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1. Seper L, Schwab R, Kiattavorncharoen S, Büchter A, Bánkfalvi A, Joos U, Piffkó J, Kruse-Loesler B: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the face: report of a case. Head Face Med; 2007;3:36
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  • [Title] Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the face: report of a case.
  • BACKGROUND: Soft tissue sarcomas in the head and neck region are rare and often present a difficult differential diagnosis.
  • The aim of our presentation is to point out the complexity of the diagnosis, treatment and follow up.
  • Excision biopsy of the recurrent lesion revealed a malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH).
  • Radical tumour resection was completed by extended parotidectomy and neck dissection; the skin defect was covered by a regional bi-lobed flap.
  • No adjuvant radio- or chemotherapy was administered.
  • DISCUSSION: Malignant transformation of BFH is extremely rare and if so, extended radical surgery may give a fair chance for a favourable outcome even in patients with advanced age.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neck Dissection / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Histopathology. 2000 Sep;37(3):212-7 [10971696.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Clin Oncol. 2003 Apr;8(2):104-9 [12720103.001]
  • [Cites] Curr Opin Oncol. 2003 May;15(3):239-52 [12778019.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 1994 Jul;18(7):668-76 [8017561.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1964 Nov;17:1445-55 [14223761.001]
  • (PMID = 17945018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & face medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Face Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2211745
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2. Ochiai H, Kawano H, Miyaoka R, Kawano N, Shimao Y, Kawasaki K: Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the temporoparietal dura mater and scalp without intervening skull bone invasion. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(7):595-8
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed a solid homogeneously enhanced mass in the left temporoparietal scalp, and an extra-axial intracranial mass that existed just below the scalp without intervening skull invasion.
  • The patient received whole-brain radiation therapy, and subsequent chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisolone.
  • The present case of DLBCLs in the scalp and dura without intervening skull bone invasion indicates that malignant lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of scalp and dural tumors without intervening skull bone invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Dura Mater / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Scalp / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Craniotomy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Parietal Bone. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Temporal Bone


3. Shah JP, Gil Z: Current concepts in management of oral cancer--surgery. Oral Oncol; 2009 Apr-May;45(4-5):394-401
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  • Surgery is the most well established mode of initial definitive treatment for a majority of oral cancers.
  • The factors that affect choice of treatment are related to the tumor and the patient.
  • The radial forearm free flap provides excellent soft tissue and lining for soft tissue defects in the oral cavity.
  • Over the course of the past thirty years there has been improvement in the overall survival of patients with oral carcinoma largely due to the improved understanding of the biology of local progression, early identification and treatment of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck, and employment of adjuvant post-operative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.
  • The role of surgery in primary squamous cell carcinomas in other sites in the head and neck has evolved with integration of multidisciplinary treatment approaches employing chemotherapy and radiotherapy either sequentially or concurrently.
  • Advances in skull base surgery have significantly improved the survivorship of patients with malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses approaching or involving the skull base.
  • Surgery thus remains the mainstay of management of a majority of neoplasms arising in the head and neck area.
  • Similarly, the role of the surgeon is essential throughout the life history of a patient with a malignant neoplasm in the head and neck area, from initial diagnosis through definitive treatment, post-treatment surveillance, management of complications, rehabilitation of the sequelae of treatment, and finally for palliation of symptoms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Protocols. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Patient Selection. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome


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4. Schwipper V: [Malignant melanoma in the area of the head and neck]. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir; 2000 May;4 Suppl 1:S177-86
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  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma in the area of the head and neck].
  • Malignant melanoma is one of the most frequent malignancies of the skin.
  • This is particularly true of malignant melanoma in juveniles.
  • At Fachklinik Hornheide, a tumor center specializing in skin neoplasm with patients being referred from all over Germany, the number of melanoma patients treated per year has been approximately 500-550 for the past 10 years.
  • In the present study, the state-of-the-art therapy for primary melanoma and treatment of the regional lymph node system is discussed.
  • The radical treatment formerly advocated with wide tumor resection plus radical neck dissection is no longer justified for this immunogenic malignant tumor caused by endogenic as well as exogenic factors.
  • In addition to surgical resection of the tumor and neck dissection for removal of lymph nodes, adjuvant immunotherapy with interferon-alpha is capable of prolonging survival without a recurrence.
  • Palliative chemotherapy or immunotherapy are valuable options for cases with generalized melanoma.
  • Vaccination with a melanoma-associated antigen or dendritic cells is at an experimental stage and may become part of future treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 10938658.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-9417
  • [Journal-full-title] Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie : MKG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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5. Luo D, Xia H: [Clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck malignant melanoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2001 May;23(3):256-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck malignant melanoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: Sixty-eight cases of head and neck malignant melanoma were reviewed.
  • There were 33 patients with melanoma in the nasal cavity and oral cavity, 35 patients with melanoma in the skin.
  • Immunohistochemical studies helped diagnosis as all of the 42 melanoma specimens were posture for S-100 and 90.5% positive for HMB45.
  • In 52 of the 68 cases, the tumor was excised surgically, with additional radiotherapy in 13 cases or chemotherapy in 21 cases.
  • In 56 patients followed-up, 12 survived for 5 years, including 9 cases of skin melanoma and 3 cases of nasal and oral melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The histo-pathological features of malignant melanoma vary significantly.
  • Immunohistochemical staining helps diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
  • The prognosis of malignant melanoma in nasal cavity and oral cavity is poor as compared to that in the skin of head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11783102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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6. Yamamoto R, Hosokawa S, Yamatodani T, Morita S, Okamura J, Mineta H: [Eight cases of neuroendcrine carcinoma of the head and neck]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2008 Jul;111(7):517-22
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  • [Title] [Eight cases of neuroendcrine carcinoma of the head and neck].
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the head and neck is rare, and diagnosis may be difficult.
  • We reported eight cases of stage IV small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the head and neck, all in men with a mean onset age of 62 years (range: 45 to 80 years).
  • Histological analysis by hematoxylin-eosin staining tentatively revealed malignant lymphoma and undifferentiated carcinoma in two cases each, while immunohistological and/or electron microscopy analysis confirmed histological diagnosis.
  • All were treated by chemotherapy (VP-16, CDDP) and seven cases with radiotherapy based on the schedule of small cell carcinoma of the lung and two cases with lesional resection.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were effective locally.
  • Five patients died of distant metastasis to the brain, bone, lung, liver, or skin within 12 months.
  • Long-term survival thus requires the effective treatment of distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18697475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PE regimen
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7. Suárez C, Rodrigo JP, Ferlito A, Devaney KO, Rinaldo A: Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Oral Oncol; 2004 Sep;40(8):773-9
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  • [Title] Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm of the skin.
  • The tumor most frequently affects elderly patients, with a preference for the head and neck.
  • A significant proportion of MCC have been reported to occur in intimate association with malignant epithelial neoplasms.
  • Complete surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment of the primary tumor.
  • Tumor resections are recommended to include a 2-3-cm tumor-free margin around the primary lesion when possible, but this is often difficult to achieve in the head and neck, where Mohs micrographic surgery has proved to be effective.
  • The role of adjuvant radiation therapy is controversial.
  • The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in diminishing the risk of subsequent systemic recurrence in patients with positive nodes remains undefined.
  • Overall response rates to combination chemotherapy for surgically unresectable distant metastatic disease are generally high, although responses are transient.
  • Overall survival of head and neck MCC at 5 years postoperatively ranks between 40% and 68%.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell. Head and Neck Neoplasms. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosome Aberrations. Female. Humans. Immune Tolerance. Male. Prognosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15288830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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8. Yücel A, Cinar C, Aydin Y, Senyuva C, Güzel Z, Cetinkale O, Altintaŝ M: Malignant tumors requiring maxillectomy. J Craniofac Surg; 2000 Sep;11(5):418-29
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  • [Title] Malignant tumors requiring maxillectomy.
  • Seventy cases with malignant tumors requiring maxillary resection in the past 10 years were reviewed, retrospectively.
  • The primary site of tumor was adjacent skin in 53%, maxillary sinus or maxilla in 20%, palate and alveolar arch in 13%, lip and buccal mucosa in 13%, and mandible in 1% of the cases.
  • Orbital exenteration was performed in 28 cases, mandibulectomy in six cases, combined craniofacial resection in seven cases, and radical neck dissection in 18 cases.
  • Major skin loss was present in majority of the patients.
  • Lining of the maxillary sinus defects was provided with split-thickness skin grafts.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy was performed in 32 patients and combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 12 patients.
  • Resection of the tumor with free surgical margins and appropriate evaluation of the surgical defect for the most suitable reconstruction are the mainstays of treatment of the midfacial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Maxilla / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Lip Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Mandible / surgery. Mandibular Neoplasms / surgery. Maxillary Neoplasms / surgery. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / surgery. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / surgery. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Orbit Evisceration. Palatal Neoplasms / surgery. Palatal Obturators. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Skin Transplantation / methods. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 11314064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Rigual NR, Popat SR, Jayaprakash V, Jaggernauth W, Wong M: Cutaneous head and neck melanoma: the old and the new. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2008 Mar;8(3):403-12
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  • [Title] Cutaneous head and neck melanoma: the old and the new.
  • The incidence rate of malignant melanoma has shown a rapid worldwide rise in recent years.
  • The staging and management of head and neck melanoma presents some unique challenges.
  • Surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment, while sentinel node biopsy is the most accurate staging modality for regional disease.
  • The complex regional anatomy and lymphovascular drainage of this region may account for the increased biologic aggressiveness and treatment challenges of this disease.
  • The treatment outcomes of metastatic head and neck melanoma remain disappointing but important progress has been made in the understanding of melanoma biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms. Melanoma. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / drug therapy. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / radiotherapy. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / secondary. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / surgery. Immunotherapy. Interferons / therapeutic use. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18366288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interleukin-2; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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10. Nishiura Y, Sakamoto K, Mihoki T, Takane Y, Maeda A, Miyajima Y, Nakashima T: [Autologous tumor-specific immunotherapy for recurrent malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2006 Nov;109(11):781-4
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  • [Title] [Autologous tumor-specific immunotherapy for recurrent malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity].
  • Malignant melanoma usually occurs in tissues containing large numbers of melanocytes, such as the skin, mucosa and eye, and is one of the most highly malignant tumors known.
  • No satisfactory treatment results have ever been reported.
  • We report here an effective course of immunotherapy consisting of the local injection and intra-venous administration of autologous tumor-cell-stimulated cytotoxic T lymphocytes in a patient with recurrent malignant melanoma.
  • She had been diagnosed as having malignant melanoma in 1996 and under went radio-chemotherapy at our hospital.
  • Following systematic chemotherapy, 23 local injections of cytotoxic T lymphocytes were performed.
  • Immunotherapy using cytotoxic T lymphocytes may be a useful strategy for controlling recurrent malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunotherapy / methods. Melanoma / therapy. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Interleukins / therapeutic use. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17165592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukins
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11. Wang Y, Cen Y, Li Z: [Therapeutic result of operation combined with large-dose of roferon-A for cutaneous malignant melanoma]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jan;21(1):37-9
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic result of operation combined with large-dose of roferon-A for cutaneous malignant melanoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of operation with large-dose of Roferon-A for cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: From January 1998 to December 2005, thirty-three patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma were treated.
  • In 33 patients, nine patients identified as clinical-stage I received singly enlarged-resection to the primary lesion and performed split-thickness skin graft dermoplasty or adjacent skin flap repair; twenty-three patients identified as clinical-stage II received enlarged-resection to the primary lesion and performed proximal lymphaden scavenge as well as received split-thickness skin graft dermoplasty; and one patient identified as clinical-stage III received palliative resection to the primary lesion.
  • CONCLUSION: The operation combined with large-dose of Roferon-A after operation was a more effective way to treat cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Recombinant Proteins. Skin Transplantation. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17305002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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12. Kung B, Aftab S, Wood M, Rosen D: Malignant melanoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature. Ear Nose Throat J; 2009 Jan;88(1):E7
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature.
  • The thyroid gland is a relatively uncommon site for a secondary malignancy; even less common is a case of malignant melanoma metastatic to the thyroid.
  • We describe the case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a neck mass in the posterior triangle.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) identified the mass as a malignant melanoma.
  • The patient had had no known primary skin melanoma.
  • He underwent a left modified radical neck dissection, and the mass was discovered to be a positive lymph node.
  • Postoperatively, he declined to undergo radio- and chemotherapy.
  • FNAB again attributed the enlargement to malignant melanoma.
  • He developed ventilator-dependent respiratory failure and required a subtotal thyroidectomy for the placement of a tracheostomy tube.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19172560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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13. Whatley WS, Thompson JW, Rao B: Salivary gland tumors in survivors of childhood cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2006 Mar;134(3):385-8
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  • BACKGROUND: There is an increased incidence of second malignant neoplasms in survivors of childhood cancers.
  • The most common second malignancies are acute leukemia, bone and soft tissue tumors, and carcinoma of the skin, breast, and thyroid.
  • Although, ionizing radiation has been demonstrated to increase the risk of developing a salivary gland neoplasm, there are few reports of salivary gland neoplasms occurring in patients treated for cancer in childhood.
  • RESULTS: Twelve survivors of childhood cancer developed a salivary gland neoplasm after completion of treatment.
  • These patients were initially treated for a variety of childhood cancers with a combination of radiation and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiation and chemotherapy used to treat patients with childhood malignancies increases the risk of developing a second neoplasm of salivary gland origin.
  • The majority of these neoplasms are malignant; mucoepidermoid carcinoma occurs most frequently.
  • The treatment of these tumors includes surgical excision of the primary, with neck dissection in patients with clinical evidence of nodal metastasis, and postoperative radiation added for pathologies with adverse features.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Survivors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / surgery. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / surgery. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Neck Dissection. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


14. Iguchi T, Miyazawa K, Okabe S, Kawakubo K, Shimamoto T, Kuriyama Y, Ito Y, Kimura Y, Ohyashiki K, Serizawa H, Iwaya K, Mukai K: [Relapse of diffuse large B cell lymphoma to CD20-negative multiple cutaneous tumors immediately after anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) therapy]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2004 Oct;45(10):1129-34
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  • [Title] [Relapse of diffuse large B cell lymphoma to CD20-negative multiple cutaneous tumors immediately after anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) therapy].
  • The pathological findings of the cervical lymph nodes revealed that the patient had a malignant lymphoma, of the diffuse large B cell type, at clinical stage IIIB.
  • Although a complete remission was obtained after 8 courses of CHOP therapy, the patient relapsed 32 months later.
  • Two courses of a half dose of CHASE therapy consisting of CPM, ara-C, VP-16 and dexamethasone, followed by rituximab (600 mg/week x4) resulted in a transient re-induction of complete remission.
  • However, multiple cutaneous tumors became apparent just 10 days after the last rituximab therapy.
  • A series of chemotherapy including high-dose MTX was ineffective, and the patient died in August 2003.
  • A CD20 negative-clone selected by rituximab therapy appeared to have expanded in this case.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD20 / immunology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Capillaries / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / pathology. Remission Induction. Rituximab


15. Akhtar S, Oza KK, Wright J: Merkel cell carcinoma: report of 10 cases and review of the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2000 Nov;43(5 Pt 1):755-67
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  • BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare primary neuroendocrine skin tumor that usually arises in the head and neck or the extremities of elderly patients.
  • Because of the limitation of retrospective data, optimal treatment is not well defined.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to present the clinical course and treatment of 10 patients with MCC and review the published literature on MCC.
  • The medical literature was also reviewed for natural history and treatment recommendations using MEDLINE search.
  • RESULTS: Five men and 5 women received their treatment between 1986 and 1998 for MCC (5 had stage IA disease, 4 stage IB, 1 stage II).
  • Seven tumors were located on the head and neck and 3 on extremities.
  • Five of 10 patients had a relapse (mean time before recurrence, 5.7 months) (range, 2 weeks-20 months); one patient had local recurrence, one had regional lymph node recurrence, and 3 had both local and regional lymph node recurrence.
  • In 4 patients systemic metastases developed.
  • After initial surgery, 9 patients received radiotherapy at some point and 3 patients also received chemotherapy.
  • Five of 10 patients had 13 previously treated or coexisting malignant neoplasms.
  • In one patient MCC developed in a previously irradiated field.
  • Review of 875 cases showed a male/female ratio of 1.5:1; location of tumors was as follows: head and neck, 47%; extremities, 40%; trunk, 8%; unknown primary site, 5%.
  • The role of chemotherapy is still controversial and should be considered in patients with advanced disease and those not thought to be candidates for surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11050578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0190-9622
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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16. Harding J, Burtness B: Cetuximab: an epidermal growth factor receptor chemeric human-murine monoclonal antibody. Drugs Today (Barc); 2005 Feb;41(2):107-27
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  • In addition, expression of the EGFR by malignant cells is associated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy.
  • The EGFR is a prime target for new anticancer therapy, and other agents in development include small molecular tyrosine kinase inhibitors and antisense therapies.
  • Preclinical studies have demonstrated that cetuximab reduces chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance in human tumor cell lines in vitro and in nude mice bearing xenografts of human tumors.
  • In clinical and preclinical studies cetuximab has been shown to induce response to treatment when used in combination with chemotherapy in patients previously refractory to chemotherapy.
  • Based on these studies, cetuximab can be added to regimens using docetaxel, cisplatin, carboplatin, irinotecan, paclitaxel and fluorouracil and may add to treatment efficacy.
  • The most commonly reported adverse event associated with cetuximab treatment is an acneiform rash that occurs in 70-80% of patients treated with cetuximab.
  • The rash is rarely dose- or treatment-limiting, and may diminish in intensity with continued exposure to cetuximab.
  • Improvement may be seen after treatment with topical antibiotic preparations, topical steroids or topical retinoids.
  • The rash resolves fully after discontinuation of cetuximab treatment.
  • EGFR is widely expressed in skin and skin biopsies in areas involved with the characteristic cetuximab eruption demonstrate neutrophilic folliculitis.
  • In fact, analysis of four phase II clinical trials of cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, or pancreatic cancer showed that development of the acneiform rash was significantly correlated with response to treatment; grade 3 rash may be especially predictive of response.
  • Other phase II and III studies show significant response to treatment in variable proportions of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, non-small cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer when cetuximab is used first or second line in combination with chemotherapy.
  • Thus, cetuximab is emerging as a very promising new therapy to be used in conjunction with existing therapies for the treatment of a spectrum of solid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibody Specificity. Apoptosis / drug effects. Area Under Curve. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cetuximab. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Half-Life. Humans. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Radiation Tolerance

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Prous Science. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 15821783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3993
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain : 1998)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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17. Martin M: Clinical experience with pemetrexed in breast cancer. Semin Oncol; 2006 Feb;33(1 Suppl 2):S15-8
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  • Alimta (pemetrexed) is a novel multitargeted antifolate that inhibits several enzymes in the de novo pathways of pyrimidine and purine biosynthesis, including thymidylate synthase, dihydrofolate reductase, and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase.
  • Pemetrexed possesses antitumor activity in several solid tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer, malignant pleural mesothelioma, pancreas, colorectal, gastric, bladder, breast, and head and neck cancers.
  • The main toxicities of the drug are myelosuppression, skin rash, and mucositis.
  • The drug has shown an activity of around 30% in advanced breast cancer patients with minimal or no prior chemotherapy.
  • A randomized phase II study comparing pemetrexed 600 and 900 mg/m(2) with vitamin supplementation as first-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer is ongoing.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glutamates / therapeutic use. Guanine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Exanthema / chemically induced. Folic Acid / administration & dosage. Humans. Mucositis / chemically induced. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Pemetrexed. Treatment Outcome. Vitamin B 12 / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16472713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Glutamates; 04Q9AIZ7NO / Pemetrexed; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; 935E97BOY8 / Folic Acid; P6YC3EG204 / Vitamin B 12
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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18. Benessahraoui M, Dalstein V, Lorchel F, Algros MP, Puzenat E, Louvat P, Hassam B, Humbert PH, Aubin F: [Merkel cell carcinoma: descriptive study of 24 cases (1993-2001)]. Rev Med Interne; 2003 Sep;24(9):560-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome à cellules de Merkel: étude descriptive de 24 cas (1993-2001).
  • INTRODUCTION: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare skin tumor with a highly malignant nature whose appropriate treatment is still debated.
  • Wide surgery is the treatment of choice, but the question concerning protocols for adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy remains open.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 24 cases of MCC collected over a period of 9 years was performed, focusing on clinical and histologic features, and response to treatment.
  • The head and neck localization was predominant (54%).
  • Among them, five patients (33%) developed a local or nodal recurrence, although two patients were initially treated with surgery and local post-operative radiotherapy.
  • DISCUSSION: Our series illustrates the clinical characteristics of this tumor of the elderly, which is mainly located on head and neck and associated with a poor prognosis.
  • Treatments are discussed.

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  • (PMID = 12951176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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19. Betz CS, Leunig A: [Potential and limitations of fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy. Part II: Photodynamic therapy]. HNO; 2004 Feb;52(2):175-192

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  • [Title] [Potential and limitations of fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy. Part II: Photodynamic therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Fluoreszenzdiagnostik und photodynamischen Therapie. Teil 2: Photodynamische Therapie.
  • In photodynamic therapy, neoplastic issue is damaged and subsequently killed by the targeted illumination of previously photosensitized cells.
  • Initially, an explanation of the clinically relevant difficulties in the therapy of (pre-)malignant lesions of the head and neck region, a historical synopsis of the development of this method and an illustration of the biophysical basics is given.
  • [MeSH-major] Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Survival / drug effects. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Facial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Hematoporphyrin Photoradiation / methods. Humans. Leukoplakia, Oral / diagnosis. Leukoplakia, Oral / drug therapy. Leukoplakia, Oral / pathology. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / drug therapy. Papilloma / pathology. Photosensitivity Disorders / diagnosis. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / pathology. Skin / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15049331.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-6192
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Dragicevic-Curic N, Gräfe S, Albrecht V, Fahr A: Topical application of temoporfin-loaded invasomes for photodynamic therapy of subcutaneously implanted tumours in mice: a pilot study. J Photochem Photobiol B; 2008 Apr 25;91(1):41-50
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  • [Title] Topical application of temoporfin-loaded invasomes for photodynamic therapy of subcutaneously implanted tumours in mice: a pilot study.
  • It has shown to be effective in the photodynamic therapy of early or recurrent oral carcinomas, in the palliative treatment of refractory oral carcinomas and in the treatment of primary non-melanomatous tumours of the skin of the head and neck.
  • In the case of cutaneous malignant or non-malignant diseases a topical application of the drug onto the site of the disease followed by illumination, would be advantageous.
  • Unfortunately, mTHPC is a highly hydrophobic drug with a low percutaneous absorption.
  • The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the photodynamic efficacy of novel mTHPC-loaded invasomes after their topical application onto the skin of mice bearing the subcutaneously implanted human colorectal tumour HT29 followed by photoirradiation.
  • This was a pilot study since until now no data are available about the efficacy of mTHPC in the photodynamic therapy of HT29 tumours after its topical application.
  • The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether a mTHPC-loaded invasome formulation can reduce tumour size by photodynamic therapy or at least to find a formulation slowing down tumour growth compared to the control group (mice without any treatment).
  • The groups of mice treated with mTHPC-invasomes containing 1% of the terpene mixture prior to photoirradiation showed a significantly smaller (p<0.05) tumour increase compared to control groups (mice without any treatment and mice only photoirradiated).
  • [MeSH-major] Liposomes / administration & dosage. Mesoporphyrins / administration & dosage. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Pilot Projects. Terpenes / administration & dosage. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18316200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-1344
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Mesoporphyrins; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Terpenes; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; FU21S769PF / temoporfin
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21. Ekborn A, Hansson J, Ehrsson H, Eksborg S, Wallin I, Wagenius G, Laurell G: High-dose Cisplatin with amifostine: ototoxicity and pharmacokinetics. Laryngoscope; 2004 Sep;114(9):1660-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Ototoxicity is a common side effect of high-dose cisplatin treatment.
  • The trial was initiated to test the efficacy of amifostine protection in high-dose cisplatin treatment (125-150 mg/m) for metastatic malignant melanoma, to correlate the ototoxic outcome with cisplatin pharmacokinetics, and to evaluate the importance of using a selective analytical method for the quantification of cisplatin.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study of 15 patients with stage IV malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: Clinical follow-up of therapeutic response, pure-tone audiometry, and analysis of cisplatin and its monohydrated complex in blood ultrafiltrate by liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization were performed.
  • All patients had audiometric changes at one or more frequencies after the second treatment course, and all but one patient reported auditory symptoms.
  • CONCLUSION: Ototoxicity was unacceptable despite amifostine treatment.
  • Cisplatin pharmacokinetics during the first treatment course were not predictive of hearing loss.
  • Amifostine caused a lowering of dose-normalized area under the concentration-time curve for cisplatin and monohydrated complex.
  • Use of the unselective inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis leads to an overestimation of active drug.
  • Selective analysis of cisplatin is especially important when evaluating cisplatin pharmacokinetics during chemoprotector treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Amifostine / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Cisplatin / toxicity. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / chemically induced. Melanoma / drug therapy. Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Audiometry, Pure-Tone. Auditory Threshold / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Metabolic Clearance Rate / drug effects. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15475801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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22. Richtig E, Soyer HP, Posch M, Mossbacher U, Bauer P, Teban L, Svolba G, Wolf IH, Fritsch P, Zelger B, Volc-Platzer B, Gebhart W, Mischer P, Steiner A, Pachinger W, Hintner H, Gschnait F, Rappersberger K, Pilarski P, Pehamberger H, European Cooperative Adjuvant Melanoma Treatment Study Group: Prospective, randomized, multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled trial comparing adjuvant interferon alfa and isotretinoin with interferon alfa alone in stage IIA and IIB melanoma: European Cooperative Adjuvant Melanoma Treatment Study Group. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Dec 1;23(34):8655-63
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  • [Title] Prospective, randomized, multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled trial comparing adjuvant interferon alfa and isotretinoin with interferon alfa alone in stage IIA and IIB melanoma: European Cooperative Adjuvant Melanoma Treatment Study Group.
  • We evaluated safety and efficacy of IFNalpha and isotretinoin compared with IFNalpha alone as adjuvant treatment in patients with primary malignant melanoma stage IIA and IIB.
  • IFNalpha was administered three times a week at a dose of 3 million units subcutaneously for 24 months.
  • CONCLUSION: The addition of isotretinoin to an adjuvant treatment of low-dose IFNalpha in patients with stage IIA and IIB melanoma had no significant effect on disease-free or overall survival and is therefore not recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Isotretinoin / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Double-Blind Method. Europe. Female. Humans. Hyperlipidemias / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Quality of Life. Skin Diseases / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Dec 1;23(34):8559-63 [16260699.001]
  • (PMID = 16260701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
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