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1. Bhatnagar N, Li X, Padi SK, Zhang Q, Tang MS, Guo B: Downregulation of miR-205 and miR-31 confers resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Cell Death Dis; 2010 Dec 09;1:e105
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  • [Title] Downregulation of miR-205 and miR-31 confers resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
  • Advanced prostate cancers are known to acquire not only invasive capabilities but also significant resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis.
  • To understand how microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to prostate cancer resistance to apoptosis, we compared microRNA expression profiles of a benign prostate cancer cell line WPE1-NA22 and a highly malignant WPE1-NB26 cell line (derived from a common lineage).
  • We found that miR-205 and miR-31 are significantly downregulated in WPE1-NB26 cells, as well as in other cell lines representing advanced-stage prostate cancers.
  • By downregulating Bcl-w and E2F6, miR-205 and miR-31 promote chemotherapeutic agents-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
  • The promoter region of the miR-205 gene was cloned and was found to be hypermethylated in cell lines derived from advanced prostate cancers, contributing to the downregulation of the gene.
  • Treatment with DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine induced miR-205 expression, downregulated Bcl-w, and sensitized prostate cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis.
  • Thus, downregulation of miR-205 and miR-31 has an important role in apoptosis resistance in advanced prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 21368878.001).
  • [ISSN] 2041-4889
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell death & disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Death Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA130062; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR015566-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA130062-02; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P30 GM103332; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR015566; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA130062; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR015566; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA130062-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BCL2L2 protein, human; 0 / E2F6 Transcription Factor; 0 / E2F6 protein, human; 0 / MIRN205 microRNA, human; 0 / MIRN31 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS257670; NLM/ PMC3004480
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bcl-w / E2F6 / apoptosis / miR-205 / miR-31 / prostate cancer
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2. Bogdanos J, Karamanolakis D, Tenta R, Tsintavis A, Milathianakis C, Mitsiades C, Koutsilieris M: Endocrine/paracrine/autocrine survival factor activity of bone microenvironment participates in the development of androgen ablation and chemotherapy refractoriness of prostate cancer metastasis in skeleton. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2003 Jun;10(2):279-89
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  • [Title] Endocrine/paracrine/autocrine survival factor activity of bone microenvironment participates in the development of androgen ablation and chemotherapy refractoriness of prostate cancer metastasis in skeleton.
  • Bone is the most frequent site of metastases of prostate cancer and is almost always the first and frequently the only site of metastases where disease will progress to stage D3.
  • In addition, the number of skeletal metastatic foci is the most powerful independent prognostic factor of limited response to hormone ablation therapy and poor survival of patients with advanced prostate cancer.
  • Furthermore, disease progression frequently occurs in the osteoblastic metastases, even though androgen ablation therapy still provides adequate and sustained control of disease at the primary site.
  • Notably, the management of metastatic disease onto bones has traditionally relied on therapeutic modalities, which almost exclusively aim at directly inducing cancer cell death.
  • The in vivo response of malignant cells to anticancer therapies is directly influenced by the local microenvironment in which they metastasize.
  • In particular, organ sites frequently involved in metastatic diseases, such as the bones, appear to confer to metastatic cells protection from anticancer drug-induced apoptosis.
  • This protection is mediated by soluble growth factors and cytokines released by the normal cellular constituents of the host tissue microenvironment.
  • The characterization of bone microenvironment-related survival factors has led to the development of a novel hormone manipulation which can re-introduce clinical responses in patients with stage D3 prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Autocrine Communication / physiology. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Endocrine System / physiology. Paracrine Communication / physiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Androgen Receptor Antagonists. Animals. Bone and Bones / physiology. Cell Survival. Environment. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 12790789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Androgen Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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3. Eisenberger MA: A multi-institutional pilot study of adjuvant docetaxel for patients with prostate cancer at high risk for relapse after radical prostatectomy. Rev Urol; 2003;5 Suppl 3:S59-64

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  • [Title] A multi-institutional pilot study of adjuvant docetaxel for patients with prostate cancer at high risk for relapse after radical prostatectomy.
  • The management of patients with high-risk, early-stage, prostate cancer represents a major challenge to all disciplines involved in the treatment of this common malignant neoplasm.
  • A definition of the natural history of this disease-including the identification of key prognostic factors-and the availability of active systemic therapeutic modalities for patients with advanced disease are among the basic requirements needed to provide for early intervention in high-risk patients.
  • Several cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens have demonstrated significant antitumor effects in patients with hormone-refractory disease.
  • Docetaxel (Taxotere(R), Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Bridgewater, NJ), a widely used taxane with broad antitumor activity, likely represents the most active single agent in prostate cancer treatment.
  • Current data indicate that 40%-60% of patients treated with docetaxel have exhibited evidence of benefit from treatment with docetaxel, both alone and in combination with estramustine, with acceptable toxicity.
  • The main study endpoint is time-to-biochemical-relapse, which will be assessed against a matched group of historical controls.

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  • (PMID = 16985952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6161
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1502336
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4. Nakata S, Takahashi H, Takezawa Y, Kobayashi M, Matumoto K, Kosaku N, Kawashima K: [PSA doubling time in prostate cancer relapsed after endocrine therapy]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2000 Jul-Aug;91(7-8):584-8
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  • [Title] [PSA doubling time in prostate cancer relapsed after endocrine therapy].
  • PURPOSE: The PSA level of prostate cancer patients generally declines after endocrine therapy, but elevates when the cancer relapses in most cases.
  • We investigated the PSA doubling time (PSA-DT) of the prostate cancer patients whose PSA declined after endocrine therapy and later re-elevated, and investigated the relationship with other parameters.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated 55 prostate cancer patients who underwent endocrine therapy between 1991 and 1998.
  • Their PSA re-elevated continuously after their PSA fell below 10 ng/ml after the endocrine therapy as the first line treatment.
  • First, the correlation coefficients with time and PSA were calculated in order to decide whether their PSA elevation was exponential or linear.
  • PSA-DT was calculated thereafter, and compared with the clinical stage, pathological differentiation, clinical relapse style, time from the beginning of the therapy to PSA relapse, pre-treatment PSA value, and prognosis.
  • The relationship between PSA-DT and each clinical parameter was tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test.
  • Differences in survival rates and PSA-DT were calculated using the log-rank test.
  • RESULTS: PSA elevated exponentially after cancer relapsed.
  • PSA-DT in all cases ranged from 0.5 to 26.3 months, with an average of 4.4 +/- 4.8 (S.D.) months and the median was 2.5 months.
  • PSA-DT was significantly (p < 0.01) short when the pre-treatment clinical stage was high, the time from the beginning of the therapy to PSA relapse was short, or the pre-treatment PSA value was high.
  • PSA-DT tended to be short when the pre-treatment pathological differentiation was low, but not significantly.
  • PSA-DT tended to be short when the cancer relapsed as distant metastasis rather than regional relapse, but not significantly.
  • Prognosis from the initial treatment and PSA relapse was significantly poor when the PSA-DT was short.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PSA elevated exponentially in the relapsed prostate cancer patients after the endocrine therapy.
  • PSA-DT was distributed in a very wide range, and this value was considered to reflect the malignant potential and prognosis of the cancer.
  • PSA-DT may be useful for determining the strategy after relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 10965743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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5. Qiu YQ, Leuschner I, Braun PM: Androgen receptor expression in clinically localized prostate cancer: immunohistochemistry study and literature review. Asian J Androl; 2008 Nov;10(6):855-63
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  • [Title] Androgen receptor expression in clinically localized prostate cancer: immunohistochemistry study and literature review.
  • AIM: To evaluate androgen receptor (AR) expression in clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa).
  • METHODS: Specimens were studied from 232 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostatic adenocarcinoma without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy or chemotherapy at our institution between November 2001 and June 2005.
  • The mean AR density in the hot spots of different histological areas within the same sections were compared and the correlation of malignant epithelial AR density with clinicopathological parameters such as Gleason score, tumor, nodes and metastases (TNM) stage and pre-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value was assessed.
  • RESULTS: AR immunoreactivity was almost exclusively nuclear and was observed in tumor cells, non-neoplastic glandular epithelial cells and a proportion of peritumoral and interglandular stromal cells.
  • Mean percentage of AR-positive epithelial cells was significantly higher in cancer tissues than that in normal prostate tissues (mean +/- SD, 90.0% +/- 9.3% vs. 85.3 +/- ?9.7%, P < 0.001).
  • The percentage of AR immunoreactive prostatic cancer nuclei and histological score were not correlated with existing parameters such as Gleason score, tumor, nodes and metastases stage and pre-treatment PSA value in this surgically treated cohort.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Androgen / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Paraffin Embedding. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Prostatectomy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008, Asian Journal of Andrology, SIMM and SJTU. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 18958349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-682X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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6. Chen HJ, Xu M, Zhang L, Zhang YK, Wang GM: [Prostate sarcoma: a report of 14 cases]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2005 Sep;11(9):683-5
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  • [Title] [Prostate sarcoma: a report of 14 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the diagnosis and effective treatment of prostate sarcoma.
  • METHODS: We analysed the clinical materials of fourteen patients with prostate sarcoma treated in our hospital from Jan.
  • RESULTS: Prostate sarcoma accounted for 3.21% of all the prostatic malignant tumors treated in our hospital during that period.
  • Large soft prostate tumors were found in all the patients in physical examination.
  • Different kinds of prostate sarcoma each his its own immuno-histochemical staining features.
  • Two cases were at Ghavimi Stage I, 5 at Stage II, 3 at Stage III, and 4 at Stage IV.
  • All the patients received surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • One case failed to be followed up, 11 died 2 approximately 12 months after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Dysuria is always the first symptom of prostate sarcoma.
  • DRE test may suggest prostate sarcoma but needle biopsy contributes to a definite diagnosis.
  • The prognosis of prostate sarcoma is very poor and the main treatment is surgery followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis


7. Stevens MC, Rey A, Bouvet N, Ellershaw C, Flamant F, Habrand JL, Marsden HB, Martelli H, Sanchez de Toledo J, Spicer RD, Spooner D, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, van Unnik A, Oberlin O: Treatment of nonmetastatic rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood and adolescence: third study of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology--SIOP Malignant Mesenchymal Tumor 89. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Apr 20;23(12):2618-28
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  • [Title] Treatment of nonmetastatic rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood and adolescence: third study of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology--SIOP Malignant Mesenchymal Tumor 89.
  • PURPOSE: To improve outcome for children with nonmetastatic rhabdomyosarcoma and to reduce systematic use of local therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five hundred three previously untreated patients aged from birth to 18 years, recruited between 1989 and 1995, were allocated to one of six treatment schedules by site and stage.
  • Primary site, T-stage, and pathologic subtype were independent factors in predicting OS by multivariate analysis.
  • Differences between EFS and OS reflected local treatment strategy and successful re-treatment for some patients after relapse.
  • Patients with genitourinary nonbladder prostate tumors had the most favorable outcome (5-year OS, 94%): the majority were boys with paratesticular tumors treated successfully without alkylating agents.
  • Patients with stage III disease treated with a novel six-drug combination showed improved survival compared with the Malignant Mesenchymal Tumor 84 study (MMT 84; 5-year OS, 60% v 42%, respectively).
  • OS was not significantly better than that achieved in the previous MMT 84 study, but 49% of survivors were cured without significant local therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Selective avoidance of local therapy is justified in some patients, though further work is required to prospectively identify those for whom this is most applicable.
  • The value of the new six-drug chemotherapy combination is being evaluated further in a randomized study (MMT 95).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Teniposide / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Apr 20;23(12):2586-7 [15728222.001]
  • (PMID = 15728225.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 957E6438QA / Teniposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; IVA protocol; VCE protocol
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8. Kurokawa K, Suzuki K, Yamanaka H: [Treatment strategy for locally advanced prostate cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 Jan;30(1):38-42
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  • [Title] [Treatment strategy for locally advanced prostate cancer].
  • With the increasing aged population, prostate cancer has become one of the commonest malignant tumors in the United States.
  • The incidence of prostate cancer is the highest among malignant tumors in males, and the mortality rate is the second highest following lung cancer.
  • Even when prostate cancer is diagnosed to be in the early stage preoperatively, its excised lesions are often judged pathohistologically to be locally advanced tumor (staging error).
  • Therefore, to estimate the exact pathological stage of excised lesions by preoperative parameters such as clinical T, PSA and biopsy Gleason Score, Partin's nomogram is generally used in the United States.
  • Currently, the standard methods for the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer may be external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and intraprostate 125I and 103Pd seeds with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, although the long-term results are unknown.
  • In our study, similar to a report by Messing et al., adjuvant hormonal therapy might be effective in patients in whom the tumor was diagnosed as being in the early stage but was later found to be N (+) after its operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12557703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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9. Wang KF, Wu B, Zhang Y: [Adult prostate sarcoma: a report of 6 cases with clinical analysis]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2007 Jul;13(7):617-9
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  • [Title] [Adult prostate sarcoma: a report of 6 cases with clinical analysis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of sarcoma of the adult prostate.
  • METHODS: We reported 6 cases of sarcoma of the adult prostate, of which 3 were leiomyosarcoma, 2 rhabdomyosarcoma and 1 malignant neurilemoma, 2 at Ghavimi Stage II, 3 at Stage III and 1 at Stage IV.
  • Five of them received operation, radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy and 1 underwent cystostomy only.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical dyeing showed vimentin to be positive while PSA and PAP negative in all the 6 cases, actin (HHF35) positive in the cases of leiomyosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, and S-100 and lysozyme positive in the case of malignant neurilemoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Sarcoma of the adult prostate initiates with the symptom of progressive dysuria, which can be diagnosed by DRE test and confirmed by needle biopsy.
  • Early diagnosis and radical surgical resection may offer the best chance of survival, but with poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adolescent. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystostomy. Drug Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. S100 Proteins / analysis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17725305.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Vimentin
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10. Pinthus JH, Sheffer Y, Nagler A, Fridman E, Mor Y, Genina O, Pines M: Inhibition of Wilms tumor xenograft progression by halofuginone is accompanied by activation of WT-1 gene expression. J Urol; 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 2):1527-31
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  • [Title] Inhibition of Wilms tumor xenograft progression by halofuginone is accompanied by activation of WT-1 gene expression.
  • PURPOSE: Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the urinary tract in children.
  • Although it is curable with long-term survival, the combination of surgery, chemotherapy and often radiotherapy in some cases results in severe complications in adulthood.
  • Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies that would decrease treatment burden and improve outcome for high risk patients are required.
  • We evaluated the efficacy of halofuginone, an inhibitor of collagen type I synthesis and angiogenesis, to inhibit WT development in xenografts models.
  • RESULTS: Independent of disease stage, tumor location or administration route, halofuginone caused a decrease in angiogenesis that resulted in marked inhibition of tumor development.
  • This result was accompanied by a reduction in collagen synthesis, reduced levels of hepatocyte growth factor receptor MET and increased levels of the tumor suppressor protein WT1.
  • In culture halofuginone increased the synthesis of WT1 in the human WT cell-line SK-NEP-1 and in other cancer cell lines such as hepatocellular carcinoma and prostate cancer.
  • Because of its unique mode of action, halofuginone may decrease the treatment burden when combined with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Quinazolines / pharmacology. WT1 Proteins / biosynthesis. Wilms Tumor / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16148645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Quinazolinones; 0 / WT1 Proteins; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; L31MM1385E / halofuginone
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11. Huang J, Yao JL, di Sant'Agnese PA, Yang Q, Bourne PA, Na Y: Immunohistochemical characterization of neuroendocrine cells in prostate cancer. Prostate; 2006 Sep 15;66(13):1399-406
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical characterization of neuroendocrine cells in prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) cells increase in high grade/stage prostate cancer (PC) and may contribute to androgen-independent cancer.
  • METHODS: PC tissue was stained immunohistochemically for luminal secretory cell-associated cytokeratin, basal cell markers, ki-67, androgen receptor (AR), PSA, prostate acid phosphatase (PAP), and alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR).
  • The benign NE cells are negative for AMACR while the malignant NE cells are positive for AMACR.
  • CONCLUSIONS: NE cells of PC constitute a unique subset of cancer cells, which have a unique immunohistochemical profile.
  • They do not express AR, consistent with their resistance to hormonal therapy.
  • They are post-mitotic cells but are malignant and part of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase / genetics. Acid Phosphatase / metabolism. Androgen Antagonists / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / genetics. Keratins / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Phenotype. Prostate-Specific Antigen / genetics. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Racemases and Epimerases / genetics. Racemases and Epimerases / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / genetics. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16865726.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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12. Börgermann C, Vom Dorp F, Schenck M, Becker M, Hess J, Rübben H: [Value of targeted therapy for prostate cancer]. Urologe A; 2008 Oct;47(10):1315-9
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  • [Title] [Value of targeted therapy for prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Der Stellenwert der Targeted-Therapie beim Prostatakarzinom.
  • Prostate cancer is the most frequent malignancy of the male population.
  • Every year in Germany approximately 12,000 patients die of their hormone-refractory prostate cancer even though early detection is able to find more curable prostate cancers.
  • In a hormone-refractory stage we only have limited options for treatment.
  • Although docetaxel is currently the standard of care in most hormone-refractory prostate cancers, it is not the magic therapy that will dramatically change the patient's poor survival.
  • This drug provides an overall survival advantage of 2 months.
  • During recent years, significant progress has been made in the field of molecular therapy in urologic oncology.
  • Targeted therapy leads to an inhibition of angiogenesis and proliferation in malignant tumors.
  • Even if there is a great theoretical potential, mono- and combination therapies with target substances are not relevant in the clinical routine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Drug Delivery Systems. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Calcitriol / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrrolidines / administration & dosage. Sirolimus / administration & dosage. Survival Rate. Thionucleotides / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18587554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 0 / Thionucleotides; 85J5ZP6YSL / oblimersen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; V6D7VK2215 / atrasentan; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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13. Eisenberger MA: A multi-institutional pilot study of adjuvant docetaxel for patients with prostate cancer at high risk for relapse after radical prostatectomy. Rev Urol; 2003;5 Suppl 2:S42-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A multi-institutional pilot study of adjuvant docetaxel for patients with prostate cancer at high risk for relapse after radical prostatectomy.
  • The management of patients with high-risk, early-stage, prostate cancer represents a major challenge to all disciplines involved in the treatment of this common malignant neoplasm.
  • A definition of the natural history of this disease-including the identification of key prognostic factors-and the availability of active systemic therapeutic modalities for patients with advanced disease are among the basic requirements needed to provide for early intervention in high-risk patients.
  • Several cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens have demonstrated significant antitumor effects in patients with hormone-refractory disease.
  • Docetaxel (Taxotere(R), Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Bridgewater, NJ), a widely used taxane with broad antitumor activity, likely represents the most active single agent in prostate cancer treatment.
  • Current data indicate that 40%-60% of patients treated with docetaxel have exhibited evidence of benefit from treatment with docetaxel, both alone and in combination with estramustine, with acceptable toxicity.
  • The main study endpoint is time-to-biochemical-relapse, which will be assessed against a matched group of historical controls.

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  • (PMID = 16986046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6161
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1502333
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14. Hori J, Kato Y, Iwata T, Taniguchi N, Hashimoto H, Yachiku S: [A case of penile malignant melanoma]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2003 Aug;49(8):493-6
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  • [Title] [A case of penile malignant melanoma].
  • Clinical diagnosis was penile malignant melanoma.
  • Cystoscopy and urethrography revealed urethral invasion of malignant melanoma, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the penis revealed invasion to prostate, and pelvic lymph node metastases in abdominal compuled tomography (CT) but no organ metastases.
  • The pathological findings were nodular malignant melanoma, pT4bN2bM1a, and the surgical margin was positive.
  • After these therapies, chemotherapy was performed.
  • Five months later, CT revealed multiple lung and brain metastases, and radiation therapy and chemotherapy were performed.
  • Twelve months after the operation, he died of cancer.
  • Review of the literature revealed that our patient is the thirtieth reported case of penile malignant melanoma in Japan since 1924.
  • In 30 cases, stage III, IV were 20 cases and 16 cases performed operation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14518390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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15. Gray A, Raff AB, Chiriva-Internati M, Chen SY, Kast WM: A paradigm shift in therapeutic vaccination of cancer patients: the need to apply therapeutic vaccination strategies in the preventive setting. Immunol Rev; 2008 Apr;222:316-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A paradigm shift in therapeutic vaccination of cancer patients: the need to apply therapeutic vaccination strategies in the preventive setting.
  • An extraordinary variety of potential therapeutic vaccine strategies directed against a wide variety of tumor antigens has been explored in clinical trials.
  • To date, none of these cancer immunotherapies have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in humans.
  • A significant problem is that the vast majority of such clinical trials are carried out in patients with advanced or metastatic cancer.
  • The immune systems of these patients are considerably compromised as a result of tumor- and treatment-mediated immunosuppression.
  • Even in cases where patients are immunized in the adjuvant setting, where there is minimal residual disease, vaccines directed against tumor-associated antigens have failed to mediate eradication of tumors in the overwhelming majority of cases.
  • Recently, we and others have experimented with administering therapeutic cancer vaccines in the preventive setting.
  • This is achieved by vaccinating at the earliest possible stage of carcinogenesis.
  • These studies have demonstrated that early vaccination is extremely effective in eliciting an anti-tumor immune response that leads to unprecedented improvements in the survival of mice that spontaneously develop cancer.
  • Certain human cancers, notably prostate adenocarcinoma and cervical cancer, can currently be detected at very early stages of carcinogenesis.
  • Therapeutic vaccines are available for these diseases, opening up the possibility of administering vaccinations early to patients diagnosed with pre-malignant lesions to halt disease progression.
  • Earlier detection of these cancers, combined with existing vaccines directed against them, will soon make them targets for therapeutic vaccination in the preventive setting.
  • The ability to immunize patients at the very earliest stages of carcinogenesis, when they have fully competent immune systems, has the potential to cause a paradigm shift in how therapeutic cancer vaccines are tested and used clinically.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Immunotherapy / methods. Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immune Tolerance / immunology. Immunocompromised Host. Immunotherapy, Adoptive. Male. Mice. Papillomaviridae / immunology. Papillomavirus Infections / immunology. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy. Papillomavirus Vaccines / immunology. Viral Vaccines / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18364011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-065X
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunological reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunol. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM 067587
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / Viral Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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16. Reiriz AB, Richter MF, Fernandes S, Cancela AI, Costa TD, Di Leone LP, Schwartsmann G: Phase II study of thalidomide in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2004 Dec;14(6):527-31
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  • [Title] Phase II study of thalidomide in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma.
  • We evaluated the single-agent antitumour activity and toxicity profile of thalidomide in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma, as well as its plasma pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) levels].
  • A two-stage Gehan method was used with a stopping rule after 14 consecutive non-responding patients.
  • The plasma pharmacokinetics of thalidomide were comparable with those of previous studies in normal volunteers and in patients with advanced prostate cancer.
  • Serum levels of b-FGF and VEGF did not change significantly following drug administration.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / metabolism. Humans. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15577325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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17. Thors L, Bergh A, Persson E, Hammarsten P, Stattin P, Egevad L, Granfors T, Fowler CJ: Fatty acid amide hydrolase in prostate cancer: association with disease severity and outcome, CB1 receptor expression and regulation by IL-4. PLoS One; 2010 Aug 19;5(8):e12275
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  • [Title] Fatty acid amide hydrolase in prostate cancer: association with disease severity and outcome, CB1 receptor expression and regulation by IL-4.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent data have indicated that there may be a dysregulation of endocannabinoid metabolism in cancer.
  • Here we have investigated the expression of the endocannabinoid metabolising enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in a well characterised tissue microarray from patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at transurethral resection for voiding problems.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: FAAH immunoreactivity (FAAH-IR) was assessed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded non-malignant and tumour cores from 412 patients with prostate cancer.
  • Tumour epithelial FAAH-IR was positively correlated with the disease severity at diagnosis (Gleason score, tumour stage, % of the specimen that contained tumour) for cases with mid-range CB(1)IR scores, but not for those with high CB(1)IR scores.
  • For the 281 cases who only received palliative therapy at the end stages of the disease, a high tumour epithelial FAAH-IR was associated with a poor disease-specific survival.
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4) receptor IR was found on tumour epithelial cells and incubation of prostate cancer PC-3 and R3327 AT1 cells with IL-4 increased their FAAH activity.
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tumour epithelial FAAH-IR is associated with prostate cancer severity and outcome at mid-range, but not high, CB(1)IR scores.
  • The correlation with CB(1)IR in the tumour tissue may be related to a common local dysregulation by a component of the tumour microenvironment.

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  • (PMID = 20808855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA011322; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA11322
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.5.- / Amidohydrolases; EC 3.5.1.- / fatty-acid amide hydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924377
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18. Ferri E, Azzolini N, Sebastio N, Salsi P, Meli S, Cortellini P: [Unusual case of mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis associated with prostatic adenocarcinoma]. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2000 Mar;52(1):33-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Unusual case of mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis associated with prostatic adenocarcinoma].
  • Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis, is a very rare neoplasm with highly aggressive biological behaviour.
  • The response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy is poor.
  • The median survival, without surgical treatment is 23 months.
  • A rare case of malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis, observed in a patient affected by prostate neoplasm is reported.
  • Rectal ultrasonography and biopsy showed an adenocarcinoma at T1c clinical stage.
  • Surgery was followed by radiation therapy.
  • Cytological examination confirmed malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis.
  • The therapeutic options for this aggressive neoplasm are discussed.
  • Since chemotherapy and radiation therapy had poor results, a rapid surgical treatment, by radical orchiectomy, is important.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Mesothelioma / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11517828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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19. Luchman HA, Benediktsson H, Villemaire ML, Peterson AC, Jirik FR: The pace of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia development is determined by the timing of Pten tumor suppressor gene excision. PLoS One; 2008;3(12):e3940
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The pace of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia development is determined by the timing of Pten tumor suppressor gene excision.
  • Loss of the PTEN tumor suppressor is a common occurrence in human prostate cancer, particularly in advanced disease.
  • In keeping with its role as a pivotal upstream regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway, experimentally-induced deletion of Pten in the murine prostate invariably results in neoplasia.
  • However, and unlike humans where prostate tumorigenesis likely evolves over decades, disease progression in the constitutively Pten deficient mouse prostate is relatively rapid, culminating in invasive cancer within several weeks post-puberty.
  • Given that the prostate undergoes rapid androgen-dependent growth at puberty, and that Pten excisions during this time might be especially tumorigenic, we hypothesized that delaying prostate-specific Pten deletions until immediately after puberty might alter the pace of tumorigenesis.
  • To this end we generated mice with a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase transgene enabling temporal control over prostate-specific gene alterations.
  • Despite evidence of increased Akt/mTOR/S6K axis activity at early time points in Pten-deficient epithelial cells, excisions induced in the post-pubertal (6 wk-old) prostate yielded gradual acquisition of a range of lesions.
  • These progressed from pre-malignant changes (nuclear atypia, focal hyperplasia) and low grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) at 16-20 wks post-tamoxifen exposure, to overtly malignant lesions by approximately 1 yr of age, characterized by high-grade PIN and microinvasive carcinoma.
  • In contrast, when Pten excisions were triggered in the pre-pubertal (2 week-old) prostate, neoplasia evolved over a more abbreviated time-frame, with a spectrum of premalignant lesions, as well as overt PIN and microinvasive carcinoma by 10-12 wks post-tamoxifen exposure.
  • These results indicate that the developmental stage at which Pten deletions are induced dictates the pace of PIN development.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Deletion. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / enzymology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / enzymology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen-Binding Protein / genetics. Animals. Apoptosis. Arrestins / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Crosses, Genetic. Disease Progression. Epithelium / enzymology. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. Integrases / metabolism. Male. Mice. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy. Precancerous Conditions / enzymology. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Rats. Ribosomal Protein S6 / metabolism. Tamoxifen / analogs & derivatives. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19081794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen-Binding Protein; 0 / Arrestins; 0 / Ribosomal Protein S6; 0 / beta-arrestin; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 17197F0KYM / afimoxifene; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.7.- / Cre recombinase; EC 2.7.7.- / Integrases; EC 3.1.3.48 / Pten protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2597775
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20. Singh RK, Lokeshwar BL: Depletion of intrinsic expression of Interleukin-8 in prostate cancer cells causes cell cycle arrest, spontaneous apoptosis and increases the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. Mol Cancer; 2009 Jul 31;8:57
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Depletion of intrinsic expression of Interleukin-8 in prostate cancer cells causes cell cycle arrest, spontaneous apoptosis and increases the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • The androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) is the terminal stage of the disease.
  • Many chemokines and cytokines are suspects to cause this increased tumor cell survival that ultimately leads to resistance to therapy and demise of the host.
  • The mechanism of IL-8 mediated survival and therapeutic resistance in AIPC cells is unclear at present.
  • The purpose of this report is to show the pervasive role of IL-8 in malignant progression of androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) and to provide a potential new therapeutic avenue, using RNA interference.
  • More significantly, depletion of intracellular IL-8 increased the cytotoxic activity of multiple chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • CONCLUSION: These results show the pervasive role of IL-8 in promoting tumor cell survival, and resistance to cytotoxic drugs, regardless of the cytotoxic mechanism of antiproliferative drugs, and point to potential therapeutic significance of IL-8 depletion in men with AIPC.

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  • (PMID = 19646263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / R01 AT003544; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA061038; United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / 1 R01 AT 003544; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01 CA 061038
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2729725
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21. Batura-Gabryel H, Foremska-Iciek J: Lung cancer in the elderly--increasing epidemiological problem of 21st century. Rocz Akad Med Bialymst; 2005;50 Suppl 1:152-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lung cancer in the elderly--increasing epidemiological problem of 21st century.
  • Lung cancer is the second most common malignant neoplasm after prostate and breast cancers.
  • The elderly people over 65, are the most numerous population suffering from lung cancer.
  • More than 80% of all types of lung cancers make non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and less than 20%--small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
  • The choice of the managment must be individually considered and should be based on the stage of cancer clinical advance, clinical and functional status, concomitant diseases, nutritional status, cognitive functions.
  • The patients age is not a contradiction for the introducement of the treatment.
  • Surgical treatment is a method by choice at the early stages of NSCLC.
  • Single-agent chemotherapy seems to be benficial for the elderly with advanced NSCLC in good general condition, mainly due to less toxicity and satisfactory the survival rate.
  • Unfortunately, the effectivity of the therapy is occupied by its toxicity.
  • Still frequent occurrence and late diagnosis of lung cancer, high mortality, low efficiency of chemo- and radiotherapy causes the necessity of newer research for more effective screening methods, more effective and safer lung cancer treatment schemes for the elderly.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16119652.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Roczniki Akademii Medycznej w Białymstoku (1995)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rocz. Akad. Med. Bialymst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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22. Djeu JY, Wei S: Clusterin and chemoresistance. Adv Cancer Res; 2009;105:77-92
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  • Resistance to anticancer agents is one of the primary impediments to effective cancer therapy.
  • Chemoresistance occurs not only to clinically established therapeutic agents but also to novel targeted therapeutics.
  • Both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms have been implicated in drug resistance but it remains controversial which mechanisms are responsible that lead to failure of therapy in cancer patients.
  • Its role has been documented in prostate cancer for paclitaxel/docetaxel resistance as well as in renal, breast, and lung tumor cells.
  • Moreover, it is abnormally upregulated in numerous advanced stage and metastatic cancers spanning prostate, renal, bladder, breast, head and neck, colon, cervical, pancreatic, lung carcinomas, melanoma, and lymphoma.
  • It is noteworthy that only the cytoplasmic/secretory clusterin form (sCLU), and not the nuclear form, is expressed in aggressive late stage tumors, which is in line with its antiapoptotic function.
  • Resistance to targeted death-inducing molecules, tumor necrosis factor, Fas and TRAIL, or histone deacetylase inhibitors can also be mediated by sCLU.
  • Expression of sCLU may be an adaptive response to genotoxic and oxidative stresses but this adaptive response could pose a threat in malignant cells being treated with cytotoxic agents by enhancing their survival potential.
  • The actual mechanisms for sCLU induction are unclear but STAT1 is required for its constitutive upregulation in docetaxel-resistant tumor cells.
  • Thus, sCLU has a key role in preventing apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents and has the potential to be targeted for cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Clusterin / physiology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Resistance, Multiple. Humans. Oxidative Stress

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  • (PMID = 19879424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098080
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLU protein, human; 0 / Clusterin
  • [Number-of-references] 78
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS539156; NLM/ PMC3889866
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23. Yashi M, Nukui A, Kurokawa S, Ochi M, Ishikawa S, Goto K, Kobayashi Y, Muraishi O, Tokue A: Elevated serum progastrin-releasing peptide (31-98) level is a predictor of short response duration after hormonal therapy in metastatic prostate cancer. Prostate; 2003 Sep 1;56(4):305-12
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Elevated serum progastrin-releasing peptide (31-98) level is a predictor of short response duration after hormonal therapy in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The neuroendocrine (NE) pathway has been attracting attention as a mechanism for the androgen-independent progression because the neuropeptide provokes tumor growth and inhibits apoptosis under androgen-deprived milieu in prostate cancer cells.
  • On the basis that serum progastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP) is elevated in patients with advanced disease stage, we examined the prognostic value of the neuropeptide.
  • METHODS: Serum ProGRP status was determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 460 men with benign and malignant prostatic diseases, chronic renal failure, and healthy controls.
  • Seventy patients with metastatic prostate cancer including four patients (5.7%) with NE carcinoma who underwent hormonal therapy were enrolled in the prognostic analyses by Cox proportional hazards model.
  • RESULTS: The serum status steadily shifted toward predominant expression of ProGRP with the progression of prostate cancer into metastatic and androgen-independent stages.
  • Univariate analysis revealed that the deteriorated performance status (PS) and extent of bony disease (EOD), and high serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum ProGRP, and nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were associated with a lower progression-free survival (PFS) rate (P < 0.005).
  • Serum ProGRP was the most significant predictor among pre-treatment factors in this model (P = 0.0094).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The neuropeptide precursor ProGRP is a distinct serum marker that is useful to know the NE milieu and provides prognostic information in patients with advanced prostate cancer.
  • Standard therapy for metastatic prostate cancer may make progress when further studies will clarify the causative link between serum ProGRP level and androgen-independent disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Gastrointestinal Hormones / analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Peptide Fragments / analysis. Peptides / analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Recombinant Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Androgens / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12858359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gastrointestinal Hormones; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (31-98); EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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