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1. Passeron T, Valencia JC, Namiki T, Vieira WD, Passeron H, Miyamura Y, Hearing VJ: Upregulation of SOX9 inhibits the growth of human and mouse melanomas and restores their sensitivity to retinoic acid. J Clin Invest; 2009 Apr;119(4):954-63
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  • Treatments for primary and metastatic melanomas are rarely effective.
  • Even therapeutics such as retinoic acid (RA) that are successfully used to treat several other forms of cancer are ineffective.
  • Although SOX9 was expressed in normal human skin, it was increasingly downregulated as melanocytes progressed to the premalignant and then the malignant and metastatic states.
  • Treatment of melanoma cell lines with PGD2 increased SOX9 expression and restored sensitivity to RA.
  • Thus, combined treatment with PGD2 and RA substantially decreased tumor growth in human ex vivo and mouse in vivo models of melanoma.
  • Further, the effects of SOX9 on melanoma cell proliferation and RA sensitivity suggest the encouraging possibility of a noncytotoxic approach to the treatment of melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 19273910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-8238
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cdkn1a protein, mouse; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Mitf protein, mouse; 0 / SOX9 Transcription Factor; 0 / SOX9 protein, human; 0 / Sox9 protein, mouse; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; RXY07S6CZ2 / Prostaglandin D2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2662541
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2. Ulamec M, Soldo-Belić A, Vucić M, Buljan M, Kruslin B, Tomas D: Melanoma with second myxoid stromal changes after personally applied prolonged phototherapy. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Apr;30(2):185-7
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  • Most malignant melanomas are easily diagnosed; however, melanoma is also one of the lesions most frequently reported to mimic other tumors.
  • Three years before, after getting sunburns, the patient noticed changes of a congenital nevus located in the area of sunburns.
  • Chemotherapy and immunotherapy were administered as suggested by an oncologist.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18360128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Holbach LM, Pogorelov P, Kruse FE: [Differential diagnosis and treatment options for conjunctival tumors]. Ophthalmologe; 2007 Jun;104(6):521-38; quiz 538
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  • [Title] [Differential diagnosis and treatment options for conjunctival tumors].
  • Further imaging procedures are rarely indicated when malignant processes are not circumscribed.
  • Depending on the course and findings, the following therapeutic measures can be indicated: cryotherapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, modified enucleation, orbital exenteration, or a combination of different methods.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Conjunctiva / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / therapy. Ophthalmoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17530261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-293X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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4. Hu W, Nelson JE, Mohney CA, Willen MD: Malignant melanoma arising in a pregnant African American woman with a congenital blue nevus. Dermatol Surg; 2004 Dec;30(12 Pt 2):1530-2
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma arising in a pregnant African American woman with a congenital blue nevus.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to describe and an unusual case of melanoma arising in a congenital nevus with combined features of a blue nevus on the scalp of a pregnant African-American woman.
  • RESULTS: Histologic examination revealed a polypoid malignant melanoma arising in association with a congenital blue nevus in a young African-American woman.
  • Despite aggressive chemotherapy, she died in 1 year after the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / congenital. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15606833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Roser F, Nakamura M, Brandis A, Hans V, Vorkapic P, Samii M: Transition from meningeal melanocytoma to primary cerebral melanoma. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2004 Sep;101(3):528-31
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  • The authors describe the first case of an intracranial transition of a melanocytoma into a primary malignant melanoma within a short time.
  • Ten years after the patient had completed treatment for the melanocytic meningioma, control neuroimaging demonstrated growth of the residual tumor with compression of the brainstem.
  • At this time immunohistochemical examinations demonstrated melanocytic features (expression of vimentin, S100 protein, and melan A) of the lesion with focally increased proliferation (5% of Ki-67-positive cells) but no higher mitotic activity.
  • Pleomorphic changes and a focal high mitotic activity led to the diagnosis of a primary cerebral malignant melanoma.
  • Despite whole-brain and stereotactic radiation therapy as well as chemotherapy, the patient died 4 months after the last neuropathological diagnosis.
  • The biological behavior of a melanocytoma is variable and recurrence may happen after subtotal resection, but intracranial transition into a malignant melanoma has not been observed previously.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningioma / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Nevus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15352613.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Dessars B, De Raeve LE, Morandini R, Lefort A, El Housni H, Ghanem GE, Van den Eynde BJ, Ma W, Roseeuw D, Vassart G, Libert F, Heimann P: Genotypic and gene expression studies in congenital melanocytic nevi: insight into initial steps of melanotumorigenesis. J Invest Dermatol; 2009 Jan;129(1):139-47
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  • Large congenital melanocytic nevi (CMNs) are said to have a higher propensity to malignant transformation compared with acquired nevi.
  • Furthermore, the observed alterations linked to chemoresistance might partially account for the well-known inefficacy of chemotherapy in malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Melanocytes / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / genetics. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism


7. Murakami M, Wada T, Kashiwagi T, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Iizuka H: Nodular malignant melanoma with Spitz nevus-like pathological features finally confirmed by the pathological feature of the sentinel lymph node. J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;34(12):821-8
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  • [Title] Nodular malignant melanoma with Spitz nevus-like pathological features finally confirmed by the pathological feature of the sentinel lymph node.
  • The clinical and histopathological similarities of nodular melanoma and Spitz nevus currently still make a definitive diagnosis difficult.
  • Although our first impression was malignant melanoma, we asked two dermatopathologists for second opinions; however, one diagnosed a melanoma and the other a Spitz nevus.
  • To date, the patient has been given five courses of chemotherapy at 6-month intervals, with no local recurrence or distant metastases so far.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy


8. McKenna DB, Doherty VR, McLaren KM, Hunter JA: Malignant melanoma and lymphoproliferative malignancy: is there a shared aetiology? Br J Dermatol; 2000 Jul;143(1):171-3
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma and lymphoproliferative malignancy: is there a shared aetiology?
  • We report seven patients who developed malignant melanoma either coincident with or before the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or chronic lymphatic leukaemia.
  • One patient died secondary to leukaemia, and chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression may have contributed to the development of metastatic melanoma in another patient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / complications. Female. Humans. Immune System / radiation effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Male. Middle Aged. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 10886155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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9. Badri T, Zeglaoui F, Kochbati L, Kooli H, El Fekih N, Fazaa B, Kamoun MR: [Multiple basal cell carcinomas following radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal cancer]. Presse Med; 2006 Jan;35(1 Pt 1):55-7
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  • [Title] [Multiple basal cell carcinomas following radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal cancer].
  • We report the case of a patient presenting numerous BCCs several years after radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal cancer and discuss the risk factors for this tumor and the role played by radiation in its genesis.
  • Eleven years earlier, she had had an undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (T3N2M0), which was treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy and then external radiation therapy.
  • Neither clinical nor radiological check up showed signs of basal cell nevus syndrome.
  • DISCUSSION: BCC is the most frequent malignant tumor.
  • Disorders that might promote or complicate BCC should be systematically sought in young patients, especially basal cell nevus syndrome.
  • We found no reports in the literature of BCC following radiation treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer, but the occurrence of these tumors in our patient suggests the need for close supervision in such cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Nasopharynx / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Skin / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16462665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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10. Bovenschen HJ, Tjioe M, Vermaat H, de Hoop D, Witteman BM, Janssens RW, Stoof TJ, van de Kerkhof PC: Induction of eruptive benign melanocytic naevi by immune suppressive agents, including biologicals. Br J Dermatol; 2006 May;154(5):880-4
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  • OBJECTIVES: We describe three patients with eruptive benign melanocytic naevi during a phase of immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Our third patient with plaque psoriasis developed eruptive naevi during two episodes of treatment: during a course with the biological agent alefacept and during etanercept therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that treatment with the recently available biological agents might be associated with the formation of eruptive naevi.
  • Although positive evidence for the occurrence of malignant pigmented lesions is lacking, alertness to the development of eruptive melanocytic naevi during treatment with biological agents is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Eruptions / etiology. Immunologic Factors / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Nevus, Pigmented / chemically induced. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 16634890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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11. Scott JX, Krishnan S, Bourne AJ, Williams MP, Agzarian M, Revesz T: Treatment of metastatic sialoblastoma with chemotherapy and surgery. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Jan;50(1):134-7
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  • [Title] Treatment of metastatic sialoblastoma with chemotherapy and surgery.
  • Sialoblastoma is a rare, aggressive, blastomatous, and potentially malignant congenital tumor.
  • We present a case of sialoblastoma with lung metastases that developed in a 4-year-old girl adjacent to a congenital nevus in the left cheek.
  • The patient responded well to chemotherapy and underwent surgical excision of the primary tumor, followed by three more courses of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Pneumonectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16514617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Karbowniczek M, Spittle CS, Morrison T, Wu H, Henske EP: mTOR is activated in the majority of malignant melanomas. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Apr;128(4):980-7
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  • [Title] mTOR is activated in the majority of malignant melanomas.
  • These data indicate that mTOR activation is very strongly associated with malignant, compared to benign, melanocytic lesions.
  • Together, these data implicate activation of mTOR in the pathogenesis of melanoma, and suggest that Rheb and mTOR may be targets for melanoma therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. DNA Mutational Analysis. Humans. Nevus / enzymology. Nevus / pathology. Phosphorylation. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / genetics. Ribosomal Protein S6 / metabolism. Sirolimus / pharmacology. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases

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  • (PMID = 17914450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 51052
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Ribosomal Protein S6; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras); W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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13. Martorell-Calatayud A, Requena C, Botella-Estrada R, Sangüeza OP: [Advances in molecular biology and their application in the diagnosis and treatment of melanoma]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 Nov;100 Suppl 1:52-65
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  • [Title] [Advances in molecular biology and their application in the diagnosis and treatment of melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Novedades en biología molecular y su aplicación en el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del melanoma.
  • Even though malignant melanoma accounts for 4 % of all skin cancers, it is the type responsible for most deaths.
  • In dermatology, application of molecular biology techniques to the study of malignant melanoma has led to important advances in our knowledge of the main molecular pathways implicated in its development.
  • Thus, molecular characterization of malignant melanoma may be of great help in differentiating between benign and malignant melanocytic lesions when histopathological features prove insufficient as is the case, for example, in Spitz nevus and spitzoid melanoma.
  • In addition, knowledge of the abnormal molecular pathways in different malignant melanoma lesions can point to new therapeutic targets for treating patients with melanomas with distant metastases, in whom current chemotherapy has failed to extend life expectancy.
  • This problem will, however, be overcome when the molecular patterns become standardized, allowing a prognostic and therapeutic characterization of this important disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20096197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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14. Lin SM, Ferrucci S: Primary acquired melanosis of the conjunctiva. Optometry; 2006 May;77(5):223-8
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  • Because PAM has the potential of becoming malignant, it is important to recognize PAM and to rule out other causes of pigmented lesions.
  • His ocular history was remarkable for early cataracts and for a choroidal nevus.
  • The patient was subsequently treated with topical 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy.
  • There have been no signs of recurrence to date after his treatment.
  • If atypia is present, treatment options include local excision, cryotherapy, and topical chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 16651212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-1839
  • [Journal-full-title] Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Optometry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Bogenrieder T, Weitzel C, Schölmerich J, Landthaler M, Stolz W: Eruptive multiple lentigo-maligna-like lesions in a patient undergoing chemotherapy with an oral 5-fluorouracil prodrug for metastasizing colorectal carcinoma: a lesson for the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma? Dermatology; 2002;205(2):174-5
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  • [Title] Eruptive multiple lentigo-maligna-like lesions in a patient undergoing chemotherapy with an oral 5-fluorouracil prodrug for metastasizing colorectal carcinoma: a lesson for the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma?
  • Induction of multiple eruptive dermal and atypical melanocytic naevi has frequently been reported in children with malignant haematological diseases and chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression.
  • This is the first report of an adult patient to develop multiple eruptive melanocytic skin lesions while undergoing chemotherapy with an oral 5-fluorouracil prodrug for metastasizing cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Deoxycytidine / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / chemically induced. Prodrugs / adverse effects. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Capecitabine. Fluorouracil. Humans. Male. Melanoma / physiopathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / chemically induced. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / chemically induced. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 12218237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Prodrugs; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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16. Mu XC, Tran TA, Ross JS, Carlson JA: Topoisomerase II-alpha expression in melanocytic nevi and malignant melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2000 May;27(5):242-8
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  • [Title] Topoisomerase II-alpha expression in melanocytic nevi and malignant melanoma.
  • Malignant melanoma (MM) is considered to be a chemotherapy-refractory tumor.
  • New anti-cancer drugs (e.g. etoposide) that target DNA topoisomerases (e.g. topoisomerase II-alpha (topo IIalpha)) show activity against a wide variety of solid tumors.
  • These findings indicate topo IIalpha as a potential therapeutic target and marker for MM.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of disseminated MM may allow for correlation with clinical response and enable selection of candidates sensitive for specific chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Melanoma / enzymology. Nevus, Pigmented / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 10847549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] DENMARK
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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17. Reutter JC, Long EM, Morrell DS, Thomas NE, Groben PA: Eruptive post-chemotherapy in situ melanomas and dysplastic nevi. Pediatr Dermatol; 2007 Mar-Apr;24(2):135-7
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  • [Title] Eruptive post-chemotherapy in situ melanomas and dysplastic nevi.
  • A 22-year-old white man without a personal or family history of atypical nevi had received chemotherapy for pre-B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia at age 17 that included L-asparaginase, prednisone, methotrexate, mercaptopurine, daunorubicin, and cytoxan.
  • Two to three months after completing maintenance chemotherapy, the patient reports he developed many moles, which remained stable for approximately 2 years.
  • Histology of specimens of both types of lesions revealed three moderately atypical compound dysplastic melanocytic nevi and three in situ melanomas.
  • Malignant melanoma has been associated with chronic immunosuppression, and benign nevi have been reported to erupt after chemotherapy.
  • We report an occurrence of multiple eruptive dysplastic nevi and in situ melanomas appearing shortly after completion of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / chemically induced. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Melanoma / chemically induced. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 17461808.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-8046
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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18. Meyer S, Wild PJ, Vogt T, Bataille F, Ehret C, Gantner S, Landthaler M, Klinkhammer-Schalke M, Hofstaedter F, Bosserhoff AK: Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase represents a predictive marker for response to adjuvant interferon therapy in patients with malignant melanoma. Exp Dermatol; 2010 Aug;19(8):e251-7
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  • [Title] Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase represents a predictive marker for response to adjuvant interferon therapy in patients with malignant melanoma.
  • Using tissue microarrays assembling 465 nevi, primary melanomas and metastases, we investigated whether expression of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP), a recently suggested biomarker of malignant melanoma, has prognostic significance and may predict responsiveness to adjuvant interferon therapy in patients with melanoma.
  • Interestingly, subgroup analysis of patients with a tumor thickness of 1.5-4.0 mm revealed a significant survival benefit from adjuvant interferon treatment regarding recurrence-free survival (RFS; P < 0.05) if MTAP expression was observed in the primary melanoma.
  • In conclusion, MTAP represents a highly promising immunohistochemical marker for prognosis and interferon response of patients with malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Interferons / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / metabolism. Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Nevus / diagnosis. Nevus / drug therapy. Nevus / metabolism. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. STAT1 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20500769.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / STAT1 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT1 protein, human; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; EC 2.4.2.1 / Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase; EC 2.4.2.28 / 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase
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19. Bukvić Mokos Z, Lipozenčić J, Ceović R, Stulhofer Buzina D, Kostović K: Laser therapy of pigmented lesions: pro and contra. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2010;18(3):185-9
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  • [Title] Laser therapy of pigmented lesions: pro and contra.
  • Dermal lesions include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi, drug induced hyperpigmentation and nevus of Ota and Ito.
  • Some lesions exhibit both an epidermal and dermal component like Becker's nevus, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, melasma and nevus spilus.
  • The results of laser therapy are usually successful.
  • Actually, the essential question in removing pigmented lesions with lasers is whether the lesion has atypical features or has a malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperpigmentation / therapy. Laser Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lasers. Low-Level Light Therapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20887701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1847-6538
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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20. Dai DL, Martinka M, Bush JA, Li G: Reduced Apaf-1 expression in human cutaneous melanomas. Br J Cancer; 2004 Sep 13;91(6):1089-95
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  • Malignant melanoma is a life-threatening skin cancer due to its highly metastatic character and resistance to radio- and chemotherapy.
  • To determine if loss of Apaf-1 expression is indeed involved in melanoma progression, we employed the tissue microarray technology and examined Apaf-1 expression in 70 human primary malignant melanoma biopsies by immunohistochemistry.
  • In addition, our in vitro apoptosis assay revealed that overexpression of Apaf-1 can sensitise melanoma cells to anticancer drug treatment.
  • Taken together, our data indicate that Apaf-1 expression is significantly reduced in human melanoma and that Apaf-1 may serve as a therapeutic target in melanoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus / genetics. Nevus / pathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Survival Analysis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15305193.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2747705
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21. Masci P, Borden EC: Malignant melanoma: treatments emerging, but early detection is still key. Cleve Clin J Med; 2002 Jul;69(7):529, 533-4, 536-8 passim
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma: treatments emerging, but early detection is still key.
  • Although we are beginning to develop treatment options for malignant melanoma, earlier recognition of potential primary melanomas remains the most effective way to increase survival in this highly malignant disease.
  • This article reviews prominent risk factors for melanoma, key physical findings in at-risk patients, new melanoma staging guidelines, and recent and emerging therapy options.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / diagnosis. Female. Heliotherapy / adverse effects. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Recombinant Proteins. Risk Factors. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 12109636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-1150
  • [Journal-full-title] Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cleve Clin J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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22. Adedoyin OT, Johnson AW, Ojuawo AI, Afolayan EA, Adeniji KA: Malignant melanoma in a black child: predisposing precursors and management. J Natl Med Assoc; 2004 Oct;96(10):1368-73
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma in a black child: predisposing precursors and management.
  • Malignant melanoma (MM) remains a pediatric rarity world-wide, but perhaps more so in black Africans.
  • To the best of our knowledge, the current report of MM in a two-and-a-half-year-old Nigerian who had a pre-existing congenital giant hairy nevus is probably the first (in an accessible literature) in a black African child.
  • Primary neoplastic transformation and metastatic spread were suggested by the appearance of multiple swellings over the "garment" precursor nevus at the posterior trunk, multiple ipsilateral axillary nodal enlargement, and fresh occipital swellings postadmission.
  • Chemotherapy was initiated but was truncated shortly after by parent-pressured discharge.
  • Despite the rarity of MM in a tropical African setting where management options are few, the current case underscores the need for a high clinical index of diagnostic suspicion, an early pursuit of investigative confirmation, and prophylactic excision in children with the predisposing skin lesions, like congenital giant hairy nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] African Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / complications. Melanoma / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 15540891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2568537
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23. Tartler U, Mang R, Schulte KW, Hengge U, Megahed M, Reifenberger J: [Neurocutaneous melanosis and malignant melanoma]. Hautarzt; 2004 Oct;55(10):971-4
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  • [Title] [Neurocutaneous melanosis and malignant melanoma].
  • A 36-year-old man presented with a giant congenital melanocytic nevus and multiple disseminated melanocytic nevi.
  • After he had developed neurological symptoms (grand mal seizures), a cerebral metastasis of a malignant melanoma without a primary melanoma was found.
  • In spite of a variety of therapeutic attempts (surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy) he followed a rapidly progressive, lethal course with increased intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus and spinal metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / therapy. Skin / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15365641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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24. Lommatzsch PK, Werschnik C: [Malignant conjunctival melanoma. Clinical review with recommendations for diagnosis, therapy and follow-up]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2002 Oct;219(10):710-21
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  • [Title] [Malignant conjunctival melanoma. Clinical review with recommendations for diagnosis, therapy and follow-up].
  • [Transliterated title] Das maligne Melanom der Bindehaut - Klinische Ubersicht mit Empfehlungen zur Diagnose, Therapie und Nachsorge.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant conjunctival melanoma is a rare disease with an incidence of 0.03 - 0.08.
  • This tumour is potentially lethal, even after prompt and proper treatment, especially after delayed onset of therapy.
  • Conjunctival melanoma arises from primary acquired melanosis (PAM), from a preexisting nevus or "de novo" without any precursor at all.
  • RESULTS: Removing the local tumour with preservation of visual functions and avoidance of metastases is the therapy of choice.
  • To minimize local recurrence rate surgical excision should be combined with an additional procedure such as cryotherapy, irradiation, or local chemotherapy with MMC.
  • Up to now there is no effective treatment of the metastatic disease.
  • CONCLUSION: In all cases with pigmented lesions of the conjunctiva exclusion of a malignant melanoma has to be the first aim.
  • A patient suffering from a conjunctival melanoma should be referred to an ophthalmo-oncological center for proper treatment.
  • An international prospective study would be worthwhile to answer open questions and to develop new kinds of treatment of this potentially fatal tumour.
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Conjunctiva / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 12447715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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25. Di Rocco F, Sabatino G, Koutzoglou M, Battaglia D, Caldarelli M, Tamburrini G: Neurocutaneous melanosis. Childs Nerv Syst; 2004 Jan;20(1):23-8
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  • Most patients present neurological manifestations early in life, which can be secondary to intracranial hemorrhages, to impairment of cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and to malignant transformation of the melanocytes.
  • Chemotherapy has been ineffective in the few patients in whom it has been tried.
  • [MeSH-minor] Case-Control Studies. Cerebral Ventricles / pathology. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 14576958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Durrani AJ, Moir GC, Diaz-Cano SJ, Cerio R: Malignant melanoma in an 8-year-old Caribbean girl: diagnostic criteria and utility of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Br J Dermatol; 2003 Mar;148(3):569-72
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma in an 8-year-old Caribbean girl: diagnostic criteria and utility of sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • The incidence of malignant melanoma (MM) is continuing to rise, although childhood MM remains rare.
  • We describe an 8-year-old Afro-Caribbean girl who developed a non pigmented lesion on the tip of her left thumb, which persisted despite treatment in primary care with cryotherapy.
  • She underwent amputation of the distal phalanx of her thumb, together with positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy and subsequent axillary lymph node clearance and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • MMs are very rare in this age and skin-type group, therefore requiring strict diagnostic criteria.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12653752.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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27. Albert A, Cruz O, Montaner A, Vela A, Badosa J, Castañón M, Morales L: [Congenital solid tumors. A thirteen-year review]. Cir Pediatr; 2004 Jul;17(3):133-6
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  • This is an interesting group of tumors because their type, relative incidence, natural history and response to treatment differ from those seen in older children.
  • There were 8 teratomas (3 sacrocoxigeal, 1 retroperitoneal, 1 in the CNS, 1 orbitary and two oronasal), two hepatic tumors (1 hepatoblastoma, 1 hemangioendothelioma, two CNS tumors, two giant nevus (one on a hamartoma), and one each Wilms tumor, infantile fibrosarcoma and myofibroblastic tumor.
  • Treatment was surgical resection alone in 17 cases (68%) and surgery + chemotherapy in 8 (32%) (5 neuroblastomas, one CNS tumor, one Wilms tumor and one presacral teratoma who developed a yolk sac tumor); 3 patients died (11%): one at surgery, one of tumoural airway obstruction at birth and one with craniopharyngioma.
  • Among the 14 tumors that were initially not malignant, two can be locally agressive, one was an immature teratoma, the giant nevus with hamartoma developed in situ melanoma, the other nevus had meningeal melanosis with hydrocephalus, and one mature presacral teratoma developed a yolk sac tumor.
  • Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice, most cases not need adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / congenital. Kidney Neoplasms / congenital. Liver Neoplasms / congenital. Neuroblastoma / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / congenital. Teratoma / congenital. Wilms Tumor / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Pregnancy. Prenatal Diagnosis. Time Factors






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