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3. Talvinen K, Tuikkala J, Grönroos J, Huhtinen H, Kronqvist P, Aittokallio T, Nevalainen O, Hiekkanen H, Nevalainen T, Sundström J: Biochemical and clinical approaches in evaluating the prognosis of colon cancer. Anticancer Res; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6C):4745-51
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  • [Title] Biochemical and clinical approaches in evaluating the prognosis of colon cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Colorectal adenocarcinoma is a common malignant neoplasm in the Western world.
  • To achieve optimal treatment results, the risk estimation of recurrence should be as accurate as possible.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue material from tumour and normal mucosa was taken from six patients and was analysed to screen aberrantly expressed genes using cDNA microarray.
  • For this purpose a tissue array material of 114 colorectal cancer patients was obtained.
  • CONCLUSION: Tumour stage is superior in estimating the prognosis of patients with colonic cancer compared with the grading of cell cycle regulators or histological grade of the cancer.
  • The study of regional lymph nodes is essential to identify the patients who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Staging. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. Securin. Up-Regulation. cdc25 Phosphatases / biosynthesis. cdc25 Phosphatases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17214335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human; EC 3.1.3.16 / CDC25B protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / cdc25 Phosphatases
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4. Wolpin BM, Mayer RJ: Systemic treatment of colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology; 2008 May;134(5):1296-310
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  • [Title] Systemic treatment of colorectal cancer.
  • Over the past 12 years, significant progress has been made in the systemic treatment of this malignant condition.
  • Six new chemotherapeutic agents have been introduced, increasing median overall survival for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from less than 9 months with no treatment to approximately 24 months.
  • For patients with stage III (lymph node positive) colon cancer, an overall survival benefit for fluorouracil-based chemotherapy has been firmly established, and recent data have shown further efficacy for the inclusion of oxaliplatin in such adjuvant treatment programs.
  • For patients with stage II colon cancer, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy remains controversial, but may be appropriate in a subset of individuals at higher risk for disease recurrence.
  • Ongoing randomized clinical trials are evaluating how best to combine currently available therapies, while smaller studies are evaluating new agents, with the goal of continued progress in prolonging life among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and increasing cure rates among those with resectable disease.

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  • (PMID = 18471507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009172-34; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / IP50CA127003-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009172-34; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009172; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32CA09001
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Prodrugs; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 7673326042 / irinotecan; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Number-of-references] 182
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS58868; NLM/ PMC2528832
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5. Azab AK, Kleinstern J, Srebnik M, Rubinstein A: The metastatic stage-dependent mucosal expression of sialic acid is a potential marker for targeting colon cancer with cationic polymers. Pharm Res; 2008 Feb;25(2):379-86
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  • [Title] The metastatic stage-dependent mucosal expression of sialic acid is a potential marker for targeting colon cancer with cationic polymers.
  • PURPOSE: Locoregional recurrence is the most common complication after adenocarcinoma resection in the colon, despite adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Therapy efficacy could be improved if designed to target malignant cells by incorporating specific recognition factors in the drugs or the drug vehicles.
  • The aim of this study was to elucidate whether the overexpression of sialic acid (SA) on colonic malignant tissues could be utilized for drug targeting by cationic polymers.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell lines (IEC-6, SW-480 and SW-620) and colon polyps and normal adjacent tissues harvested from dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced rats were used as in vitro and in vivo models of different metastatic stages of colon cancer.
  • The binding of FITC labeled cationic polymers of various degrees of cationization to normal and malignant colonic cells and tissue was measured.
  • RESULTS: SA was overexpressed on malignant colonic cells and tissues, and its expression correlated to the metastatic stage in vitro.
  • The binding of the cationic copolymers to the cell lines and tissues correlated with the charge density of the polymer and with the metastatic stage of the cell line.
  • The interaction between the malignant colonic cells and tissues with the polymers was SA dependent and increased after mucus removal.
  • CONCLUSION: Cationic polymers could be used as a targeting tool to colonic malignant epithelium, to be implemented in drug delivery and diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylamides / pharmacology. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. N-Acetylneuraminic Acid / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Rats. Wheat Germ Agglutinins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17960470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-8741
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmaceutical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Wheat Germ Agglutinins; GZP2782OP0 / N-Acetylneuraminic Acid
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6. Armbrust T, Sobotta M, Füzesi L, Grabbe E, Ramadori G: Chemotherapy-induced suppression to adenoma or complete suppression of the primary in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer: report of four cases. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Nov;19(11):988-94
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy-induced suppression to adenoma or complete suppression of the primary in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer: report of four cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Although modern chemotherapy of stage IV advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) has impressively improved overall survival, the response of the primary tumor has not been studied because surgical resection of the primary continues to be the standard procedure in stage IV CRC.
  • AIM: Long-term follow-up of the primary in patients with stage IV CRC under chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we report on the histological changes in the primary tumor in four patients suffering from stage IV CRC.
  • Systemic chemotherapy was started immediately after endoscopic tumor debulking in three cases.
  • In one case no endoscopic intervention was performed before chemotherapy.
  • Neither macroscopic nor histological evidence for malignant tumor growth was found at the former site of the primary after 6, 23, 26 or 48 months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The four cases illustrate that today's chemotherapy may effectively induces suppression of the primary in CRC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / pathology. Aged. Colon / pathology. Colonic Polyps / drug therapy. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colonic Polyps / surgery. Colonoscopy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18049169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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7. Grávalos C, García-Escobar I, García-Alfonso P, Cassinello J, Malón D, Carrato A: Adjuvant chemotherapy for stages II, III and IV of colon cancer. Clin Transl Oncol; 2009 Aug;11(8):526-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant chemotherapy for stages II, III and IV of colon cancer.
  • Colorectal cancer is the third most frequent malignant neoplasm in Western countries.
  • After complete resection, 5-year overall survival varies according to the initial stage.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) is indicated in patients with colon cancer at high-risk stage II, stage III and after complete resection of metastases.
  • 5-Fluorouracil (5FU), alone or modulated with levamisol or leucovorin (LV), oral fluoropyrimidines, raltitrexed, irinotecan and oxaliplatin have been studied as adjuvant therapy for colon cancer.
  • This article reviews the state of the art and the future perspectives of adjuvant therapy in colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Cetuximab. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19661027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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8. Molnar B, Ladanyi A, Tanko L, Sréter L, Tulassay Z: Circulating tumor cell clusters in the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res; 2001 Dec;7(12):4080-5
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  • PURPOSE: Recently several reverse transcription-PCR techniques have been proven to be useful for the detection of circulating micrometastases.
  • In this study, evaluation and modification of a commercial, cytokeratin-based, immunomagnetic cell separation method was performed for the detection of intact cell clusters in colorectal carcinoma patients.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirty-two colon cancer patients (6 were in Dukes stage B, 13 in stage C, and 13 in stage D) and 20 healthy donor samples were evaluated.
  • Of 32 single samples from malignant cases, 24 showed cytokeratin-positive cells.
  • Follow-up data indicate that chemotherapy cannot destroy all of the circulating tumor cell clusters.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Using the methods presented, we could detect circulating colon cancer cells and cell clusters in colon carcinoma patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Adhesion. Cell Separation / methods. Humans. Keratin-7. Keratins / analysis. Keratins / blood. Neoplasm Staging. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Jun;8(6):2015; author reply 2016-7 [12060648.001]
  • (PMID = 11751505.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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9. Baccari P, Bisagni P, Crippa S, Sampietro R, Staudacher C: Operative and long-term results after one-stage surgery for obstructing colonic cancer. Hepatogastroenterology; 2006 Sep-Oct;53(71):698-701
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  • [Title] Operative and long-term results after one-stage surgery for obstructing colonic cancer.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To analyze retrospectively the operative results and five-year survival after single-stage resection and primary anastomosis for right- or left-sided colonic malignant obstruction.
  • METHODOLOGY: From 1994 to 2002, 83 patients with acute obstruction due to primary cancer underwent a one-stage procedure, 36 (43.3%) for cancer of the right and 47 (56.7%) of the left colon.
  • CONCLUSIONS: One-stage resection and primary anastomosis can be applied to the majority of patients with malignant colonic obstruction and it allows achieving excellent operative results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Colectomy. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Intestinal Obstruction / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anastomosis, Surgical. Antibiotic Prophylaxis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17086871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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10. Li Q, Feng FY, Chen Q, Jiao SC, Li F, Wang HQ, Huang WX, Ling CQ, Li MZ, Ren J, Zhang Y, Qin FZ, Zhou MZ, Zhu RZ: [Multicenter phase II clinical trial of uroacitides injection in the treatment for advanced malignant tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Jul;30(7):534-7
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  • [Title] [Multicenter phase II clinical trial of uroacitides injection in the treatment for advanced malignant tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy, safety and the life quality improvement of uroacitides injection in the treatment for patients with advanced malignant tumors.
  • METHODS: A total of 160 patients with advanced stage cancers were enrolled into this multicenter, open and non-randomized phase II clinical trial, including cancers of the lung (33 cases), liver (45 cases), breast (17 cases), esophagus (11 cases), stomach (18 cases), colon (19 cases), pancreas (3 cases) and kidney (4 cases), and glioma (10 cases).
  • The total objective response rate (ORR, CR + PR)) and tumor control rate (CR + PR + MR + SD) of the 138 evaluable patients were 5.8% and 65.2%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Methyltransferases / therapeutic use. Peptides / therapeutic use. Phenylacetates / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / blood. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Catheterization, Central Venous. Colorectal Neoplasms / blood. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Nausea / chemically induced. Neoplasm Staging. Quality of Life. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome. Vomiting / chemically induced. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19062723.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Phenylacetates; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 0 / cell differentiation agent II; EC 2.1.1.- / Methyltransferases
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11. van Hooft JE, Fockens P, Marinelli AW, Timmer R, van Berkel AM, Bossuyt PM, Bemelman WA, Dutch Colorectal Stent Group: Early closure of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of endoscopic stenting versus surgery for stage IV left-sided colorectal cancer. Endoscopy; 2008 Mar;40(3):184-91
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  • [Title] Early closure of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of endoscopic stenting versus surgery for stage IV left-sided colorectal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The introduction of self-expandable metal stents has offered a promising alternative for palliation of malignant left-sided colonic obstruction.
  • This randomized clinical trial aimed to assess whether a nonsurgical policy, with endoluminal stenting, is superior to surgical treatment in patients with stage IV left-sided colorectal cancer and imminent obstruction.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with incurable left-sided colorectal cancer who fulfilled the study criteria were randomly assigned to nonsurgical or surgical treatment.
  • Ten patients were allocated to surgical treatment and 11 patients to nonsurgical palliation.
  • Of the six perforations, two were stent-related because they occurred at the proximal edge of the stent by erosion through a normal colon wall; one was probably stent-related (it was located in the region of the proximal half of the stent); one was a colon blowout; and two were late tumor perforations in patients on chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The unexpected high rate of perforation in the nonsurgical arm might be specifically WallFlex-related or enteral stent-related in patients on chemotherapy and warrants attention.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Endoscopy. Intestinal Obstruction / therapy. Intestinal Perforation / etiology. Stents / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Equipment Design. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18322873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Investigator] Bijnen AB; Tuynman H; van Coevorden F; Boot H; Rijken AM; Eichhorn RF; Klicks RJ; Teunen A; Guicherit OR; Schrijver M; Rosman C; Wittema E; Davids P; Breumelhof R; Schouten WR; Siersema P; Verbeek P; Wagtmans MJ; Ottow RT; ten Hove W; Wiggers T; van Dullemen H; Juttman JW; Ponsioen C; Weidema WF; Bac DJ; Gelderman W; van Munster I; Meijerink WJ; Spoelstra P; Tollenaar RA; Veenendaal RA; Steup WH; Nicolai J; Meijssen M; Gerritsen JJ; Russel MG; Bleichrodt RP; Nagengast F; de Wit LT; Geraedts A; Boutkan H; Houben M; Sjardin FJ; Derksen E; Depla A; van Ramshorst B; van Wagensveld BA; Scholten P; Borel Rinkes IH; Oldenburg B; van Laarhoven CJ; van Milligen de Wit AJ
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12. Jiang ZM, Yao HR, Zhan J, Xie DR, Li HG: [Expression and significance of survivin in colon cancer]. Ai Zheng; 2004 Nov;23(11 Suppl):1414-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression and significance of survivin in colon cancer].
  • Studies indicated that Survivin over-expressed in malignant tumors.
  • This study was designed to evaluate the expression of Survivin in colon cancer,and the correlation of its expression to clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with colon cancer.
  • METHODS: Expression of Survivin protein was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 12 cases of normal colon tissues,and 79 cases of colon cancer tissues without the history of radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Expression of Survivin was detected in 78.5%(62/79) of colon cancer tissues,higher than that in tumor nests adjacent tissues, which was 32.9% (26/79).
  • In contrast, normal colon tissues did not express Survivin.
  • There was no relationship between the expression of Survivin and age, sex, blood type, serum CEA level, lymph node metastasis, histological grade, infiltration degree, and Dukes' stage(P >0.05).
  • Cox proportional hazards model analysis showed that Dukes' stage, and high expression of Survivin were the only 2 prognosis factors influenced the survival times (Wald values were 24.225, and 5.504, respectively, P values were 0.000, and 0.019, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is a high expression level of Survivin in colon cancer, it may play an important role in tumorgenesis and development of colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colon / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15566647.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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13. Srivastava K, Singh S, Srivastava M, Srivastava AN: Incisional skin metastasis of a squamous cell cervical carcinoma 3.5 years after radical treatment--a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Nov-Dec;15(6):1183-6
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  • [Title] Incisional skin metastasis of a squamous cell cervical carcinoma 3.5 years after radical treatment--a case report.
  • Metastatic carcinoma in an abdominal wall incision from internal malignant neoplasm is an uncommon and often a preterminal event.
  • Most commonly metastatic skin incisional cancers have been reported with cancers of colon, kidney, and bladder.
  • We report a postoperative case of squamous cell carcinoma cervix FIGO stage IIA in a patient who after 3.5 years of completion of radical treatment (postoperative external and intravaginal radiation therapy) developed incisional skin metastasis followed by extensive subcutaneous metastasis in the vulval region.
  • She received salvage chemotherapy; however, she did not show any response and finally succumbed to the disease.
  • The intent of treatment remains palliation either by radiation/chemotherapy/surgery alone or in combinations.
  • As far as we know, this is the first case of squamous cell carcinoma cervix stage IIA having incisional scar recurrence 3.5 years after postoperative radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Radiotherapy


14. Hao LS, Zhu X, Zhao LH, Qian K, Zhou Y, Bu J, Wu XT: Clear cell adenocarcinoma of colorectum: a case report and review of the literature. Acta Gastroenterol Belg; 2007 Apr-Jun;70(2):235-8
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  • Primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the colorectum is a rare neoplasm, which differs from ordinary carcinomas of the colorectum in morphological features, but shares some traits of clear cell carcinoma of other organs.
  • The tumor was located in descending colon of a 37-year-old man, and was rich in glycogen but poor in mucin.
  • In our case, necrosis, high mitotic activity and lymph node metastasis may suggest a highly malignant tumor and an advanced pathological stage.
  • Nevertheless, the patient has survived for one year with the help of operation and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Regardless of the stage and differentiation, surgical therapy and proper adjuvant chemotherapy are effective means to treat the clear cell adenocarcinoma of the colorectum.

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  • (PMID = 17715642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3227
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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15. Bhatavdekar JM, Patel DD, Chikhlikar PR, Shah NG, Vora HH, Ghosh N, Trivedi TI: Molecular markers are predictors of recurrence and survival in patients with Dukes B and Dukes C colorectal adenocarcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum; 2001 Apr;44(4):523-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: These molecular markers were localized immunohistochemically in nonmalignant (n = 36) and malignant (n = 98) diseases of the colorectum.
  • RESULTS: The expression of carcinoembryonic antigen, Cyclin D1, Bcl-2, CD44, cytokeratin-19 and prolactin was significantly higher in malignant diseases (P < 0.05), whereas, p21ras was found to be significantly higher in nonmalignant diseases (P = 0.002) as compared with their respective counterparts.
  • Besides Dukes stage, multivariate analysis indicated a significantly reduced relapse-free survival in patients expressing CD44 and cytokeratin-19 (P < 0.005).
  • Similarly, besides Dukes stage, multivariate analysis indicated a significantly poor overall survival in patients expressing CD44, cytokeratin-19 and prolactin (P < 0.01).
  • Also, a multivariate analysis in relation to treatment given was performed using CD44 and cytokeratin-19.
  • CONCLUSION: Besides Dukes stage, multivariate analysis of all the studied molecular markers showed that patients expressing CD44 and cytokeratin-19 had a significantly reduced relapse-free and poor overall survival.
  • Moreover, patients expressing both these markers (CD44 and cytokeratin-19) had the lowest significant relative risk for developing recurrence than patients with both markers negative when treated with surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy as compared with patients treated with surgery alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis


16. Wong NA, Malcomson RD, Jodrell DI, Groome NP, Harrison DJ, Saunders PT: ERbeta isoform expression in colorectal carcinoma: an in vivo and in vitro study of clinicopathological and molecular correlates. J Pathol; 2005 Sep;207(1):53-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Colorectal carcinoma shows several sex-related differences with regard to incidence, response to chemotherapy and microsatellite instability.
  • These differences may relate to differential expression of ERbeta1 (wild-type) as well as the truncated ERbeta2 and ERbeta5 splice variant isoforms, which have recently been detected in normal and malignant colorectal epithelium.
  • Lower ERbeta1 protein expression was associated with poorer differentiation, higher pT stage and absence of microsatellite instability.
  • There was no correlation between ERbeta protein isoform expression and response to 5-fluorouracil therapy, tumour proliferation, or thymidylate synthase expression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blotting, Western. Cohort Studies. Colon / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Genomic Instability. Humans. Male. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Prognosis. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Rectum / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sex Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15954165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U127685844; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / U.1276.00.002.00005.01 (85844)
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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17. Nahas CS, Akhurst T, Yeung H, Leibold T, Riedel E, Markowitz AJ, Minsky BD, Paty PB, Weiser MR, Temple LK, Wong WD, Larson SM, Guillem JG: Positron emission tomography detection of distant metastatic or synchronous disease in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving preoperative chemoradiation. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Mar;15(3):704-11
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Positron emission tomography detection of distant metastatic or synchronous disease in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving preoperative chemoradiation.
  • Choice of optimal treatment--neoadjuvant chemoradiation versus systemic chemotherapy alone--depends on accurate assessment of distant disease.
  • We prospectively evaluated the ability of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to detect distant disease in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were otherwise eligible for combined modality therapy (CMT).
  • Sites other than the rectum, mesorectum, or the area along the inferior mesenteric artery were considered distant and were divided into nine groups: neck, lung, mediastinal lymph node (LN), abdomen, liver, colon, pelvis, peripheral LN, and soft tissue.
  • A score greater than 3 was considered malignant.
  • Confirmation was based on tissue diagnosis, surgical exploration, and subsequent imaging.
  • Greatest accuracy was demonstrated in detection of liver (accuracy = 99.9%, sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 98.8%) and lung (accuracy = 99.9%, sensitivity = 80%, specificity = 100%) disease; PET detected 11/12 confirmed malignant sites in liver and lung.
  • A total of 10 patients were confirmed to have M1 stage disease.
  • All 10 were correctly staged by pre-CMT PET; abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scans accurately detected nine of them.
  • PET may play a significant role in defining extent of distant disease in selected cases, thus impacting the choice of neoadjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Rectal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Single-Blind Method

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  • [ErratumIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2008 Apr;15(4):1265. Leibold, Tobias [added]
  • (PMID = 17882490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / R01 82534-01
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Eilber FC, Eilber KS, Eilber FR: Retroperitoneal sarcomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2000 Aug;1(3):274-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Imaging of the abdomen and pelvis by computed tomography (CT) provides both an imaging modality and a method by which to obtain tissue for diagnosis.
  • Because a histologic diagnosis is essential in treatment planning, adequate tissue can usually be obtained by a CT-guided core biopsy.
  • The treatment options for primary retroperitoneal sarcomas include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, or a combination of these modalities; therefore, a multidisciplinary group best manages treatment planning.
  • Primary radiation therapy for cure is seldom effective for retroperitoneal sarcomas but can provide palliation in select cases.
  • Systemic chemotherapy for chemosensitive lesions, such as poorly differentiated liposarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), synovial cell sarcoma, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), can be useful when used in a neoadjuvant manner.
  • Consequently, surgical resection continues to be the mainstay of treatment for retroperitoneal sarcomas and requires en bloc resection of the primary tumor.
  • Frequently this includes adjacent organs such as colon, small bowel, kidney, adrenal, and pancreas.
  • Postoperative adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy or radiation has not been proven to be of any additional benefit.
  • Overall treatment results are predominantly influenced by tumor stage, grade, size, and margins of surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy / methods. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Radiotherapy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12057171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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19. Fernández-Esparrach G, Bordas JM, Giráldez MD, Ginès A, Pellisé M, Sendino O, Martínez-Pallí G, Castells A, Llach J: Severe complications limit long-term clinical success of self-expanding metal stents in patients with obstructive colorectal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol; 2010 May;105(5):1087-93
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Palliative Care.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) are increasingly being used to treat malignant colorectal obstruction.
  • The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the long-term clinical success of SEMS in patients with malignant colorectal obstruction in a single tertiary center and to identify possible predictive factors of developing complications.
  • The stents were placed in the rectum (n=7, 15%), sigmoid (n=33, 70%), left colon (n=4, 9%), or anastomosis (n=3, 6%).
  • The majority of patients had stage IV disease (n=40, 85%).
  • SEMS served as a bridge to scheduled surgery in 9 (20%) patients and as a palliative definitive treatment in 38 (80%) cases.
  • However, eight of nine patients with stent migration and two of three patients with perforation had been previously treated with chemotherapy.
  • For patients with potentially curable lesions, the use of colonic stents for malignant obstruction should only be considered when surgery is scheduled shortly after the stent insertion.
  • Moreover, in patients with incurable obstructing colorectal cancer eligible for chemotherapy and a long life expectancy, palliative treatments other than SEMS should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / complications. Intestinal Obstruction / surgery. Palliative Care / methods. Prosthesis Failure. Stents / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Colonoscopy / adverse effects. Colonoscopy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Metals. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Predictive Value of Tests. Probability. Prosthesis Design. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Statistics, Nonparametric. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Jul;105(7):1670; author reply 1670-1 [20606664.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 May;105(5):1209; author reply 1209-10 [20445522.001]
  • (PMID = 19935785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-0241
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Metals
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20. Yegüez JF, Martinez SA, Sands DR, Sands LR, Hellinger MD: Colorectal malignancies in HIV-positive patients. Am Surg; 2003 Nov;69(11):981-7
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Due to the development of more effective medications, those infected with HIV are living longer.
  • A retrospective review of HIV/AIDS patients with colorectal malignant tumors was undertaken.
  • We included adult patients, with ELISA and Western blot test positive for HIV, and primary malignant tumors located in the colon or rectum.
  • Malignant neoplasms of the anus were excluded for the purposes of this study.
  • Twelve patients (9 males and 3 females), mean age 41 years, were identified with the following neoplasm: 6 adenocarcinomas (ACA), 5 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), and 1 small-cell carcinoma.
  • Intravenous drug abuse was the main risk factor for HIV.
  • No patient had identified risk factors for colorectal neoplasm.
  • Five out of six patients with ACA had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis.
  • One patient with stage II ACA developed early liver metastases after colonic resection.
  • These patients developed tumors at earlier ages and were diagnosed at an advanced stage.
  • The use of the new antiretroviral therapy regimens should be further evaluated to know its impact in the survival.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / surgery. Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate


21. Djeu JY, Wei S: Clusterin and chemoresistance. Adv Cancer Res; 2009;105:77-92
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Resistance to anticancer agents is one of the primary impediments to effective cancer therapy.
  • Chemoresistance occurs not only to clinically established therapeutic agents but also to novel targeted therapeutics.
  • Both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms have been implicated in drug resistance but it remains controversial which mechanisms are responsible that lead to failure of therapy in cancer patients.
  • Moreover, it is abnormally upregulated in numerous advanced stage and metastatic cancers spanning prostate, renal, bladder, breast, head and neck, colon, cervical, pancreatic, lung carcinomas, melanoma, and lymphoma.
  • It is noteworthy that only the cytoplasmic/secretory clusterin form (sCLU), and not the nuclear form, is expressed in aggressive late stage tumors, which is in line with its antiapoptotic function.
  • Expression of sCLU may be an adaptive response to genotoxic and oxidative stresses but this adaptive response could pose a threat in malignant cells being treated with cytotoxic agents by enhancing their survival potential.
  • Thus, sCLU has a key role in preventing apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents and has the potential to be targeted for cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Clusterin / physiology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Resistance, Multiple. Humans. Oxidative Stress

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  • (PMID = 19879424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098080
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLU protein, human; 0 / Clusterin
  • [Number-of-references] 78
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS539156; NLM/ PMC3889866
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