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1. Haeno H, Iwasa Y, Michor F: The evolution of two mutations during clonal expansion. Genetics; 2007 Dec;177(4):2209-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In the inherited form of this childhood eye cancer, only one mutation emerges during somatic cell divisions while in sporadic cases, both alleles of RB1 are inactivated in the growing retina.
  • Other examples include evolution of resistance against anticancer combination therapy and inactivation of both alleles of a metastasis-suppressor gene during tumor growth.
  • In this article, we consider an exponentially growing population of cells that must evolve two mutations to (i) evade treatment, (ii) make a step toward (invasive) cancer, or (iii) display a disease phenotype.
  • [MeSH-minor] Clone Cells. Disease. Drug Resistance / genetics. Humans. Kinetics. Models, Genetic. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18073428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6731
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genetics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2219486
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2. Alexander HR Jr, Bartlett DL, Libutti SK: Current status of isolated hepatic perfusion with or without tumor necrosis factor for the treatment of unresectable cancers confined to liver. Oncologist; 2000;5(5):416-24
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  • [Title] Current status of isolated hepatic perfusion with or without tumor necrosis factor for the treatment of unresectable cancers confined to liver.
  • Metastatic or primary unresectable cancers confined to the liver are the sole or life-limiting component of disease for many patients with colorectal cancer, ocular melanoma, neuroendocrine tumors or primary colangio- or hepatocellular carcinomas.
  • A number of regional treatment strategies including infusional chemotherapy and local ablative therapy are under clinical development and attest to the difficulty in adequately treating this condition.
  • In light of the remarkable antitumor activity with isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and melphalan in patients with unresectable extremity sarcoma or in transit melanoma, this regimen has been administered via IHP at several centers worldwide for unresectable liver cancers.
  • IHP with TNF and melphalan can result in significant regression of advanced refractory cancers confined to the liver and, with additional clinical development, will most likely be a more routinely considered option for patients with this condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melphalan / therapeutic use. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11040278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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3. Loges S, Roncal C, Carmeliet P: Development of targeted angiogenic medicine. J Thromb Haemost; 2009 Jan;7(1):21-33
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  • With an estimated number of more than 500 million patients worldwide potentially benefiting from it, it is a prime example of targeted therapy that is increasingly changing the face of clinical medicine.
  • Most efforts to stimulate or inhibit angiogenesis in the past were focused on the key angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), resulting in the approval by the Food and Drug Administration of several drugs for the treatment of cancer and ocular disease.
  • However, mounting clinical evidence reveals that inhibition of VEGF causes resistance and class-specific side effects, while therapeutic angiogenesis by delivering VEGF protein is more challenging than anticipated in human patients.
  • Hence, alternatives are needed, and modulation of oxygen-sensitive enzymes (prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins) and of hypoxia induced transcription factors has recently emerged as a potential novel strategy to treat cancer and ischemic diseases.
  • Furthermore, placental growth factor is a disease-specific angiogenic target, whose inhibition reduces cancer growth without causing major side effects, while its delivery induces revascularization of ischemic tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anoxia. Eye Diseases / drug therapy. Humans. Ischemia / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neurodegenerative Diseases / drug therapy. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] J Thromb Haemost. 2009 Jan;7(1):2-3 [18983506.001]
  • (PMID = 18983480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7836
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thromb. Haemost.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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4. Chan HS, Gallie BL, Munier FL, Beck Popovic M: Chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. Ophthalmol Clin North Am; 2005 Mar;18(1):55-63, viii
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy for retinoblastoma.
  • Retinoblastoma is the most common eye cancer in children.
  • Pilot studies of chemotherapy for intraocular retinoblastoma have been reported by several groups, using different combinations, dosages, schedules, and durations of carboplatin, etoposide, or teniposide, with or without vincristine, and with or without cyclosporine to counteract multidrug resistance.
  • All studies of chemotherapy for intraocular retinoblastoma have included consolidation by focal therapy, with or without radiation.
  • Chemotherapy alone reduces tumor size but does not cure retinoblastoma.
  • Focal therapy, consisting of photocoagulation, thermotherapy, cryotherapy, or brachytherapy, is necessary to consolidate chemotherapy response.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm / drug effects. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Resistance, Multiple / genetics. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15763191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0896-1549
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmol Clin North Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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5. Antczak C, Kloepping C, Radu C, Genski T, Müller-Kuhrt L, Siems K, de Stanchina E, Abramson DH, Djaballah H: Revisiting old drugs as novel agents for retinoblastoma: in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of cardenolides. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2009 Jul;50(7):3065-73
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  • [Title] Revisiting old drugs as novel agents for retinoblastoma: in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of cardenolides.
  • PURPOSE: Intra-arterial delivery of chemotherapeutic agents offers a new and exciting opportunity for the treatment of advanced intraocular retinoblastoma.
  • It allows local delivery of relatively high doses of chemotherapy agents while bypassing general blood circulation.
  • For this reason, this study was undertaken to revisit some of the FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of retinoblastoma.
  • METHODS: High-throughput screening (HTS) of 2640 approved drugs and bioactive compounds resulted in the identification of cytotoxic agents with potent activity toward both the Y79 and RB355 human retinoblastoma cell lines.
  • Subsequent profiling of the drug candidates was performed in a panel of ocular cancer cell lines.
  • Induction of apoptosis in Y79 cells was assessed by immunofluorescence detection of activated caspase-3.
  • Therapeutic effect was evaluated in a xenograft model of retinoblastoma.
  • RESULTS: Several FDA-approved drugs were identified that showed potent cytotoxic activity toward retinoblastoma cell lines in vitro.
  • Among them were several cardiac glycosides, a class of cardenolides historically associated with the prevention and treatment of congestive heart failure.
  • When tested in a xenograft model of retinoblastoma, the cardenolide ouabain induced complete tumor regression in the treated mice.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cardenolides were identified as a new class of antitumor agents for the treatment of retinoblastoma.
  • Members of this class of cardiotonic drugs could be repositioned for retinoblastoma if administered locally via direct intra-arterial infusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cardenolides / pharmacology. Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Caspase 3 / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Mice, SCID. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19151399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA008748
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cardenolides; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS455480; NLM/ PMC3617409
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6. Chintagumpala M, Chevez-Barrios P, Paysse EA, Plon SE, Hurwitz R: Retinoblastoma: review of current management. Oncologist; 2007 Oct;12(10):1237-46
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  • The most common ocular cancer in children is retinoblastoma.
  • It can affect one or both eyes and the disease can be inherited.
  • The best initial and subsequent treatments are based on whether the child has unilateral or bilateral disease, the stage of the disease, and the age of the child.
  • Enucleation, chemotherapy, and various forms of radiation therapy along with local ophthalmic therapies can be used in the treatment of retinoblastoma.
  • Cure rates are high in children when the tumor is confined to the eye and has not spread systemically or into the orbit or brain.
  • Exciting discoveries using animal models are providing new insights into the development of this disease and opening new avenues for targeted therapies that may lead to high cure rates with minimal toxicities.
  • [MeSH-major] Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17962617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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7. Kinge B, Tranheim RS, Eide NA: [Retinoblastoma--hereditary eye cancer in children]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2004 Jan 22;124(2):183-5
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  • [Title] [Retinoblastoma--hereditary eye cancer in children].
  • BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumour of the retina that occurs in early childhood.
  • Symptoms of retinoblastoma are strabismus, reduced visual acuity and red eye, but the absolutely most important sign is leukokoria (white pupillary reflex).
  • The goal of treatment is to destroy all tumour tissue, but not the surrounding tissue.
  • Treatment options are enucleation, chemotherapy, external beam radiation, radioactive isotope plaques, cryotherapy, photocoagulation, or a combination of these depending upon the size and location of the tumour.
  • INTERPRETATION: The overall results in the treatment of retinoblastoma are favourable and have improved over the last few years because of better treatment modalities.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Prognosis

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  • [CommentIn] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 Mar 18;124(6):830; author reply 830 [15039827.001]
  • (PMID = 14743233.001).
  • [ISSN] 0807-7096
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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8. Wilson MW, Czechonska G, Finger PT, Rausen A, Hooper ME, Haik BG: Chemotherapy for eye cancer. Surv Ophthalmol; 2001 Mar-Apr;45(5):416-44
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy for eye cancer.
  • Chemotherapy has been used to treat a multitude of eye cancers.
  • We attempted to review the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of ocular, adnexal, and orbital malignancies by conducting an extensive search of the medical literature.
  • Unfortunately, the published reports typically contain few patients with limited follow-up, precluding definitive recommendations.
  • For most eye cancers, multicenter trials will offer the potential to gather the numbers of patients required to determine the clinical utility of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11274695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6257
  • [Journal-full-title] Survey of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surv Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 309
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9. Schmidt-Hieber M, Schmittel A, Thiel E, Keilholz U: A phase II study of bendamustine chemotherapy as second-line treatment in metastatic uveal melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2004 Dec;14(6):439-42
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  • [Title] A phase II study of bendamustine chemotherapy as second-line treatment in metastatic uveal melanoma.
  • Uveal melanoma is the most frequent primary malignant neoplasm of the eye and has a poor prognosis in metastatic stage.
  • Inclusion criteria were a Karnofsky performance status of > or = 60% and progressive disease during or after first-line chemotherapy.
  • No grade III or IV non-haematological toxicity was observed.
  • We conclude that bendamustine is ineffective as second-line chemotherapy for metastatic uveal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Nitrogen Mustard Compounds / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uveal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bendamustine Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15577312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitrogen Mustard Compounds; 981Y8SX18M / Bendamustine Hydrochloride
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10. Casini A, Mincione F, Vullo D, Menabuoni L, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors with strong topical antiglaucoma properties incorporating a 4-(2-aminopyrimidin-4-yl-amino)-benzenesulfonamide scaffold. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem; 2002 Feb;17(1):9-18
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  • Reaction of 4-(2-amino-pyrimidin-4-yl-amino)-benzenesulfonamide with alkyl/aryl-sulfonyl halides, acyl halides or arysulfonyl isocyanates afforded a series of derivatives which were tested for inhibition of three carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes.
  • These compounds were designed in such a way as to (i) strongly inhibit several CA isozymes involved in aqueous humor secretion within the eye (such as CA II and CA IV), and (ii) to possess a pharmacological profile that allows easy penetration through the cornea, when administered as eye drops in solution or suspension, constituting thus a valuable therapeutic approach for glaucoma.
  • Several of the obtained inhibitors showed low nanomolar affinities for the two isozymes involved in aqueous humor secretion, CA II and CA IV.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / chemical synthesis. Glaucoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Animals. Carbonic Anhydrase II / antagonists & inhibitors. Carbonic Anhydrase IV / antagonists & inhibitors. Eye / cytology. Eye / metabolism. Hypertension. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Isoenzymes / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrimidines / chemistry. Rabbits. Structure-Activity Relationship. Sulfonamides / chemistry. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 12365464.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-6366
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-(2-aminopyrimidin-4-yl-amino)-benzenesulfonamide; 0 / Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Sulfonamides; EC 4.2.1.- / Carbonic Anhydrase II; EC 4.2.1.- / Carbonic Anhydrase IV
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11. Bekibele CO, Ayede AI, Asaolu OO, Brown BJ: Retinoblastoma: the challenges of management in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Aug;31(8):552-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma is a common highly malignant tumor of the eye.
  • RESULTS: A total of 32 eyes of 26 patients were studied.
  • Reasons for late diagnosis included late presentation for unknown reasons, missed diagnosis, and mismanagement in a previous hospital.
  • Eleven of 26 patients defaulted to avoid removal of the eye, and treatment was only completed in 5 patients.
  • Problems included financial constraint regarding investigations and procurement of drugs, as well as availability of the chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Retinoblastoma is a problematic malignancy of childhood associated with management problems often related to difficulty with patients accepting removal of the affected eye and financial constraint for treatment.

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  • (PMID = 19641471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Bellavance EC, Alexander HR Jr: TNF-based isolated hepatic perfusion. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed); 2009;14:1771-84
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  • Unresectable primary and metastatic cancers confined to the liver often determine the prognosis for patients with primary hepatic cancers, colorectal cancer, ocular melanoma, and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Although many locoregional therapies have emerged as options for patients with unresectable liver malignancies, these treatments frequently have limited clinical benefit.
  • Isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) has emerged as a regional therapy effective in inducing tumor regression in isolated liver metastases from multiple histologies.
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) is a biologic agent well suited to isolated therapy because of its single-dose efficacy, synergistic effect with hyperthermia, and effects on tumor neovasculature.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19273161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-4715
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Biosci (Landmark Ed)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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13. Mincione F, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: The development of topically acting carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as anti-glaucoma agents. Curr Top Med Chem; 2007;7(9):849-54
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  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, ethoxzolamide and dichlorophenamide were and still are widely used systemic antiglaucoma drugs.
  • Their mechanism of action consists in inhibition of CA isozymes present in ciliary processes of the eye (such as CA II, IV and XII), with the consequent reduction of bicarbonate and aqueous humour secretion, and of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) characteristic of this disease.
  • Since CA II/IV/XII are present in many other tissues/organs, generally, systemic CAIs possess undesired side effects such as numbness and tingling of extremities; metallic taste; depression; fatigue; malaise; weight loss; decreased libido; gastrointestinal irritation; metabolic acidosis; renal calculi and transient myopia.
  • In order to avoid these undesired side effects, recently, topically effective CAIs have been developed.
  • Two drugs are available clinically: dorzolamide and brinzolamide.
  • Both these drugs are applied topically as water solutions/suspensions, alone or in combination with other agents (such as beta-blockers, prostaglandin derivatives, etc) and produce a consistent and prolonged reduction of IOP.
  • Furthermore, recent reports show both the systemically as well as topically acting sulfonamide CAIs to be effective in the treatment of macular oedema and other macular degeneration diseases, for which pharmacological treatment was unavailable up to now.
  • Much research is in act in the search of even more effective topically acting CAIs, free of the inconveniences and side effects of the presently available drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Glaucoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Eye Diseases / drug therapy. Humans. Molecular Structure. Sulfonamides / chemistry. Sulfonamides / pharmacology. Sulfonamides / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17504129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4294
  • [Journal-full-title] Current topics in medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Top Med Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors; 0 / Sulfonamides
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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14. Rose V, Schiller J, Wood A, Eskander E, Holroyd K, Desai A, Lee JT, Ahmed M, Kim B: Randomized phase II trial of weekly squalamine, carboplatin, and paclitaxel as first line therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):7109

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Randomized phase II trial of weekly squalamine, carboplatin, and paclitaxel as first line therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
  • : 7109 Background:Squalamine is an anti-angiogenic aminosterol that acts directly within activated endothelial cells and has acivity in cancer and eye angiogenesis models.
  • Previously a Phase I/II trial in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of a once every three weeks regimen of squalamine (given as a five day infusion at doses of 100 to 400 mg/m2/day) combined with carboplatin (AUC=6) and paclitaxel (225 mg/m2) was reported to give a response rate of 28% in 43 patients, with median survival of 10.0 months and one year survival of 40%.
  • The drug regimen was a weekly three hour infusion of squalamine (patients randomly assigned 1:1 to a dose of 100 or 200 mg/m2)combined with weekly carboplatin (AUC=2) and paclitaxel (75 mg/m2), for 12 weeks.
  • Patients were eligible to receive additional chemotherapy if tolerating therapy well and experiencing continued clinical benefit.
  • RESULTS: Two patients were withdrawn for intercurrent illness before receiving any study medication.
  • Survival data is maturing and will be available at the time of the presentation.

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  • (PMID = 28014450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Kanwar JR, Mohan RR, Kanwar RK, Roy K, Bawa R: Applications of aptamers in nanodelivery systems in cancer, eye and inflammatory diseases. Nanomedicine (Lond); 2010 Nov;5(9):1435-45
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  • [Title] Applications of aptamers in nanodelivery systems in cancer, eye and inflammatory diseases.
  • By combining the unique properties of aptamers with the ever expanding field of nanotechnology and all it has to offer, we are entering a very promising new area of targeted nanodelivery treatments.
  • These treatments have found success in the complex disease processes of cancer, eye and inflammatory diseases.

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  • (PMID = 21128724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-6963
  • [Journal-full-title] Nanomedicine (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nanomedicine (Lond)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY017294-02; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01EY17294; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY017294; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY017294-03S2; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY017294-02; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY017294-03; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY017294-03S2; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY017294-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aptamers, Nucleotide; 0 / Aptamers, Peptide
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16. Finger PT: Anti-VEGF bevacizumab (Avastin) for radiation optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol; 2007 Feb;143(2):335-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab treatment for radiation optic neuropathy (RON).
  • METHODS: At The New York Eye Cancer Center, a patient symptomatic of decreased vision because of RON was treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg).
  • Main outcome measures included visual acuity, appearance of the optic nerve, fundus photography, angiography, and optical coherence tomography/scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (OCT/SLO).
  • There were no ocular or systemic side effects.
  • Anti-VEGF therapy (e.g. bevacizumab) should be investigated for both ocular and nonocular radiation neuropathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Optic Disk / radiation effects. Optic Nerve Diseases / drug therapy. Radiation Injuries / drug therapy. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Brachytherapy / adverse effects. Choroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Female. Fluorescein Angiography. Humans. Injections. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Ophthalmoscopy. Tomography, Optical Coherence. Visual Acuity. Vitreous Body

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  • (PMID = 17258524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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17. Klisovic DD, Katz SE, Effron D, Klisovic MI, Wickham J, Parthun MR, Guimond M, Marcucci G: Depsipeptide (FR901228) inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in primary and metastatic human uveal melanoma cell lines. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2003 Jun;44(6):2390-8
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  • PURPOSE: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary malignant ocular tumor in adults.
  • No effective chemotherapy regimens are available for either intraocular or metastatic uveal melanoma.
  • Real-time PCR was used to study changes in bcl-2/bax gene expression.
  • However, no changes in bcl-2/bax gene expression were detected by real-time PCR.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Depsipeptides. Melanoma / pathology. Peptides, Cyclic / pharmacology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD95 / genetics. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Butyrates / pharmacology. Caspase 3. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Cyclins / genetics. Cyclins / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Fas Ligand Protein. Flow Cytometry. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Humans. Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein

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  • (PMID = 12766035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / Butyrates; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Depsipeptides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 3X2S926L3Z / trichostatin A; CX3T89XQBK / romidepsin; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP3 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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18. Granville DJ, Jiang H, McManus BM, Hunt DW: Fas ligand and TRAIL augment the effect of photodynamic therapy on the induction of apoptosis in JURKAT cells. Int Immunopharmacol; 2001 Sep;1(9-10):1831-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fas ligand and TRAIL augment the effect of photodynamic therapy on the induction of apoptosis in JURKAT cells.
  • Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand (FasL) trigger apoptosis by stimulating the formation of a death inducing signaling complex at the cytoplasmic terminus of their respective receptors.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an approved treatment for several types of cancer as well as for age-related macular degeneration and is under investigation for different cancer, ocular, autoimmune and cardiovascular indications.
  • Additive effects of these treatments were evident for different apoptosis parameters including DNA fragmentation, caspase processing and activity and caspase substrate degradation.
  • For PDT, immune cell-mediated death receptor ligation may represent a way whereby tumor cells that have withstood the direct effects of photosensitization may be eliminated.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Membrane Glycoproteins / pharmacology. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / pharmacology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins. Blotting, Western. Caspases / metabolism. DNA Fragmentation / drug effects. Endopeptidases / chemistry. Fas Ligand Protein. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Jurkat Cells. Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects. Porphyrins / pharmacology. T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand

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  • (PMID = 11562074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-5769
  • [Journal-full-title] International immunopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. Immunopharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNFSF10 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin; EC 3.4.- / Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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19. Yang H, Cheng R, Liu G, Zhong Q, Li C, Cai W, Yang Z, Ma J, Yang X, Gao G: PEDF inhibits growth of retinoblastoma by anti-angiogenic activity. Cancer Sci; 2009 Dec;100(12):2419-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), an angiogenesis inhibitor with multiple other functions, balances angiogenesis in the eye and blocks tumor progression.
  • Retinoblastoma, an angiogenesis-dependent tumor, is the most common ocular cancer in children without effective treatment.
  • Soluble and non-fusion recombinant PEDF were generated in E. coli.
  • MVD in tumor tissues treated with PEDF was significantly decreased.
  • These results suggested that PEDF suppressed tumor growth by blocking angiogenesis instead of a direct cytotoxic effect on tumor cells.
  • Down-regulation of VEGF expression in tumor cells through inhibiting HIF-1alpha, thus attenuating the paracrine effect of VEGF on endothelial cell proliferation and vascular permeability in tumor tissues, may represent a mechanism for the anti-angiogenic activity of PEDF.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Eye Proteins / pharmacology. Nerve Growth Factors / pharmacology. Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy. Serpins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Endothelial Cells / drug effects. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / antagonists & inhibitors. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 19832843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Serpins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / pigment epithelium-derived factor
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20. Bansal SS, Joshi A, Bansal AK: New dosage formulations for targeted delivery of cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors: focus on use in the elderly. Drugs Aging; 2007;24(6):441-51

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • NSAIDs are a widely used class of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs that act by inhibiting the cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzyme.
  • However, because of their nonspecificity of action, use of these agents as long-term therapy for chronic pain in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) is often discouraged.
  • Among NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors are promising candidates for long-term therapy of chronic diseases, particularly in the elderly, because of their reduced incidence of gastrointestinal adverse effects.
  • However, in recent times these agents have also been shown to cause adverse effects such as cardiovascular effects (myocardial infarction, stroke and hypertension) and renal effects (decreased renal blood flow/glomerular filtration rate), which in 2004 led to the withdrawal of rofecoxib and in 2005 the withdrawal of valdecoxib from the US market.
  • Importantly, these adverse effects can be effectively reduced by achieving site specific/targeted delivery through new formulation approaches.
  • These formulations not only restrict the drug supply to specific organs but also reduce the dose required.
  • This article reviews various new approaches to the delivery of COX-2 inhibitors and highlights issues related to the development of delivery systems for these agents for RA, OA, cancer (familial adenomatous polyposis, prostate, breast and non-small cell lung cancer), ocular diseases (such as diabetic retinopathy) and inflammatory diseases of the skin, with emphasis on their potential for use in the elderly.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Drug Delivery Systems / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Arthritis / complications. Eye Diseases / drug therapy. Humans. Injections, Intra-Articular. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17571910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1170-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs & aging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs Aging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 84
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21. Otoh EC, Johnson NW, Mandong BM, Danfillo IS: Primary head and neck cancers in Jos, Nigeria: a re-visit. West Afr J Med; 2006 Apr-Jun;25(2):92-100
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary head and neck cancers in Jos, Nigeria: a re-visit.
  • BACKGROUND: To document the pattern of primary head and neck cancers in Jos, Nigeria.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A record-based study of head and neck cancers histologically diagnosed at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos, between January 1987 and December 2002.
  • The most common sites for cancer were the eyes (15.4%), lymph nodes (12.4 %), thyroid gland (11.8%) and the oral cavity (7.6%).
  • Carcinomas 432(60.8%), lymphomas 119(16.8%) and sarcomas 105(14.8%) were the commonly reported cancers.
  • Carcinomas were most commonly reported in the thyroid gland (19.2%), oral cavity (10.2%) and the eyes (9.5%).
  • AIDS-related cancers constituted 12.3% of all head and neck cancers and were commonly reported in the 3rd decade of life.
  • The duration of symptoms for cancers varied with sites and cancer type but ranged from 6.5-89.7 months (mean= 37.7 +/- 51.1 months).
  • 59 (93.7%) of the staged cancers reported in the late stages (III & IV).
  • 48 (43.2%) of the treated cancers had primary surgery, while most lymphomas were treated with primary chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: There is a rising trend in the occurrence of head and neck cancers in Jos, with a considerable proportion of the patients being below 30 years.
  • The late presentation of patients, late stage at presentation, the rising profile of HIV/AIDS in the area and the non-availability of relevant specialists in the hospital could adversely affect the prognosis of these cancers.

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  • (PMID = 16918178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0189-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] West African journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Afr J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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22. Grinberg D: Recent patents relating to siRNAs and therapeutic strategies for genetic diseases. Recent Pat DNA Gene Seq; 2008;2(1):40-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent patents relating to siRNAs and therapeutic strategies for genetic diseases.
  • It is a powerful method for specific gene silencing which may also lead to promising novel therapeutic strategies.
  • The success of early studies of therapeutic RNAi in rodent models has generated considerable interest on the development of RNAi as a potential therapy.
  • A number of recent patents have been published that deal with the use of siRNA as therapeutic tools for human diseases.
  • In this review, I will comment on some of the patents issued on siRNA-based strategies for cancer, ocular diseases, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, bone healing, and monogenic diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Marfan syndrome or Huntingon's disease.
  • Progress in developing RNAi-based drugs and potential obstacles will also be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Diseases, Inborn / drug therapy. Patents as Topic. RNA, Small Interfering / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19075944.001).
  • [ISSN] 2212-3431
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent patents on DNA & gene sequences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Pat DNA Gene Seq
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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23. Fetterman JW Jr, Zdanowicz MM: Therapeutic potential of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in disease. Am J Health Syst Pharm; 2009 Jul 1;66(13):1169-79
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  • [Title] Therapeutic potential of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in disease.
  • PURPOSE: The potential therapeutic benefits of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in various diseases are reviewed, and the antiinflammatory actions, activity, and potential drug interactions and adverse effects of n-3 PUFAs are discussed.
  • Likewise, n-3 PUFAs can also reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6.
  • Considerable research has been conducted to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of fish oils in numerous conditions, including arthritis, coronary artery disease, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and sepsis, all of which have inflammation as a key component of their pathology.
  • Additional investigations into the use of supplementation with fish oils in patients with neural injury, cancer, ocular diseases, and critical illness have recently been conducted.
  • When recommending an n-3 PUFA, clinicians should be aware of any possible adverse effect or drug interaction that, although not necessarily clinically significant, may occur, especially for patients who may be susceptible to increased bleeding (e.g., patients taking warfarin).
  • CONCLUSION: The n-3 PUFAs have been shown to be efficacious in treating and preventing various diseases.
  • The wide variation in dosages and formulations used in studies makes it difficult to recommend dosages for specific treatment goals.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / adverse effects. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Dietary Supplements. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Interactions. Fish Oils / administration & dosage. Fish Oils / adverse effects. Fish Oils / therapeutic use. Humans. Inflammation / drug therapy. Inflammation / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19535655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-2900
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Health Syst Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Fatty Acids, Omega-3; 0 / Fish Oils; 25167-62-8 / Docosahexaenoic Acids; AAN7QOV9EA / Eicosapentaenoic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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24. Grover A, Alexander HR Jr: The past decade of experience with isolated hepatic perfusion. Oncologist; 2004;9(6):653-64
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  • Metastatic or primary unresectable cancers confined to the liver are the sole or life-limiting component of disease for many patients with colorectal cancer, ocular melanoma, neuroendocrine tumors, or primary colangio- or hepatocellular carcinomas.
  • Regional treatment strategies including infusional chemotherapy and local ablative therapy are under investigation, but have limitations with respect to the clinical conditions under which they can be employed.
  • In light of the antitumor activity with isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and melphalan in patients with unresectable extremity sarcoma or in transit melanoma, this regimen has been administered via IHP at several centers worldwide for patients with unresectable liver cancers.
  • IHP with TNF and melphalan can result in significant regression of advanced refractory cancers from multiple histologies confined to the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Melphalan / therapeutic use. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Hyperthermia, Induced. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15561809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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25. Ichiki Y, Morita M, Yano K, Sugio K, Yasumoto K, Hirose N: Iris metastasis of esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 May;79(5):1782-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Iris metastasis of esophageal cancer.
  • Ocular metastasis in patients with esophageal cancer is quite rare.
  • Several cases have been reported in the literature, but no successful treatments for such metastases have ever been described.
  • We herein report a case of esophageal cancer in which the ocular metastasis was controlled by systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Iris Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15854985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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26. Dass CR, Choong PF: C-jun: pharmaceutical target for DNAzyme therapy of multiple pathologies. Pharmazie; 2008 Jun;63(6):411-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] C-jun: pharmaceutical target for DNAzyme therapy of multiple pathologies.
  • Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of DNAzymes for therapy of various diseases via mRNA target-specific cleavage.
  • One such target, the basic region-leucine zipper protein c-Jun, has been targeted and efficacy seen in such pathologies as cancer, ocular neovascularisation, arterial thickening, acute inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • This review discusses these cases in turn, and presents some new data on the applicability of a c-jun DNAzyme against a panel of cancer cells.
  • Importantly, downregulation of c-jun is noted to cause apoptotic death of cancer cells.
  • These studies collectively demonstrate the potential of this DNAzyme as a lead candidate for DNAzyme therapeutics.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Catalytic / therapeutic use. Genes, jun / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. RNA, Messenger / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18604982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-7144
  • [Journal-full-title] Die Pharmazie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmazie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Catalytic; 0 / Dz13 DNAzyme; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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27. Leal-Leal CA, Rivera-Luna R, Flores-Rojo M, Juárez-Echenique JC, Ordaz JC, Amador-Zarco J: Survival in extra-orbital metastatic retinoblastoma:treatment results. Clin Transl Oncol; 2006 Jan;8(1):39-44
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  • [Title] Survival in extra-orbital metastatic retinoblastoma:treatment results.
  • INTRODUCTION: Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most frequent malignant eye tumor in childhood.
  • The purpose of this paper is to present our 21-year clinical experience with metastatic extra ocular RB patients treated with 5 different chemotherapy schemas at a single Mexican Pediatric referral center.
  • The information analyzed included the delay in diagnosis after first symptoms, age, sex, ocular staging, and anatomic site of metastases, treatment scheme, initial response and status at the last contact or date of death.
  • The most common site of metastasis was central nervous system (83.9%).
  • From those patients treated with chemotherapy (n = 74), 89.2% presented a complete initial response (n = 66).
  • Early mortality occurred in 7 cases before any treatment.
  • Fifty-six received treatment and died with progressive disease.
  • All patients without radiotherapy died with tumor activity (n = 15).
  • Four patients were alive and disease free at 33 to 144.3 months of follow up from diagnosis.
  • The prevalent cause of death was tumor progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, metastatic RB has a very high mortality rate in spite of the use of different chemotherapy regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / mortality. Retinoblastoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / mortality. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cobalt Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Life Tables. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Mexico / epidemiology. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Proportional Hazards Models. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Skull Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skull Neoplasms / mortality. Skull Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16632438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cobalt Radioisotopes; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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