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1. Blakeley J, Grossman S: Anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Curr Treat Options Neurol; 2008 Jul;10(4):295-307
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  • [Title] Anaplastic oligodendroglioma.
  • Patients with new seizures or new focal neurologic deficits should be referred for brain MRI with contrast.
  • If the MRI suggests a malignant glioma, maximal feasible tumor resection is advised for accurate diagnosis and for relief of tumor-related neurologic symptoms.
  • Radiation therapy (XRT) is the most commonly prescribed postsurgical therapy for patients with AODs.
  • The role and timing of adjuvant chemotherapy are less clear.
  • Identification of 1p19q status is also required in clinical trials for patients with AOD, given the association of 1p19q codeletion with improved response to therapies and overall prognosis.
  • There are not yet sufficient data to guide individual treatment planning based on 1p19q status, but several planned and ongoing trials will address this issue.
  • Unfortunately, AOD remains a terminal brain cancer even with maximal therapies.
  • As more therapeutic options become available and the full significance of molecular markers is understood, 1p19q and other markers are expected to help guide optimal antitumor therapies, and it is hoped that survival and function will improve for all patients with AOD.

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  • (PMID = 18579016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-8480
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS567597; NLM/ PMC3994534
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2. Fortin D, Desjardins A, Benko A, Niyonsega T, Boudrias M: Enhanced chemotherapy delivery by intraarterial infusion and blood-brain barrier disruption in malignant brain tumors: the Sherbrooke experience. Cancer; 2005 Jun 15;103(12):2606-15
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  • [Title] Enhanced chemotherapy delivery by intraarterial infusion and blood-brain barrier disruption in malignant brain tumors: the Sherbrooke experience.
  • BACKGROUND: The treatment of malignant brain tumors is hampered by the presence of the blood-brain barrier, which limits chemotherapy penetration to the central nervous system (CNS).
  • The osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) procedure is one such strategy, and has been studied extensively in preclinical and clinical studies.
  • The authors detail their experience so far with the procedure in the context of an open Phase II study in the treatment of malignant brain tumors.
  • METHODS: Patients with histologically proven malignant gliomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, primary CNS lymphomas, and metastatic disease to the brain were eligible.
  • Before intraarterial chemotherapy infusion, patients were submitted to an osmotic BBBD procedure.
  • The overall median survival times (MST) from treatment initiation for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, primary CNS lymphomas, and metastases were, respectively, 9.1, 13.9, not reached, and 9.9 months, whereas time to disease progression was 4.1, 9.2, 12.3, and 3.3 months.
  • The MST from diagnosis was 32.2 months for GBM.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These encouraging results prompted the authors to further refine their knowledge of the potential contribution of this procedure in the treatment of brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Blood-Brain Barrier / drug effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Methotrexate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / pathology. Child. Disease Progression. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Lymphoma / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15880378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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3. Uzuka T, Kakita A, Inenaga C, Takahashi H, Tanaka R, Takahashi H: Frontal anaplastic oligodendroglioma showing multi-organ metastases after a long clinical course. Case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2007 Apr;47(4):174-7
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  • [Title] Frontal anaplastic oligodendroglioma showing multi-organ metastases after a long clinical course. Case report.
  • A 17-year-old woman presented with an anaplastic oligodendroglioma manifesting as generalized seizure.
  • Total resection was repeated four times, and malignant change was evident within the tissues.
  • The final diagnosis was anaplastic oligodendroglioma.
  • Despite irradiation, combination chemotherapy, and interstitial hyperthermia, the tumor grew rapidly but was confined to the cavity created by previous removal operations.
  • This rare case of cerebral anaplastic oligodendroglioma developed in adolescence, and rapid hematogenous spread of the glioma cells into the systemic organs occurred after a relatively long clinical course.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Frontal Lobe. Oligodendroglioma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17457022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Choi LM, Rood B, Kamani N, La Fond D, Packer RJ, Santi MR, Macdonald TJ: Feasibility of metronomic maintenance chemotherapy following high-dose chemotherapy for malignant central nervous system tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 May;50(5):970-5
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  • [Title] Feasibility of metronomic maintenance chemotherapy following high-dose chemotherapy for malignant central nervous system tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Children less than 5 years of age with malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors, continue to have a high rate of morbidity and mortality following administration of conventional therapy.
  • In an attempt to avoid the neurologic sequelae associated with craniospinal radiation, strategies such as high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) followed by peripheral stem cell rescue have been used successfully.
  • Metronomic chemotherapy has also been reported as a potential new treatment strategy in solid tumors, particularly in adults.
  • PROCEDURE: A retrospective chart analysis was performed on 10 patients less than 5 years of age with CNS tumors treated with metronomic chemotherapy shortly after HDCT as part of their clinical care.
  • RESULTS: Metronomic chemotherapy was associated with minimal toxicity and all patients maintained a good quality of life.
  • At the time of this report, all 10 patients are alive.
  • Two patients have relapsed, and the remaining eight, including six patients with metastatic disease, continue to have stable clinical and radiographic disease at a mean of 20 months from the time of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metronomic chemotherapy in this patient population is feasible and shows encouraging preliminary results, especially in patients with metastatic disease who have not received craniospinal radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ganglioglioma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Feasibility Studies. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Quality of Life. Retrospective Studies. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17941070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Hofer S, Herrmann R: Chemotherapy for malignant brain tumors of astrocytic and oligodendroglial lineage. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2001 Feb;127(2):91-5
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy for malignant brain tumors of astrocytic and oligodendroglial lineage.
  • To date, surgery and irradiation remain the standard therapies for anaplastic astrocytoma (AA, WHO grade III) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO grade IV).
  • Postoperative radiotherapy prolongs survival but is not curative and prognosis remains poor with only a few patients being alive 2 years after diagnosis.
  • Over the past decades multiple trials dealt with the question of whether chemotherapy (CT) may influence the outcome of malignant brain tumor patients.
  • Drugs showing some activity in malignant brain tumors and therapeutic concepts will be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11216919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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6. Stern JI, Raizer JJ: Chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant gliomas. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2006 May;6(5):755-67
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant gliomas.
  • Malignant gliomas are one of the most difficult tumors to treat, with only modest advances being made in the past few decades.
  • Chemotherapy modestly increases survival.
  • The use of chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant gliomas is the focus of this paper and the more commonly used agents at diagnosis and relapse are reviewed.
  • As treatments for brain tumors evolve, it is likely that optimal therapies will come from combination therapies that incorporate target-specific and chemotherapeutic agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16759165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 122
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7. Massimino M, Gandola L, Luksch R, Spreafico F, Riva D, Solero C, Giangaspero F, Locatelli F, Podda M, Bozzi F, Pignoli E, Collini P, Cefalo G, Zecca M, Casanova M, Ferrari A, Terenziani M, Meazza C, Polastri D, Scaramuzza D, Ravagnani F, Fossati-Bellani F: Sequential chemotherapy, high-dose thiotepa, circulating progenitor cell rescue, and radiotherapy for childhood high-grade glioma. Neuro Oncol; 2005 Jan;7(1):41-8
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  • [Title] Sequential chemotherapy, high-dose thiotepa, circulating progenitor cell rescue, and radiotherapy for childhood high-grade glioma.
  • Childhood malignant gliomas are rare, but their clinical behavior is almost as aggressive as in adults, with resistance to therapy, rapid progression, and not uncommonly, dissemination.
  • Our study protocol incorporated sequential chemotherapy and high-dose thiotepa in the preradiant phase, followed by focal radiotherapy and maintenance with vincristine and lomustine for a total duration of one year.
  • The induction treatment consisted of two courses of cisplatin (30 mg/m2) plus etoposide (150 mg/m2) x 3 days and of vincristine (1.4 mg/m2) plus cyclophosphamide (1.5 g/m2) plus high-dose methotrexate (8 g/m2), followed by high-dose thiotepa (300 mg/m2 x 3 doses), with harvesting of peripheral blood progenitor cells after the first cisplatin/etoposide course.
  • Histologies were glioblastoma multiforme in 10, anaplastic astrocytoma in nine, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma in two; sites of origin were supratentorial areas in 17, spine in two, and posterior fossa in two.
  • Of the 21 patients, 12 have died (10 after relapse, with a median time to progression for the whole series of 14 months; one with intratumoral bleeding at 40 months after diagnosis; and one affected by Turcot syndrome for duodenal cancer relapse).
  • Sequential and high-dose chemotherapy can be afforded in front-line therapy of childhood malignant glioma without excessive morbidity and rather encouraging results.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Thiotepa / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Blood Component Transfusion. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Erythroid Precursor Cells. Female. Humans. Male. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15701281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871624
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8. Yang SH, Hong YK, Yoon SC, Kim BS, Lee YS, Lee TK, Lee KS, Jeun SS, Kim MC, Park CK: Radiotherapy plus concurrent and adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy for patients with malignant glioma. Oncol Rep; 2007 Jun;17(6):1359-64
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy plus concurrent and adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy for patients with malignant glioma.
  • We analyzed the clinical efficacy and toxicity of concurrent therapy as a first line modality for malignant glioma patients.
  • From 1998 to 2004, 39 patients, 22 with glioblastoma (GM), nine with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), 7 with anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and 1 with anaplastic oligodendro-astrocytoma (AOA) were enrolled in this study.
  • Both external involved field radiotherapy and chemotherapy, composed of CCNU (75-110 mg/m(2)), procarbazine (60 mg/m(2)) and vincristine (1.4 mg/m(2)), were started simultaneously two weeks after surgery.
  • The median progression-free survival time for the GM, AA, and AO patients was 6, 26, and 31 months, respectively.
  • The median interval from the completion of radiotherapy to the diagnosis of necrosis was 19 weeks.
  • Modified concurrent chemoradiotherapy may be a feasible option for treating malignant glioma with acceptable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Lomustine / adverse effects. Male. Middle Aged. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / adverse effects. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17487391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine
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9. Lebrun C, Fontaine D, Bourg V, Ramaioli A, Chanalet S, Vandenbos F, Lonjon M, Fauchon F, Paquis P, Frenay M: Treatment of newly diagnosed symptomatic pure low-grade oligodendrogliomas with PCV chemotherapy. Eur J Neurol; 2007 Apr;14(4):391-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of newly diagnosed symptomatic pure low-grade oligodendrogliomas with PCV chemotherapy.
  • Based on studies relating to anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OG) chemosensitivity and benefit of time to progression or overall survival, chemotherapy for pure OG has been proposed.
  • The 5-year survival rate varies from 61% to 89% with a mean time to progression of 5 years.
  • We report the outcome of 33 consecutive patients with pure low-grade OG diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 systematically treated for residual or non-removable tumor with PCV chemotherapy regimen as the front-line treatment after surgery.
  • All patients were symptomatic at presentation and underwent neurosurgical procedure for histological diagnosis.
  • Response was evaluated by clinical assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Twenty-one men and 12 women with a mean age at pathological diagnosis of 46.5 years were studied.
  • Eleven patients (36%) had a malignant transformation during the follow-up with a median time to progression of 19 months.
  • Up-front chemotherapy with PCV regimen is a good treatment for symptomatic pure low-grade OG, as it increases the number of progression-free patients and time to progression.
  • These results suggest that radiotherapy could be postponed until the malignant transformation occurs to delay cognitive side effects of irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lomustine / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Procarbazine / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17388986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-1331
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; PCV protocol
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10. Hyder DJ, Sung L, Pollack IF, Gilles FH, Yates AJ, Davis RL, Boyett JM, Finlay JL: Anaplastic mixed gliomas and anaplastic oligodendroglioma in children: results from the CCG 945 experience. J Neurooncol; 2007 May;83(1):1-8
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  • [Title] Anaplastic mixed gliomas and anaplastic oligodendroglioma in children: results from the CCG 945 experience.
  • PURPOSE: To review interpathologist diagnosis variability and survival of children treated for either anaplastic mixed glioma (AMG) or anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) with surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and fifty patients with an institutional diagnosis of malignant glioma were enrolled on Children's Cancer Group CCG-945 between 1985 and 1991, and administered vincristine during involved field radiotherapy, then six cycles of prednisone, lomustine and, vincristine; or two cycles of "eight-drugs-in-one-day" (8-in-1) chemotherapy then involved-field radiotherapy followed by six cycles of 8-in-1 chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of these tumors is challenging, with only 35% of institutional diagnoses confirmed for AMG and 25% for AO, and survival among children with these tumors is poor, despite intensive therapy.
  • This suggests reliable diagnostic markers and new therapeutic approaches are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / therapy. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Drug Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17252186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Bruggers C, White K, Zhou H, Chen Z: Extracranial relapse of an anaplastic oligodendroglioma in an adolescent: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2007 May;29(5):319-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extracranial relapse of an anaplastic oligodendroglioma in an adolescent: case report and review of the literature.
  • Oligodendroglioma is an uncommon childhood tumor and is more chemosensitive than other malignant glial neoplasms.
  • Treatment involves gross total resection, and if anaplastic, radiation and chemotherapy.
  • We report a child with a low-grade oligodendroglioma that recurred as a high-grade oligodendroglioma and ultimately as extraneural systemic relapse.
  • This chemotherapy may be promising in treating malignant oligodendroglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis. Pleural Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / diagnosis. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 17483710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Giordana MT, Ghimenti C, Leonardo E, Balteri I, Iudicello M, Duò D: Molecular genetic study of a metastatic oligodendroglioma. J Neurooncol; 2004 Feb;66(3):265-71
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  • [Title] Molecular genetic study of a metastatic oligodendroglioma.
  • It may be instrumental in defining the distant tumor as metastatic oligodendroglioma and give clues to the genetic events associated with the highly malignant transformation.
  • We present the case of a patient with multiple bone metastases from a cerebral oligodendroglioma.
  • Oligodendroglioma grade II was the diagnosis both at original and second operation, performed 7 and 1 years before the extracranial dissemination.
  • The patient received procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine chemotherapy and radiotherapy after the second surgery.
  • The computed tomography-guided biopsy of the bone lesions revealed tumor cells positive for GFAP, S-100 and Leu-7 and negative for cytokeratin, LCA and EMA.
  • The genetic analysis of DNA from the original tumor, the bone metastasis and the autoptic brain tumor showed LOH of 1p; heterozygous deletion of CDKN2A/p 16 was detected as additional alteration in the metastasis and in the intracranial tumor at autopsy.
  • Repeated brain surgery and extended survival may have acted as promoter of extraneural dissemination.
  • Loss of CDKN2A most probably played an important role in the malignant progression: its involvement in metastatic potential remains to be clarified.
  • Our data confirm that malignant transformation of oliogodendrogliomas may be undetected by histology and underscore the importance of genetic analysis.
  • Coincidentally with intensive anticancer therapy, chemotherapy included, employed in patients with oligodendroglioma and the ensuing long survival, the frequency of metastatic oliogodendrogliomas may increase.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Gene Deletion. Oligodendroglioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Male. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Molecular Biology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
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13. Burton EC, Prados MD: Malignant gliomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2000 Dec;1(5):459-68
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  • [Title] Malignant gliomas.
  • In adults, the most frequently encountered of these are high-grade or malignant neoplasms of astrocytic and oligodendrocytic lineage, ie, anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), respectively.
  • Standard treatment for these tumors is typically surgery, followed by radiation then chemotherapy.
  • Surgery is required for a definitive histopathologic diagnosis, which in turn will dictate subsequent therapy options.
  • In almost all cases, surgery is followed by radiation therapy.
  • Postsurgical irradiation is the most effective treatment currently available for improving survival.
  • There is also mounting evidence to suggest that additional radiation, given in the form of brachytherapy or radiosurgery, at initial diagnosis as a "boost" to standard radiation or at tumor recurrence, may provide added improvement in survival outcome.
  • Radiosurgery and brachytherapy are therapies often used to treat eligible patients at this institution.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy, conventionally given after radiation, may offer a modest survival benefit in some patients with GBM.
  • Bischloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU) is the typical first-line agent used, but chemotherapy seems to be most beneficial in young patients, with little if any impact on survival for patients over 60 years old.
  • At this institution, we often defer treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly patients with GBM due to lack of efficacy and the attendant risk with chemotherapy.
  • For anaplastic astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas, a commonly accepted standard is adjuvant chemotherapy following irradiation with the three-drug regimen--procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine (PCV).
  • However, recent data suggest that treatment with either PCV or BCNU may be appropriate.
  • Patients with this molecular pattern have an exceptional responsiveness to PCV chemotherapy and have prolonged survival.
  • Currently, trials are being conducted to confirm this finding and to determine the best treatment regimen for these patients, with particular regard to the timing of radiation and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Radiotherapy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12057153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA09291; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13525
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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14. Hentschel S, Toyota B: Intracranial malignant glioma presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage. Can J Neurol Sci; 2003 Feb;30(1):63-6
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  • [Title] Intracranial malignant glioma presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage.
  • INTERVENTION: Craniotomy and resection of the lesion established a diagnosis of a malignant oligodendroglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Cerebral Angiography. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Seizures / drug therapy. Seizures / etiology

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  • (PMID = 12619787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0317-1671
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants
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15. Kim L, Glantz M: Chemotherapeutic options for primary brain tumors. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2006 Nov;7(6):467-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chemotherapeutic options for primary brain tumors.
  • Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors.
  • Despite intensive clinical investigation and many novel therapeutic approaches, treatment for most primary brain tumors remains inadequate.
  • Most are associated with a high rate of recurrence after primary therapy and a dismal outcome following recurrence.
  • Surgery and radiation remain the primary modalities of therapy for malignant brain tumors.
  • The role of chemotherapy in malignant gliomas, especially glioblastoma multiforme, has been inconclusive.
  • However, a recent trial by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the National Cancer Institute of Canada combining radiation therapy with temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients showed a significantly improved survival benefit over radiation therapy alone.
  • In addition to this encouraging progress, recent experience has shown that selected malignant brain tumors--for example, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, primary central nervous system lymphomas, medulloblastomas, and intracranial germ cell tumors--are often highly responsive to chemotherapy.
  • Molecular genetic studies are becoming indispensable aids in the diagnosis and treatment of the malignant gliomas.
  • For example, we have learned that allelic loss of chromosome 1p is a significant predictor of chemosensitivity, whereas combined loss of chromosomes 1p and 19q is a strong predictor of chemosensitivity, progression-free survival, and overall survival in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma.
  • Similarly, MGMT promoter methylation is associated with more frequent responses and longer survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme receiving temozolomide-based therapy.
  • Several different approaches and modalities to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy (eg, MGMT promoter methylation) are currently under way.
  • Clinical trials implementing angiogenesis inhibitors, biologic modifiers, or molecular-targeted therapies are also actively being investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Decision Trees. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17032559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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16. Varlet P, Soni D, Miquel C, Roux FX, Meder JF, Chneiweiss H, Daumas-Duport C: New variants of malignant glioneuronal tumors: a clinicopathological study of 40 cases. Neurosurgery; 2004 Dec;55(6):1377-91: discussion 1391-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New variants of malignant glioneuronal tumors: a clinicopathological study of 40 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that malignant glioneuronal tumors comprise a large spectrum of neoplasms, without mature ganglion-like cells, that may histologically resemble any malignant glioma (World Health Organization Grade III or IV) but have a distinct biological behavior.
  • METHODS: This series includes all tumors diagnosed as malignant glioneuronal tumors (MGNTs) in our routine practice during a 2-year period during which neurofilament protein (NFP) immunostaining was performed in any case of suspected malignant glioma with unusual clinical, radiographic, and/or histological features.
  • Twelve patients (33.3%) developed intra-axial and/or systemic metastases, and 4 were free of disease at 39 to 184 months.
  • Their distinction from malignant gliomas is of paramount clinical importance, particularly for neurosurgeons, because gross total surgical resection may be curative in some cases.
  • Finally, MGNTs may account for the long-term survival and/or occurrence of metastases demonstrated in a subset of malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiography. Astrocytoma / surgery. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / immunology. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiography. Glioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiography. Neurofilament Proteins / immunology. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / radiography. Oligodendroglioma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate / trends. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15574220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Neurofilament Proteins
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17. O'Brien DF, Farrell M, Delanty N, Traunecker H, Perrin R, Smyth MD, Park TS, Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group: The Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group guidelines for the diagnosis and management of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours. Br J Neurosurg; 2007 Dec;21(6):539-49
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group guidelines for the diagnosis and management of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours.
  • Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNETs) were incorporated into the new World Health Organization classification of brain tumours as part of the group of glioneuronal tumours in 1993.
  • Large series of patients with DNETs and pharmaco-resistant epilepsy have been reported.
  • DNETs have also been reported in the insular cortex, brain stem, cerebellum, occipital lobe and striatum.
  • DNET nodules usually look like oligodendroglioma, whilst between the nodules it may be possible to recognize vertical columns of neurons surrounded by oligodendrocyte-like cells.
  • Cytologically, oligodendroglial-like cells of DNETs are distinguished from oligodendroglioma by larger nuclei with frequent nuclear indentations and multiple, small nucleoli, whilst oligodendrogliomas consistently show nuclear roundness with one or two occasional nucleoli.
  • Very rare cases of malignant transformation have been reported.
  • DNETs associated with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy should be removed early to achieve seizure freedom and prevent tumour progression.
  • It is not advocated to use a stereotactic biopsy only, as this may generate an unrepresentative tissue sample consisting of an oligodendroglial component only and may lead to an incorrect diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / physiology. Epilepsy / diagnosis. Epilepsy / therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18071981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-8697
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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18. Bauman GS, Cairncross JG: Multidisciplinary management of adult anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic mixed oligo-astrocytomas. Semin Radiat Oncol; 2001 Apr;11(2):170-80
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  • In recent years, the histologic criteria for the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma have been broadened to include most small cell, monomorphic glial neoplasms.
  • These refinements have led to an increased recognition of oligodendroglial neoplasms, but uniform definitions of pure versus mixed oligodendroglioma as well as the criteria for high-grade (anaplastic) versus low-grade tumors remain elusive.
  • From a prognostic standpoint, the presence of an oligodendroglial component in a malignant glioma predicts longer survivals times for patients treated with surgery, and radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy.
  • High rates of response to PCV (procarbazine, CCNU and Vincristine) chemotherapy also have been noted among patients with anaplastic oligodendroglial neoplasms.
  • Ongoing prospective trials seek to clarify the role of PCV chemotherapy when added to radiation therapy and surgery.
  • In addition, the role of molecular markers as diagnostic aides and guides to therapy and prognosis are being explored for patients with pure and mixed anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Oligodendroglioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lomustine. Neoplasm Staging. Procarbazine. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
  • (PMID = 11285555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-4296
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; PCV protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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19. Laigle-Donadey F, Sanson M: [Pattern of care of high-grade gliomas]. Rev Prat; 2006 Oct 31;56(16):1779-86
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  • [Transliterated title] Prise en charge des gliomes de haut grade.
  • High grade gliomas are the most frequent and malignant primary brain tumours in adults.
  • Associated with symptomatic treatments, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy represent the main weapons of the specific multidisciplinary therapy of malignant gliomas.
  • Surgery is necessary for histological diagnosis.
  • In malignant gliomas, surgery may improve survival in case of complete removal, and debulking provides an improvement of the quality of life and a symptomatic relief.
  • Radiation therapy has been shown to improve survival in malignant glioma.
  • The place of chemotherapy is growing not only for anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, more chemosensitive (particularly when they harbor 1p19q codeletions), but also for glioblastomas patients, which have been shown to benefit from radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Epilepsy / prevention & control. Forecasting. Genetic Markers. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy Dosage. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Survival Analysis. Thromboembolism / prevention & control. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17315503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Genetic Markers; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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20. Puduvalli VK, Hashmi M, McAllister LD, Levin VA, Hess KR, Prados M, Jaeckle KA, Yung WK, Buys SS, Bruner JM, Townsend JJ, Davis R, Sawaya R, Kyritsis AP: Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas: prognostic factors for tumor recurrence and survival. Oncology; 2003;65(3):259-66
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  • OBJECTIVES: Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AO) are uncommon primary brain tumors whose natural history, prognosis, and optimal management are not yet fully understood.
  • However, they are associated with a better prognosis and response to multimodality therapy based on specific molecular changes.
  • In this multicenter retrospective study, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients with AO to identify prognostic factors that influence time to progression (TTP) and survival.
  • METHODS: A retrospective search of the brain tumor databases of three institutions (the University of Texas M. D.
  • Initial treatment included surgery alone (n = 12) or surgery followed by one of the following: radiotherapy (RT) alone (n = 49), chemotherapy alone (n = 4), chemotherapy followed by RT (n = 10), RT followed by chemotherapy (n = 20), and others (n = 11).
  • RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 43 years, and the median Karnofsky performance score (KPS) was 90.
  • Fifty patients had disease progression after initial therapy.
  • Age at diagnosis was the only variable that correlated significantly with TTP.
  • The relative efficacy of various treatment modalities could not be definitively determined because of the heterogeneity of the therapies used.
  • Overall, patients with AO have a better prognosis after therapy compared with those who have other malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Oligodendroglioma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 14657600.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2P30 CA42014-12; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA55261
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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