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1. Amjad AI, Pal I: De novo primary squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary: a case of a rare malignancy with an aggressive clinical course. J Pak Med Assoc; 2008 May;58(5):272-4
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  • [Title] De novo primary squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary: a case of a rare malignancy with an aggressive clinical course.
  • Ovarian squamous cell carcinoma is a rare malignancy and the occurrence is attributable to malignant transformation of an existing ovarian dermoid cyst.
  • The de novo occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary, in the absence of an antecedent ovarian dermoid, is extremely rare.
  • Abdominal CT was suggestive of a malignant neoplastic process.
  • Laparotomy confirmed a malignant tumour with involvement of the right adnexa and extension into the omentum and bowel.
  • Histopathology demonstrated squamous cell carcinoma arising from the right ovary with no co-existing ovarian dermoid.
  • The postoperative period was significant for disease progression despite adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovariectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Elective Surgical Procedures / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ileostomy / methods. Laparotomy. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18655408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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2. Forstner R: Radiological staging of ovarian cancer: imaging findings and contribution of CT and MRI. Eur Radiol; 2007 Dec;17(12):3223-35
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  • [Title] Radiological staging of ovarian cancer: imaging findings and contribution of CT and MRI.
  • Ovarian cancer is the most lethal among the gynecologic malignancies with approximately 70% of patients presenting with advanced tumor stage.
  • The prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer is directly related to the tumor stage and residual tumor burden after cytoreductive surgery.
  • Exploratory laparotomy has been the cornerstone in the management of ovarian cancer, as it offers staging and tumor debulking.
  • CT and alternatively MRI have been accepted as adjunct imaging modalities for preoperative staging ovarian cancer.
  • Of these, multidetector CT is the imaging modality of choice for staging ovarian cancer.
  • In a multidisciplinary team approach patient management may be guided towards an individualized treatment plan.
  • The contribution of imaging includes (1) surgery planning including referral practice, (2) selection of candidates for primary chemotherapy by demonstration of non (optimally) resectable disease, and (3) tissue sampling in peritoneal carcinomatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection

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  • (PMID = 17701180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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3. Coakley FV: Staging ovarian cancer: role of imaging. Radiol Clin North Am; 2002 May;40(3):609-36
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  • [Title] Staging ovarian cancer: role of imaging.
  • Ovarian cancer is relatively common, and often presents at an advanced stage with widespread intraperitoneal metastases.
  • All patients are potential surgical candidates, since suspected early stage disease is treated by a comprehensive staging laparotomy including total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy.
  • Operable advanced disease is treated by surgical debulking and adjuvant combination chemotherapy.
  • The role of imaging is to detect and characterize adnexal masses as likely malignant, recognize unusual findings that may suggest atypical pathology, demonstrate metastases in order to prevent under-staging, and detect specific sites of disease that may be unresectable.
  • These aims are directly related to clinical management; characterization of an adnexal mass as malignant guides appropriate surgical referral, recognition of atypical pathology such as malignant granulosa cell tumor in a young woman may be an indication for fertility-preserving surgery.
  • Demonstration of metastatic site-assists surgical planning, and detection of unresectable disease may be an indication for neoadjuvant (ie, preoperative) chemotherapy with interval debulking rather than primary debulking with adjuvan (postoperative) chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Staging / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12117196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8389
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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4. Favalli G, Odicino F, Pecorelli S: Surgery of advanced malignant epithelial tumours of the ovary. Forum (Genova); 2000 Oct-Dec;10(4):312-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgery of advanced malignant epithelial tumours of the ovary.
  • Surgery is still the cornerstone in the management of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AEOC) patients.
  • It involves: i. establishment of diagnosis and staging; ii. primary cytoreduction; iii. interval cytoreduction, interval debulking surgery (IDS) or surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy; iv. secondary cytoreduction during the assessment of the status of the disease at the end of primary chemotherapy - second look; v. surgery for recurrence; vi. palliation.
  • Primary surgery with diagnostic and cytoreductive intent should be performed in accordance with the European Guidelines of Staging in Ovarian Cancer.
  • It should be now recognised as the complete absence of disease at the end of the surgical procedure.
  • Both IDS and neoadjuvant chemotherapy represent a strong effort to achieve such a status through less morbidity and a better quality of life for the patient.
  • Surgery for recurrence and palliation need to be optimised both in terms of patient selection and a better integration with chemotherapy and ancillary management.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Node Excision / standards. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care / methods. Patient Selection. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Reoperation / methods. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11535982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-8142
  • [Journal-full-title] Forum (Genoa, Italy)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Forum (Genova)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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5. Martin VR: Ovarian cancer. Semin Oncol Nurs; 2002 Aug;18(3):174-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To review the progress in the management of ovarian cancer in the last decade and future directions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is an increased understanding of ovarian cancer biology, the genetic basis for hereditary ovarian cancer, staging and the role of cytoreductive surgery, and more effective chemotherapy, resulting in an increase in the percentage of patients who will live 5 years from the time of diagnosis.
  • IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: The nurse can play an invaluable role as the options of treatment are considered and weighed against quality-of-life considerations.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Oncology Nursing. Ovarian Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Genetic Therapy / trends. Humans. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 12184040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0749-2081
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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6. Tarkowski R, Polak G, Nowakowski A, Wertel I, Kotarski J: [YB-1 protein expression in ovarian cancer]. Ginekol Pol; 2006 Jun;77(6):458-62
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  • [Title] [YB-1 protein expression in ovarian cancer].
  • OBJECTIVES: Unfavourable prognosis of ovarian cancer is due to prompt progression, advanced stage at time of diagnosis and chemoresistance.
  • No protein tissue prognosticators of ovarian cancer are in clinical use yet.
  • High expression of YB-1 in tumour tissue correlates with unfavourable prognosis and chemoresistance in some malignant neoplasms.
  • THE AIM: of this study was to determine the expression of YB-1 in benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms and to correlate the expression of YB-1 with clinical indicators of cancer progression.
  • METHODS: Specimens of 11 benign ovarian cysts and 14 cystadenocarcinomas of the ovary were obtained.YB-1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry.
  • Staging of ovarian cancer was performed according to FIGO.
  • RESULTS: Mean YB-1 expression levels in benign and malignant tumours were 5.36 +/- 4.1 and 2.86 +/- 4.18 points respectively and were not significantly different (p=0.18).
  • No correlation between FIGO stage and expression of YB-1 was found in the group of ovarian cancers, either (p=0.32).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that YB-1 is expressed both in benign and malignant ovarian tumors.
  • Although there we didn't found any correlation between YB-1 expression and FIGO stage, YB-1 could be useful in the prognosis recurrence after chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Ovarian Cysts / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Y-Box-Binding Protein 1 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16964697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Y-Box-Binding Protein 1
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7. Billmire D, Vinocur C, Rescorla F, Cushing B, London W, Schlatter M, Davis M, Giller R, Lauer S, Olson T, Children's Oncology Group (COG): Outcome and staging evaluation in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in children and adolescents: an intergroup study. J Pediatr Surg; 2004 Mar;39(3):424-9; discussion 424-9
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  • [Title] Outcome and staging evaluation in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in children and adolescents: an intergroup study.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to perform an evaluation of outcome and the role of surgical staging components in malignant germ cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary in children and adolescents.
  • METHODS: From 1990 to 1996, 2 intergroup trials for malignant GCT were undertaken by Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) and Children's Cancer Study Group (CCG).
  • Stage I-II patients were treated with surgical resection and 4 cycles of standard dose cisplatin (100 mg/m2/cycle), etoposide, and bleomycin (PEB) chemotherapy.
  • Stage III-IV patients were treated with surgical resection and randomly assigned to chemotherapy with PEB or high-dose cisplatin (200 mg/m2/cycle) with etoposide and bleomycin (HDPEB).
  • Patients unresectable at diagnosis had second-look operation after 4 cycles of chemotherapy if residual tumor was seen on imaging studies.
  • An analysis of outcome data, operative notes, and pathology reports in girls with ovarian primary site was done for this report.
  • RESULTS: There were 131 patients with ovarian primary tumors of 515 entered on these studies.
  • Surgical omissions resulting in protocol noncompliance resulted from failure to biopsy bilateral nodes (97%), no omentectomy (36%), no peritoneal cytology (21%), no contralateral ovary biopsy (59%).
  • More aggressive procedure than recommended by guidelines included total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in 6 patients and retroperitoneal node dissection in 10 patients.
  • Correlation of gross operative findings with pathology results was carried out for ascites, lymph nodes, implants, omentum, and contralateral ovary.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric ovarian malignant GCT (stages I-IV) have excellent survival with conservative surgical resection and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15017564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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8. Palenzuela G, Martin E, Meunier A, Beuzeboc P, Laurence V, Orbach D, Frappaz D: Comprehensive staging allows for excellent outcome in patients with localized malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary. Ann Surg; 2008 Nov;248(5):836-41
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  • [Title] Comprehensive staging allows for excellent outcome in patients with localized malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: The management of malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary (OMGCT) requires multidisciplinary expertise.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data concerning diagnosis, surgery, and medical decisions were reviewed for all patients seen for postoperative management of OMGCT at the Centre Léon Bérard in Lyon and the Institut Curie in Paris between 1985 and 2003.
  • Sixty patients aged 0.4 to 27.9 years (mean 12.8 years) at diagnosis were included.
  • Relapses occurred in 8 of 24 stage I tumors that were observed (0/8 stage Ia; 5/13 stage Ix (P = 0.044) and 3/3 stage Ic) versus 0/14 stage I treated by adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.0015).
  • The risk of relapse was significantly increased if patients underwent postsurgical observation ((HR) = 4.5 (95% CI, 1.5 to 13.3)), and when the tumor contained yolk sac tumor (HR = 7.3 (95% CI, 2.3 to 22.7)).
  • There was no significant prognostic value for age, stage, level of tumor markers at diagnosis, type of surgery, and type of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Comprehensive staging after removal of localized OMGCT is crucial.
  • Patients with stages Ix and Ic tumors may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Dysgerminoma / surgery. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18948812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Cryns P, Roofthooft NJ, Tjalma WA: Malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the ovary and false negative punctures. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2003;24(1):70-2
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  • [Title] Malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the ovary and false negative punctures.
  • Malignant mixed müllerian tumour (MMMT) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumour with a poor prognosis.
  • We present a case of a 57-year-old woman with a large pelvic mass, omental cake, ascites and pleural effusions, clinically highly suspect of an ovarian neoplasm.
  • Paracentesis and ultrasound-guided biopsy of the ovary were negative for malignant disease.
  • The latter gave a histopathologic diagnosis of an endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary.
  • However after cytoreductive surgery anatomopathologic examination revealed a malignant mixed müllerian tumour of the ovary with heterologous differentiation.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy, active against the sarcomatous and the carcinomatous component, was given.
  • At present the patient is well and disease free 35 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • Cytological examination of ascites may be negative in the presence of malignant disease.
  • Punctures should be discouraged as a diagnostic tool in patients in whom an ovarian malignancy is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy / methods. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12691322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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10. Ozols RF: Update on the management of ovarian cancer. Cancer J; 2002 May-Jun;8 Suppl 1:S22-30
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  • [Title] Update on the management of ovarian cancer.
  • Ovarian cancer remains the leading gynecologic cause of death in the United States and the Western world.
  • Progression to metastatic disease prior to diagnosis contributes to the high mortality rate associated with ovarian cancer.
  • The current article reviews surgical and drug therapies for ovarian cancer.
  • Prognostic factors and preventative treatment are also discussed.
  • Surgery is essential for accurate staging of ovarian cancer and treatment.
  • Cytoreduction, combined with chemotherapy, may relieve symptoms associated with bowel obstruction and improve survival.
  • Management of early-stage ovarian cancer depends upon risk status determined via comprehensive staging at the time of surgical resection.
  • High-risk, but not low-risk, patients require adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Studies comparing various combinations of cytotoxic agents for the treatment of advanced stage ovarian cancer are described.
  • Despite surgery and chemotherapy, ovarian cancer recurs in approximately 50% of patients.
  • Management of recurrent ovarian cancer and maintenance therapy following remission are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 12075699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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11. Crotzer DR, Wolf JK, Gano JB, Gershenson DM, Levenback C: A pilot study of cisplatin, ifosfamide and mesna in the treatment of malignant mixed mesodermal tumors of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 May;105(2):399-403
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  • [Title] A pilot study of cisplatin, ifosfamide and mesna in the treatment of malignant mixed mesodermal tumors of the ovary.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin and ifosfamide in the treatment of patients with malignant mixed mesodermal tumor (MMMT) of the ovary.
  • METHODS: Ten patients with histologically confirmed primary MMMT of the ovary diagnosed between 1993 and 2001 were enrolled in the study.
  • Treatment consisted of cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1, followed by ifosfamide 2.0 g/m2 over 24 h on days 1, 2 and 3.
  • Chemotherapy was repeated on a 28-day cycle if blood counts permitted.
  • RESULTS: Eight of the nine patients responded to therapy, with 7 complete responses (78%) and 1 partial response.
  • One patient remained free of disease 94.4 months after diagnosis, and one patient remained alive with recurrence 125.5 months following diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of cisplatin and ifosfamide/mesna demonstrated activity against MMMT of the ovary.
  • Novel agents with activity against MMMT of the ovary and acceptable toxicity are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Mixed Tumor, Mesodermal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Mesna / administration & dosage. Mesna / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pilot Projects

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  • (PMID = 17292457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] NR7O1405Q9 / Mesna; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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12. Memarzadeh S, Berek JS: Advances in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer. J Reprod Med; 2001 Jul;46(7):621-9; discussion 629-30
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  • [Title] Advances in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • More than 23,400 new cases of ovarian cancer and 13,900 deaths are expected in the United States this year.
  • Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common histologic type of ovarian malignancy.
  • Although there have been advances in the chemotherapeutic treatment of ovarian cancer, the five year survival of women with advanced-stage disease is 25-30%.
  • Of ovarian cancer cases, 90-95% are sporadic and 5-10% associated with germ-line mutations, including BRCA1 and BRCA2.
  • Known risk factors for ovarian cancer include nulliparity and a strong family history of ovarian cancer.
  • The use of oral contraceptives is known to decrease the risk of ovarian cancer: five years of use will decrease the risk by 50%.
  • The staging of ovarian cancer (according to the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology) requires surgical exploration.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended in patients with high-risk, early-stage disease and all patients with advanced-stage disease.
  • Standard chemotherapy is a combination of paclitaxel and carboplatin.
  • Second-line chemotherapy for patients who initially respond to paclitaxel and carboplatin and who have a prolonged disease progression-free intervals (longer than 12 months) can be re-treated with either drug or both.
  • Those whose responses to initial therapy were less successful can be treated with other chemotherapeutic agents--e.g., liposomal doxorubicin, topotecan, etoposide, gemcitabine or taxotere.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / prevention & control. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Genes, BRCA1. Genes, BRCA2. Humans. Mass Screening. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Risk Factors


13. Leath CA 3rd, Huh WK, Conner M, Barnes MN 3rd: Primary extrarenal rhabdoid tumor of the ovary. A case report. J Reprod Med; 2003 Apr;48(4):283-6
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  • [Title] Primary extrarenal rhabdoid tumor of the ovary. A case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant rhabdoid tumors are rare, aggressive neoplasms that consist of both renal and extrarenal subtypes.
  • Although extrarenal rhabdoid tumors have been documented at multiple extrarenal sites, to our knowledge no primary ovarian cases have been reported.
  • CASE: An 18-year-old, Caucasian woman was diagnosed with a pure primary extrarenal rhabdoid tumor of the ovary following diagnostic laparoscopy for pelvic pain.
  • The tumor exhibited rapid growth, failed to respond to chemotherapy and led rapidly to death.
  • CONCLUSION: Although no other reports on primary ovarian extrarenal rhabdoid tumor have been published, the aggressive behavior of the tumor in this patient was similar to that seen in patients with metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Laparoscopy / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvic Pain / diagnosis. Pelvic Pain / etiology. Rare Diseases

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  • (PMID = 12746993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Ozguroglu M, Bilici A, Ilvan S, Turna H, Atalay B, Mandel N, Sahinler I: Determining predominating histologic component in malignant mixed müllerian tumors: is it worth it? Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jul-Aug;18(4):809-12
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  • [Title] Determining predominating histologic component in malignant mixed müllerian tumors: is it worth it?
  • Malignant mixed müllerian tumors (MMMT) are highly aggressive tumors, usually diagnosed in advanced stage.
  • Cases of MMMT derive from either ovary or uterus.
  • In our study, we investigated the role of carcinomatous and sarcomatous component on response to chemotherapy and disease outcome.
  • All the paraffin specimens were reevaluated according to the histopathologic features (primary site and percentages of carcinomatous and sarcomatous component) and the effect of predominant histologic type on response to treatment.
  • Primary tumor sites were ovary and endometrium in 36% and 64% of patients, respectively.
  • Ten of 25 patients (40%) were treated with a combination chemotherapy regimen of cisplatin-ifosfamide (PI) and 7 patients (28%) were treated with paclitaxel-carboplatin (PC) protocol.
  • Despite chemotherapy, 17.6% of patients had progressive disease.
  • The remaining 13 patients (54.2%) responded to chemotherapy.
  • Predominating histopathologic feature (carcinoma or sarcoma) should be taken into consideration in predicting the response and planning the chemotherapy regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / diagnosis. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Planning Techniques. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17892455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Kerbrat P, Lhommé C, Fervers B, Guastalla JP, Thomas L, Basuyau JP, Duvillard P, Cohen-Solal C, Dauplat J, Tournemaine N: [Standards, options, and recommendations for initial management of patients with malignant ovarian epithelial tumors]. Presse Med; 2000 Dec 09;29(38):2116-27
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  • [Title] [Standards, options, and recommendations for initial management of patients with malignant ovarian epithelial tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Standards, options et recommandations pour la prise en charge initiale des patientes atteintes de tumeurs épithéliales malignes de l'ovaire.
  • Suprapubic and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound exploration is indicated for suspected ovarian tumor (standard).
  • Diagnosis and search for extension require surgery and pathology examination.
  • Systematic preoperative computed tomography is not recommended (standard).
  • Surgery for cancer of the ovary is a specialized procedure requiring skill in cancer, gynecology, visceral surgery and laparoscopic surgery.
  • If the patient is referred to a specialized center after a primary procedure considered to be inadequate, a new procedure is recommended for staging.
  • Residual tumor volume after the primary procedure has prognostic value.
  • For patients with grade IA G1 tumors, there is no indication for complementary treatment (standard).
  • OPTIONS: no complementary treatment, complementary chemotherapy using platinum, complementary external abdominopelvic radiotherapy.
  • A complementary treatment is recommended for grades IC and IIA.
  • Complementary treatment for grades IIB (no residual tissue), IIC (with residual tissue), III (no residual tissue), is based on: complementary chemotherapy with platinium, complementary external abdominopelvic radiotherapy (options).
  • Complementary treatment for advanced forms (IIB (with residual tissue), IIC (with residual tissue), III (with residual tissue) and IV) is based on polychemotherapy with platinium (standard).
  • The chemotherapy work-up includes physical examination, assay of serum markers (particularly CA125) and abdominopelvic computed tomography (proof level B) (standard).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Care Planning

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  • (PMID = 11147056.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
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16. Matsushita H, Arai K, Fukase M, Takayanagi T, Ikarashi H: Growing teratoma syndrome of the ovary after fertility-sparing surgery and successful pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2010;69(4):221-3
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  • [Title] Growing teratoma syndrome of the ovary after fertility-sparing surgery and successful pregnancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is rare and is defined as an enlarging mature teratoma that arises during or after chemotherapy for a malignant germ cell tumor, with normalization of previously elevated serum tumor markers.
  • After fertility-sparing surgery, she received 4 cycles of chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin.
  • Eight years after the initial surgery, a mass mimicking an adrenal tumor was resected laparoscopically.
  • Therefore, long-term follow-up of patients treated for ovarian immature teratoma should be mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20068327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-002X
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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17. Lee KH, Lee IH, Kim BG, Nam JH, Kim WK, Kang SB, Ryu SY, Cho CH, Choi HS, Kim KT, Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group: Clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of Korean women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Jan;19(1):84-7
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of Korean women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.
  • We evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of South Korean women and determined the prognostic factors affecting recurrence.
  • Histologically, immature teratoma was the most common tumor type (n = 68), followed by dysgerminoma (n = 54), endodermal sinus tumor (n = 38), mixed form (n = 24), and choriocarcinoma (n = 12).
  • A fertility-sparing operation was performed in 134 patients, staging operation in 43 patients, and hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in 19 patients.
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was administered in 166 patients, and the most common regimen was bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (n = 120).
  • Recurrence was observed in 13 patients (6.8%) and was influenced by the stage of the tumor and patient age (>40 years).
  • The results of this study demonstrate that most malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in Korean women are detected in the early stage and have excellent survival outcomes with conservative operation and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Korea. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19258947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Lee JK; Park JJ; Cha MS; Kim JH; Lee JM; Park SY; Kim SC; Lee SK
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18. Suita S, Shono K, Tajiri T, Takamatsu T, Mizote H, Nagasaki A, Inomata Y, Hara T, Okamura J, Miyazaki S, Kawakami K, Eguchi H, Tsuneyoshi M, Committee for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area: Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan. J Pediatr Surg; 2002 Dec;37(12):1703-6
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the prognostic factors and optimal treatments for malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT) in childhood.
  • The prognostic factors and treatments were assessed based on the 5-year survival rate. RESULTS:.
  • (1) Stage: 100% for stage I (n = 54), 75.0% for stage II (n = 4), 67.3% for stage III (n = 14), and 54.8% for stage IV (n = 33); Unknown: n = 12. (2) Primary site: 93.4% for the testis (n = 52), 86.7% for the ovary (n = 31), 56.9% for the sacrococcygeal (n = 21), and 60.6% for others (n = 12); unknown: n = 1. (3) Surgical intervention for primary tumor: 100% for stage I with a complete resection (n = 53), 78.4% for stage III, IV with a complete resection (n = 26), and 33.3% for stage III, IV with an incomplete resection (n = 21). (4) Type of chemotherapy for the stage III and IV: 83.9% for the PVB (cisplatin, vinblastin, bleomycin; n = 13), 66.7% for the VAC (vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide; n = 6), and 47.1% for other regimens (n = 25).
  • CONCLUSIONS: An early stage, a diagnosis under 1 year of age and a primary site in the gonads were favorable prognosis factors, whereas histologic findings of choriocarcinoma and liver or lung metastasis were unfavorable.
  • Radical complete resection alone is a sufficient treatment for localized MGCT.
  • The PVB regimen is optimal chemotherapy for advanced MGCT; however, high-risk cases still may require more aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2003 Sep;170(3):1040 [12926414.001]
  • (PMID = 12483635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Patterson DM, Murugaesu N, Holden L, Seckl MJ, Rustin GJ: A review of the close surveillance policy for stage I female germ cell tumors of the ovary and other sites. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jan-Feb;18(1):43-50
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  • [Title] A review of the close surveillance policy for stage I female germ cell tumors of the ovary and other sites.
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors are rare but very curable at all stages of disease.
  • There is good evidence that surveillance for stage I dysgerminomas is a safe option although many centers worldwide still advocate adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IA nondysgerminomatous tumors, despite the significant risk of developing long-term treatment side effects.
  • Patients underwent surgery and staging followed by intense surveillance, which included regular tumor markers and imaging.
  • Relapse rates for stage IA nondysgerminomatous tumors and dysgerminomas were 8 of 22 (36%) and 2 of 9 (22%), respectively, plus one patient with mature teratoma and glial implants also relapsed; 10 of these 11 patients (91%) were successfully cured with platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • The overall disease-specific survival of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors was 94%.
  • We have confirmed again that surveillance of all stage IA ovarian germ cell tumors is very safe and that the outcome is comparable with testicular tumors.
  • We question the need for potentially toxic adjuvant chemotherapy in nondysgerminoma patients who have greater than 90% chance of being salvaged with chemotherapy if they relapse later.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Population Surveillance. Prognosis. Risk Management. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17466047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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20. Lo Curto M, Lumia F, Alaggio R, Cecchetto G, Almasio P, Indolfi P, Siracusa F, Bagnulo S, De Bernardi B, De Laurentis T, Di Cataldo A, Tamaro P: Malignant germ cell tumors in childhood: results of the first Italian cooperative study "TCG 91". Med Pediatr Oncol; 2003 Nov;41(5):417-25
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors in childhood: results of the first Italian cooperative study "TCG 91".
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: About 20% of patients with germ cell tumor (GCT) are still resistant to therapy.
  • The site of the primary tumor was gonadal in 59, extragonadal in 36.
  • The treatment was surgery alone in 31; surgery plus radiotherapy in 1; chemotherapy +/- surgery in 63.
  • Post-chemotherapy resection in 19 (10 complete, 9 partial).
  • The chemotherapy regimen was carboplatin 400 mg/m2/day on days 1, 2; etoposide 150 mg/m2/day on days 1, 2; ifosfamide 1,500 mg/m2/day on days 21, 22; dactinomycin 1.5 mg/m2/day on day 21; vincristine 1.5 mg/m2/day on day 21.
  • Three patients died because of toxicity and two non-responders (to primary chemotherapy), died of progression; among the remaining 90 patients 20 relapsed, 9 are in second remission, 2 are alive with disease, and 9 died of disease progression (one from progression and intracranial hemorrhage).
  • Survival according to: (a) site: testis: 100%; ovary: 88%; sacrococcyx: 69.6%; other sites: 33.3% (P < 0.001);.
  • All the pts who had complete resection of the primary tumor at diagnosis or at delayed surgery, remained in remission.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multivariate analysis showed that the primary site of tumor was the only independent prognostic factor for survival and EFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Confidence Intervals. Female. Humans. Incidence. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sex Distribution. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 14515380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Han XY, Xiang Y, Guo LN, Sheng K, Wan XR, Huang HF, Pan LY: [Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus: A clinicopathologic analysis of 9 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Jan;32(1):44-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathologic features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of uterine mullerian adenosarcoma.
  • All patients received surgical treatment and seven had postoperative chemotherapy, radiotherapy or hormone therapy.
  • Conservation of unilateral ovary or bilateral ovaries was performed in 5 cases.
  • The other one recurred 2 years after local excision of the tumor in the uterine cavity and she remained healthy since hysterectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Uterine mullerian adenosarcoma is a rare tumor without specific clinical symptoms and signs.
  • The diagnosis depends on pathomorphologic examination.
  • The tumors show low malignant potential and the vast majority are at early stage.
  • Surgical excision is the main treatment strategy with a good prognosis in the early stage disease with complete removal of tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosarcoma / drug therapy. Adenosarcoma / pathology. Adenosarcoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20211067.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; Adenosarcoma of the uterus; ICE protocol 1
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22. Lu KH, Gershenson DM: Update on the management of ovarian germ cell tumors. J Reprod Med; 2005 Jun;50(6):417-25
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  • [Title] Update on the management of ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary are rare.
  • In contrast to epithelial ovarian cancer, malignant germ cell tumors occur primarily in girls and young women.
  • In a girl or young woman who presents with a pelvic mass, a gynecologist must consider the diagnosis of an ovarian germ cell tumor in the initial workup.
  • Elevated tumor markers may assist in determining the diagnosis preoperatively.
  • Appropriate intraoperative decision making is crucial to adequately treat and stage the cancer without compromising future fertility.
  • For patients with stage I dysgerminoma or stage I low grade immature teratoma, no additional chemotherapy is indicated.
  • However, patients with stage I disease of other germ cell histologies, as well as advanced-stage disease of all germ cell histologies, require adjuvant treatment with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fertility. Germinoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16050566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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23. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • Anderson Cancer Center in a 16-year period (1990 to 2005).
  • In 8 cases, NSCNEC was associated with other epithelial neoplasms, including mucinous neoplasms of low malignant potential, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, mixed endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma, and a high-grade carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • In 2 cases, the tumor was associated with a mature cystic teratoma; one of them also containing an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • A single case was associated with a benign ovarian cyst.
  • The latter case had a dermoid cyst in the contralateral ovary.
  • NSCNEC represented anywhere from 10% to 90% of the ovarian tumor.
  • According to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system, 4 cases were stage I tumors, 3 cases were stage III tumors, and 4 cases were stage IV tumors.
  • Seven patients were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • One patient had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omentectomy and appendectomy followed by chemotherapy; 1 patient had a total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy; one had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy, and one had a right salpingo-oophorectomy with appendectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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24. Vergote I: Role of surgery in ovarian cancer: an update. Acta Chir Belg; 2004 Jun;104(3):246-56
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  • [Title] Role of surgery in ovarian cancer: an update.
  • Rupture of an ovarian malignant tumor should be avoided at the time of surgery for an early ovarian cancer.
  • Laparoscopic removal of ovarian cysts should be restricted to patients with preoperative evidence that the cyst is benign.
  • Degree of differentiation is the most important independent prognostic factor in stage I disease and should be used in decisions on therapy in clinical practice and the future FIGO-classification of Stage I.
  • In early ovarian cancer staging adequacy and tumor grade were the only 2 statistical significant prognostic factors for survival in the multivariate analysis of the EORTC ACTION-trial.
  • According to the present data there is no scientific basis to rely only on adjuvant chemotherapy or on optimal staging procedure in medium and high risk stage I ovarian cancer.
  • Primary debulking surgery by a gynecologic oncologist remains the standard of care in advanced ovarian cancer.
  • Optimal debulking surgery should be defined as no residual tumor load.
  • Interval debulking is defined as an operation performed after a short course of induction chemotherapy, usually 2 or 3 cycles.
  • Open laparoscopy is probably the most valuable tool for evaluating the operability primarily or at the time of interval debulking surgery.
  • In retrospective analyses neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery does not seem to worsen prognosis compared to primary debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy.
  • However, we will have to wait for the results of the EORTC-GCG/NCI Canada randomized trial to know whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery is as good as primary debulking surgery in some or all stage IIIc and IV patients.
  • The most suitable candidates for secondary debulking surgery are those who had an initial complete response to chemotherapy, a long treatment-free interval (e.g. more than 12 months), and resectable disease (without diffuse carcinomatosis).
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Forecasting. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / trends. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care

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  • (PMID = 15285533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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25. Li M, Pan LY, Huang HF, Lang JH: [Epithelial ovarian tumors in adolescence: a study of clinical features and treatment]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2004 Sep;39(9):598-601
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  • [Title] [Epithelial ovarian tumors in adolescence: a study of clinical features and treatment].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical feature, diagnosis and treatment of epithelial ovarian tumors in adolescent patients.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 29 patients of epithelial ovarian tumors between the age of 13 and 19 during the period of 1983 - 2002 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital.
  • Twenty of the cases were with benign tumors, four with borderline, and five with malignant tumors.
  • The histological types included mucinous tumor in twenty-two cases, serous tumor in six, and endometroid tumor in one case.
  • Among the nine cases with borderline or malignant tumors, eight were at stage I and one at stage IIIc.
  • Of benign tumor group, an abdominal unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed on nine cases.
  • The nine cases with borderline or malignant tumors underwent cytoreductive surgery and comprehensive staging surgery; fertility was preserved for eight of them.
  • A cisplatin combined chemotherapy was given to four patients with malignant tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of epithelial ovarian tumors during adolescence increases with age.
  • Mucinous tumor is the most common histological type in adolescent patients.
  • The therapeutic strategy should be individualized, and surgical approach should consider both cure and preservation of fertility in malignant cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Puberty
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Staging. Ovary / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15498186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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26. Lo Curto M, D'Angelo P, Cecchetto G, Klersy C, Dall'Igna P, Federico A, Siracusa F, Alaggio R, Bernini G, Conte M, De Laurentis T, Di Cataldo A, Inserra A, Santoro N, Tamaro P, Indolfi P: Mature and immature teratomas: results of the first paediatric Italian study. Pediatr Surg Int; 2007 Apr;23(4):315-22
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  • Teratoma is the most common germ cell tumour in childhood; mature (MT) and immature teratomas (IT) are benign tumours, but if they recur, they can be in some cases malignant.
  • Clinical data, treatment and results were all analysed.
  • Chemotherapy (CT) with Vinblastine, D: -actinomycin and cyclophosphamide was indicated for extra-testicular IT grade 2 or 3.
  • The T grading was 1 in 14 cases, 2 in 26, 3 in 16; 28 had gonadic T (17 ovary, 11 testis), 28 extragonadic (sacrococcygeal 19, mediastinic 3, retroperitoneal 2, other sites 4).
  • CT was administered in eight patients; 15/182 patients relapsed (1 in a metastatic site) and in 5/15 the relapse showed malignant histology.
  • Seven MT (5.5%) relapsed (five sacrococcygeal, one retroperitoneal, one mediastinic): surgery at diagnosis had been complete in five and with residual in two; the relapse was malignant in two patients with sacrococcygeal (sc) tumours, who had a complete resection and a partial resection respectively.
  • Eight IT (14.2%) relapsed (four ovary, three sc, one retroperitoneal).
  • A malignant recurrence occurred in two patients with sc tumours (after partial resection in one and after biopsy + CT in one) and in one patient with ovarian IT after a partial resection.
  • All the patients underwent surgical excision of the recurred mass; CT according to Protocol for Malignant GCT was administered to those who had malignant recurrence; 122/126 patients with MT and 53/56 with IT are alive without disease with a follow up of 8-144 months (median 56).
  • Two patients with malignant relapse (one with sc MT, one with sc IT) died because of the progression of the disease.
  • The number of patients treated with CT is not sufficient to evaluate the efficacy of CT in avoiding malignant relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Teratoma / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17333214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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