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1. Lázaro B, Klemz M, Flores MS, Landeiro JA: Malignant paraganglioma with vertebral metastasis: case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2003 Jun;61(2B):463-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant paraganglioma with vertebral metastasis: case report.
  • A paraganglioma is a rare tumor, composed of chromaffin cells, groups of cells associated to the autonomous system.
  • When the tumor occurs in the adrenal gland, it is called pheochromocitoma.
  • The malignant paraganglioma is a very rare presentation; it is diagnosed by local recurrence after total resection of the primary mass, or findings of distant metastases.
  • We present a case report of a 29-year-old woman with cervico-brachial pain.
  • In 1995 she underwent a carotid body tumor resection.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plain X-rays and computerized tomography scan revealed multiple lesions in C5, T5 and T12.
  • She underwent a surgical procedure to correct the cervical lesion.
  • The histological and immunohistochemical assays revealed a malignant paraganglioma.
  • She received adjuvant radiotherapy, showing clinical improvement after treatment, presenting no symptoms after one year.
  • The therapeutic approach is based on the total resection of the tumor.
  • The treatment of distant metastases can be made with adjuvant measures such as conventional radiotherapy, I 131-MIBG, or chemotherapy, especially in malignant pheochromocitomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12894286.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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2. Tambo M, Fujimoto K, Miyake M, Hoshiyama F, Matsushita C, Hirao Y: Clinicopathological review of 46 primary retroperitoneal tumors. Int J Urol; 2007 Sep;14(9):785-8
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  • METHODS: The clinical backgrounds and imaging findings of 22 benign and 24 malignant primary retroperitoneal tumors were retrospectively investigated, and the prognosis of patients with malignant retroperitoneal tumors was assessed.
  • RESULTS: There were significant correlations between the presence of symptoms and malignancy (P < 0.01), as well as between the irregularity of tumor margins and malignancy (P < 0.01).
  • On dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 90% of malignant tumors showed early enhancement either with quick or slow washout, while 75% of benign tumors showed delayed and no enhancement (P < 0.002).
  • All malignant and benign paraganglioma showed the same early enhancement with quick washout.
  • Malignant lymphoma showed various enhancement patterns.
  • The 2-year and 5-year cause-specific survival rates of the patients with malignant retroperitoneal tumors were 68.0% and 43.2%, respectively.
  • All malignant lymphoma patients were mainly treated with chemotherapy after being diagnosed histologically.
  • Malignant paraganglioma patients who could not meet complete resection needed chemotherapy for promising survival.
  • CONCLUSION: The symptoms, the irregularity of the margins, and the specific enhancement pattern on the dynamic MRI may be important predictive factors of the primary malignant retroperitoneal tumors.
  • Histological diagnosis was needed for malignant definition of paraganglioma because both benign and malignant paraganglioma showed similar clinical and imaging findings.
  • Preoperative biopsy should be considered for selection of the appropriate treatment particularly in patients that are likely to have malignant lymphoma that could not be diagnosed definitively by the clinical and imaging findings.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17760742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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3. Sarin H, Nigam S, Chaturvedi UK, Tripathi V, Raj A: Malignant nasal paraganglioma: a case report and review of the literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2003 Jan;46(1):97-9
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  • [Title] Malignant nasal paraganglioma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • A rare case of malignant nasal paraganglioma is described.
  • A 30 year old female patient presented with a one year history of bilateralnasal obstruction, nasal deformity and recurrent epistaxis.
  • Histopathologic diagnosis was malignant paraganglioma.
  • Post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy was given but patient expired before the completion of therapy.
  • A review of the four previously described malignant nasal paragangliomas is also presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Paraganglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15027743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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4. Eisenhofer G, Siegert G, Kotzerke J, Bornstein SR, Pacak K: Current progress and future challenges in the biochemical diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):329-37
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  • [Title] Current progress and future challenges in the biochemical diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.
  • Findings from five independent studies - with close to 350 patients with pheochromocytoma and more than 2,500 in whom the tumor was excluded - indicate that measurements of plasma free metanephrines provide an overall diagnostic sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 92%.
  • The recommendation that initial testing for the tumor should always include measurements of either plasma or urinary fractionated metanephrines results from recognition of the high diagnostic sensitivity of measurements of plasma metanephrines.
  • Suboptimal diagnostic specificity and difficulties in distinguishing true- from false-positive elevations of plasma metanephrines remain challenges for diagnosis.
  • The single most important remaining clinical care challenge is the development of effective cures for patients with malignant disease.
  • Current treatments, none of which are truly satisfactory, include chemotherapy and radiopharmaceutical therapy with (131)I-labelled M-iodobenzylguanidine or radioactive somatostatin analogues.
  • Improvements in treatment may in the future come from several fronts, but proof of efficacy ideally will require well-coordinated multicenter prospective trials in larger numbers of patients than in previous studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Metanephrine / blood. Metanephrine / urine. Paraganglioma. Pheochromocytoma

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  • (PMID = 18491252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD008735-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
  • [Number-of-references] 72
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS750166; NLM/ PMC4714589
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5. Lehmen JA, Babbel DM, Mikhitarian K, Choma TJ: Paraganglioma presenting as metastatic lesion in a cervical vertebra: a case report and review of the literature. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2010 Mar 1;35(5):E152-4
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  • [Title] Paraganglioma presenting as metastatic lesion in a cervical vertebra: a case report and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the spinal presentation and treatment of paraganglioma, a rare tumor of the extra-adrenal paraganglia, derived from neural crest cells in sympathetic ganglions.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Malignant paragangliomas are a very rare entity.
  • The diagnosis of malignant paraganglioma is made by local recurrence after total resection of the primary mass, or findings of distant metastases.
  • The patient had a previous carotid body tumor resection in the past and a contralateral carotid body tumor left intact.
  • Our imaging workup, including plain radiograph, computerized tomography scan and MRI, revealed an intraosseous lesion at C6 with vertebral body destruction.
  • The histologic and immunohistochemical assays revealed a malignant paraganglioma.
  • CONCLUSION: We report a rare case of malignant paraganglioma and discussed adjuvant treatments to consider for distant metastases, such as I-MIBG, conventional radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae. Neck Pain / etiology. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Decompression, Surgical. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20118832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Rückert RI, Fleige B, Rogalla P, Woodruff JM: Schwannoma with angiosarcoma. Report of a case and comparison with other types of nerve tumors with angiosarcoma. Cancer; 2000 Oct 1;89(7):1577-85
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  • [Title] Schwannoma with angiosarcoma. Report of a case and comparison with other types of nerve tumors with angiosarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Schwannoma with angiosarcomatous change is a rare tumor, the clinical characteristics of which have not been analyzed.
  • METHODS: A patient with schwannoma with angiosarcoma arising in the midneck and clinically mimicking a carotid body paraganglioma is described with a literature review of all previously reported cases and a comparison of their clinical features with those of schwannoma with conventional malignant transformation and cases of neurofibroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) with angiosarcoma.
  • Three of the four angiosarcomas were epithelioid in type.
  • Treatment in all cases was surgical resection followed by radiation and chemotherapy in one case and by radiation alone in another.
  • One patient died with residual local angiosarcoma 5 months after the diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Schwannoma with angiosarcoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of presumed carotid body paragangliomas.
  • Like angiosarcoma alone and schwannoma with conventional malignant transformation, but unlike cases of neurofibroma and MPNST with angiosarcoma, the patients are older adults, and there is a male prevalence.
  • Schwannoma with angiosarcoma is capable of local spread with a fatal outcome and of distant metastasis, but follow-up strongly suggests that these patients have a better prognosis than patients with neurofibroma or MPNST with angiosarcoma.
  • Recommended treatment is attempted complete surgical resection followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy, if it can be tolerated by the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Paraganglioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11013374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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7. Joynt KE, Moslehi JJ, Baughman KL: Paragangliomas: etiology, presentation, and management. Cardiol Rev; 2009 Jul-Aug;17(4):159-64
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  • These tumors commonly present with episodic hypertension, tachycardia, headache, and diaphoresis, and can be either benign or malignant.
  • Diagnosis is made by serum and urine analysis for catecholamines and metanephrines, and confirmed with imaging studies including computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, or 123-I metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging.
  • Although the majority of paragangliomas are sporadic, a growing percentage of cases are found to be part of a familial genetic syndrome.
  • Genetic testing should be offered to patients diagnosed with paraganglioma, particularly in patients who are young, have multiple tumors, or have a family history of malignancy.
  • Management of paraganglioma is predicated on surgical resection, and careful perioperative management with alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade is imperative for optimal outcomes.
  • The majority of these tumors are benign, but for patients with malignant disease, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy may provide modest benefit.
  • Long-term follow-up is essential, as paragangliomas can recur many years after initial diagnosis.
  • Ongoing research into the genetic underpinnings of this tumor may allow for more targeted molecular therapies in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19525677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4683
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiology in review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiol Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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8. Ryan P, Nguyen VH, Gholoum S, Carpineta L, Abish S, Ahmed NN, Laberge JM, Riddell RH: Polypoid PEComa in the rectum of a 15-year-old girl: case report and review of PEComa in the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Mar;33(3):475-82
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  • [Title] Polypoid PEComa in the rectum of a 15-year-old girl: case report and review of PEComa in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • We report PEComa with lymph node involvement occurring in the rectum of a 15-year-old girl, treated by surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • We review the differential diagnosis of intestinal PEComa, which includes malignant melanoma, epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumors, clear cell sarcoma of soft parts, alveolar soft part sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma with HMB45 expression, and paraganglioma.
  • All 4 tumors reporting early recurrence or progression were greater than 5 cm in size and had areas of coagulative tumor necrosis.
  • We propose that a minimum dataset for gastrointestinal PEComa should include these features along with mitotic count, infiltrative border, and tumor stage analogous to that used in colorectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19092636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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9. Taue R, Takigawa H, Sinotou K, Uno S, Mori R, Tatara K, Sano T: A case of pelvic malignant paraganglioma. Int J Urol; 2001 Dec;8(12):715-8
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  • [Title] A case of pelvic malignant paraganglioma.
  • We report a rare case of pelvic malignant paraganglioma that was treated with surgery, combination chemotherapy and radiation.
  • A 47-year-old man was diagnosed with pelvic malignant paraganglioma that had metastasised to the thoracic vertebrae.
  • We resected the intrapelvic tumor and lymph nodes using cystoprostatectomy.
  • Adjuvant therapies included six courses of the combination chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine), and 12 courses of VP-16 therapy.
  • Radiation therapy was done for metastasis of the thoracic vertebrae.
  • Local recurrence, progression of bone metastasis and new metastasis have not been detected since these treatments.
  • Chemotherapy of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine and VP-16 with radiation appears to be effective in treating advanced malignant paraganglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Paraganglioma / therapy. Pelvic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11851776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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10. Huang H, Abraham J, Hung E, Averbuch S, Merino M, Steinberg SM, Pacak K, Fojo T: Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine: recommendation from a 22-year follow-up of 18 patients. Cancer; 2008 Oct 15;113(8):2020-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine: recommendation from a 22-year follow-up of 18 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: A long-term follow-up was conducted of 18 patients with a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma treated with a combination of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine (CVD).
  • Eighteen patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma were studied.
  • RESULTS: Combination chemotherapy with CVD produced a complete response rate of 11% and a partial response rate of 44%.
  • Median survival from a landmark was 3.8 years for patients whose tumors responded to therapy and 1.8 years for patients whose tumors did not respond (P = .65).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combination chemotherapy with CVD produced objective tumor responses in patients with advanced malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma.
  • However, patients reported improvement in symptoms, had objective improvements in blood pressure, and had tumor shrinkage that made surgical resection possible.
  • The authors conclude that CVD therapy is not indicated in every patient with metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, but should be considered in the management of patients with symptoms and where tumor shrinkage might be beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18780317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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11. Chrisoulidou A, Kaltsas G, Ilias I, Grossman AB: The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):569-85
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  • [Title] The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • Malignant phaeochromocytomas are rare tumours accounting for ~10% of all phaeochromocytomas; the prevalence of malignancy among paragangliomas is higher, especially those associated with succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene mutations.
  • Clinical, biochemical and histological features cannot reliably distinguish malignant from benign tumours.
  • Several imaging modalities have been utilised for the diagnosis and staging of these tumours.
  • Functional imaging using radiolabelled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and more recently, (18)F-fluorodopamine and (18)F-fluorodopa positron emission tomography offer substantial sensitivity and specificity to correctly detect metastatic phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma and helps identify patients suitable for treatment with radiopharmaceuticals.
  • The 5-year mortality rate of patients with malignant phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas greater than 50% indicates that there is considerable room for the improvement of currently available therapies.
  • The main therapeutic target is tumour reduction and control of symptoms of excessive catecholamine secretion.
  • Currently, the best adjunctive therapy to surgery is treatment with radiopharmaceuticals using (131)I-MIBG; however, this is very rarely curative.
  • Chemotherapy has been used for metastatic disease with only a partial and mainly palliative effect.
  • The role of other forms of radionuclide treatment either alone or in combination with chemotherapy is currently evolving.
  • Ongoing microarray studies may provide novel intracellular pathways of importance for proliferation/cell cycle control, and lead to the development of novel pharmacological agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromaffin Cells / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Endocrine Surgical Procedures. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / trends

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  • (PMID = 17914089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 159
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12. Bastian PJ, Eidt S, Koslowsky TC, Wulke AP, Siedek M: Duodenal somatostatinoma: clinical and immunohistochemical patterns--difficult differential diagnosis in regard to gangliocytic paraganglioma: report of a case. Eur J Med Res; 2005 Mar 29;10(3):135-8
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  • [Title] Duodenal somatostatinoma: clinical and immunohistochemical patterns--difficult differential diagnosis in regard to gangliocytic paraganglioma: report of a case.
  • The authors report a large duodenal somatostatinoma, a very rare tumor entity.
  • A 8.5 cm globular mass in the area of the unicate process of the pancreas was detected in a 45 year old caucasian female by computerized tomography.
  • Initial treatment consisted of right pancreatectomy with preservation of the pylorus.
  • Histological evaluation rendered a diagnosis of low-grade malignant neuroendocrine carcinoma with expression of somatostatin, respectively of somatostatinoma arising in the duodenum and infiltrating into the pancreas.
  • Treatment of choice is radical surgical resection with a possible cure in early stages of the disease.
  • Even a large tumor as ours is resectable with negative surgical margins.
  • Additional chemotherapy and supportive care may be beneficial for the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Somatostatinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15851380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Oleaga A, Goñi F: Pheochromocytoma: diagnostic and therapeutic update. Endocrinol Nutr; 2008 May;55(5):202-16
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma: diagnostic and therapeutic update.
  • In 80-85% of cases, these tumors are located in the adrenal medulla while the remainder is located in extra-adrenal chromaffin tissues (paragangliomas).
  • These tumors may be sporadic or the result of several genetic diseases: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, and familial paraganglioma associated with mutations in succinate dehydrogenase subunits.
  • Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma should first be established biochemically by measuring plasma free metanephrines and urinary fractionated metanephrines.
  • The radiological imaging tests of choice are computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-F-fluorodopamine (F-DA) is useful in metastatic disease.
  • The treatment of choice is laparoscopic surgery after adequate alpha adrenergic blockade.
  • Approximately 10% of tumors are malignant.
  • Chemotherapy is used for inoperable disease.
  • Prognosis is good except in malignant disease, in which 5-year survival is less than 50%.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22967914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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14. Huang KH, Chung SD, Chen SC, Chueh SC, Pu YS, Lai MK, Lin WC: Clinical and pathological data of 10 malignant pheochromocytomas: long-term follow up in a single institute. Int J Urol; 2007 Mar;14(3):181-5
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  • [Title] Clinical and pathological data of 10 malignant pheochromocytomas: long-term follow up in a single institute.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant pheochromocytomas are rare.
  • We report the clinical and histological data of long-term follow up in 10 patients with malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • METHODS: The clinical charts of 10 patients with malignant pheochromocytoma from a single institute were reviewed.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was confirmed at surgery.
  • All patients had metastases in sites where chromaffin tissue was normally absent.
  • Extra-adrenal tumors occurred in four patients including paraganglioma tumors in three cases and bladder tumor in one case.
  • Histological characteristics were not helpful for diagnosis of malignancy and for prediction of prognosis.
  • Three patients received chemotherapy and one patient received combination therapy of high-dose (131)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-MIBG) therapy and chemotherapy.
  • All patients achieved long-term survival except for two who died of metastasis 1.5 years and 2 years after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17430251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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15. Wängberg B, Muth A, Khorram-Manesh A, Jansson S, Nilsson O, Forssell-Aronsson E, Tisell L, Ahlman H: Malignant pheochromocytoma in a population-based study: survival and clinical results. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:512-6
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  • [Title] Malignant pheochromocytoma in a population-based study: survival and clinical results.
  • One hundred fifty-four consecutive patients with pheochromocytoma (PC, n=137) or paraganglioma (PG, n=17) were treated at our unit.
  • Twelve had malignant tumors and were classified according to mode of presentation:.
  • (1) Distant metastases (n=4); three underwent surgical debulking (with chemotherapy in one); and three had 131I-MIBG therapy.
  • Within 4 years two patients died of tumor progression. (2) Locally advanced disease (n=4), all resected for cure. (3) Malignancy disclosed during follow-up after adrenalectomy with "benign" histopathology (n=4).
  • All patients in groups 2 and 3 developed recurrence 9 (1-17) years after primary surgery; four underwent resection, one remains tumor-free.
  • This series is population-based and may better reflect the natural history of malignant PC/PG than the series from national referral centers.
  • Active surgical treatment and phenoxybenzamine resulted in low tumor-related mortality in groups 2 and 3; five patients died 8-30 years after diagnosis, four of PC/PG (three from group 2 and one from group 3) and one of other causes.
  • We propose tumor uptake studies (MIBG- and octreotide scintigraphy) in patients with nonresectable metastases; to select individual radionuclide therapy data on the expression of CA-transporters/somatostatin receptors may be helpful.
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Survival Analysis


16. Fitzgerald PA, Goldsby RE, Huberty JP, Price DC, Hawkins RA, Veatch JJ, Dela Cruz F, Jahan TM, Linker CA, Damon L, Matthay KK: Malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: a phase II study of therapy with high-dose 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:465-90
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  • [Title] Malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: a phase II study of therapy with high-dose 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG).
  • Thirty patients with malignant pheochromocytoma (PHEO) or paraganglioma (PGL) were treated with high-dose 131I-MIBG.
  • Fourteen patients were refractory to prior radiation or chemotherapy before 131I-MIBG.
  • Marrow hypoplasia commenced 3 weeks after 131I-MIBG therapy.
  • After the first 131I-MIBG therapy, 19 patients required platelet transfusions; 19 received GCSF; 12 received epoeitin or RBCs.
  • High-dose 131I-MIBG resulted in the following overall tumor responses in 30 patients: 4 sustained complete remissions (CRs); 15 sustained partial remissions (PRs); 1 sustained stable disease (SD); 5 progressive disease (PD); 5 initial PRs or SD but relapsed to PD.
  • For patients with metastatic PHEO or PGL, who have good *I-MIBG uptake on diagnostic scanning, high-dose 131I-MIBG therapy was effective in producing a sustained CR, PR, or SD in 67% of patients, with tolerable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Paraganglioma / radiotherapy. Pheochromocytoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17102115.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 2M01 RR01271
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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17. Majumdar S, Friedrich CA, Koch CA, Megason GC, Fratkin JD, Moll GW: Compound heterozygous mutation with a novel splice donor region DNA sequence variant in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene in malignant paraganglioma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Mar;54(3):473-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Compound heterozygous mutation with a novel splice donor region DNA sequence variant in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene in malignant paraganglioma.
  • Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors in children.
  • SDHB mutations are associated with malignant disease.
  • After surgical resection of the primary PGL and chemotherapy, he was treated with metaiodobenzy lguanidine (MIBG) combined with arsenic trioxide.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation. Mutation, Missense. Paraganglioma / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010 Jul 15;55(1):211; author reply 212 [20213850.001]
  • (PMID = 19927285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA Splice Sites; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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18. Hruby G, Lehman M, Barton M, Peduto T: Malignant retroperitoneal paraganglioma: case report and review of treatment options. Australas Radiol; 2000 Nov;44(4):478-82
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  • [Title] Malignant retroperitoneal paraganglioma: case report and review of treatment options.
  • A case of retroperitoneal paraganglioma metastasizing to bone is presented.
  • This is followed by a literature review of treatment options, including external beam radiotherapy, chemotherapy and 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine.
  • [MeSH-major] Paraganglioma / therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 11103554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] AUSTRALIA
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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19. Plouin PF, Amar L, Lepoutre C: Phaeochromocytomas and functional paragangliomas: clinical management. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):933-41
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  • Phaeochromocytomas (PH) and functional paragangliomas (FPGL) are neoplasms of adrenal (PH) or extra-adrenal (FPGL) chromaffin tissue that synthesize catecholamines.
  • Catecholamines are converted into inactive metabolites, metanephrines, within the tumour and the diagnosis of PH/FPGL is therefore based on the quantification of plasma or urinary metanephrines.
  • The tumour can be located by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy.
  • About 10% of tumours are malignant either at initial surgery or during follow-up.
  • Treatments for progressive malignant PH/FPGL include tumour debulking, metabolic radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and possibly tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21115162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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20. Wald O, Shapira OM, Murar A, Izhar U: Paraganglioma of the mediastinum: challenges in diagnosis and surgical management. J Cardiothorac Surg; 2010;5:19
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  • [Title] Paraganglioma of the mediastinum: challenges in diagnosis and surgical management.
  • Mediastinal paraganglioms are rare, highly vascularized tumors arising from chromaffin tissue located in the para-aortic ganglia.
  • Up to 50% of patients are asymptomatic and diagnosis is incidental.
  • Complete surgical resection remains the standard of care due to malignant potential of the tumor and poor response to chemotherapy or radiation.
  • Strategic location of the tumor in proximity to great vessels, trachea, and recurrent laryngeal nerve poses challenge for the surgeon.
  • We report a case of a 59-year old asymptomatic female who was incidentally diagnosed with a middle mediastinal mass on a positron-emission tomography (PET-CT) scan performed as part of breast cancer surveillance.
  • Complete resection of the tumor was achieved using cardiopulmonary bypass.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Nov;86(11):5210-6 [11701678.001]
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  • (PMID = 20356401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-8090
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cardiothoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2862032
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21. Timmers HJ, Kozupa A, Chen CC, Carrasquillo JA, Ling A, Eisenhofer G, Adams KT, Solis D, Lenders JW, Pacak K: Superiority of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to other functional imaging techniques in the evaluation of metastatic SDHB-associated pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jun 1;25(16):2262-9
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  • [Title] Superiority of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to other functional imaging techniques in the evaluation of metastatic SDHB-associated pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • PURPOSE: Germline mutations of the gene encoding subunit B of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) predispose to malignant paraganglioma (PGL).
  • Timely and accurate localization of these aggressive tumors is critical for guiding optimal treatment.
  • Our aim is to evaluate the performance of functional imaging modalities in the detection of metastatic lesions of SDHB-associated PGL.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sensitivities for the detection of metastases were compared between [18F]fluorodopamine ([18F]FDA) and [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), iodine-123- (123I) and iodine-131 (131I) -metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 111In-pentetreotide, and Tc-99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy in 30 patients with SDHB-associated PGL.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) served as standards of reference.
  • Sensitivities were similar before and after chemotherapy or 131I-MIBG treatment, except for a trend toward lower post- (60%/41%) versus pretreatment (80%/65%) sensitivity of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy.
  • CONCLUSION: With a sensitivity approaching 100%, [18F]FDG-PET is the preferred functional imaging modality for staging and treatment monitoring of SDHB-related metastatic PGL.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Germ-Line Mutation. Iron-Sulfur Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adult. Dopamine / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17538171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iron-Sulfur Proteins; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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22. Ahlman H: Malignant pheochromocytoma: state of the field with future projections. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:449-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant pheochromocytoma: state of the field with future projections.
  • The prevalence of malignant pheochromocytoma is about 10%, and is somewhat higher for paraganglioma.
  • The discussion related to future strategies for better clinical/histopathologic diagnosis and understanding of different geno- and phenotypes.
  • The main therapeutic goal is therefore often tumor reduction and control of hypertension.
  • To date the best adjunct to surgery is radionuclide therapy using 131I-MIBG, but the background information for optimal treatment is still incomplete.
  • Certain patients may benefit from 131I-MIBG combined with radiotherapy via somatostatin receptors expressed by the tumor, or the combination with chemotherapy.
  • Ongoing microarray studies will reveal novel intracellular pathways of importance for proliferation/cell cycle control, which can be inhibited by pharmacologic tools.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Prevalence


23. Bomanji JB, Hyder SW, Gaze MN, Gacinovic S, Costa DC, Coulter C, Ell PJ: Functional imaging as an aid to decision-making in metastatic paraganglioma. Br J Radiol; 2001 Mar;74(879):266-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functional imaging as an aid to decision-making in metastatic paraganglioma.
  • Malignant paraganglioma is a rare and slow growing tumour of neuroendocrine origin.
  • At the time of diagnosis, the tumour is usually widespread, with limited therapeutic options.
  • A variety of functional imaging studies are available for staging the disease, guiding therapy and monitoring treatment response.
  • These include 123I-MIBG or 131I-MIBG, 111In-pentetreotide or 111In-lanreotide (somatostatin analogues), and 18F-FDG positron emission tomography.
  • Such targeted radionuclide therapy may provide valuable long-term palliation in such patients.
  • We present two cases with metastatic paragangliomas who had widespread soft tissue and bone metastases.
  • One patient was treatment naive and the second had received previous chemotherapy.
  • The functional imaging work-up performed and the targeted radionuclide therapies considered in these patients are described.
  • [MeSH-major] Paraganglioma / radionuclide imaging. Paraganglioma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11338105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1285
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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