of beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-HCG).
  • Biopsy of the mass revealed a malignant neoplasm composed of large, pleomorphic cells with prominent nucleoli.
  • These malignant cells showed positive staining with CD30, ALK, epithelial membrane antigen, and beta-HCG.
  • Chromosomal analysis showed t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation, and polymerase chain reaction demonstrated T-cell receptor gene rearrangement.
  • The patient did not respond well to chemotherapy, and he died 8 months after the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / biosynthesis. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / metabolism. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17990918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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30. Cheng HY, Zhu XD, Wang HM, Qin H: [Application of ATP based bioluminescence tumor chemosensitivity assay in the chemotherapy of pediatric solid tumor]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Aug;47(8):598-603
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  • [Title] [Application of ATP based bioluminescence tumor chemosensitivity assay in the chemotherapy of pediatric solid tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical significance of ATP based bioluminescence in vitro tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA) in the chemotherapy of pediatric solid tumor.
  • METHODS: The cell culture technique and ATP-TCA were used to study chemosensitivity assay in specimens from 50 cases who underwent resection surgery for solid tumor (15 malignant neurogenic tumor, 8 malignant germ cell tumors, 10 Wilms' tumors, 10 hepatoblastomas, 6 rhabdomyosarcomas, 1 adrenocortical carcinoma), 8 chemotherapeutic drugs and 8 drug combination schedules were applied in every specimen. RESULTS:.
  • (1) Specimens of 46 of 50 pediatric patients with solid tumors were suitable for evaluation and were evaluated, the overall evaluation rate was 92% (46/50). (2) There was the heterogeneity in the chemosensitivity of the solid tumors in vitro. (3) The drug combination schedules of high sensitivity rate of every kind of pediatric solid tumor are as follows: the malignant neurogenic tumor: CBP + EPI + IFO (12/15, 80.0%), VCR + CTX + DDP + DTIC (11/15, 73.3%); malignant germ cell tumor: DDP + VCR + BLM(8/8, 100%), TPTN + ACTD + IFO(8/8, 100%), As2O3 (7/8, 87.5%); Wilms' tumor: VCR + ACTD(6/7, 85.7%), CBP + VP16 (6/8, 75.0%); hepatoblastoma: VCR + CTX + DDP + VP16 (8/9, 88.9%), CBP +IFO + VM26 (7/9, 77.8%), DDP + VP16 + TPTN(7/9, 77.8%); rhabdomyosarcoma: VCR + CTX + DDP + VP16 (5/5, 100%); adrenocortical carcinoma: VCR + CTX + ADM. (4) As2O3 reached a high in vitro sensitive rate of 87.5% (7/8) and 46.7% (7/15) in malignant germ cell tumor and the malignant neurogenic tumor respectively, PTX was sensitive to the malignant neurogenic tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma (40.0% (6/15), 60.0% (3/5)), GEM was sensitive to pediatric malignant germ cell tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma (50.0% (4/8), 60.0% (3/5)).
  • CONCLUSIONS: ATP-TCA is a sensitive method for the chemotherapeutic agents screening of pediatric malignant solid tumor, and ATP-TCA assay results correlated well with clinical response.
  • It appears to be useful in screening new drugs for pediatric solid tumor, exploring the possible combination plots and principles, evaluating the efficacy of existing chemotherapy, and optimize chemotherapy on an individual basis.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods

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  • (PMID = 19951493.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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31. Nimkin K, Gupta P, McCauley R, Gilchrist BF, Lessin MS: The growing teratoma syndrome. Pediatr Radiol; 2004 Mar;34(3):259-62
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  • Growing teratoma syndrome is defined as enlarging masses of mature teratoma following chemotherapy for malignant nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors.
  • Typically, there is associated normalization of initially elevated serum tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14551755.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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32. Yu DC, Tandon R, Bohlke AK, Steiner RB, Haque S, Florman SS: Resection of a large, ruptured, undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver in a child: a case report and review of the literature. J La State Med Soc; 2009 Jan-Feb;161(1):41-4
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  • BACKGROUND: Undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma (UES) of the liver is a malignant hepatic neoplasm accounting for 7% of pediatric hepatic tumors.
  • Current use of multimodal therapy, including chemotherapy and surgery, has greatly improved survival.
  • Tumor rupture is uncommon and, prior to the adjuvant use of sarcoma based chemotherapy regimens, was thought to be poor prognostic sign.
  • The size and position of her tumor required very aggressive surgery for complete resection.
  • She subsequently received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite tumor rupture, complete tumor resection gives the patient the best chance of long-term survival.
  • Aggressive surgery is warranted if the tumor can be completely resected.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Sarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Child. Female. Humans. Review Literature as Topic

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  • (PMID = 19278169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-6921
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society : official organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J La State Med Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Küpeli S, Yalçin B, Cil BE, Akçören Z, Büyükpamukçu M: Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver in a child complicated by haemorrhage. Pediatr Radiol; 2008 Nov;38(11):1259-61
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  • Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES) of the liver is a rare malignant neoplasm that mostly affects children younger than 15 years of age.
  • The tumour was managed by embolization of the right hepatic artery and treated successfully with chemotherapy and surgical resection.
  • Prophylactic embolization of the feeding artery should be undertaken before a biopsy procedure if there is the possibility of tumour rupture, in the presence of signs of intratumoral or peritumoral bleeding, or in the presence of a vascular liver mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemorrhage / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18688607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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34. Kiratli H, Erkan Balci K, Güler G: Primary orbital endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor). J AAPOS; 2008 Dec;12(6):623-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary orbital endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor).
  • Endodermal sinus tumor, or yolk sac tumor, is the most common malignant neoplasm of germ cell origin and usually occurs in infant testes or ovaries.
  • On rare occasions, the tumor may arise from extragonadal sites, including sacrococcygeal region, uterus, vagina, prostate, retroperitoneum, liver, mediastinum, pineal gland, and third ventricle.
  • The orbit is an unusual location for the primary development of this neoplasm.
  • We report the case of a girl with primary orbital endodermal sinus tumor who was managed with exenteration and chemotherapy with the result of a disease-free survival of 9 years.

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  • (PMID = 18835732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-3933
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J AAPOS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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35. Handel LN, Scott SM, Giller RH, Greffe BS, Lovell MA, Koyle MA: New perspectives on therapy for vaginal endodermal sinus tumors. J Urol; 2002 Aug;168(2):687-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New perspectives on therapy for vaginal endodermal sinus tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Malignant germ cell tumors account for 3% of childhood cancers.
  • Endodermal sinus tumor, the most common malignant germ cell tumor, requires treatment primarily with chemotherapy and surgery is reserved as a last resort.
  • It is rare for the vagina to be the primary site of endodermal sinus tumor, and we report on our experiences with this phenomenon at a single institution.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features, treatment and outcomes of 3 children with vaginal endodermal sinus tumor.
  • RESULTS: Initial treatment was combination chemotherapy, in 2 patients. alpha-fetoprotein decreased rapidly and returned to normal in both.
  • One patient is disease-free 7 years after chemotherapy and the other patient is currently disease-free with a normal alpha-fetoprotein 3 months after induction chemotherapy.
  • In the remaining case progressive disease developed following initial chemotherapy and subsequent salvage surgery combined with radiation, chemotherapy and ultimately autologous bone marrow transplant was performed.
  • The patient has remained disease-free for 6.5 years since completing this extensive therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina is rare.
  • Bone marrow transplant should be considered as a last therapeutic resort in salvage cases of unresponsive vaginal endodermal sinus tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Vagina / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12131350.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Huddart SN, Mann JR, Robinson K, Raafat F, Imeson J, Gornall P, Sokal M, Gray E, McKeever P, Oakhill A, Children's Cancer Study Group: Sacrococcygeal teratomas: the UK Children's Cancer Study Group's experience. I. Neonatal. Pediatr Surg Int; 2003 Apr;19(1-2):47-51

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this study was to review the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) experience of sacrococcygeal teratomas (SCT) including histological presentation, response to surgery and chemotherapy, and long term effects of the tumour and treatment.
  • Children aged up to 4 weeks with biopsy proven localised or metastatic sacrococcygeal germ cell tumours were eligible.
  • These children received chemotherapy in the form of etoposide/bleomycin/carboplatin (JEB) and are alive and well at review.
  • These results emphasise the need for oncological follow-up of SCT and the good response to JEB chemotherapy of malignant teratomas and YST.
  • [MeSH-major] Sacrococcygeal Region / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / therapy. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Great Britain / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12721723.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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37. Haw C, Steinbok P: Ventriculoscope tract recurrence after endoscopic biopsy of pineal germinoma. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2001 Apr;34(4):215-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Recurrence along an endoscope tract has been described after endoscopic biopsy and resection of malignant tumors arising in multiple organ systems.
  • We describe a case of tract recurrence following the ventriculoscopic biopsy of a central nervous system tumor.
  • Serum and CSF markers were negative at initial presentation and at the time of recurrence.
  • The potential for tract recurrence and CSF dissemination should be considered following the endoscopic biopsy of pineal germ cell tumors as this could affect the extent of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pineal Gland / diagnostic imaging. Pineal Gland / pathology. Third Ventricle / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11359115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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38. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Harms D, Göbel U, German Maligne Keimzelltumoren Study Group: Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors in children and adolescents. J Reprod Med; 2005 Jun;50(6):439-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (OSCSTs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that develop from the gonadal non-germ-cell component.
  • Despite recent advances in the clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OSCSTs, a high degree of uncertainty remains with regard to adequate therapy, particularly in patients presenting with microscopic or macroscopic tumor spread.
  • In addition, we summarize the data from our clinical, histopathologic and genetic analyses of patients that were prospectively reported to the German MAKEI protocols for treatment of nontesticular malignant germ cell tumors.
  • Among these patients, juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) constitute the most frequent histologic subtype, followed by Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) and sclerosing stromal tumors.
  • Patients with JGCT and SLCT show greater mitotic activity than do all those with other histologic types.
  • In addition, prognosis correlates with tumor stage according to the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
  • Nevertheless, we observed a favorable response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in the majority of stage II and III tumors.
  • This analysis confirmed that most OSCSTs present at a low tumor stage and that prognosis in these patients is excellent.
  • Most important, patients at high risk can be identified through clinical and histopathologic analysis, and the majority can be treated successfully with adjuvant cisplatinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Germany. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16050568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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39. Lo Curto M, D'Angelo P, Cecchetto G, Klersy C, Dall'Igna P, Federico A, Siracusa F, Alaggio R, Bernini G, Conte M, De Laurentis T, Di Cataldo A, Inserra A, Santoro N, Tamaro P, Indolfi P: Mature and immature teratomas: results of the first paediatric Italian study. Pediatr Surg Int; 2007 Apr;23(4):315-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Teratoma is the most common germ cell tumour in childhood; mature (MT) and immature teratomas (IT) are benign tumours, but if they recur, they can be in some cases malignant.
  • Clinical data, treatment and results were all analysed.
  • Chemotherapy (CT) with Vinblastine, D: -actinomycin and cyclophosphamide was indicated for extra-testicular IT grade 2 or 3.
  • CT was administered in eight patients; 15/182 patients relapsed (1 in a metastatic site) and in 5/15 the relapse showed malignant histology.
  • Seven MT (5.5%) relapsed (five sacrococcygeal, one retroperitoneal, one mediastinic): surgery at diagnosis had been complete in five and with residual in two; the relapse was malignant in two patients with sacrococcygeal (sc) tumours, who had a complete resection and a partial resection respectively.
  • A malignant recurrence occurred in two patients with sc tumours (after partial resection in one and after biopsy + CT in one) and in one patient with ovarian IT after a partial resection.
  • All the patients underwent surgical excision of the recurred mass; CT according to Protocol for Malignant GCT was administered to those who had malignant recurrence; 122/126 patients with MT and 53/56 with IT are alive without disease with a follow up of 8-144 months (median 56).
  • Two patients with malignant relapse (one with sc MT, one with sc IT) died because of the progression of the disease.
  • The number of patients treated with CT is not sufficient to evaluate the efficacy of CT in avoiding malignant relapse.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17333214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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40. Ricketts RR: Clinical management of anterior mediastinal tumors in children. Semin Pediatr Surg; 2001 Aug;10(3):161-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The majority of anterior mediastinal tumors in children are malignant.
  • The most common tumors in this location are lymphomas, germ cell tumors, and thymic masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Therapy. Female. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
  • (PMID = 11481654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-8586
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Tang JY, Pan C, Xu M: [Protocol for diagnosis and treatment of childhood malignant germ cell tumor]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2008 May;46(5):388-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Protocol for diagnosis and treatment of childhood malignant germ cell tumor].
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19099762.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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