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1. Whitehead RP, Moon J, McCachren SS, Hersh EM, Samlowski WE, Beck JT, Tchekmedyian NS, Sondak VK, Southwest Oncology Group: A Phase II trial of vinorelbine tartrate in patients with disseminated malignant melanoma and one prior systemic therapy: a Southwest Oncology Group study. Cancer; 2004 Apr 15;100(8):1699-704
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  • [Title] A Phase II trial of vinorelbine tartrate in patients with disseminated malignant melanoma and one prior systemic therapy: a Southwest Oncology Group study.
  • BACKGROUND: Single-agent chemotherapy with dacarbazine continues to be the standard of care for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.
  • However, there is a large population of patients who have failed first-line therapy and might benefit from additional treatment.
  • In the current study, the authors evaluated the antitumor effects and toxicity of vinorelbine therapy in patients who had failed one prior systemic therapy.
  • METHODS: Patients were required to have a histologic diagnosis of melanoma and be of Stage IV with measurable disease, a Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) performance status (PS) of 0-2, no evidence of brain metastases, and adequate bone marrow and liver function.
  • Treatment was comprised of vinorelbine given at a dose of 30 mg/m(2)/week by intravenous bolus.
  • There were no complete or partial responses observed, for a response rate of 0 of the 21 patients studied (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0-16%); the study closed after the first stage of accrual.
  • The group of previously treated patients may be used to evaluate new agents for the treatment of disseminated melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives. Vinblastine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15073859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13612; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA20319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA22433; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35176; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA37981; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA38926; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA42777; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45807; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46441; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58348; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58861; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63850; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA67575; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76132
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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2. Wu Z, Ma JY, Yang JJ, Zhao YF, Zhang SF: Primary small cell carcinoma of esophagus: report of 9 cases and review of literature. World J Gastroenterol; 2004 Dec 15;10(24):3680-2
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  • AIM: To analyze the clinical manifestations, pathological features and treatment of primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the esophagus and to review the literature on this entity.
  • METHODS: The records of 9 patients with primary esophageal small cell carcinoma were examined and the demographic data, presenting symptoms, methods of tumor diagnosis, and types of treatment given, response to treatment, pathologic findings, and clinical outcome were reviewed.
  • Two patients had a stage IIa disease, five had a stage IIb disease, and the other two had a stage III disease of International Union Contrele Cancer (UICC).
  • They received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy and local radiation therapy after discharge.
  • During follow-up, three patients developed multiple liver, brain, lung and bone metastases and died between 5 and 18 mo after the diagnosis.
  • Three patients developed widespread metastasis disease and died between 18 and 37 mo after the diagnosis.
  • There was no local tumor recurrence in these 6 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare but very malignant tumor.
  • Radical resection combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy is helpful in limited stage cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15534932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4612018
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3. Li W, Tan D, Zenali MJ, Brown RE: Constitutive activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) signaling pathway in fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010;3(3):238-43
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  • Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) is an aggressive neoplasm due to high frequency of recurrence after surgical resection and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Activation of transcription factor NF-kB signaling pathway has been recognized for involvement in progression of various malignant neoplasms.
  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 8 FLHCC, 10 normal liver tissues (NLT) were evaluated immunohistochemically for the expression of p-NF-kBp65 using phosphospecific antibody directed against phosphorylated (p)-NF-kBp65 (Ser 536).
  • High expression of p-NF-kBp65 (Ser 536) was found in 88 % (7/8) of FLHCC tissue.
  • The differences in p-NF-kBp65 nuclear expression between FLHCC tissue and NLT were significant (P < 0.001).
  • There was no significant correlation between the expression of intranuclear p-NF-kBp65 and the stage of FLHCC.
  • The findings suggest that NF-kB activation is involved in the tumorigenesis of FLHCC and may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention to FLHCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / physiopathology. Liver Neoplasms / physiopathology. NF-kappa B / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Case-Control Studies. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20224721.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NF-kappa B
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2836501
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma / immunohistochemistry / nuclear factor-kappa B
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4. Frumovitz M, Etchepareborda M, Sun CC, Soliman PT, Eifel PJ, Levenback CF, Ramirez PT: Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina. Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Dec;116(6):1358-65
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  • [Title] Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina.
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven women with clinical and radiographic stage I vaginal melanoma treated at one institution between 1980 and 2009 were included in this retrospective study.
  • Treatment modalities were assigned to one of three categories: pelvic exenteration, wide excision, and nonsurgical (primary radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or both).
  • Overall survival and progression-free survival were calculated from the date of the surgical diagnosis.
  • Lesions were located in the distal third of the vagina in the majority (65%) of patients.
  • Initial management included a wide local or radical excision (76% of patients); pelvic exenteration (14%); and radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy and chemotherapy (10%).
  • The most common sites of distant recurrence were lungs and liver.
  • CONCLUSION: Malignant vaginal melanoma, even when localized at presentation, has a very poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21099603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-233X
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Mosca F, Stracqualursi A, Lipari G, Persi A, Latteri S: [Malignant stromal tumors of the duodenum. Report of a case]. Chir Ital; 2000 Nov-Dec;52(6):725-32
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  • [Title] [Malignant stromal tumors of the duodenum. Report of a case].
  • The Authors report a rare case of undifferentiated duodenal malignant stromal tumour in a 69-years-old man radically managed by pancreaticoduodenectomy and resection of a liver metastasis.
  • Several preoperative tests were performed (barium meal, endoscopy, ultrasonography and CT scan) but failed to yield a differential diagnosis between a tumour of the pancreatic head and a retroperitoneal neoplasm.
  • The diagnosis was only histological.
  • The tumour was considered to be high-grade due to its large size, high mitotic index, and the presence of necrosis and liver metastasis.
  • Thorough surveillance revealed several hepatic metastases 29 months after resection, and chemotherapy performed at this stage proved completely ineffective.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Pancreaticoduodenectomy

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  • (PMID = 11200011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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6. Huang SF, Ko CW, Chang CS, Chen GH: Liver abscess formation after transarterial chemoembolization for malignant hepatic tumor. Hepatogastroenterology; 2003 Jul-Aug;50(52):1115-8
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  • [Title] Liver abscess formation after transarterial chemoembolization for malignant hepatic tumor.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To study and review the clinical manifestations, microbiology, comorbidity, and diagnosis of liver abscess after transarterial chemoembolization for malignant hepatic tumor.
  • METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively reviewed 1374 patients who underwent 2581 transarterial chemoembolization procedures due to malignant hepatic tumors over an 8-year period.
  • RESULTS: 7 patients had liver abscess after transarterial chemoembolization.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in all 7 patients, whose liver function was classified as stage A by the Child-Pugh criteria.
  • All the patients had hyperechoic spots with reverberative shadows on sonograms or low attenuation areas with different Hounsfield units on computed tomography scan, which expressed the 100% incidence (7 of 7) of gas-forming abscesses.
  • No patients died of liver abscess after aspiration, drainage, or debridement of abscess combined with parenteral antibiotic treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Liver abscess after transarterial chemoembolization is a very rare complication, which usually develops in patients with biliary tract disease.
  • However, the prognosis is good after adequate clearance of pus and antibiotic treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / adverse effects. Liver Abscess / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biliary Tract Diseases / epidemiology. Common Bile Duct / pathology. Comorbidity. Drainage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 12845993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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7. Kalteis T, Heers G, Elsner R: Adenocarcinoma of the rectum in childhood following chemotherapy and radiotherapy for a rhabdomyosarcoma--a case report. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2005 Jun;15(3):210-2

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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma of the rectum in childhood following chemotherapy and radiotherapy for a rhabdomyosarcoma--a case report.
  • We report a case of rectal adenocarcinoma in a 9-year-old boy, which took the form of a second malignant neoplasm following treatment for an early childhood malignancy.
  • The abdominal complaints were for a long time interpreted as an infectious disease.
  • At the time of diagnosis of the rectal carcinoma, the tumor had already progressed to the stage of metastatic disease.
  • Therapy consisted of deep anterior rectal resection and regional arterial chemotherapy for liver metastases.
  • The child died 18 months after the diagnosis of rectal carcinoma.
  • As survival for childhood tumors improves, rare second malignant neoplasms will become increasingly common in children and adolescents.
  • This phenomenon emphasizes the need for continued clinical surveillance of patients who have been treated with chemotherapy or irradiation for childhood tumors.
  • The increased risk of second malignant neoplasms and an early onset of adult-type tumors has to be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Thigh

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  • (PMID = 15999318.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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8. Suita S, Shono K, Tajiri T, Takamatsu T, Mizote H, Nagasaki A, Inomata Y, Hara T, Okamura J, Miyazaki S, Kawakami K, Eguchi H, Tsuneyoshi M, Committee for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area: Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan. J Pediatr Surg; 2002 Dec;37(12):1703-6
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the prognostic factors and optimal treatments for malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT) in childhood.
  • The prognostic factors and treatments were assessed based on the 5-year survival rate. RESULTS:.
  • (1) Stage: 100% for stage I (n = 54), 75.0% for stage II (n = 4), 67.3% for stage III (n = 14), and 54.8% for stage IV (n = 33); Unknown: n = 12. (2) Primary site: 93.4% for the testis (n = 52), 86.7% for the ovary (n = 31), 56.9% for the sacrococcygeal (n = 21), and 60.6% for others (n = 12); unknown: n = 1. (3) Surgical intervention for primary tumor: 100% for stage I with a complete resection (n = 53), 78.4% for stage III, IV with a complete resection (n = 26), and 33.3% for stage III, IV with an incomplete resection (n = 21). (4) Type of chemotherapy for the stage III and IV: 83.9% for the PVB (cisplatin, vinblastin, bleomycin; n = 13), 66.7% for the VAC (vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide; n = 6), and 47.1% for other regimens (n = 25).
  • CONCLUSIONS: An early stage, a diagnosis under 1 year of age and a primary site in the gonads were favorable prognosis factors, whereas histologic findings of choriocarcinoma and liver or lung metastasis were unfavorable.
  • Radical complete resection alone is a sufficient treatment for localized MGCT.
  • The PVB regimen is optimal chemotherapy for advanced MGCT; however, high-risk cases still may require more aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2003 Sep;170(3):1040 [12926414.001]
  • (PMID = 12483635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Emmert S, Zutt M, Haenssle H, Neumann C, Kretschmer L: Inefficacy of vindesine monotherapy in advanced stage IV malignant melanoma patients previously treated with other chemotherapeutic agents. Melanoma Res; 2003 Jun;13(3):299-302
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  • [Title] Inefficacy of vindesine monotherapy in advanced stage IV malignant melanoma patients previously treated with other chemotherapeutic agents.
  • The anti-melanoma activity of vindesine as a single or polychemotherapeutic agent has been reported previously in adjuvant and first-line melanoma treatment.
  • In this study, we investigated the usefulness of vindesine monotherapy as salvage therapy in stage IV melanoma patients after failure of other chemotherapies.
  • Previous systemic treatment consisted of polychemotherapy or combined chemo-immunotherapy.
  • All 13 patients suffered from visceral metastases (three lung, one liver, one adrenal gland and eight multiple visceral metastases).
  • A median of three vindesine treatments was administered.
  • Despite the various pre-treatments, the toxicity of vindesine was mild.
  • In all 13 patients, vindesine treatment was stopped due to disease progression.
  • The median survival after primary tumour diagnosis was 42 months (8-151 months), the survival after entering stage IV was 11 months (3-35 months), and the survival after starting vindesine therapy was 4 months (1-22 months).
  • We conclude that vindesine monotherapy is ineffective in stage IV melanoma patients previously treated with other chemotherapeutic agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Vindesine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alopecia / chemically induced. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12777986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; RSA8KO39WH / Vindesine
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10. Tröbs RB, Hänsel M, Friedrich T, Bennek J: A 23-year experience with malignant renal tumors in infancy and childhood. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2001 Apr;11(2):92-8
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  • [Title] A 23-year experience with malignant renal tumors in infancy and childhood.
  • A retrospective analysis of 77 children treated between 1974 and 1996 was undertaken to evaluate morbidity and the evolution of therapy.
  • A Wilms' tumor (WT) was present in 73 children.
  • High-risk WT were diagnosed in 12 of 63 patients (19%) (NB with anaplasia 10, clear cell sarcoma 1, malignant rhabdoid tumor 1).
  • Comparing relapse-free survival of stages I, II and III, respectively, there was a reduced survival rate for stage III (p=0.019).
  • According to the SIOP/GPOH protocol in 1989, the regimen was switched from primary surgery to preoperative chemotherapy without biopsy in 1989 (11 pats.).
  • In 3 patients preoperative diagnosis by means of imaging failed.
  • During preoperative chemotherapy a venous occlusive disease of the liver occurred in 2 patients.
  • Preoperative chemotherapy led to an impressive tumor shrinkage in the majority of patients.
  • In our experience, reduction of tumor volume due to preoperative chemotherapy facilitates tumor removal by surgery and may prevent tumor spillage and the deleterious effects of radiation in young children.
  • Surgery without delay is necessary if the diagnosis is unclear or the tumor fails to respond to preoperative chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Wilms Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11371043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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11. Zang RY, Zhang ZY, Cai SM, Tang MQ, Chen J, Li ZT: Epithelial ovarian cancer presenting initially with extraabdominal or intrahepatic metastases: a preliminary report of 25 cases and literature review. Am J Clin Oncol; 2000 Aug;23(4):416-9
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  • [Title] Epithelial ovarian cancer presenting initially with extraabdominal or intrahepatic metastases: a preliminary report of 25 cases and literature review.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) that are initially categorized as extraabdominal adenocarcinoma of unknown primary.
  • Twenty-five patients with EOC, who were treated in the Cancer Hospital of Shanghai Medical University from January 1986 to December 1997, and manifesting as extraperitoneal or liver parenchyma metastases at the time of presentation without detectable ovarian tumors, were retrospectively studied.
  • When compared with 52 other women with stage IV EOC, 20 patients who initially sought treatment for extraabdominal metastases experienced a better prognosis, with an estimated median survival of 24 months versus 10 months (p = 0.0427).
  • The prognosis of such cases, mainly for those with supraclavicular lymphadenopathy or malignant pleural effusion, is better than that for other stage IV EOC patients, probably because most of the patients who initially had distant metastases were generally in condition that permitted aggressive surgery or multicycle chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. CA-125 Antigen / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Linear Models. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / diagnosis. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 10955875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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12. Eilber FC, Eilber KS, Eilber FR: Retroperitoneal sarcomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2000 Aug;1(3):274-8
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  • Imaging of the abdomen and pelvis by computed tomography (CT) provides both an imaging modality and a method by which to obtain tissue for diagnosis.
  • Because a histologic diagnosis is essential in treatment planning, adequate tissue can usually be obtained by a CT-guided core biopsy.
  • If the diagnosis is sarcoma, additional tests necessary for staging include plain chest radiography and evaluation of the liver by either CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • The treatment options for primary retroperitoneal sarcomas include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, or a combination of these modalities; therefore, a multidisciplinary group best manages treatment planning.
  • Primary radiation therapy for cure is seldom effective for retroperitoneal sarcomas but can provide palliation in select cases.
  • Systemic chemotherapy for chemosensitive lesions, such as poorly differentiated liposarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), synovial cell sarcoma, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), can be useful when used in a neoadjuvant manner.
  • Consequently, surgical resection continues to be the mainstay of treatment for retroperitoneal sarcomas and requires en bloc resection of the primary tumor.
  • Postoperative adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy or radiation has not been proven to be of any additional benefit.
  • Overall treatment results are predominantly influenced by tumor stage, grade, size, and margins of surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy / methods. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Radiotherapy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12057171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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13. Müller HL, Marx A, Trusen M, Schneider P, Kühl J: Disseminated malignant ectomesenchymoma (MEM): case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2002 Jan-Feb;19(1):9-17

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  • [Title] Disseminated malignant ectomesenchymoma (MEM): case report and review of the literature.
  • Malignant ectomesenchymoma (MEM) is a rare soft tissue tumor believed to arise from a pluripotent migratory neural crest cell and composed fo both a mesenchymal element and a neuroectodermal element.
  • The authors report the case of an 11-month-old male who presented with a local abdominal MEM and systemic metastases into lungs, liver, bones, and bone marrow.
  • The tumor consisted of a neuroblastoma component and a mesenchymal component with sarcomatous features.
  • Diagnosis and therapy were complicated by the histological heterogeneity of the tumor, which also influenced the clinical appearance and course in this case.
  • A literature search revealed 15 other evaluated cases that arose in soft tissue and had adequate clinicopathologic data.
  • Complete surgical resection was the mainstay of treatment, and chemotherapy also appeared to be important.
  • In patients with disseminated MEM, new therapeutic approaches such as high-dose chemotherapy followed by stem cell rescue should be considered, similar to the current strategy in patients with stage VI neuroblastoma or soft tissue sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11787870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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14. Comaru-Schally AM, Schally AV: A clinical overview of carcinoid tumors: perspectives for improvement in treatment using peptide analogs (review). Int J Oncol; 2005 Feb;26(2):301-9
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  • [Title] A clinical overview of carcinoid tumors: perspectives for improvement in treatment using peptide analogs (review).
  • Carcinoid tumors were first described more than a century ago, but the treatment of patients with advanced disease remains a challenge to physicians.
  • A 5-decade analysis of 13,715 carcinoid tumors in the USA showed that distant metastases were demonstrated at the time of diagnosis in 12.9% of patients with this neoplasia.
  • The prognosis of patients with early stage disease is good and surgical resection is the standard form of treatment.
  • However, patients with metastatic dissemination have poor outcomes since chemotherapy is generally ineffective.
  • Radiation therapy may ease the pain of bone metastases.
  • The administration of long acting analogs of somatostatin can control the symptoms of diarrhea and flushing in patients with the malignant carcinoid syndrome.
  • Other modalities of treatment, including liver transplantation and the administration of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs have likewise been applied in patients with advanced disease.
  • It is expected that advances in proteomics research will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of diseases and aid in designing new drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Peptides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gamma Cameras. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Liver / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Proteomics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15645113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptides; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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15. Yamamoto R, Hosokawa S, Yamatodani T, Morita S, Okamura J, Mineta H: [Eight cases of neuroendcrine carcinoma of the head and neck]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2008 Jul;111(7):517-22
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  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the head and neck is rare, and diagnosis may be difficult.
  • We reported eight cases of stage IV small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the head and neck, all in men with a mean onset age of 62 years (range: 45 to 80 years).
  • Histological analysis by hematoxylin-eosin staining tentatively revealed malignant lymphoma and undifferentiated carcinoma in two cases each, while immunohistological and/or electron microscopy analysis confirmed histological diagnosis.
  • All were treated by chemotherapy (VP-16, CDDP) and seven cases with radiotherapy based on the schedule of small cell carcinoma of the lung and two cases with lesional resection.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were effective locally.
  • Five patients died of distant metastasis to the brain, bone, lung, liver, or skin within 12 months.
  • One is alive with liver metastasis.
  • Long-term survival thus requires the effective treatment of distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18697475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PE regimen
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16. Radić V, Kukura V, Ciglar S: Adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix--adjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment with paclitaxel and carboplatin; a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2005;26(4):449-50
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  • [Title] Adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix--adjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment with paclitaxel and carboplatin; a case report.
  • Adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a rare mixture of malignant glandular and squamous epithelial elements.
  • We present a case of a 56-year-old woman with Stage IV cervical carcinoma treated with paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy after cytoreductive surgery.
  • Solitary liver metastases were treated by ultrasound guided percutaneous sclerotherapy with 95% ethanol.
  • For ten months the patient showed an objective response to the treatment with a good quality of life during that time.
  • A year after the first, the second cytoreductive operation was performed and chemotherapy (paclitaxel, carboplatin, and epirubicin) followed.
  • The patient died 20 months after establishing the diagnosis.
  • Paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin as adjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment could be another promising agent for patients with advanced metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Injections, Intralesional. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Sclerosing Solutions / administration & dosage. Sclerotherapy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16122201.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sclerosing Solutions; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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17. Tsuchiya T, Hiramatsu K, Tanaka H, Machiki Y, Sakuragawa T, Otsuji H, Hara T, Kimura A, Yoshida K, Hosoya J, Kojima T, Kato K: [A Case of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma successfully treated by FU plus irinotecan(CPT-11)adjuvant therapy against recurrent metastases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Dec;36(13):2641-4
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  • [Title] [A Case of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma successfully treated by FU plus irinotecan(CPT-11)adjuvant therapy against recurrent metastases].
  • A case of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma successfully treated by FU (5-FU/UFT) +irinotecan (CPT-11) adjuvant therapy against recurrent metastases is reported with some discussion.
  • He was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer, T3N1H0P0M0, Stage IIIa.
  • The pathological diagnosis was gastric endocrine cell carcinoma because Grimelius and Chromogranin A stained positive histologically.
  • Seven months after operation, recurrent liver metastases with tumor embolism of the portal vein were revealed by enhanced CT examination.
  • FU (5-FU/UFT) +CPT-11 was done as the first-line adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Metastatic lesion of the liver and portal vein tumor embolism was decreased.
  • Tumor marker CA19-9 level was also decreased and within normal limits.
  • This therapy was evaluated as a partial response (PR) in twelve months and the patient died three years and eight months after operation.
  • Gastric endocrine cell carcinoma is known as a potentially highly malignant tumor.
  • But in our case FU+CPT-11 controlled growth of the recurrent tumor.
  • Based on this finding, we recommend adjuvant chemotherapy by FU+CPT-11 for gastric endocrine cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Gastrectomy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 20009471.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 7673326042 / irinotecan; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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18. Albert A, Cruz O, Montaner A, Vela A, Badosa J, Castañón M, Morales L: [Congenital solid tumors. A thirteen-year review]. Cir Pediatr; 2004 Jul;17(3):133-6
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  • This is an interesting group of tumors because their type, relative incidence, natural history and response to treatment differ from those seen in older children.
  • Neuroblastoma was the commonest tumor (10 cases, 37%), of which 4 were stage I, 4 stage IV-S and 2 stage III.
  • There were 8 teratomas (3 sacrocoxigeal, 1 retroperitoneal, 1 in the CNS, 1 orbitary and two oronasal), two hepatic tumors (1 hepatoblastoma, 1 hemangioendothelioma, two CNS tumors, two giant nevus (one on a hamartoma), and one each Wilms tumor, infantile fibrosarcoma and myofibroblastic tumor.
  • Treatment was surgical resection alone in 17 cases (68%) and surgery + chemotherapy in 8 (32%) (5 neuroblastomas, one CNS tumor, one Wilms tumor and one presacral teratoma who developed a yolk sac tumor); 3 patients died (11%): one at surgery, one of tumoural airway obstruction at birth and one with craniopharyngioma.
  • Among the 14 tumors that were initially not malignant, two can be locally agressive, one was an immature teratoma, the giant nevus with hamartoma developed in situ melanoma, the other nevus had meningeal melanosis with hydrocephalus, and one mature presacral teratoma developed a yolk sac tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of congenital tumors is performed earlier in recent years due to the wide use of prenatal ultrasound.
  • Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice, most cases not need adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • We ought to pass this message on to our colleagues in prenatal diagnosis, so parents get reliable information.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / congenital. Kidney Neoplasms / congenital. Liver Neoplasms / congenital. Neuroblastoma / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / congenital. Teratoma / congenital. Wilms Tumor / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Pregnancy. Prenatal Diagnosis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15503950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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19. Petru E, Pasterk C, Reich O, Obermair A, Winter R, Breitenecker G: Small-cell carcinoma of the uterus and the vagina: experience with ten patients. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2005 Apr;271(4):316-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinomas (small-CCs) of the uterine cervix are rare and highly malignant neoplasms.
  • Patients tend to develop distant metastasis early and thus are potential candidates for systemic therapy.
  • Eight patients underwent radical surgery, 7 of whom also received chemotherapy.
  • Of the 7 patients with small-CC of the cervix only one, who had FIGO stage IIB disease and positive pelvic nodes, survived long-term (86 months) with no evidence of disease.
  • She had received six courses of dose-intensive platinum chemotherapy after radical surgery.
  • All three patients with small-CC of the uterine corpus or vagina developed recurrence within the first year after diagnosis.
  • Of the 7 patients who received chemotherapy, 5 developed progressive or recurrent disease in the paraaortic region (n=2), peritoneum (n=1), liver (n=1), or pelvis (n=1).
  • The optimal treatment for these patients most probably including concurrent chemo-radiotherapy remains to be defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15197564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. García-Leiva J, Gamboa-Domínguez A, Ceron-Lizarraga T, Morales-Espinosa D, Meza-Junco J, Arrieta O: Response of negative estrogen-receptor hepatocarcinoma to tamoxifen, and survival of non-resectable patients. Ann Hepatol; 2006 Oct-Dec;5(4):263-7
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  • Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common malignant neoplasm worldwide.
  • Most patients are not candidates to surgical treatment.
  • The prognosis of this neoplasm is poor, with an overall survival rate of 8 weeks in unresectable tumors.
  • Estrogen receptors have been found in up to 33% of this tumors, reason why treatment with tamoxifen or progesterone compounds have been tried to diminish this neoplasm's progression but its use remains controversial.
  • The multivariate analysis showed that treatment with tamoxifen duplicates survival independently of the tumoral stage and functional hepatic reserve.
  • It seems that the benefit of treatment with tamoxifen is limited and is not associated to the presence of estrogen receptors.
  • In our study a 69 year-old man with diagnosis of non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma and negative estrogen receptors, was treated with tamoxifen with a partial response and an overall survival of 4 years until November 2005.
  • It is important to identify patients that would benefit from treatment with tamoxifen.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptors, Estrogen / antagonists & inhibitors. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17151578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1665-2681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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21. Bergman L, Beelen ML, Gallee MP, Hollema H, Benraadt J, van Leeuwen FE: Risk and prognosis of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen for breast cancer. Comprehensive Cancer Centres' ALERT Group. Assessment of Liver and Endometrial cancer Risk following Tamoxifen. Lancet; 2000 Sep 9;356(9233):881-7
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  • [Title] Risk and prognosis of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen for breast cancer. Comprehensive Cancer Centres' ALERT Group. Assessment of Liver and Endometrial cancer Risk following Tamoxifen.
  • BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen increases the risk of endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: We did a nationwide case-control study on the risk and prognosis of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen use for breast cancer.
  • Information on tamoxifen use and other risk factors for endometrial cancer was obtained from 309 women with endometrial cancer after breast cancer (cases), and 860 matched controls with breast cancer but without endometrial cancer.
  • For 276 cases, we obtained tissue blocks of endometrial cancer to review the diagnosis, and used immunohistochemistry to examine hormone-receptor status and overexpression of p53.
  • Risk of endometrial cancer increased with longer duration of tamoxifen use (p < 0.001), with relative risks of 2.0 (1.2-3.2) for 2-5 years and 6.9 (2.4-19.4) for at least 5 years compared with non-users.
  • Endometrial cancers of stage III and IV occurred more frequently in long-term tamoxifen users (> or = 2 years) than in non-users (17.4% vs 5.4%, p=0.006).
  • Long-term users were more likely than non-users to have had malignant mixed mesodermal tumours or sarcomas of the endometrium (15.4% vs 2.9%, p < or = 0.02), p53-positive tumours (31.4% vs 18.2%, p=0.05), and negative oestrogen-receptor concentrations (60.8% vs 26.2%, p < or = 0.001).
  • 3-year endometrial-cancer-specific survival was significantly worse for long-term tamoxifen users than for non-users (76% for > or = 5 years, 85% for 2-5 years vs 94% for non-users, p=0.02).
  • INTERPRETATION: Long-term tamoxifen users have a worse prognosis of endometrial cancers, which seems to be due to less favourable histology and higher stage.
  • However, the benefit of tamoxifen on breast-cancer survival far outweighs the increased mortality from endometrial cancer.
  • Nevertheless, we seriously question widespread use of tamoxifen as a preventive agent against breast cancer in healthy women.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemically induced. Estrogen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):65-6; author reply 67 [11197376.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):66-7 [11197379.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):68 [11197381.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):68 [11197382.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2000 Sep 9;356(9233):868-9 [11036885.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):67-8 [11197380.001]
  • (PMID = 11036892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0140-6736
  • [Journal-full-title] Lancet (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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22. Nahas CS, Akhurst T, Yeung H, Leibold T, Riedel E, Markowitz AJ, Minsky BD, Paty PB, Weiser MR, Temple LK, Wong WD, Larson SM, Guillem JG: Positron emission tomography detection of distant metastatic or synchronous disease in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving preoperative chemoradiation. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Mar;15(3):704-11
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Positron emission tomography detection of distant metastatic or synchronous disease in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving preoperative chemoradiation.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer may present with synchronous distant metastases.
  • Choice of optimal treatment--neoadjuvant chemoradiation versus systemic chemotherapy alone--depends on accurate assessment of distant disease.
  • We prospectively evaluated the ability of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to detect distant disease in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were otherwise eligible for combined modality therapy (CMT).
  • METHODS: Ninety-three patients with locally advanced rectal cancer underwent whole-body [18F]FDG PET scanning 2-3 weeks before starting CMT.
  • Sites other than the rectum, mesorectum, or the area along the inferior mesenteric artery were considered distant and were divided into nine groups: neck, lung, mediastinal lymph node (LN), abdomen, liver, colon, pelvis, peripheral LN, and soft tissue.
  • A score greater than 3 was considered malignant.
  • Confirmation was based on tissue diagnosis, surgical exploration, and subsequent imaging.
  • Greatest accuracy was demonstrated in detection of liver (accuracy = 99.9%, sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 98.8%) and lung (accuracy = 99.9%, sensitivity = 80%, specificity = 100%) disease; PET detected 11/12 confirmed malignant sites in liver and lung.
  • A total of 10 patients were confirmed to have M1 stage disease.
  • All 10 were correctly staged by pre-CMT PET; abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scans accurately detected nine of them.
  • CONCLUSION: Baseline PET in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer reliably detects metastatic disease in liver and lung.
  • PET may play a significant role in defining extent of distant disease in selected cases, thus impacting the choice of neoadjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Rectal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Single-Blind Method

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  • [ErratumIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2008 Apr;15(4):1265. Leibold, Tobias [added]
  • (PMID = 17882490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / R01 82534-01
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Michael H, Lucia J, Foster RS, Ulbright TM: The pathology of late recurrence of testicular germ cell tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 Feb;24(2):257-73
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A total of 91 men had histologically documented late recurrences of testicular germ cell tumors characterized by a complete response to treatment with a subsequent disease-free interval of at least 2 years and no evidence of a second primary lesion.
  • Ninety percent of the patients for whom information was available received chemotherapy shortly after their initial diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumors; most of the other patients were known to have stage I disease initially.
  • Thus, teratoma was the most common type of neoplasm in late recurrences.
  • Excluding teratoma coexisting with other types of neoplasms, yolk sac tumor was the most frequent type of tumor in patients with late recurrence.
  • It occurred in 47% of patients, either alone or with teratoma, another nonteratomatous germ cell tumor type, or a "nongerm cell malignant tumor."
  • Unusual types of yolk sac tumor, including glandular, parietal, clear cell, and pleomorphic patterns, were seen frequently in late recurrences and often raised differential diagnostic problems with "nongerm cell" carcinomas.
  • A smaller number of late recurrences consisted of other types of neoplasms.
  • Twenty percent of patients with late recurrence had a nonteratomatous germ cell tumor other than yolk sac tumor, either alone, with yolk sac tumor, or with a "nongerm cell malignant tumor."
  • Most of these nonteratomatous germ cell tumors other than yolk sac tumor were embryonal carcinoma, although rarely seminoma and choriocarcinoma were encountered.
  • "Nongerm cell malignant tumors," including both sarcomas and carcinomas of various types, occurred in 23% of late-recurrence patients, either alone or with a nonteratomatous germ cell tumor.
  • Late recurrences were seen in many different sites in these patients, including the retroperitoneum, abdomen, pelvis, liver, mediastinum, lung, bone (femur, vertebra, and rib), lymph nodes outside the retroperitoneum and mediastinum (supraclavicular, neck, and axillary regions), scrotum and inguinal regions, adrenal gland, chest wall, and buttocks.
  • Patients whose late recurrences consisted of pure "nongerm cell malignant tumor" or pure germ cell tumor (yolk sac tumor or other types) had a much worse prognosis: Only 36% to 37% were alive with no evidence of disease.
  • Patients with two different types of nonteratomatous malignancies in their late recurrences had a dismal clinical course: Only 17% with both yolk sac tumor and other nonteratomatous germ cell tumor had no evidence of disease, whereas no patient with both nonteratomatous germ cell tumor and "nongerm cell malignant tumor" was disease free.
  • Furthermore, late recurrence is not likely to respond to chemotherapy and is best treated by surgical excision when possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Embryonal / complications. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / therapy. Choriocarcinoma / complications. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / complications. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / therapy. Sarcoma / complications. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Seminoma / complications. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / therapy. Teratoma / complications. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 10680894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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24. Unger JM, Flaherty LE, Liu PY, Albain KS, Sondak VK: Gender and other survival predictors in patients with metastatic melanoma on Southwest Oncology Group trials. Cancer; 2001 Mar 15;91(6):1148-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that women with metastatic malignant melanoma have a better survival rate than men.
  • However, little is known about the effect of gender on survival in combination with other clinical variables and treatment variables.
  • Thus, an analysis of 813 eligible patients from 15 consecutive Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) Phase II or III trials evaluating chemotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy for metastatic melanoma was performed.
  • RESULTS: Poor performance status (P < 0.001), more organ sites with metastases (OSM) (P < 0.001), liver involvement (P < 0.001), and nonliver visceral involvement (P = 0.01) were highly significant predictors of worse survival, whereas the disease free interval (P = 0.08) had borderline significance.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current study found that performance status, OSM, and type of visceral involvement were independent predictors of survival in patients with metastic malignant melanoma and should be used as stratification factors in future Phase III trials.
  • However, the current study also found that gender did not appear to be a significant independent predictor of survival for this stage of disease.
  • A longer disease free interval from initial diagnosis and fewer OSMs may partly explain the improved outcome reported for women in selected trials.
  • The study concluded that further investigation of the biologic differences at early stage diagnosis should be undertaken to determine whether women truly have a different pace of disease progression and a different metastatic pattern.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Health Status. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11267960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14028; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA38926; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46282
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Yegüez JF, Martinez SA, Sands DR, Sands LR, Hellinger MD: Colorectal malignancies in HIV-positive patients. Am Surg; 2003 Nov;69(11):981-7
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Due to the development of more effective medications, those infected with HIV are living longer.
  • A retrospective review of HIV/AIDS patients with colorectal malignant tumors was undertaken.
  • We included adult patients, with ELISA and Western blot test positive for HIV, and primary malignant tumors located in the colon or rectum.
  • Malignant neoplasms of the anus were excluded for the purposes of this study.
  • Twelve patients (9 males and 3 females), mean age 41 years, were identified with the following neoplasm: 6 adenocarcinomas (ACA), 5 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), and 1 small-cell carcinoma.
  • Intravenous drug abuse was the main risk factor for HIV.
  • No patient had identified risk factors for colorectal neoplasm.
  • Five out of six patients with ACA had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis.
  • One patient with stage II ACA developed early liver metastases after colonic resection.
  • This is the largest series of cases of colorectal cancer in the HIV/AIDS patient population published in the English language and the largest number of colorectal ACA reported in this unique population.
  • More recently, we have only treated patients with colorectal ACA; none of them had no risk factors for colorectal cancer (family history, IBD, FAP, HNPCC).
  • These patients developed tumors at earlier ages and were diagnosed at an advanced stage.
  • The use of the new antiretroviral therapy regimens should be further evaluated to know its impact in the survival.






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