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1. Morimoto H, Hashida H, Honda T, Aibara Y: [An elderly case of cytomegalovirus enterocolitis associated with a malignant tumor]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi; 2002 Jan;39(1):97-100
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  • [Title] [An elderly case of cytomegalovirus enterocolitis associated with a malignant tumor].
  • An 83-year-old man was given a diagnosis of left parotid cancer in our hospital in November 1997.
  • He refused to undergo a surgical procedure because of his advanced age.
  • Therefore chemotherapy and radiotherapy were used.
  • Chemotherapy with CAP (Cyclophosphamide, Adriacin, and CDDP) was conducted on 6 occasions between December 1997 to July 2000.
  • As the patient also began to suffer high grade fevers and stomachaches, he was admitted on a diagnosis of acute enterocolitis.
  • Cytomegalovirus enterocolitis is an opportunistic infection, so immunocompromised hosts (such as cancer patients, patients using immunosuppressants, old people) have a greater probability of contracting cytomegalovirus infection.
  • A ganciclovir is an effective treatment.
  • A cytomegalovirus enterocolitis should considered in the differential diagnosis of enterocolitis, when alimentary symptoms like diarrhea or bloody stool are found in immunocompromised hosts.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytomegalovirus Infections / etiology. Enterocolitis / etiology. Immunocompromised Host. Parotid Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Ganciclovir / therapeutic use. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 11857983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Ronen Igakkai zasshi. Japanese journal of geriatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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2. Fiorella R, Di Nicola V, Fiorella ML, Spinelli DA, Coppola F, Luperto P, Madami L: Major salivary gland diseases. Multicentre study. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2005 Jun;25(3):182-90
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  • [Title] Major salivary gland diseases. Multicentre study.
  • This multicentre study involved 28 Italian ORL Centres responding to a questionnaire sent by us which allowed recruitment of a high large number of cases of parotid neoplasms observed over a 10-year period.
  • Benign tumours account for 80% of case histories with a relationship 1:4 M/F, the most frequent being pleomorphic adenoma (57.3% of cases), followed by Warthin's tumour (32.4%), this rating not having been confirmed in case histories (8-10%) in the literature.
  • Malignant tumours instead were fewer in number compared to the literature (14% vs 25-30%); the most frequent being mucoepidermoid carcinoma (18.2%) of which 44% G1, 33% G2 and 23% G3.
  • Adenoid-cystic carcinoma was observed in 15.3% and < or = 10% for all the other most frequent histological malignant neoplasms.
  • Diagnostic work-up included echotomography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy, less used imaging techniques were computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, Sialo-computed tomography.
  • Surgical treatment of benign tumours consisted, in 50% of cases, in superficial paroditectomy and in approximately 30% of total paroditectomy.
  • Enucleoresection was limited to approximately 15% of neoplasms, enucleation to <10% of cases with only 2% of pleomorph adenoma due to the well-known anatomo-pathological characteristics which may lead to relapse.
  • For malignant neoplasms, total parotidectomy was performed in approximately 50% of cases, while in the remaining 50% an almost equal rate of superficial parotidectomy was carried out and enlarged parotidectomy, with or without sacrificing the facial nerve, which was rebuilt in 60% of cases.
  • The lateral neck dissection most frequently carried out was of functional type in 54% and selective type in 46% with removal of levels I-III and II-IV in approximately 60% of cases.
  • When no clinically evident lymph nodes were present (NO) considering the tumour histotype, two thirds of patients underwent surgery or radiotherapy, while in the remainder the wait-and-see attitude was prefered.
  • Post-operative-complementary radiotherapy was very frequently performed instead of chemotherapy.
  • Oncological results obtained were compared with those reported in the literature: in fact for all benign neoplasms relapse ratings are about 5%, while for malignant tumours the worst prognosis was in squamous cell carcinoma with median of 37.7 on survival and metastasis rate of 16.5%.
  • [MeSH-major] Salivary Gland Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • [ErratumIn] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2005 Oct;25(5):following 337
  • (PMID = 16450775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-100X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2639866
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3. Horta R, Barreto F, Marques M, Rebelo M, Reis JC, Lopes JM, Amarante JM: Epithelial-myoepithelial parotid carcinoma after kidney transplantation. Ecancermedicalscience; 2008;2:92

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  • [Title] Epithelial-myoepithelial parotid carcinoma after kidney transplantation.
  • The occurrence of a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) in patients who have been submitted to kidney transplantation is increasing and causes concern; parotid carcinoma is rarely reported after transplantation and may be related to long-term chemotherapy.Salivary gland carcinomas displaying exclusively myoepithelial differentiation-myoepithelial carcinomas (EMC) are rare, being less than 1% of all salivary gland tumours.
  • EMC arises most commonly in the parotid gland and usually occurs in women.

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  • (PMID = 22275975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3234068
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4. Harish K: Management of primary malignant epithelial parotid tumors. Surg Oncol; 2004 Jul;13(1):7-16

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  • [Title] Management of primary malignant epithelial parotid tumors.
  • Parotid cancers are infrequently encountered.
  • Controversies surrounding pre-treatment evaluation by imaging and fine needle aspiration, utility of operative frozen section are partly resolved.
  • Though surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, radiation is being recognized as a useful adjuvant.
  • The role of chemotherapy is still investigational.
  • The prognosis and necessity of elective neck treatment are mainly guided by the tumor grade and stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / therapy. Parotid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15145029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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5. Savelli SL, Klopfenstein KJ, Termuhlen AM: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland as a second malignant neoplasm. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Dec;45(7):997-1000
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  • [Title] Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland as a second malignant neoplasm.
  • We report two second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) of the parotid gland.
  • Eight years after her initial diagnosis she presented with a small, painless mass in the region of her parotid gland.
  • Thirteen years after her initial diagnosis she presented with a painless mass in her right cheek.
  • Both patients are currently tumor free.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / surgery. Leukemia, B-Cell / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15602710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Bouyon A, Hans S, Durdux C, Housset M: [Postoperative treatment of malignant tumors of the parotid gland: radiotherapy, concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy?]. Cancer Radiother; 2007 Dec;11(8):465-75

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  • [Title] [Postoperative treatment of malignant tumors of the parotid gland: radiotherapy, concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy?].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs malignes de la parotide: prise en charge multidisciplinaire, rôle de la radiothérapie.
  • The low incidence, the wide histological spectrum and the natural, sometimes slow, evolution of malignant parotid gland tumours do not allow to easily establish the impact of their treatments.
  • We present here the therapeutic highlights of parotid cancers: surgery, with the particular concern of facial nerve preservation; and adjuvant treatment essentially based on radiotherapy.
  • This review focused on adjuvant care explores the indications and the technical aspects of radiation, as well as the role of concurrent chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Parotid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17888707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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7. Harish K, Mangala Gouri SR: Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid metastasizing to liver: case report. BMC Cancer; 2004 Jul 30;4:41
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  • [Title] Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid metastasizing to liver: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare malignant parotid tumor.
  • Metastasis can occur even a decade or more after initial treatment of the primary.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 60 year old female patient who presented with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland.
  • While on follow up, patient developed multiple liver metastases which manifested three years later.
  • Palliative chemotherapy can be considered in symptomatic cases while the usefulness of metastasectomy is controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Parotid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15285782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC509249
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8. Chao KS, Low DA, Perez CA, Purdy JA: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in head and neck cancers: The Mallinckrodt experience. Int J Cancer; 2000 Apr 20;90(2):92-103
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in head and neck cancers: The Mallinckrodt experience.
  • The purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility and the optimization of tomotherapy-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with head and neck cancer.
  • Treatment planning was performed on a Peacock inverse planning system and prescription optimization was used to achieve the best plan for target coverage and parotid sparing.
  • The treatment planning system process has a dosimetric characteristic of delivering different doses to different target structures simultaneously in each daily treatment; therefore, the biological equivalent dose was implemented using the linear-quadratic model to adjust the total dose to the target volume receiving a daily dose of less than 1.9 Gy.
  • All eight patients with gross disease (six in the nasopharynx, two in the tonsil) and one patient with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma received concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy.
  • All patients completed the prescribed treatment without unexpected interruption.
  • To spare the parotid gland, which is in the proximity of the target, a fraction of the target volume may not receive the prescribed dose.
  • In the best-achievable plan of our studied cohort, only 27% +/- 8% of parotid gland volumes were treated to more than 30 Gy, while an average of 3.3% +/- 0.6% of the target volume received less than 95% of the prescribed dose.
  • This is mainly related to the steep dose gradient in the region where the target abuts the parotid gland.
  • The inverse planning system allowed us the freedom of weighting normal tissue-sparing and target coverage to select the best-achievable plan.
  • Local control was achieved in eight patients with gross tumor; six were treated postoperatively.
  • In summary, a system for patient immobilization, setup verification, and dose optimization for head and neck cancer with parotid sparing without significantly compromising target coverage is being implemented for a tomotherapy-based IMRT plan at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology.
  • The initial clinical experience in tumor control is promising, and no severe adverse acute side effects have been observed.
  • Further refining of delivery technology and the inverse planning system, gaining clinical experience to address target definition and dose inhomogeneity within the targets, and understanding the partial volume effect on normal tissue tolerance are needed for IMRT to excel in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Int. J.
  • Cancer (Radiat. Oncol. Invest.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation Dosage. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 10814959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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9. Huang R, Jaffer S: Imprint cytology of metastatic sialoblastoma. A case report. Acta Cytol; 2003 Nov-Dec;47(6):1123-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Sialoblastoma is a rare, aggressive and potentially malignant perinatal/congenital tumor that recapitulates the developing salivary gland.
  • CASE: A 75-month-old girl with a history of recurrent sialoblastoma initially diagnosed at 21 months and treated with multiple incomplete surgical excisions, chemotherapy and radiation presented with a solitary lung nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / secondary. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Parotid Gland / pathology. Parotid Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14674095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Li CQ, Guo ZM, Liu WW, Zhang Q, Yang AK, Yang L: [Clinical analysis of myoepithelial carcinoma of head and neck]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Feb;45(2):124-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical feature, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) in the head and neck.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 11 patients which were confirmed by pathology and immunohistochemistry in Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University from Jan.
  • There were 5 cases in parotid gland, 1 in hard palate, 1 in maxillary sinus, 1 in pharyngeal recess, 1 in bucca cavioris, 1 in scalp, and 1 in gingiva.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 37 years (range: 14 - 60 years).
  • RESULTS: All cases were operated, 4 underwent surgery alone, 2 underwent surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, 2 received surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy, 3 underwent surgery plus adjuvant chemoradiation.
  • There was spindle cell type in 5 cases, clear cell type, plasmacytoid cell type in 2 cases, epithelioid cell type, mixed type in 1 case.
  • The median follow-up time was 40 months.
  • AS to the last follow-up time, 8 patients died.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of the tumor were rapidly enlarging, invading the surrounding regions, high rates of lymph node metastasis, high rates of distance metastasis.
  • MC was a sort of malignant tumor.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be effective after operation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20398508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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11. Taxy JB: Squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland: a review of the diagnostic considerations. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2001 Jun;125(6):740-5
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  • [Title] Squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland: a review of the diagnostic considerations.
  • CONTEXT: Squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland has several possible sources:.
  • (1) high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, (2) metastasis or direct invasion from a primary skin carcinoma, (3) metastasis from a distant primary carcinoma, or (4) a primary malignant neoplasm.
  • The latter is conventionally regarded as a diagnosis of exclusion after a history of squamous carcinoma elsewhere has been obtained or there is a positive mucin stain.
  • DESIGN: Eleven cases of squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland are presented and the literature reviewed.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland exhibits a histologic sameness that precludes accurate subclassification and assignation of origin.
  • Also irrespective of tumor origin, the clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment is similar.
  • Adjuvant therapy (eg, radical neck dissection, radiation, chemotherapy) is not uniformly applied.
  • The natural evolution of the tumor is aggressive, irrespective of clinical context.
  • The traditional subclassification of squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland may not be clinically relevant.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mucins / metabolism. Parotid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 11371224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9985
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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12. Zhi K, Ren W, Zhou H, Wen Y, Zhang Y: Management of parapharyngeal-space tumors. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Jun;67(6):1239-44
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  • All cases were evaluated with at least a computed tomography scan.
  • The most common class of lesion was salivary-gland neoplasm, accounting for 74 cases (45.68%).
  • Only 22 patients (13.58%) presented with malignant disease.
  • Twenty patients with malignant disease underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • Two patients suffered local failure, and 4 patients developed distant metastasis during the observation period.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgery is the mainstay treatment for PPS tumors.
  • Surgical approaches were dictated by size of the tumor, its location, its relationship to the great vessels, and suspicion of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / surgery. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neck Muscles / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Parotid Gland / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [CommentIn] J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010 May;68(5):1209-11; author reply 1212 [20403530.001]
  • (PMID = 19446210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5053
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Chang RC, Dave SP, Robinson PG: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the parotid gland: a rare pediatric case. Head Neck; 2008 Jul;30(7):970-3
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  • [Title] Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the parotid gland: a rare pediatric case.
  • BACKGROUND: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, or malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the head and neck is an uncommon malignancy that is exceedingly rare in the pediatric population.
  • Although MFH was once considered the most common soft tissue sarcoma in adults, recently authors have questioned its existence as a distinct pathologic entity.
  • METHODS: In light of this debate, we present a case of MFH with giant cells involving the parotid gland, and we review its pathology.
  • RESULTS: We describe a 6-year-old male with parotid gland MFH.
  • Diagnosis was fraught with difficulty, typical of this disease.
  • He was treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy with a good initial response.
  • Nevertheless, our case is the second report of pediatric MFH involving the parotid gland.
  • Surgical resection is the preferred treatment, but combined chemoradiation may be necessary in the head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Parotid Gland / surgery. Rare Diseases. Risk Assessment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18098306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Laskawi R, Ellies M: The role of botulinum toxin in the management of head and neck cancer patients. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Apr;15(2):112-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of botulinum toxin in the management of head and neck cancer patients.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review article different relevant applications of botulinum toxin type A are demonstrated in patients with head and neck cancer.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with head and neck cancers of different etiologies often suffer from disorders concerning their musculature (for example, synkinesis in mimic muscles) or gland secretion in the head and neck region.
  • The application of botulinum toxin type A can improve movement disorders like synkinesis following reconstructive surgery in patients with cancers of the parotid gland, spasms of the pharyngo-esophageal musculature following laryngectomies and disorders of the autonomous nerve system like hypersalivation, hyperlacrimation and pathological sweating.
  • SUMMARY: The application of botulinum toxin type A is a helpful and minimally invasive treatment option in different functional disorders improving the quality of life in patients with head and neck cancers of different etiologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Botulinum Toxins, Type A / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / complications. Neuromuscular Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Dyskinesias / drug therapy. Dyskinesias / etiology. Facial Nerve Injuries / complications. Facial Nerve Injuries / etiology. Facial Paralysis / drug therapy. Facial Paralysis / etiology. Humans. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / drug therapy. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / etiology. Laryngectomy / adverse effects. Muscle Spasticity / complications. Muscle Spasticity / drug therapy. Muscle Spasticity / etiology. Sialorrhea / drug therapy. Sialorrhea / etiology. Speech Disorders / drug therapy. Speech Disorders / etiology. Sweating, Gustatory / drug therapy. Sweating, Gustatory / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17413413.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9508
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuromuscular Agents; EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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15. Bell RB, Dierks EJ, Homer L, Potter BE: Management and outcome of patients with malignant salivary gland tumors. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2005 Jul;63(7):917-28
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  • [Title] Management and outcome of patients with malignant salivary gland tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Refined imaging technology, the use of external beam radiation, neutron beam therapy, and chemotherapy, has altered management strategies for patients with salivary gland malignancies during the past 2 decades.
  • Although treatment remains primarily surgical, optimal therapeutic regimens have yet to be fully realized.
  • The purpose of this investigation is to report our experience with the management of patients with a variety of malignant salivary gland neoplasms that were treated with various combinations of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy and to review treatment outcome in an effort to identify predictors of survival and locoregional control.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of all patients with malignant salivary gland tumors presenting for treatment at our institution between 1992 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • The majority of tumors were located in the parotid gland (n = 42), with a significant minority located in the minor salivary glands (n = 29), followed by the submandibular gland (n = 8) and the sublingual gland (n = 6).
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common neoplasm (n = 40).
  • Neck dissection was performed in 29% of patients, and more than half (56%) were treated with adjuvant external beam radiation therapy to a dose of 50 to 70 Gy.
  • Patients were, in general, immediately reconstructed at the time of ablation using composite free tissue transfer when appropriate, local/regional rotational flaps, or maxillary obturators.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of salivary gland malignancies remains primarily surgical, although adjunctive radiotherapy may play an important role in those patients with advanced-stage disease.
  • The benefits of combined modality therapy awaits prospective clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Invasiveness / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16003616.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-2391
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Pacheco-Ojeda L, Domeisen H, Narvaez M, Tixi R, Vivar N: Malignant salivary gland tumors in Quito, Ecuador. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2000 Nov-Dec;62(6):296-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant salivary gland tumors in Quito, Ecuador.
  • OBJECTIVES: Malignant salivary gland tumors (MSGT) are uncommon.
  • The goal of this study was to review a 16-year experience of a major general hospital in the treatment of these lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1982 to 1998, 308 salivary gland tumors were surgically treated at the Hospital 'Carlos Andrade Marin' of the Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security in Quito, Ecuador, an Andean city of approximately 2 million inhabitants.
  • Malignant lesions were found in 58 cases (19%): 37 out of 194 parotid gland tumors (19%), 7 out of 86 submandibular tumors (8%) and 14 out of 28 minor salivary gland tumors (50%).
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common histologic types.
  • Thirty-one (53%) patients were treated by surgery alone; postoperative radiation therapy was additionally given to 22 (38%), and surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were applied in 5 cases (9%).
  • Twelve patients (21%) developed distant metastasis (DM; 2 in more than one site): 7 in the lungs, 2 in the brain, 2 in the bone and 1 each in the liver, subcutaneous tissue and pleura.
  • Twenty-three patients are deceased: 6 with LR, 7 with DM, 3 with both LR and DM, 1 with locoregional recurrence and DM, 2 with a second neoplasm, 3 with intercurrent disease and 1 from unknown causes.
  • There were no significant differences in mortality according to the site of the primary tumor or histologic type, but stage and involved surgical margins were important prognostic factors (p = 0.006 and 0.003).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The surgical or multimodality treatment of MSGT has provided a good locoregional control (78%) and 68% 10-year survival in a series of patients treated at the oncology department of a general hospital in Quito, Ecuador.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / therapy. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Ecuador / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Salivary Glands / pathology. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11054011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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17. Hicks J, Flaitz C: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands in children and adolescents: assessment of proliferation markers. Oral Oncol; 2000 Sep;36(5):454-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Malignant neoplasms represent one-third of all pediatric salivary gland tumors.
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) composes 51% of malignant tumors and 16% of all salivary gland neoplasms in pediatrics.
  • Histopathologic features, clinical outcomes and proliferation markers in 26 pediatric patients (median age 11 years; 19F:7M) with salivary gland MECs were evaluated retrospectively.
  • Proliferation was assessed by determining the percentage of tumor cells immunoreactive for PCNA and Ki-67.
  • Tumor site was 16 parotid, eight submandibular, one base of tongue and one maxillary lip.
  • Median tumor size was 2.5 cm (range 1.5-5 cm).
  • Mean percentage of tumor cells immunoreactive for proliferation markers is as follows: PCNA: LG 9%, IG 17%, HG 32%; and Ki-67: LG 7%, IG 12%, HG 26%.
  • Treatment was surgical in 21 cases, and surgery with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in five cases.
  • MECs were second malignancies in two children with prior radiotherapy and chemotherapy for leukemia and histiocytosis.
  • Low and intermediate grade salivary gland MECS in a pediatric population may have a favorable outcome when compared with high grade MECs.
  • Proliferation markers appear to be linked to histocytologic MEC grade and may provide information regarding biologic behavior of salivary gland MECs in children and adolescents.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / chemistry. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cell Division. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Ki-67 Antigen / chemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 10964053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
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18. Issing PR, Hemmanouil I, Wilkens L, Karstens H, Lenarz T: [Long term results in adenoidcystic carcinoma]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2002 Feb;81(2):98-105
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The exact distribution of the ACC was: parotid gland (n = 18), submandibular gland (n = 8), oral cavity (n = 10), paranasal sinuses (n = 11), nasopharynx (n = 4) and larynx (n = 3).
  • The most common symptoms were a tumor-related swelling and pain which persisted for a duration of several months after final diagnosis could be established.
  • No definitive differentiation was possible in 10 specimens.
  • Except one patient all 54 underwent surgical therapy.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy was additionally given in 25 cases which was combined with a chemotherapy in 6 patients.
  • Lymphnode metastases were observed in 13 patients after a latency of 3.3 years in average, but predominantly pulmonary metastases as distant spread developed in 18 patients after 5.8 years significantly later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Due to the uncommon biological behaviour with a slow growth on the one hand side and an aggressive local invasion on the other hand side the ACC can be regarded as a challenging malignant disease for the clinician whose adequate therapy does not allow any standardized regime.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic. Mouth Neoplasms. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms. Salivary Gland Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery. Parotid Neoplasms / therapy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Submandibular Gland. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11914946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Charabi S, Balle V, Charabi B, Nielsen P, Thomsen J: Surgical outcome in malignant parotid tumours. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl; 2000;543:251-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical outcome in malignant parotid tumours.
  • Of 494 parotid gland tumours treated in Copenhagen county (population 600,000 inhabitants) in the period 1986-95, 50 patients (34 males, 16 females) had tumours that were proven to be malignant, making an incidence of 0.62/100,000/year.
  • The material included 41 primary parotid gland tumours, histologically the tumours were verified as mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n = 13), adenocarcinoma (n = 9), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 6), carcinoma ex pleomorph adenoma (n = 3), acinic cell carcinoma (n = 3), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 3) and other histological diagnoses (n = 4).
  • Primary malignant lymphoma of the parotid gland was diagnosed in six tumours and the last three tumours were metastatic carcinoma.
  • Four therapeutic modalities were applied: surgery only, surgery + radiation, surgery + chemotherapy, and surgery + chemotherapy + radiation.
  • Surgical radicality was achieved in 76% and radicality was unrelated to tumour histology.
  • No significant difference was observed in 5-year crude survival or in the post-operative facial nerve function between the radically operated patients (n = 38) and patients with residual tumour (p = 0.27, Log-rank test), (p = 0.48, chi 2 test).
  • [MeSH-major] Parotid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Catchment Area (Health). Combined Modality Therapy. Denmark / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10909035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0365-5237
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica. Supplementum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol Suppl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NORWAY
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20. Yamamoto R, Hosokawa S, Yamatodani T, Morita S, Okamura J, Mineta H: [Eight cases of neuroendcrine carcinoma of the head and neck]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2008 Jul;111(7):517-22
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  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the head and neck is rare, and diagnosis may be difficult.
  • Three cases arose from the maxillary sinus, two from the ethmoid sinus, one from the parotid gland, one from the tonsil, and one from the larynx.
  • Histological analysis by hematoxylin-eosin staining tentatively revealed malignant lymphoma and undifferentiated carcinoma in two cases each, while immunohistological and/or electron microscopy analysis confirmed histological diagnosis.
  • All were treated by chemotherapy (VP-16, CDDP) and seven cases with radiotherapy based on the schedule of small cell carcinoma of the lung and two cases with lesional resection.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were effective locally.
  • Long-term survival thus requires the effective treatment of distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18697475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PE regimen
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21. Boccon-Gibod L, Boman F, Josset P, Landman-Parker J: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland in a child previously treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Jun 15;44(7):673-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland in a child previously treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Occurrence of second cancers is a major concern for the care of children cured of cancer.
  • Children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have an increased risk for developing mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) of the parotid gland.
  • Treatment included multidrug chemotherapy and prophylactic intrathecal injections of methotrexate and prednisolone.
  • Low-grade MEC of the left parotid gland was diagnosed at the age of 7 years, only 1 year after completing treatment.
  • This case report is remarkable for the early diagnosis of second cancer, only 4 years after diagnosis of ALL, and its occurrence in parotid gland without previous head and neck irradiation.
  • It highlights the need for concern about second cancers of the parotid gland in children treated for ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Parotid Neoplasms / etiology. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Humans. Male

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15515042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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22. Vargas H, Mouzakes J, Purdy SS, Cohn AS, Parnes SM: Follicular dendritic cell tumor: an aggressive head and neck tumor. Am J Otolaryngol; 2002 Mar-Apr;23(2):93-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Follicular dendritic cell tumor: an aggressive head and neck tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinicopathologic features of head and neck follicular dendritic cell (FDC) tumor and report the experience of this entity at our institution.
  • RESULTS: Thirty four cases of FDC tumor of the head and neck cases have been published.
  • Twenty five occurred in the cervical lymph nodes, 4 in the tonsils, 2 in the palate, 1 in the pharynx, 1 in the parapharyngeal region, and 1 in the thyroid gland.
  • Patients were treated with surgery (17), surgery and chemotherapy (8), and surgery and radiation (9).
  • After the primary treatment, 12 patients had no evidence of disease, whereas 5 were incurable.
  • Of these 13 patients who suffered recurrences, 4 had no evidence of disease after secondary treatment, 6 were alive with disease, and one was lost to follow up.
  • We add 2 unique cases to the 9 previously reported extranodal cases, 1 in the tonsil and 1 in the parotid gland.
  • CONCLUSION: FDC tumor is a rare malignant neoplasm that can present in the head and neck region in both lymph nodes and extranodal sites.
  • Surgery has been the mainstay of treatment and should include diligent control of surgical margins.
  • The role of adjuvant therapy remains controversial.
  • We believe that FDC tumor should be viewed and treated as a moderately aggressive head and neck tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery. Severity of Illness Index. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.)
  • (PMID = 11893977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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23. Guzzo M, Locati LD, Prott FJ, Gatta G, McGurk M, Licitra L: Major and minor salivary gland tumors. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2010 May;74(2):134-48
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Major and minor salivary gland tumors.
  • Malignant salivary gland tumors are rare.
  • The most common tumor site is the parotid.
  • Nutrition may be a risk factor, as well as irradiation or a long-standing histologically benign tumor that occurs at youth.
  • Painless swelling of a salivary gland should always be considered as suspicious, especially if no sign of inflammation is present.
  • Signs and symptoms related to major salivary gland tumors differ from those concerning minor salivary gland tumors, as they depend on the different location of the salivary gland.
  • Surgical excision represents the standard option in the treatment of resectable tumors of both major and minor salivary glands.
  • Neutron, heavy ions or proton radiotherapy may be a treatment option for inoperable locoregional disease.
  • Surgery, irradiation or re-irradiation are treatment options for local relapse, whereas radical neck dissection is indicated for regional relapses.
  • Metastatic disease may be either treated with radiotherapy or palliative chemotherapy, depending on the site of metastases.
  • For highly selected patients the employment of anti-androgen therapy is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Salivary Gland Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prognosis. Recurrence. Salivary Glands, Minor / pathology. Salivary Glands, Minor / surgery

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19939701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0461
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 149
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24. Khadse P, Prabhash K, Pramesh CS, Chaturvedi P, Shet T: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of pleural metastases from a carcinosarcoma or true malignant mixed tumor of the parotid gland mimicking a mesothelioma. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Sep;37(9):680-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of pleural metastases from a carcinosarcoma or true malignant mixed tumor of the parotid gland mimicking a mesothelioma.
  • Malignant mixed tumor of the parotid is known to have odd sites for metastases.
  • We describe the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings of pleural metastasis from a malignant mixed tumor misdiagnosed as a mesothelioma on cytology at the onset.A 47-year-old man presented to us with breathlessness and a massive pleural effusion with pleural-based nodules.
  • He had been operated 2 years before for a pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid and had a healthy scar at that site.
  • These cells in contrast to the usual mesothelial cells were not arranged in sheets but rather were huddled in places and formed a pseudoacinar pattern and blended with the myxoid substance.After the diagnosis of a mesothelioma, patient received pemetrexed and cisplatin based chemotherapy with partial response.
  • While on chemotherapy tumor recurred at the primary site in parotid and was confirmed to be a carcinosarcoma on a FNAC and biopsy.To conclude, pleural metastases from a true malignant mixed tumor of the parotid gland can be misdiagnosed as mesothelioma and could occur in the absence of uncontrolled disease at primary site.
  • Attention to the cytomorphology of tumor cells will also assist in confirming the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / secondary. Mesothelioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / secondary. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Glutamates / administration & dosage. Guanine / administration & dosage. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Pemetrexed. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19373913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glutamates; 04Q9AIZ7NO / Pemetrexed; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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25. Tsutsumida A, Yamamoto Y, Sekido M, Itoh T: Suspected case of primary malignant melanoma of the parotid gland. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg; 2008;42(2):105-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Suspected case of primary malignant melanoma of the parotid gland.
  • A patient presented with malignant melanoma of the parotid gland with no obvious primary lesions, which was treated by total parotidectomy with excision of skin.
  • Despite radiotherapy for brain metastases and combination chemotherapy for lung and lymph node metastases, she died 13 months after the initial operation.

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  • (PMID = 18335356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-4311
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of plastic and reconstructive surgery and hand surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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26. Markowski J, Gierek T, Zielińska-Pajak E, Witkowska M, Wodołazski A, Pajak J, Paluch J: [Distant metastases to the parotid gland--review of the literature and report of own two cases]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2005;59(4):547-52
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  • [Title] [Distant metastases to the parotid gland--review of the literature and report of own two cases].
  • Metastatic tumors to the parotid gland are very uncommon and it accounts for 8% of all cancers of parotid gland.
  • The parotid gland and its lymph nodes are possible sites of metastases from head and neck cancers.
  • However, metastasis from distant primary neoplasm below clavicle is possible, too.
  • The authors presented the two cases of distant metastases to the parotid gland.
  • The women with breast cancer and metastases to the parotid gland 11 years after surgery, radio- and chemotherapy of breast cancer.
  • She died 7 months after parotid surgery of systemically advanced disease.
  • The man with metastasis of malignant melanoma of unknown primary site.
  • He underwent total parotid surgery with the tumor and lymph nodes.
  • The authors described pathophysiology of distant metastases to the parotid gland with special attention to possibilities of treatment and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16273860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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27. Licitra L, Grandi C, Prott FJ, Schornagel JH, Bruzzi P, Molinari R: Major and minor salivary glands tumours. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2003 Feb;45(2):215-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Malignant salivary gland tumours are rare.
  • The most common tumour site is the parotid.
  • Nutrition may be a risk factor, as well as irradiation or an histologically benign tumour occurred at a young age.
  • Painless swelling of a salivary gland should always be considered as suspicious, especially if no sign of inflammation is present.
  • Signs and symptoms related to major salivary gland tumours differ from those concerning minor salivary gland tumours, as they depend on the different location of the salivary gland.
  • Surgical excision represents the standard option in the treatment of resectable tumours of both major and minor salivary glands.
  • Neutron radiation may be a treatment option for inoperable locoregional disease.
  • Surgery, irradiation or re-irradiation are treatment options for local relapse, whereas radical neck dissection is indicated for regional relapses.
  • Metastastic disease may be either treated with radiotherapy or palliative chemotherapy, depending on the site of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Salivary Gland Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 12604131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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28. Bradley P, McClelland L, Mehta D: Paediatric salivary gland epithelial neoplasms. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2007;69(3):137-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paediatric salivary gland epithelial neoplasms.
  • Salivary gland epithelial neoplasms in children are rare.
  • Clinicians of all disciplines need to have a high level of suspicion when a non-inflammatory single mass lesion presents in the parotid or submandibular glands.
  • Surgery is the primary treatment of choice in the majority of cases, with the addition of adjuvant radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy when the diagnosis is a high-grade tumour and/or when the malignancy presents as a large mass or is associated with local tissue invasion.
  • Minor salivary gland neoplasms also present, the oral cavity is most frequent, with pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma being most common, other malignant neoplasms have been reported in other sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carcinoma / classification. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Epithelium / pathology. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17264529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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29. Selesnick SH, Burt BM: Regional spread of nonneurogenic tumors to the skull base via the facial nerve. Otol Neurotol; 2003 Mar;24(2):326-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Five patients received adjuvant radiation, and two received adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Histopathology, site of primary tumor, intratemporal location of regional spread along the facial nerve, degree of facial paralysis, and presence of residual disease.
  • RESULTS: Five cases of malignancy were reported: one case of parotid adenoid cystic carcinoma, one case of parotid mucoepidermoid carcinoma, two cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, and one case of an unidentified carcinoma.
  • Perineural spread was histologically found in all cases of malignant disease.
  • In addition, one case of benign pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland that circumferentially involved an intratemporal segment of the facial nerve was reported.
  • Four patients had unresectable malignant disease, and two died despite multimodality therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The facial nerve provides a route for the spread of neoplastic disease into the temporal bone, and perineural invasion is an important mechanism of invasion and motility of malignant disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Facial Nerve / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Gadolinium. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 12621352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-7129
  • [Journal-full-title] Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otol. Neurotol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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30. Kempf VA, Petzold H, Autenrieth IB: Cat scratch disease due to Bartonella henselae infection mimicking parotid malignancy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis; 2001 Oct;20(10):732-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cat scratch disease due to Bartonella henselae infection mimicking parotid malignancy.
  • An unusual Bartonella henselae infection presenting clinically as a putative parotid cancer was diagnosed based on serological tests, histomorphology and amplification of a 16S-rDNA sequence of Bartonella henselae.
  • The patient improved greatly upon antibiotic treatment and did not require surgery.
  • Although uncommon, infection with Bartonella spp., particularly Bartonella henselae, should be included in the differential diagnosis of parotid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bartonella henselae / isolation & purification. Cat-Scratch Disease / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents. Biopsy, Needle. Blotting, Western. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11757975.001).
  • [ISSN] 0934-9723
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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31. Ezeanolue BC: Residual and recurrent parotid gland neoplasm after surgical excision. West Afr J Med; 2002 Jan-Mar;21(1):5-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Residual and recurrent parotid gland neoplasm after surgical excision.
  • Ten patients who presented with residual or recurrent parotid gland neoplasm after elective curative surgical excision between January 1992 to December 1999 were studied.
  • It aimed at finding the contributory factors responsible for the persistence or recurrence of the tumour after surgical excision.
  • Seven were of malignant histologic cell types while three were benign.
  • Eight patients were treated with secondary parotidectomy while two received combination chemotherapy.
  • In five patients, both the superficial and deep lobes of the parotid gland were found during secondary parotidectomy.
  • Four patients were later referred to radiotherapy centers for further treatment It is concluded that most recurrent parotid neoplasm is a result of inadequate primary surgical excision, and best results are obtained by doing a minimum of superficial parotidectomy in the surgical treatment of parotid gland neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Procedures, Operative / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 12081344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0189-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] West African journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Afr J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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32. Zhou CX, Shi DY, Ma DQ, Zhang JG, Yu GY, Gao Y: Primary oncocytic carcinoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases. Oral Oncol; 2010 Oct;46(10):773-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Oncocytic carcinoma (OC) of salivary gland origin is an extremely rare proliferation of malignant oncocytes with adenocarcinomatous architectural phenotypes, including infiltrative qualities.
  • To help clarify the clinicopathologic and prognostic features of this tumor group, herein, we report 12 OC cases arising from the salivary glands, together with follow-up data and immunohistochemical observations.
  • Most occurred in the parotid gland (10/12) with one in the palate and one in the retromolar gland.
  • The tumors were unencapsulated and often invaded into the nearby gland, lymphatic tissues and nerves.
  • In summary, OC of salivary gland origin is a high-grade tumor, often with local recurrence, regional or distant metastasis, diagnosis of which based on a combination of clinical and histopathological features.
  • Immunohistochemistry for mitochondria is considered as a practical and helpful adjuvant diagnosis.
  • Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice while the role of radiotherapy or chemotherapy is controversial, and careful follow-up is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mitochondria / ultrastructure. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20843731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Williams SB, Ellis GL, Warnock GR: Sialoblastoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 7 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2006 Dec;10(6):320-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sialoblastoma is a rare congenital or perinatal salivary tumor that varies in histologic features and biologic potential.
  • These tumors occurred in 4 males and 3 females with ages ranging from prenatal to 6 months at the time of discovery.
  • Five lesions originated from the parotid gland; 2 lesions were from the submandibular gland.
  • (1) a favorable pattern had semiencapsulation of cytologically benign basaloid tumor cells with intervening stroma; and (2) an unfavorable histology of anaplastic basaloid tumor cells, minimal stroma, and broad pushing to infiltrative periphery.
  • Tumor cells in 3 cases were immunohistochemically reactive for keratin, S-100, smooth muscle actin, and calponin to varying degrees.
  • Ki67 was expressed at 3% in a favorable tumor and 40% and 80% in the 2 unfavorable lesions.
  • Treatment involved surgical excision.
  • One patient received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Two sialoblastomas resulted in recurrences within a year and another developed a recurrence after 4 years.
  • One sialoblastoma developed lung metastasis within 1 month of the original biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Mixed Tumor, Malignant / secondary. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / secondary. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17126248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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34. Ebata K, Masaki Y, Karasawa H, Okada J, Kim CG, Tsuka M, Ogawa N, Wano Y, Hirose Y, Sugai S: [Marginal zone lymphoma associated with Sjögren's syndrome and hepatitis C virus infection]. Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi; 2001 Aug;24(4):160-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A 64-year-old female was admitted in May 1997, because of salivary gland swelling.
  • Histology of the right parotid gland revealed malignant lymphoma, diffuse medium-sized B-cell type, and she was treated with local radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • A diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome was made by dryness and the histological findings of labial biopsy.
  • We discuss the correlation of malignant lymphoma with Sjogren's syndrome and HCV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis C / complications. Lymphoma, B-Cell / etiology. Parotid Neoplasms / etiology. Sjogren's Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD20 / metabolism. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gastrointestinal Tract / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Spleen / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16578967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0911-4300
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai kaishi = Japanese journal of clinical immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD20
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35. Obaid MA, Yusuf A: Surgical management of epithelial parotid tumours. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2004 Jul;14(7):394-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management of epithelial parotid tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinicopathological presentation and treatment options in epithelial parotid tumours with emphasis on surgery.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Epithelial parotid tumours diagnosed and operated by an ENT surgeon and a general surgeon in 10 years during their posting in different teaching hospitals were included in the study.
  • Clinical presentation, preoperative investigations, operative procedure, histopathology report, postoperative complications and further management were recorded.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-two patients presented with parotid tumour.
  • Commonest presentation was a painless lump over the parotid region (85%), pain (15%), facial palsy, and enlarged neck nodes.
  • Parotid pleomorphic Adenoma (PPA) was the commonest benign tumour, others being Warthin's tumour and monomorphic adenoma.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour 29% followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • Others were carcinoma in PPA, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant mixed tumour, malignant lymphoepithelioma and undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • Except for one child, rest of the 13 patients received postoperative radiotherapy and one patient of lymphoepithelioma received chemotherapy in addition.
  • Of these 07 had a malignant process and only one patient had excision biopsy.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign and malignant epithelial parotid tumours can be diagnosed by their clinical presentation supplemented with FNAC.
  • Facial nerve can be saved in total conservative parotidectomy for benign tumour in deep lobe and early malignant tumour.
  • Radical parotidectomy followed by radiotherapy and in selected cases neck node dissection are the recommended procedures for advanced malignant parotid tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / surgery. Parotid Gland / surgery. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / mortality. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15279739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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36. Christensen NR, Charabi S, Johansen LS, Rygaard J, Balle VH, Tos M, Thomsen J: Effect of photodynamic therapy on a heterotransplanted human parotid tumor. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2000 Jul;27(3):241-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of photodynamic therapy on a heterotransplanted human parotid tumor.
  • To evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy on human parotid tumors we used tumor specimens obtained from parotid surgery on a consecutive group of patients.
  • We re-implanted this tumor on ten mice bilaterally, and treated the tumors with photodynamic therapy (PDT), resulting in a mean depth of tumor necrosis of 5.4 mm (1-10 mm).
  • In three cases we found vital tumor cells in the periphery of the tumor after treatment, with several new blood vessels in the surrounding tissue, indicating a great potential for neo-angiogenesis in this tumor.
  • In order to evaluate the possible nerve damage subsequent to the photodynamic therapy, the ischiadic nerve in 24 lower limbs of nude mice were investigated.
  • The current study demonstrates that the nude mice implantation model is excellent to investigate growth in both malignant and benign parotid tumors, and to test new therapeutic modalities.
  • Photodynamic therapy seems to have a possible role in the future management of the malignant lesions of the parotid gland, in cases where radical surgery for some reason is not achievable.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Transplantation. Parotid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 10808112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
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