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1. Lin TL, Shih LY, Hung YS, Kuo TT: Thymic hyperplasia following successful chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma: report of a case. Chang Gung Med J; 2009 Jan-Feb;32(1):98-103
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  • [Title] Thymic hyperplasia following successful chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma: report of a case.
  • A recurrent mediastinal mass in a patient following treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma presents a diagnostic challenge.
  • We report a 17-year-old boy with nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's lymphoma, stage IIIsA, who achieved complete response after 6-cycle chemotherapy with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine and developed thymic hyperplasia 6 months later.
  • Most patients were young, had the nodular sclerosis subtype of Hodgkin's lymphoma, were in an advanced stage, and had a latency of 2 to 12 months following successful chemotherapy.
  • It is impossible to delineate radiologically benign from malignant lesions.
  • Resection of the tumor for tissue diagnosis is mandatory to establish an accurate diagnosis and thus avoid further harmful therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Thymus Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 19292945.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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2. Teoh DC, El-Modir A: Managing a locally advanced malignant thymoma complicated by nephrotic syndrome: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:89

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  • [Title] Managing a locally advanced malignant thymoma complicated by nephrotic syndrome: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: The management of locally advanced inoperable malignant thymoma is difficult as there are no large randomized clinical trial data to guide treatment.
  • However various case series have shown that malignant thymoma is often a chemosensitive disease.
  • Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has been the gold-standard in the management of these patients.
  • However when thymic cancers are complicated by paraneoplastic syndromes that damage kidney and neurological function, cisplatin use is often contraindicated.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 37 year old man with locally advanced malignant thymoma complicated by significant nephrotic syndrome and renal impairment.
  • He responded to a novel combination of carboplatin, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy used as first line therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: The treatment with chemotherapy of locally advanced malignant thymoma complicated by nephrotic syndrome and renal impairment is difficult due to the increase of toxicity.
  • In this case, a novel chemotherapy combination with lesser toxicity was used successfully.
  • In addition this chemotherapy combination did not impede the later use of conventional cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Therefore we suggest a course of carboplatin-based chemotherapy for locally advanced malignant thymoma in patients who are unsuitable for cisplatin.

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  • (PMID = 18353189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2278156
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3. Qian H, Jiang G, He S, Wang L, Fu X, Gong Q: [The effect of whole pleural cavity irradiation with combined 60Co and electron beam plus local biological agents on malignant pleural effusion]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi; 2000 Oct 20;3(5):336-9

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  • [Title] [The effect of whole pleural cavity irradiation with combined 60Co and electron beam plus local biological agents on malignant pleural effusion].
  • BACKGROUND: To study the effect and complications of combined 60Co γ ray and electron beam irradiation to malignant pleural effusion.
  • METHODS: From January,1996 to December,1998,55 patients with malignant pleural effusion (unilateral; 49 cases of primary lung cancer,4 breast cancer and 2 thymic tumor) received whole pleural cavity irradiation of 60Co γ ray with centrally placed lead blocks to protect the vital organs and normal lung tissue,and the electron beam irradiation at the area which was covered by lead blocks in 60Co γ ray irradiation.The pleural effusion was completely drained before radiotherapy,and dose distribution of middle level was calculated by TPS using EXT 2.4 version software (Multidata Co.USA).The 100% isodose curve was 2Gy,15 fractions were given and another 20Gy/10Fx irradiation was added to the visible tumor.All patients received sequential chemotherapy for 3-6 cycles (cisplatin-based regimens for lung cancer and thymic tumor,cyclophosphamide and adriamycin and fluoracil for breast cancer).Kaplan-Meier curve was used to evaluate the pleural effusion control rate and survival rate of patients.
  • RESULTS: Complete remission of the malignant pleural effusion was seen in 9 patients and partial in 46 when treatment completed.The 6-,12-,18-month pleural effusion control rate and survival rate of the patients were 76%,53%,44% and 64%,34%,26%,respectively.The median control time of effusion and survival time were 14 months (2-32 months) and 9 months (4-32 months) respectively.We did not find any abnormality in liver function as well as in kidney function before and after treatment.Myelosuppression was the main side effect after combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Nineteen patients suffered from acute oesophagitis in grade 1-2,and 3 serious pleural fibrosis.There was no acute irradiation pneumonitis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The treatment for malignant pleural effusion with combined 60Co γ ray and electron beam irradiation is tolerable and effective in clinical use.

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  • (PMID = 20979716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3419
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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4. Rodrigues TA, Quintela AG, Luz RM, López D: [Thyroid carcinoma with thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE): case report and review of the literature]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2008 Apr;52(3):550-5
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  • [Title] [Thyroid carcinoma with thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE): case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma da tireóide com diferenciação semelhante a timo (CASTLE): relato de caso e revisão da literatura.
  • Carcinoma with thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) is a rare malignant epithelial tumor which arises on soft tissue of the neck or thyroid gland.
  • CD5 immunoreactivity might be helpful in CASTLE diagnosis.
  • Treatment includes surgical excision and radiotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy can be offered, although its efficacy is not clear.
  • After radiotherapy and chemotherapy, minimal response was obtained.
  • The authors intend to discuss the differential pathologic diagnosis and the best therapy of this indolent but recurrent neoplasm, that demands strict long term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Gland / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18506281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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5. Tsurusaki M, Mimura F, Sugihara R, Okada M: [A case of advanced thymic cancer successfully treated with neoadjuvant intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 Nov;30(12):1959-62
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced thymic cancer successfully treated with neoadjuvant intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy].
  • We report the case of a 68-year-old man with advanced thymic cancer who was diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma by percutaneous needle biopsy.
  • The CT scan showed pre-cardiac and pulmonary invasion, therefore the tumor was classified as Masaoka's stage III.
  • Induction systemic chemotherapy consisting of CDDP (70 mg/m2, day 1), ADM (40 mg/m2, day 1) and ETP (70 mg/m2, day 1-3) was performed for the purpose of reducing the tumor size; however, the tumor's size did not shrink.
  • Therefore, second line chemotherapy combined with selective intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy and systemic chemotherapy consisting of CDDP (70 mg/m2, day 1; intra-arterial), ADM (30 mg/m2, day 1; intra-arterial), VCR (0.5 mg/m2, day 3; systemic) and CPA (500 mg/m2, day 3; systemic) was performed.
  • After this treatment, the tumor was reduced in size, and an extended thymectomy was subsequently performed.
  • The histological diagnosis of the resected tumor was squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Examination of the resected tumor revealed extensive necrosis and only a few cancer cells.
  • These results show that intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy may be effective for local control of advanced thymic cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Thymectomy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14650967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Kaira K, Watanabe R, Takise A, Endou K, Kamiyoshihara M, Mori M: [Thymic cancer effectively treated by combination chemotherapy of carboplatin and etoposide with concurrent radiotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Nov;32(12):1989-92
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  • [Title] [Thymic cancer effectively treated by combination chemotherapy of carboplatin and etoposide with concurrent radiotherapy].
  • Percutaneous needle biopsy showed that the mass was an advanced thymic cancer (squamous cell carcinoma).
  • The patient was treated by combination chemotherapy of carboplatin and etoposide with concurrent radiotherapy (44 Gy).
  • After 3 courses of chemotherapy, the mass showed an approximately 81% reduction in tumor size and disappearance of the pericardial effusion.
  • Finally, the thymic cancer and small pulmonary metastatic lesions were all resected.
  • This concurrent chemoradiotherapy can be effective against inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the thymus.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Thymectomy

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  • (PMID = 16282742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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7. Okada M, Koizumi T, Yasuo M, Tsushima K, Urushihata K, Yamaguchi S, Hanaoka M, Fujimoto K, Kubo K: [Successful treatment of intrapericardial administration of carboplatin following systemic chemotherapy in a case of advanced thymic cancer with cardiac tamponade]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Dec;44(12):968-72
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  • [Title] [Successful treatment of intrapericardial administration of carboplatin following systemic chemotherapy in a case of advanced thymic cancer with cardiac tamponade].
  • A 72-year-old woman developed cardiac tamponade due to direct invasion of thymic cancer.
  • Carboplatin was administered into the pericardial cavity two times with a total dose of 600 mg.
  • Following four cycles of systemic chemotherapy by carboplatin, doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide (ADOC), partial response was obtained.
  • She is alive 10 month after being given a diagnosis of cardiac tamponade.
  • Intrapericardial administration of carboplatin is a useful therapy for control of pericardial effusion and chemosensitive cases should de identified among patients with thymic cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cardiac Tamponade / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / drug therapy. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology. Remission Induction. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17233396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; ADOC protocol
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8. Takeda K, Nemoto K, Saito H, Ogawa Y, Takai Y, Yamada S: Predictive factors for acute esophageal toxicity in thoracic radiotherapy. Tohoku J Exp Med; 2006 Apr;208(4):299-306
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  • Previous studies demonstrated several clinical and dosimetric parameters of AET in patients with lung cancer.
  • However, there are few reports dealing with these variables in intra-thoracic malignancies, including lung cancer and other thoracic malignancy.
  • We examined 61 patients with intra-thoracic malignancies treated with radiotherapy: 34 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (55%), 9 cases with small-cell lung cancer (15%), 7 cases with thymic cancer (11%), 4 thymomas (7%), 2 malignant lymphomas (3%), one seminoma (2%), one liposarcoma (2%), and 3 cases of other malignancies (5%).
  • Radiotherapy was performed with a median dose of 60 Gray (Gy) (range 40-67 Gy).
  • AET was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria.
  • The following parameters were analyzed with respect to associations with AET by univariate and multivariate analyses: age, gender, thoracic surgery before radiotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, duration of radiotherapy, maximum esophageal dose, mean esophageal dose, and percentage of esophageal volume receiving from 10 Gy (V10) to 65 Gy (V65), in 5-Gy increments.
  • 43 patients (70%) developed AET: 36 patients (59%) with AET of RTOG Grade 1, 7 patients (11%) with Grade 2, and no patients (0%) with Grade 3 or worse.
  • Our findings provide a better understanding of the factors related to AET, and might be useful in designing a treatment plan to prevent severe esophageal toxicity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 16565592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-8727
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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9. Hasegawa S, Ito H, Kojima Y, Nakayama H, Wada N, Inui K, Imoto K, Rino Y, Takanashi Y: [A case of thymic cancer with pericardial tamponade as initial manifestation]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Jan;33(1):79-82
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  • [Title] [A case of thymic cancer with pericardial tamponade as initial manifestation].
  • We report a case of thymic cancer with pericardial tamponade in a 70-year-old woman.
  • The effusion was serous fluid, not bloody, and no malignant cells were found.
  • The patient underwent a tumor resection, and the final pathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma of the thymus.
  • In a review of 14 cases of thymic tumor with pericardial tamponade as initial manifestations in the Japanese literature,there were only three cases of thymic cancer.
  • The prognosis was reported to be extremely poor.Some reports showed the effectiveness of chemotherapy and irradiation therapy.
  • We should keep looking for the best treatment for this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Cardiac Tamponade / etiology. Thymus Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Pericardial Effusion / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16410702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Morio A, Nakahara K, Ohse Y, Tahara M, Goto T, Yakumaru K, Korenaga T: Efficacy of induction chemoradiotherapy in thymic cancer: report of a successful case and review of the literature. Int J Clin Oncol; 2002 Jun;7(3):201-4
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  • [Title] Efficacy of induction chemoradiotherapy in thymic cancer: report of a successful case and review of the literature.
  • Thymic cancer is a rare tumor, the optimal treatment of which remains controversial.
  • The efficacy of induction therapy in thymic cancer is unclear.
  • A 51-year-old man was diagnosed as having a poorly differentiated carcinoma of the thymus with lymph node metastasis (stage IVb according to the Masaoka staging system), through an echo-guided biopsy.
  • Once a partial response was achieved, the residual tumor was completely resected, and bilateral mediastinal lymph nodes were dissected.
  • Histopathological examination of the resected specimen showed no evidence of viable malignant cells.
  • This case demonstrates that induction chemoradiotherapy with CDDP and paclitaxel may be well tolerated and useful for patients with advanced thymic cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Radiography, Thoracic. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 12109524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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11. Matsuoka T, Kobayashi S, Oka K, Sakano H, Kawano K, Katoh T: [Thymic cancer with superior vena cava invasion reconstructed by ready-made Y-graft]. Kyobu Geka; 2010 May;63(5):379-81
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  • [Title] [Thymic cancer with superior vena cava invasion reconstructed by ready-made Y-graft].
  • Computed tomography (CT) showed the lobulated tumor suspected of superior vena cava (SVC) invasion, located in the anterior mediastinum, 5 x 3 cm in size.
  • Histopathological diagnosis was thymic cancer, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy (RT : 12.6 Gy) was canceled for the side effect.
  • Alternatively, adjuvant chemotherapy [carboplatin (CBDCA) +paclitaxel (PTX)] was administered.
  • Additional RT (50 Gy) was given to the lesion of local recurrence 1 and half year after the operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Vena Cava, Superior / pathology. Vena Cava, Superior / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20446606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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12. Igawa S, Yanagisawa N, Makita S, Iida Y, Maki S, Kimura Y, Otani S, Hayashi N, Takakura A, Katono K, Onoda S, Yamamoto M, Masuda N: [A case of recurrent invasive thymic cancer showing a stable disease to carboplatin plus paclitaxel]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(11):2161-3
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent invasive thymic cancer showing a stable disease to carboplatin plus paclitaxel].
  • Computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed an anterior mediastinal mass, pleural dissemination and lung metastasis.
  • Percutaneus needle biopsy guided by CT showed that the mass was advanced thymic cancer (stage IV b according to the classification proposed by Masaoka).
  • After failure of combination chemotherapy of cisplatin, vincristine, doxorubicin and etoposide (CODE), he received 4 cycles of carboplatin plus paclitaxel and then achieved confirmed stable disease.
  • Carboplatin plus paclitaxel can be an active agent against pretreated thymic cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 21084818.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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13. Shintani Y, Ohta M, Hazama K, Miyoshi S, Kagisaki K, Matsuda H: Thymic carcinoma successfully resected with superior vena cava after chemoradiotherapy. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2001 Dec;49(12):717-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thymic carcinoma successfully resected with superior vena cava after chemoradiotherapy.
  • A 57-year-old woman hospitalized for thymic cancer invading the superior vena cava and left brachiocephalic vein evidenced both pleural and pericardial effusion.
  • After chemotherapy with cisplatin and docetaxel and concurrent radiotherapy, the entire tumor was successfully resected along with the pericardium, superior vena cava, and left brachiocephalic vein, followed by vascular reconstruction.
  • Pathologically, viable tumor cells were identified only in the center of the tumor as anaplastic cell carcinoma.
  • Induction chemoradiotherapy thus appears useful in enabling complete resection of advanced thymic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / surgery. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives. Taxoids. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery. Vena Cava, Superior / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pericardial Effusion / etiology. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology

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  • (PMID = 11808095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1344-4964
  • [Journal-full-title] The Japanese journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official publication of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery = Nihon Kyōbu Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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14. Loehrer PJ, Wang W, Aisner S, Bonomi P, Einhorn LH, Langer CJ, Green MR, Livingston RB, Johnson DH, Schiller J: Long-term follow-up of patients with locally advanced or metastatic thymic malignancies: The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) experience. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):7050

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term follow-up of patients with locally advanced or metastatic thymic malignancies: The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) experience.
  • : 7050 Background: Chemotherapy is active and appears to prolong survival in patients (pts) with advanced thymic cancer.
  • However, limited data exists about the long-term outcomes after systemic therapy.
  • In 23 pts with Stage III disease, PAC was administered prior to definitive radiotherapy.
  • All pts. had unresectable Stage III or IV, histologically proven thymoma (n=111) or thymic carcinoma (n=12) without previous systemic chemotherapy.
  • Pretreatment characteristics included a median age of 50 yrs, M:F = 75:48, PS 0-1 = 83% and prior radiation therapy in 31%.
  • Pts with thymic carcinoma were associated with a poorer response rate (p=0.047) and PFS (p=0.014) and a trend towards worse OS (p=0.064) than pts with thymoma.
  • 1) Combination chemotherapy produces high response rates with some durable remissions observed in pts with thymoma.
  • 2) Thymic carcinoma is associated with a worse therapeutic outcome than thymoma.
  • 3) The majority of patients with unresectable thymic malignancies still progress and novel treatments are clearly needed.

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  • (PMID = 28016123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Kimura T, Kudoh S, Mitsuoka S, Tanaka H, Kyoh S, Suzumura T, Yoshimura N, Asai K, Tochino Y, Hirata K: Plasma concentration of amrubicinol in gamma phase in patients treated for 3 days with amrubicin and hematological toxicities. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e14606

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The time-concentration profile of AMR-OH exhibits a continuous long plateau slope in terminal phase.
  • To determine the relationships between the steady-state plasma concentration of AMR-OH and treatment effects and toxicities associated with AMR therapy, we performed a PK/PD study of AMR in patients with lung cancer treated with AMR alone or the combination of AMR + cisplatin (CDDP).
  • RESULTS: A total of 35 patients with a median age of 65 years (range 40-78), including 10 with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 23 with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 1 with thymic cancer, and 1 with neuroblastoma were enrolled.
  • No relationships were observed between drug concentrations and responses.
  • Assessment of plasma concentration of AMR-OH at one time point might enable prediction of hematological toxicities.

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  • (PMID = 27964159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Tatebe S, Oka K, Uehara A, Shinonaga M, Kuraoka S: Unusual remnant thymic tissue in an adult mimicking malignant neoplasm: escape from age-related involution. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2006 Mar;54(2):138-40

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  • [Title] Unusual remnant thymic tissue in an adult mimicking malignant neoplasm: escape from age-related involution.
  • Here we report on a 55-year-old man with an abnormal anterior mediastinal shadow and multiple nodules in the thymus, which increased in size over a period of 15 months.
  • He was diagnosed with early prostatic cancer, and treated with chemotherapy.
  • Although no definite preoperative diagnosis was obtained, surgery was performed because of the possibility of malignant neoplasm or metastasis.
  • Extended thymectomy was performed and pathological examination revealed that the nodules were remnant thymic tissue and not malignant lesions.
  • Although the cause of this unusual remnant thymic tissue remains unclear, it may have been related to autoimmune or endocrinological disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thymus Hyperplasia / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thymectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16541358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-6425
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Lara PN Jr: Malignant thymoma: current status and future directions. Cancer Treat Rev; 2000 Apr;26(2):127-31
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  • [Title] Malignant thymoma: current status and future directions.
  • Malignant thymomas are rare indolent tumours of the anterior superior mediastinum.
  • Since tumour biopsy may potentially disrupt the thymic capsule, it is often not performed.
  • Patients are therefore diagnosed and staged at the time of definitive surgery.
  • Surgery is the principal treatment and is curative in early stage disease.
  • Radiation therapy, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, is an option for both incompletely or completely resected disease.
  • Chemotherapy is offered to patients with locally advanced, recurrent, or metastatic thymoma, with excellent responses and prolonged survival.
  • Multicentre co-operative group clinical trials are required to assess novel thymoma therapies to maximize patient resources in this uncommon tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Forecasting. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Salvage Therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 10772969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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18. Kahraman A, Miller M, Maldonado-Lopez E, Baba HA, Treichel U, Gerken G: [A 55-year-old woman with thymoma and hypogammaglobulinemia (Good syndrome), ulcerative colitis, and cytomegalovirus infection]. Med Klin (Munich); 2009 Feb 15;104(2):150-4
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  • [Transliterated title] 55-jährige Patientin mit Thymom und Hypogammaglobulinämie (Good-Syndrom), Colitis ulcerosa sowie CMV-Infektion.
  • CASE REPORT: The authors report on a 55-year-old female patient after R1 resection of a malignant thymoma with spindle type epithelial cells (WHO type A, Masaoka stage III) referred for further therapy of an ulcerative colitis.
  • At that time, both adjuvant radiation and cytostatic therapy were not applicable due to severe activity of the ulcerative colitis.
  • Under immunosuppressive treatment with azathioprine and steroids, the patient developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis which was triggered by therapy-induced leukopenia.
  • After a switch from azathioprine to mycophenolatmofetil (MMF) treatment and administration of cidofovir because of nonresponse to ganciclovir and incompatibility of foscarnet sodium (Foscavir), the patient clinically improved.
  • At present, 3.5 years after R1 resection, the patient still has no clues of a remaining tumor mass under current immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Furthermore, the impact of immunosuppressive therapy and management of opportunistic infections on the course of this disease is obvious.
  • [MeSH-major] Agammaglobulinemia / diagnosis. Colitis, Ulcerative / diagnosis. Cytomegalovirus Infections / diagnosis. Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Thymectomy. Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Azathioprine / adverse effects. Azathioprine / therapeutic use. Cytosine / analogs & derivatives. Cytosine / therapeutic use. Enteritis / chemically induced. Enteritis / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Immunization, Passive. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / diagnosis. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / drug therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Leukopenia / chemically induced. Leukopenia / diagnosis. Leukopenia / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Mycophenolic Acid / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Organophosphonates / therapeutic use. Syndrome


19. Chen KN, Xu SF, Gu ZD, Zhang WM, Pan H, Su WZ, Li JY, Xu GW: Surgical treatment of complex malignant anterior mediastinal tumors invading the superior vena cava. World J Surg; 2006 Feb;30(2):162-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of complex malignant anterior mediastinal tumors invading the superior vena cava.
  • Determining the appropriate surgery-based treatment for complicated anterior mediastinal malignancies (CAMM), especially those invading the superior vena cava (SVC) and its branches, remains a challenge for general thoracic surgeons.
  • In this report, we summarize our experience and lessons regarding this issue in order to discuss a reasonable strategy for diagnosis and treatment of CAMM.
  • There were 9 patients with malignant thymoma.
  • Thymic carcinoma, teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and mixed teratoma with thymoma were diagnosed in 1 patient each.
  • Four of the patients underwent perioperative chemotherapy.
  • CAMM should be pathologically identified before initial treatment.
  • A good outcome for patients with CAMM is possible if a suitable strategy combining accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment, especially surgical resection, is established.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Thoracotomy / methods. Vena Cava, Superior / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anastomosis, Surgical. Angiography. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Thymectomy / methods. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymoma / mortality. Thymoma / pathology. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / mortality. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 1988 Nov;6(11):1722-7 [3183702.001]
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  • (PMID = 16425072.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Fujii Y: [Thymoma--clinical aspects and its biological function]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(11):1547-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Thymoma is a neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells.
  • The tumor grows relatively slowly, and the prognosis is very good after surgical resection.
  • However, therapy for advanced thymoma has not been established, and the effect of modern chemotherapy is being evaluated.
  • The malignant epithelial cells maintain the function of cortical epithelial cells and harbor non-neoplastic immature T cells of CD 3(low) CD 4(+)CD 8(+) phenotype.
  • Also, the presence of CD 3(low) CD 4(+)CD 8(+) T cells is diagnostic of thymoma and can be utilized for rapid diagnosis using needle biopsy specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymectomy. Thymoma. Thymus Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Autoantibodies / biosynthesis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Myasthenia Gravis / complications. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Receptors, Cholinergic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17108716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Receptors, Cholinergic
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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21. Andrés R, Mayordomo JI, Ramón y Cajal S, Tres A: Paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome associated to locally advanced thymic carcinoid tumor. Tumori; 2002 Jan-Feb;88(1):65-7
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  • [Title] Paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome associated to locally advanced thymic carcinoid tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Thymic carcinoid is a frequent cause of Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotropin secretion.
  • Histology and immunohistochemistry allow differential diagnosis from other epithelial thymic tumors, such as thymomas and thymic carcinomas.
  • The term used to name this tumor is confusing, since it is a malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm, and therapeutic approaches need to bear that in mind.
  • CASE REPORT: Unlike most cases of thymic carcinoid associated to Cushing's syndrome that had distant metastases at diagnosis, we report a 50-year-old male who presented with Cushing's syndrome and was diagnosed with thymic carcinoid without distant metastases.
  • Multimodal treatment with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy (cisplatin plus etoposide) induced a complete clinical and biochemical remission lasting for 46 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage


22. Belmadani K, Amahzoune B, Selkane C, Boulahya A, el Fakir Y, al Bouzidi A, el Kirat A: [Invasive thymoma extending into the superior vena cava and the right atrium: a case report and review of the literature]. Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris); 2001 Jun;50(4):217-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Thymome invasif à extension intra-cave supérieure et intra-atriale droite: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature.
  • The transthoracic echocardiography supplemented by the echocardiography transoesophageal pose the cardiac diagnosis of tumor, and it is the thoracic tomodensitometry which highlights a tumoral process mediastinal of malignant pace invading the left inominal venous trunk, the higher vena cava and extending in the right auricle.
  • The diagnosis of certainty is carried by the endobronchial biopsy and the puncture tomodensitometric biopsy under control of the mediastinal mass after anatomopathological examination.
  • Under chemotherapy, the evolution over 18 months is marked by the absence of cardiovascular complications in spite of the non regression of the tumoral mass.
  • The surgery when it is possible, remains the principal therapeutic measurement which really proved reliable.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vena Cava, Superior
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Heart Atria. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 12555596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3928
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de cardiologie et d'angéiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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23. Stachowicz-Stencel T, Bień E, Balcerska A, Godziński J, Madziara W, Perek-Polnik M, Peregud-Pogorzelski J, Pietras W, Pobudejska A, Kurylak A, Mańkowski P: [Thymoma and thymic carcinoma--review of literature and clinical characteristics based on the Polish Paediatric Solid Tumours Study Group experience]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2007 Jul-Sep;11(3 Pt 2):313-8
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  • [Title] [Thymoma and thymic carcinoma--review of literature and clinical characteristics based on the Polish Paediatric Solid Tumours Study Group experience].
  • Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are rare neoplasms derived from the epithelial tissue of thymus, very infrequently developing in young adults and children.
  • It is believed that histological structure is the most important prognostic factor in thymic carcinomas while in less aggressive types of thymomas the clinical stages influence the outcome.
  • Thus the term 'malignant thymoma' has been replaced by 'invasive thymoma' in clinical practice.
  • The treatment strategy depends on the clinical stages of thymoma.
  • Complete resection of the tumour is the treatment of choice with supplementing radiotherapy in more advanced clinical stages.
  • Chemotherapy in invasive thymomas has been reported to play an increasingly important role as induction, supplementing and palliative therapy.
  • It has been proved that combined treatment improves the outcome in invasive thymomas, especially in thymic carcinomas.
  • This paper reviews the literature data concerning the histology, clinical issues and treatment of thymomas and thymic carcinomas.
  • The clinical data on nine children with thymic carcinomas treated between 1992 and 2006 in the Polish oncological and surgical centres were also analysed and presented.
  • Thymic carcinomas in children are very rare and that is why early diagnosis is often difficult.
  • 2. At diagnosis most cases are already inoperable, which results in poorer prognosis.
  • 3. Complex adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy in childhood thymic carcinomas seem to prolong overall survival.
  • 4. Further detailed analysis in all the cases of thymic carcinomas in children is recommended in order to estimate the optimal strategy of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18663273.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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24. Park BJ, Bacchetta M, Bains MS, Downey RJ, Flores R, Rusch VW, Girardi LN: Surgical management of thoracic malignancies invading the heart or great vessels. Ann Thorac Surg; 2004 Sep;78(3):1024-30
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  • We reviewed our experience of 10 patients treated surgically, either primarily or as a component of multimodality therapy, to assess feasibility and results.
  • RESULTS: Histologic diagnoses included soft tissue sarcoma (n = 7), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1), malignant thymoma (n = 1), and mediastinal teratoma (n = 1).
  • Three patients underwent induction chemotherapy.
  • Six patients underwent postoperative systemic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Sarcoma / surgery. Teratoma / surgery. Thymoma / surgery. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Aorta, Thoracic / pathology. Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Echocardiography, Transesophageal. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Heart Atria / pathology. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Pulmonary Artery / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vena Cava, Superior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15337042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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25. Baran JL, Magro CM, King MA, Williams TE Jr, Ross P Jr: Atypical thymoma: a report of seven patients. Ann Thorac Surg; 2004 Aug;78(2):411-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Most thymic neoplasms fall under the designation of thymoma, consisting of well-differentiated epithelial cells, resembling normal thymus.
  • At the opposite spectrum are thymic carcinomas; the cell of origin while similar is malignant.
  • Recently a third category of thymic neoplasms, atypical thymomas, has been recognized representing thymic neoplasms manifesting atypia although without overt cytomorphologic criteria of malignancy.
  • METHODS: Seven patients with a diagnosis of atypical thymoma were encountered over a 6-year period from the patient files of the cardiothoracic division of The Ohio State Medical Center.
  • Surgical extirpation/de-bulking along with radiation therapy in six and chemotherapy in one led to complete disease regression.
  • Intrathoracic recurrences developed in 4 involving lung, pleura, chest wall and diaphragm.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blood Vessels / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diaphragm / pathology. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Lung / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pericardium / pathology. Phrenic Nerve / pathology. Pleura / pathology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Thoracic Wall / pathology. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15276487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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26. Muro M, Kubo S, Yoshioka T, Idani H, Ishikawa T, Ishii T, Asami S, Kurose Y, Hirata M, Yamashita T, Kin H: [Thymic carcinoma; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2009 Feb;62(2):169-71
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  • [Title] [Thymic carcinoma; report of a case].
  • Chest computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an anterior mediastinal tumor.
  • The tumor was extirpated completely with combined partial resection of the left lung through a median sternotomy.
  • Microscopically, the tumor was diagnosed thymic cancer, basaloid carcinoma.
  • The patient was treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation, postoperatively.
  • We reported a case of thymic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sternum / surgery. Thymectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19202942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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27. Yel L, Liao O, Lin F, Gupta S: Severe T- and B-cell immune deficiency associated with malignant thymoma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol; 2003 Nov;91(5):501-5
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  • [Title] Severe T- and B-cell immune deficiency associated with malignant thymoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Immunodeficiency with thymoma syndrome is a rare disorder that generally occurs after the fourth decade of life.
  • Typically, thymic tumors are benign, and gradually developing immunodeficiency consists of hypogammaglobulinemia with low B-cell counts and an inverted CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio due to excessive CD8+ T cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a 32-year-old, white man with an invasive malignant thymoma and profound combined T- and B-cell immunodeficiency associated with a normal CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio, absence of circulating B cells, and infection with an unusual organism.
  • METHODS: The patient presented with a superior vena cava syndrome caused by a malignant thymoma.
  • During chemotherapy and radiotherapy, he experienced recurrent episodes of pulmonary infections due to Haemophilus influenza and Serratia marcescens and persistent oral thrush.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen months after the diagnosis of thymoma, the immunological evaluation revealed profound lymphopenia, eosinopenia, very low counts of both CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, and a normal CD4+/CD8+ ratio with negative delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test results.
  • Despite treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient died of respiratory insufficiency and sepsis secondary to a chronic pulmonary infection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant thymoma may be associated with severe combined immunodeficiency.
  • Comprehensive immunological evaluation should be performed when thymoma is diagnosed to initiate an early and effective treatment to prevent life-threatening complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Agammaglobulinemia / complications. B-Lymphocytes / immunology. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / complications. Thymoma / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibody Formation / immunology. Antibody Specificity / immunology. CD4-CD8 Ratio. Humans. Immunoglobulin G / blood. Immunoglobulin G / immunology. Lymphocyte Count. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Serratia Infections / diagnosis. Serratia Infections / immunology. Serratia Infections / microbiology. Serratia marcescens / immunology. Severity of Illness Index. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14692437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1081-1206
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin G
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28. Jacot W, Quantin X, Valette S, Khial F, Pujol JL: Multimodality treatment program in invasive thymic epithelial tumor. Am J Clin Oncol; 2005 Feb;28(1):5-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multimodality treatment program in invasive thymic epithelial tumor.
  • Little is known regarding malignant thymoma and thymic carcinoma optimal therapy, and a multimodality approach could therefore be proposed in an attempt to improve the survival of patients.
  • We report our experience with 8 cases of malignant thymoma or thymic carcinoma.
  • These patients took part in a multimodality treatment program including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and postoperative radiotherapy in our center between December 1995 and June 2001.
  • The induction chemotherapy consisted of 4 courses of the CAP regimen (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 day 1, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 day 1, and cisplatin 80 mg/m2 day 2), every 3 weeks.
  • Patients underwent surgical resection after complete hematological recovery pending sufficient tumor response with a postchemotherapy resectable status.
  • Adjuvant radiotherapy up to 60 Gy in 30 fractions was attempted postsurgically or after best chemotherapeutic response in nonsurgical patients.
  • Among the 8 patients, 3 had a thymic carcinoma and 5 a malignant thymoma; 5 had a stage IV and 3 a stage III disease (Masaoka).
  • Six patients partially responded to the chemotherapy regimen.
  • Four patients are still alive without evidence of tumor activity (23-77 months from the diagnosis) and 1 patient is alive with relapse at 56 months.
  • The high proportion of thymic carcinoma and advanced disease in our limited series might be an explanation for this unsatisfactory result.
  • Optimal multimodality treatment of epithelial thymic tumor remains to be defined in multicenter trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dose Fractionation. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thymectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15685027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; CISCA protocol
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29. Stefanou D, Goussia AC, Arkoumani E, Metafratzi ZM, Syminelakis S, Arkoumani E, Agnantis NJ: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus: a case presentation and a literature review. Pathol Res Pract; 2004;200(7-8):567-73
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  • [Title] Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus: a case presentation and a literature review.
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus is an unusual, but well-recognized variant of thymic malignant tumors.
  • Histologic examination of the surgically resected mass showed features of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma with associated infiltration of the pleural tissue.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy were performed, and the patient died two months after initial diagnosis.
  • In case of the absence of metastatic disease or other common primary neoplasms of the thymus, the diagnosis of a mucoepidermoid thymic carcinoma should be taken into consideration, although this tumor is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pleura / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15462505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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