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1. Gold HT, Do HT, Dick AW: Correlates and effect of suboptimal radiotherapy in women with ductal carcinoma in situ or early invasive breast cancer. Cancer; 2008 Dec 1;113(11):3108-15
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  • [Title] Correlates and effect of suboptimal radiotherapy in women with ductal carcinoma in situ or early invasive breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The study aimed to identify factors associated with less-than-optimal radiotherapy (RT) and its impact on disease-free survival in women aged 66+ years diagnosed with stage I breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • METHODS: The subjects were women diagnosed from 1991 to 1999 in the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database who underwent breast-conserving surgery and RT within 12 months postdiagnosis.
  • The authors conducted descriptive and multivariate survival analyses, and considered age, race, poverty, marital status, comorbidity indices, rural/urban, radiation oncologist density, comedo necrosis histology (DCIS only), chemotherapy receipt (stage I only), and RT completion (3+ weeks of treatment) and delay (8+ weeks postsurgery without chemotherapy; 4+ weeks postchemotherapy).
  • Subjects with stage I disease who were more likely to delay RT were of black race (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-2.08), whereas women in areas of high radiation oncologist density were less likely to delay (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.66-0.81).
  • Those living in high poverty areas were less likely to complete RT (P < .03), as were those undergoing chemotherapy (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.15-2.88).
  • Stage I breast cancer patients with delayed RT were more likely to experience a subsequent breast event (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30), and those with incomplete RT had a higher rate of overall mortality (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.06-1.63).
  • Factors associated with lower subsequent breast events included older age, lower poverty, and being married.
  • RT delays of 12+ weeks (or 8+ weeks postchemotherapy) had a strongly negative impact on subsequent events (OR, 3.94; 95% CI, 2.51-6.17 for DCIS; OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.84-2.59 for stage I).
  • CONCLUSIONS: RT should be facilitated to ensure completion and timeliness, especially for early invasive breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / mortality. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Multivariate Analysis. Radiotherapy Dosage. SEER Program. Time Factors


2. Garicochea B, Morelle A, Andrighetti AE, Cancella A, Bós A, Werutsky G: [Age as a prognostic factor in early breast cancer]. Rev Saude Publica; 2009 Apr;43(2):311-7
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  • [Title] [Age as a prognostic factor in early breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze age as a prognostic factor in early breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Retrospective study analyzing the clinical profile and disease-free survival in a group of 280 subjects aged 25 to 81 years with stage I and II breast cancer followed-up in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, from 1995 to 2000.
  • Clinical, pathological, treatment and outcome data were obtained from medical records.
  • Subjects were divided into two groups according to age at diagnosis (< or = 40 years and > 40 years).
  • The two groups were compared for clinical stage, histology, hormone receptor expression, therapy and radiotherapy using the chi-square and/or Fisher's exact test and for analysis of survival the Kaplan-Meier method with a long-rank test.
  • Both groups were similar regarding clinical stage, histology, and hormone receptor expression.
  • Proportionally, younger subjects received more adjuvant therapy (88.8% vs. 77.8%).
  • Those women over 40 years were significantly more likely to remain disease-free (84%), and this difference was more remarkable when they were compared to those over 40 years at stage I breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The study findings confirm that women younger than 40 years with early breast cancer have a poorer prognosis.
  • Younger patients who remained disease-free received more adjuvant therapy, suggesting a positive effect of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19225690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1518-8787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de saúde pública
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Saude Publica
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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3. Rayson D, Chiasson D, Dewar R: Elapsed time from breast cancer detection to first adjuvant therapy in a Canadian province, 1999-2000. CMAJ; 2004 Mar 16;170(6):957-61
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  • [Title] Elapsed time from breast cancer detection to first adjuvant therapy in a Canadian province, 1999-2000.
  • BACKGROUND: A number of studies have examined time intervals between care steps in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.
  • The objective of this study was to document the elapsed time from first clinical or mammographic detection of breast abnormality to initiation of first adjuvant therapy in women with invasive breast cancer in Nova Scotia and to examine the effect of age, disease stage and place of residence on these intervals.
  • Eligible women were those with invasive breast cancer detected by Sept.
  • 1, 1999, who were referred to 1 of 2 provincial cancer treatment centres by Sept. 1, 2000.
  • All time intervals were calculated in days, and only patients experiencing both care events defining an interval were included in the analysis of time to event for that interval.
  • We used proportional hazards regression analysis to evaluate the influence of patient age, disease stage and place of residence on times between care events.
  • RESULTS: A total of 776 new diagnoses of breast cancer were reported to the Nova Scotia Cancer Registry over the study period.
  • The overall median time from clinical or mammographic detection of breast cancer to initiation of first adjuvant therapy was 91 days (interquartile range 72-123 days).
  • Disease stage was the strongest predictor of elapsed time: the median interval from disease detection to initiation of first adjuvant therapy for patients with stage I disease was 118 days, as compared with 85 days for those with stage II disease and 75 days for those with stage III disease (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.8).
  • Patients aged 70 years or more at diagnosis experienced longer elapsed times (median interval 98 days) than did younger patients (93 days for those aged 50-69 years and 82 days for those aged 49 years or less) (adjusted HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4).
  • INTERPRETATION: Women aged 70 or more and those with stage I breast cancer experienced longer elapsed times from disease detection to initiation of first adjuvant therapy than did younger women and those with more advanced disease.
  • These findings may have implications for the design of interventions to minimize intervals between steps in breast cancer care and should be validated within the Canadian context.
  • Future investigation exploring the full spectrum of breast cancer care may lead to a more complete understanding of processes and gaps in the current system.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mass Screening / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Catchment Area (Health). Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Nova Scotia / epidemiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15023922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0820-3946
  • [Journal-full-title] CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] CMAJ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC359429
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4. Fismen K, Stanghelle JK: [Rehabilitation of women with breast cancer; five-year follow-up]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2007 May 3;127(9):1207-9
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  • [Title] [Rehabilitation of women with breast cancer; five-year follow-up].
  • BACKGROUND: A previous study reported many physical and psychosocial problems in 50 women, aged 31-66 (mean 49), who had undergone surgical treatment, chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer mammae stage 1 and 2 (limited to the breast only or spread to the axillary lymph nodes, respectively).
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Of the 50 women in the previous study 13 had died of cancer, one had undergone cardiac surgery and two refused to participate.
  • INTERPRETATION: The study shows that the 34 women assessed had significant health problems five years after treatment for breast cancer stage 1 and 2.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / rehabilitation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / psychology. Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Recovery of Function

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  • (PMID = 17479141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0807-7096
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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5. Soucek-Hadwiger B, Döller W: [Secondary malignant lymphedema]. Wien Med Wochenschr; 2006 May;156(9-10):309-13
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  • [Title] [Secondary malignant lymphedema].
  • The diagnosis of a secondary malignant lymphoedema which is caused by tumor infiltration or tumor compression is a very important sign for an unknown primary, but also for a tumor relapse.
  • Only an early diagnosis and introduction of a tumor-specific therapy is able to prevent the progress of this disease.
  • As the secondary lymphedema is a chronic progressive disease, the early beginning of the "Complex physical Oedematherapy" is necessary, which consists of a combination of manual lymph drainage, compression by the use of bandages and special stockings for compression, physical training to improve mobility, dermatological care and drug therapy.
  • Therefore the therapeutic goal is to reach a stable disease without symptoms, which means reducing the lymphedema to "Stadium 0, latent stage".
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphedema / therapy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Palliative Care. Postoperative Complications / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Long-Term Care. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging


6. Fruehauf JP, Kong KM, Jakowatz JG: Docetaxel and vinorelbine plus GM-CSF in malignant melanoma. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Apr;19(4 Suppl 2):19-22
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  • [Title] Docetaxel and vinorelbine plus GM-CSF in malignant melanoma.
  • Current chemotherapy regimens offer limited benefits to these patients, and more effective and less toxic treatments are needed.
  • We therefore piloted a study of docetaxel (Taxotere), vinorelbine (Navelbine), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, sargramostim [Leukine]), or the DVS regimen, in patients with stage IV melanoma.
  • Eight patients were treated after previous biochemotherapy and two patients were given the regimen as an initial treatment.
  • Time to progression for the 10 cases ranged from 2 to 26+ months (median: 8 months).
  • A larger study to confirm the activity of the DVS regimen for stage IV melanoma is currently under way.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Recombinant Proteins. Taxoids / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15934496.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Taxoids; 123774-72-1 / sargramostim; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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7. Di Cocco B, Salesi N, Fabi A, Nardoni C, Ferretti G, Bossone G, Ciccarese M, Savarese A, Vecchione A, Cognetti F: Alfa-epoietin and anaemia in gynaecological cancer. Anticancer Res; 2004 Mar-Apr;24(2C):1287-92
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  • [Title] Alfa-epoietin and anaemia in gynaecological cancer.
  • The incidence and severity of anaemia in gynaecological cancer patients depends on several factors including age, histology and tumor stage, site of neoplasm and treatment.
  • At present, two principal opinions are available for the management of chronic anaemia in cancer patients: blood transfusions and treatment with recombinant human Erythropoietin (rHuEPO).
  • Clinical studies showed that rHuEPO can ameliorate chronic and chemotherapy-induced anaemia and reduce transfusions in patients with various malignant diseases.
  • In this review we discuss the role of alfa-epoetin in the management of gynaecological and breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia / drug therapy. Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Genital Neoplasms, Female / blood

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  • (PMID = 15154662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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8. Swain SM, Jeong JH, Geyer CE Jr, Costantino JP, Pajon ER, Fehrenbacher L, Atkins JN, Polikoff J, Vogel VG, Erban JK, Rastogi P, Livingston RB, Perez EA, Mamounas EP, Land SR, Ganz PA, Wolmark N: Longer therapy, iatrogenic amenorrhea, and survival in early breast cancer. N Engl J Med; 2010 Jun 03;362(22):2053-65
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  • [Title] Longer therapy, iatrogenic amenorrhea, and survival in early breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy regimens that combine anthracyclines and taxanes result in improved disease-free and overall survival among women with operable lymph-node-positive breast cancer.
  • METHODS: We randomly assigned 5351 patients with operable, node-positive, early-stage breast cancer to receive four cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of docetaxel (sequential ACT); four cycles of doxorubicin and docetaxel (doxorubicin-docetaxel); or four cycles of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel (concurrent ACT).
  • Disease-free survival was improved in the sequential-ACT group (8-year disease-free survival, 74%) as compared with the doxorubicin-docetaxel group (disease-free survival, 69%; hazard ratio for recurrence, a second malignant condition, or death, 0.80; P=0.001) and the concurrent-ACT group (disease-free survival, 69%; hazard ratio, 0.83; P=0.01).
  • Overall survival was improved in patients with amenorrhea for 6 months or more across all treatment groups, independently of estrogen-receptor status.
  • Amenorrhea was associated with improved survival regardless of the treatment and estrogen-receptor status. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00003782. )
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Amenorrhea / chemically induced. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Taxoids / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Premenopause. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society
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  • (PMID = 20519679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00003782
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA-69651; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA025224-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA07190; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA069974-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA-37377; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA045808-22; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA032102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA013612; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA045808; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA012027; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA013612; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA058348-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-25224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-45808; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA-69974; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-58348; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA-12027; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA2115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-13612; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA069651; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA032102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA069974; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA012027-35; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA007190; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA069651-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA013612-35; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA025224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA032102-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037377-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037377
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS212423; NLM/ PMC2935316
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9. Johansson P, Fohlin H, Arnesson LG, Dufmats M, Nordenskjöld K, Nordenskjöld B, Stål O, South-East Sweden Breast Cancer Study Group: Improved survival for women with stage I breast cancer in south-east Sweden: a comparison between two time periods before and after increased use of adjuvant systemic therapy. Acta Oncol; 2009;48(4):504-13
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  • [Title] Improved survival for women with stage I breast cancer in south-east Sweden: a comparison between two time periods before and after increased use of adjuvant systemic therapy.
  • PURPOSE: Continuous minor steps of improvement in the management of breast cancer have resulted in decreased mortality rates during the last decades.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of patients with stage I breast cancer diagnosed during two time periods that differed with respect to adjuvant systemic therapy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The studied population consisted of all women < 60 years of age, who were diagnosed breast cancer stage I between 1986 and 1999 in south-east Sweden, a total of 1 407 cases.
  • Before 1992 the only adjuvant systemic therapy recommended was tamoxifen for hormone receptor positive patients aged 50 years or older.
  • During Period 2 the use of adjuvant treatment was extended to younger patients at high risk, identified by a high tumour S-phase fraction, with either hormonal or cytotoxic treatment.
  • The risk reduction between the periods was still statistically significant in multivariate analysis when adjusting for different tumour characteristics and treatment modalities, indicating an influence of other factors not controlled for.
  • One such factor may be the duration of tamoxifen treatment, which likely was more frequently five years during Period 2 than during Period 1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the causes of the increase in distant recurrence free survival for women with breast cancer stage I are complex.
  • The results support though that high-risk subgroups of stage I breast cancer patients did benefit from increased use of systemic therapy as a consequence of an updated management programme.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cytotoxins / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Odds Ratio. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Sweden / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19235568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Cytotoxins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
  • [Investigator] Agrup M; Arnesson LG; Asking B; Blomkvist T; Bång H; Dabrosin C; Dufmats M; Einarsson E; Fohlin H; Gustavsson R; Klintenberg C; Linderholm B; Malmström A; Malterling R; Sundquist M; Norberg B; Rundcrantz A; Skoog P; Starkhammar H; Askmalm MS; Tejler G; Thorstenson S; Vahlin S; Vitak B
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10. Fisher B, Jeong JH, Dignam J, Anderson S, Mamounas E, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N: Findings from recent National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project adjuvant studies in stage I breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr; 2001;(30):62-6
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  • [Title] Findings from recent National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project adjuvant studies in stage I breast cancer.
  • Before 1989, credible information about the treatment of breast cancer was derived mainly from randomized clinical trials that enrolled women with either metastatic (stage IV); locally advanced (stage III); or primary, operable, axillary lymph node-positive (stage II) disease.
  • This report provides information from six recent National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) trials involving lymph node-negative (stage I) patients.
  • Through 14 years, superior DFS and overall survival advantages, as well as a reduction in contralateral breast cancer, were observed with TAM.
  • After 8 years, the RFS in women with ER-negative tumors was greater in the group treated with surgery and chemotherapy than in those who underwent surgery alone.
  • In women with ER-positive tumors, RFS and overall survival advantages were observed from the addition of chemotherapy to TAM when that treatment regimen was compared with TAM alone.
  • In addition, evidence has been presented from NSABP B-21, a trial evaluating radiation therapy (XRT) and/or TAM for the prevention of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after lumpectomy in women with tumors less than or equal to 1 cm.
  • The findings demonstrate that chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy is effective for the management of women with negative axillary lymph nodes and either ER-negative or ER-positive tumors.
  • Because it also has been proven effective in women with tumors less than or equal to 1 cm, such therapy might also be considered in the treatment of that patient population.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / statistics & numerical data. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Nodes / physiopathology. Mastectomy, Segmental. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11773294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-6773
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA 12027; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA 37377; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA 69651; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA 69974
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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11. Geffen DB, Amir N, Sion-Vardy N, Ariad S, Kachko L, Bayme M, Delgado B, Dyomin V, Argov S, Koretz M: Stage I breast cancer in a regional oncology practice in Israel 2002-2006: clinicopathologic features, risk estimation and planned therapy of 328 consecutive patients. Breast; 2009 Oct;18(5):316-21
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  • [Title] Stage I breast cancer in a regional oncology practice in Israel 2002-2006: clinicopathologic features, risk estimation and planned therapy of 328 consecutive patients.
  • We present the clinicopathologic features and treatment plans of 328 consecutive stage I (T1N0M0) breast cancer patients seen at a regional medical center in Israel.
  • In 43.3% of patients history of an invasive malignancy was reported in a first degree relative and in 15.5% specifically breast and/or ovarian cancer was reported.
  • Chemotherapy was added to endocrine therapy in 59 ER/PgR positive patients, decreasing predicted 10-year mortality risk by a median of 1.8%.
  • Individualized risk estimation by genetic analysis may further decrease the use of chemotherapy in stage I patients.
  • Breast cancer screening may provide an opportunity to identify cancer prone families.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Internet. Israel / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Risk Assessment. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19819143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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12. Hubalek M, Ramoni A, Mueller-Holzner E, Marth C: Malignant mixed mesodermal tumor after tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Oct;95(1):264-6
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  • [Title] Malignant mixed mesodermal tumor after tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The risk of tamoxifen related endometrial neoplasm has been confirmed by multiple studies.
  • Especially rare endometrial tumors seem to develop more frequently under tamoxifen therapy.
  • A recent analysis showed a substantially higher risk for malignant mixed mesodermal tumor (MMMT; designated in the WHO classification of female genital tract neoplasms as carcinosarcoma) in association with tamoxifen intake.
  • CASE: We are reporting a case of a 40-year-old multiparous premenopausal woman who received tamoxifen 20 mg daily for 2 years after the surgical treatment of breast cancer and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Two years after initiation of tamoxifen treatment, the patient developed an MMMT of the uterus.
  • Unfortunately, she developed a local recurrence of her breast cancer in 2003.
  • After surgical treatment, she is currently being treated with anastrozole.
  • CONCLUSION: We are reporting a rare case of a premenopausal patient who developed a MMMT within short time of tamoxifen exposure for stage I breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mixed Tumor, Mesodermal / chemically induced. Neoplasms, Second Primary / chemically induced. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Uterine Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 15385144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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13. Kreukels BP, Schagen SB, Ridderinkhof KR, Boogerd W, Hamburger HL, Muller MJ, van Dam FS: Effects of high-dose and conventional-dose adjuvant chemotherapy on long-term cognitive sequelae in patients with breast cancer: an electrophysiologic study. Clin Breast Cancer; 2006 Apr;7(1):67-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of high-dose and conventional-dose adjuvant chemotherapy on long-term cognitive sequelae in patients with breast cancer: an electrophysiologic study.
  • BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits found in a number of patients with breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy are still unclear.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients at high risk with breast cancer treated with adjuvant conventional-dose cyclophosphamide/epirubicin/5-fluorouracil or adjuvant high-dose cyclophosphamide/thiotepa/carboplatin were compared with 23 patients with stage I breast cancer not treated with chemotherapy approximately 4 years after completion of treatment.
  • We studied reaction times and the amplitudes and latencies of the P3, an electrophysiologic index of information processing, in a task with different conditions related to input, central, and output processing of information.
  • RESULTS: The amplitude of the P3 component was significantly reduced in patients with breast cancer treated with high-dose cyclophosphamide/thiotepa/carboplatin compared with patients with breast cancer not treated with chemotherapy.
  • We observed no significant differences in reaction times and P3 latency between the treatment groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data show electrophysiologic alterations in patients with breast cancer treated with high-dose chemotherapy 4 years after completion of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Cognition Disorders / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Central Nervous System / drug effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Cross-Sectional Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Electrophysiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Reference Values. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16764746.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-8209
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical breast cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Schagen SB, Hamburger HL, Muller MJ, Boogerd W, van Dam FS: Neurophysiological evaluation of late effects of adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy on cognitive function. J Neurooncol; 2001 Jan;51(2):159-65
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  • [Title] Neurophysiological evaluation of late effects of adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy on cognitive function.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate late neurotoxicity of adjuvant high-dose (HD) chemotherapy versus standard-dose (SD) chemotherapy by event-related potentials (ERP) and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From a randomized study in high-risk breast cancer patients on the efficacy of high-dose versus standard-dose adjuvant chemotherapy, late effects on cognitive functioning were analyzed by neuropsychological tests.
  • Cognitive impairment was found in 32% of the HD group, 17% of the SD group and in 9% of a control group of stage I breast cancer patients not treated with chemotherapy.
  • Results of patients treated with chemotherapy were compared with results of 14 control patients not treated with chemotherapy.
  • All patients were tested two years after treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the neurophysiological differences are subtle and the relation with the cognitive functioning in individual patients as measured by the neuropsychological examination is equivocal, the results suggest that there is neurophysiological support for cognitive dysfunction as a late complication of high-dose systemic chemotherapy in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / psychology. Cognition / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Alpha Rhythm / drug effects. Anxiety. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cognition Disorders / chemically induced. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Depression. Electroencephalography / drug effects. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Event-Related Potentials, P300 / drug effects. Evoked Potentials / drug effects. Fatigue. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Intelligence. Least-Squares Analysis. Middle Aged. Neuropsychological Tests. Thiotepa / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11386413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CTCb regimen; FEC protocol
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15. Schagen SB, Muller MJ, Boogerd W, Rosenbrand RM, van Rhijn D, Rodenhuis S, van Dam FS: Late effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on cognitive function: a follow-up study in breast cancer patients. Ann Oncol; 2002 Sep;13(9):1387-97
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  • [Title] Late effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on cognitive function: a follow-up study in breast cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological examinations have shown an elevated risk for cognitive impairment 2 years after therapy in breast cancer patients randomized to receive adjuvant high-dose cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, carboplatin (CTC) chemotherapy compared with a non-treated control group of stage I breast cancer patients.
  • Patients randomized to receive standard-dose fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide (FEC) chemotherapy showed no elevated risk compared with controls.
  • However, breast cancer patients treated with conventional cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil (CMF) chemotherapy showed a higher risk of cognitive impairment.
  • The present study was designed to obtain a greater insight into these long-term neuropsychological sequelae following chemotherapy and their course in time.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: At 4 years post-therapy, 22 of the original 34 CTC patients, 23 of 36 FEC patients, 31 of 39 CMF patients and 27 of 34 control patients were re-examined with neuropsychological tests.
  • RESULTS: Improvement in performance was observed in all chemotherapy groups, whereas in the control group there was a slight deterioration in test results.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cognitive dysfunction following adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients may be transient.

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  • (PMID = 12196364.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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16. Kreukels BP, Schagen SB, Ridderinkhof KR, Boogerd W, Hamburger HL, van Dam FS: Electrophysiological correlates of information processing in breast-cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2005 Nov;94(1):53-61
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  • [Title] Electrophysiological correlates of information processing in breast-cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Cognitive deficits are found in a number of breast-cancer patients who have undergone adjuvant (Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, and 5-Fluorouracil (CMF)) chemotherapy, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear.
  • Twenty-six breast-cancer patients treated with adjuvant CMF chemotherapy and a control group of 23 stage I breast-cancer patients not treated with chemotherapy were examined.
  • Mean time since treatment for the CMF patients was 5.1 years after the last CMF course, and for the control patients 3.6 years after termination of radiotherapy.
  • Reaction times and the amplitudes and latencies of an Event Related Potential component (P3) in different task conditions related to input, central, and output processing of information were studied.
  • Significant differences in latency and amplitude of the P3 component were found between the treatment groups with an earlier and reduced P3 in the chemotherapy group.
  • Patients treated with chemotherapy had longer reaction times (although not significantly different) than the control group on all task conditions.
  • Our data provide further evidence for long-term neurocognitive problems in breast-cancer patients treated with adjuvant (CMF) chemotherapy and offer new information regarding abnormalities in brain functioning in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Cognition Disorders / physiopathology. Neurotoxicity Syndromes / etiology. Neurotoxicity Syndromes / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Case-Control Studies. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Electroencephalography. Evoked Potentials. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neuropsychological Tests. Reaction Time

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  • (PMID = 16175317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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17. Surowiak P: Prediction of the response to chemotherapy in ovarian cancers. Folia Morphol (Warsz); 2006 Nov;65(4):285-94
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  • [Title] Prediction of the response to chemotherapy in ovarian cancers.
  • Ovarian cancer represents the fifth most frequent cause of death as a result of malignant processes after cancers of the breast, large intestine, lung and stomach.
  • Owing to the localisation of ovarian cancer, approximately 75% of cases are diagnosed at the III and IV stages of advancement according to FIGO.
  • Because of the advanced stage of the disease surgery has to be followed by chemotherapy in most cases of ovarian cancer and therefore resistance to cytostatic drugs represents a major clinical problem.
  • The potential to predict the response to therapy with the use of cytostatic drugs would enable the most effective drugs to be applied in individual cases, thus improving the efficiency of the treatment and restricting the development of resistance to cytostatic drugs.
  • In the present paper the progress made so far in the prediction of the clinical course of ovarian cancer is reviewed.
  • Two sections are devoted to the most recent studies in the biology of ovarian cancer, pangenomic studies on gene expression using DNA microarrays and aberrations of DNA methylation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Multiple / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / genetics. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / physiology. Apoptosis / physiology. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / genetics. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / physiology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / physiology. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17171607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-5659
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia morphologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Morphol. (Warsz)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type I
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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18. Luu TH, Lau S, Nelson R, Ottochian M, Garcia A, Somlo G: Is there a survival benefit with adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage I (T1N0) triple negative breast cancer? J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e11547

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  • [Title] Is there a survival benefit with adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage I (T1N0) triple negative breast cancer?
  • : e11547 Background: Chemotherapy is the only systemic modality for patients with breast cancer lacking expression of estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors (triple negative), a group comprising 15% of all breast cancers.
  • The median time to distant recurrence is short: at 2.6 years, and median time to death is 4.2 years. (Dent R, et al. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Features and Patterns of Recurrence, Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13(15) August, 2007).
  • The benefit from proceeding with adjuvant chemotherapy for ≤2cm, node negative triple negative breast cancer remains undefined.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted to assess the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for overall survival for stage I (T1N0) triple-negative breast cancer treated from 1996 to 2006 at City of Hope and USC.
  • Overall survival was defined as time from date of diagnosis to date of death.
  • RESULTS: A total of 100 stage I triple-negative breast cancer patients were identified.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 56 (range 27-91).
  • Of the 100 patients, 59 received adjuvant chemotherapy: 38 received anthracycline-based, 17 received non-anthracycline-based regimens and 4 were unknown.
  • No difference in overall survival was found in patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy (p-value = 0.94).
  • Similarly, there was no difference between patients who received non-anthracycline-based chemotherapy versus those given anthracycline-based chemotherapy (p-value=0.17).
  • The group of patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy were younger (51.8 y.o versus 61.5 y.o (p=0.0004)) and had larger tumor size (13.6mm versus 10.2mm (p=0.0002)).
  • CONCLUSION: We did not find a statistically survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in 100 triple negative stage I breast cancer patients.
  • Further studies are needed to clarify the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in this group of patients.

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  • (PMID = 27964670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Kreukels BP, Hamburger HL, de Ruiter MB, van Dam FS, Ridderinkhof KR, Boogerd W, Schagen SB: ERP amplitude and latency in breast cancer survivors treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Clin Neurophysiol; 2008 Mar;119(3):533-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ERP amplitude and latency in breast cancer survivors treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive problems that were observed in a number of breast cancer survivors treated with adjuvant chemotherapy initiated a series of EEG studies to examine the neurophysiological basis of these deficits.
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of various regimens of adjuvant chemotherapy on the N1 and P3 component of the event-related potential (ERP) in breast cancer patients 3-6 years after treatment.
  • METHODS: Fifty-three breast cancer patients treated with various chemotherapy regimens were compared to 23 stage I breast cancer patients not treated with chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Patients treated with chemotherapy showed lower P3 amplitudes than patients not treated with chemotherapy.
  • Differences were also observed in P3 latency between patients treated with different chemotherapy regimens.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a general effect of all chemotherapy regimens under study on P3 amplitude and a more specific chemotherapeutic effect on P3 latency.
  • SIGNIFICANCE: The present study provides evidence for the notion that different chemotherapy regimens have different effects on brain functioning.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Evoked Potentials / drug effects. Reaction Time / drug effects. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 18164658.001).
  • [ISSN] 1388-2457
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurophysiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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20. Adenipekun A, Campbell OB, Oyesegun AR, Elumelu TN: Radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer in Ibadan: outcome of chest wall irradiation alone in clinically nodes free axilla. Afr J Med Med Sci; 2002 Dec;31(4):345-7
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer in Ibadan: outcome of chest wall irradiation alone in clinically nodes free axilla.
  • The study was carried out to identify the group of patients with early breast cancer [stage I and II] after surgery in which chest wall irradiation alone was given without lymphatic irradiation thus reducing morbidity and also creating room for more patients on the available limited treatment facility.
  • 92 patients with histologically confirmed early breast cancer that attended Radiotherapy clinic between June 1995 and May 1998 that satisfied selection criteria were studied.
  • They all received External Radiotherapy to the chest wall, meadiasternum inclusive and breast if still in-situ.
  • All also received cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Average time to recurrence was 3-12 months.
  • In view of majority being recurrence free, chest wall irradiation alone in early breast cancer [stage I and II] could be encouraged, thus creating access to treatment for more patients in centers like ours with limited therapy facilities.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Management. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Staging. Nigeria / epidemiology. Radiation Injuries / epidemiology. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Thoracic Wall / radiation effects. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 15027777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-3913
  • [Journal-full-title] African journal of medicine and medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Afr J Med Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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21. Schagen SB, Muller MJ, Boogerd W, Mellenbergh GJ, van Dam FS: Change in cognitive function after chemotherapy: a prospective longitudinal study in breast cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2006 Dec 6;98(23):1742-5
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  • [Title] Change in cognitive function after chemotherapy: a prospective longitudinal study in breast cancer patients.
  • Some breast cancer survivors experience cognitive decline following chemotherapy.
  • We prospectively examined changes in cognitive performance among high-risk breast cancer patients who had received high-dose chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, and carboplatin (CTC group; n = 28) or standard-dose chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC group; n = 39); stage-I breast cancer patients who had received no systemic chemotherapy (no-CT group; n = 57); and healthy control subjects (n = 60).
  • All patients underwent neuropsychologic testing before and 6 months after treatment (12-month interval); control subjects underwent repeated testing over a 6-month interval.
  • More of the CTC group than the control subjects experienced a deterioration in cognitive performance over time (25% versus 6.7%; odds ratio [OR] = 5.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3 to 21.2, P = .02).
  • Some cytotoxic treatment for breast cancer affects cognition in a subset of women.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cognition. Cognition Disorders / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 17148777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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22. Akhtar MS, Kousar F, Masood M, Fatimi S, Kokab: Evaluation of paclitaxel and carboplatin versus combination chemotherapy with fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as a neoadjuvant therapy in patients with inoperable breast cancer. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2010 Nov;20(11):748-52
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  • [Title] Evaluation of paclitaxel and carboplatin versus combination chemotherapy with fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as a neoadjuvant therapy in patients with inoperable breast cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of patients with locally advanced breast cancer receiving two different regimens Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide (FAC) and Paclitaxel and Carboplatin.
  • METHODOLOGY: Patients with inoperable locally advanced breast cancer of stage were included.
  • Sixteen patients were given FAC regimen and 9 patients were given Paclitaxel and Carboplatin, each combination was cycled after 21 days for four times.
  • Partial Response (PR, ¯ > 50%) was defined by 50% or greater decrease in the sum of the areas of bidimensionally measured lesions i.e. change of N2 to N1 or no status and some surgical procedure is possible to downstage the disease.
  • Progression of disease (> 25%) was defined as a 25% or greater increase in the area of any lesion > 2 cm or in the sum of the products of the individual lesions or the appearance of new malignant lesions, surgery not possible.
  • RESULTS: Twenty five patients completed neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Sixteen (66%) patients received FAC and 9 (37%) patients received PC chemotherapy.
  • Overall CR (breast and axilla) was 54%, PR was 16% and minor response (MR) was 8%.
  • FAC treatment induced more emesis, mucositis, alopecia and cardiotoxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21078249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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23. Díaz R, Santaballa A, Munárriz B, Calderero V: Hepatic resection in breast cancer metastases: should it be considered standard treatment? Breast; 2004 Jun;13(3):254-8
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  • [Title] Hepatic resection in breast cancer metastases: should it be considered standard treatment?
  • A 34-year-old woman was diagnosed in October 1994 with a stage I breast cancer and treated with conservative surgery, locoregional radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Nonetheless, 47 months after the initial diagnosis, an isolated liver metastasis was diagnosed in segments VII and VIII.
  • A subsegmentectomy was performed, and chemotherapy with doxorubicin and paclitaxel was given for five cycles.
  • High-dose chemotherapy with peripheral stem cell rescue was then administered and tamoxifen hormonal therapy was begun.
  • Isolated liver metastases from breast cancer are rare and should be treated with surgical resection if possible, in the context of multimodality programs with hormonal and chemotherapy.
  • According to the small series published in the literature, an improvement of 27-57 months in median survival rates can be expected when such treatment replaces standard therapies, although a selection bias cannot be excluded.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15177433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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24. Metcalfe KA, Lynch HT, Ghadirian P, Tung N, Olivotto IA, Foulkes WD, Warner E, Olopade O, Eisen A, Weber B, McLennan J, Sun P, Narod SA: The risk of ovarian cancer after breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jan;96(1):222-6
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  • [Title] The risk of ovarian cancer after breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of ovarian cancer after a primary diagnosis of breast cancer among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and to identify host and treatment-related factors that might modify the risk.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were 491 women with stage I or stage II breast cancer, diagnosed from 1975 to 2000 and for whom a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation had been identified.
  • Patients were followed from the initial diagnosis of breast cancer until either ovarian cancer, prophylactic oophorectomy, death, or 2002.
  • The medical treatment records and pathology documents were reviewed.
  • Information that was abstracted from the medical charts included date of breast cancer diagnosis, stage of disease, use of chemotherapy, use of radiation therapy, usage of tamoxifen, oophorectomy, recurrence, second malignancy, and vital status.
  • RESULTS: The 10-year actuarial risk of ovarian cancer after breast cancer was 12.7% for BRCA1 carriers and 6.8% for BRCA2 carriers (P = 0.03).
  • The use of tamoxifen (OR = 1.79; P = 0.16) and chemotherapy (OR = 0.59; P = 0.15) did not significantly impact on the risk of subsequent ovarian cancer.
  • Twenty-five percent of the deaths in women with stage I breast cancer were due to a subsequent ovarian cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence of ovarian cancer suggests that oophorectomy should be recommended in female BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with a diagnosis of breast cancer, especially those with stage I disease.
  • Breast cancer systemic therapy did not significantly alter the risk of ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, BRCA1. Genes, BRCA2. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use


25. Huber S, Wagner M, Zuna I, Medl M, Czembirek H, Delorme S: Locally advanced breast carcinoma: evaluation of mammography in the prediction of residual disease after induction chemotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2000 Jan-Feb;20(1B):553-8
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  • [Title] Locally advanced breast carcinoma: evaluation of mammography in the prediction of residual disease after induction chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the mammographic features of locally advanced breast carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and to evaluate morphological criteria that determine the value of mammography in therapy monitoring.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the pre- and post-therapeutic mammograms of 44 patients with stage III-breast carcinoma with regard to tumor characteristics and malignant calcifications and compared to histopathological results.
  • RESULTS: Delineation of the tumor proved to be the most significant criterion.
  • In 34 tumors more than 50% of the lesion was defined; these showed a high correlation between the mammographically determined tumor diameter and that determined on histopathological examination (r = 0.77).
  • Less than 50% of the mass was definable in 14 tumors; here the correlation between mammographically and histopathologically determined tumor diameter was low (r = -0.19).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic value of mammography in the evaluation of tumor response to induction chemotherapy depends primarily on the extent to which the tumor can be delineated from the adjacent breast tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Mammography
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcinosis / etiology. Calcinosis / radiography. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Neoplasm, Residual. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10769724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
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26. Gevensleben H, Göhring UJ, Büttner R, Heukamp LC, Kunz G, Dimpfl T, Jackisch C, Ortmann O, Albert US, Bender R, De Snoo F, Krijgsman O, Glas AM, Ergönenc YH, Vogel C, Dykgers A, Langwieder C, Rees M, Anzeneder T: Comparison of MammaPrint and TargetPrint results with clinical parameters in German patients with early stage breast cancer. Int J Mol Med; 2010 Dec;26(6):837-43
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  • [Title] Comparison of MammaPrint and TargetPrint results with clinical parameters in German patients with early stage breast cancer.
  • The 70-gene expression profile MammaPrint is a powerful prognostic indicator for disease outcome in breast cancer patients with improved prediction of recurrence risk compared to currently used guidelines.
  • This study was performed as a validation of MammaPrint and TargetPrint in an unselected German breast cancer population and was designed to determine the degree of concordance with currently applied clinical parameters.
  • One hundred and forty cases of breast cancer stage I and II were classified as being low or high risk for distant metastasis using MammaPrint.
  • Results were compared to current clinical risk classifications and adjuvant treatment management.
  • Thirty-two percent of patients (19/59) with a poor prognosis-signature identified via MammaPrint did not receive adjuvant systemic treatment apart from endocrine therapy and were potentially undertreated; whereas 42% (35/77) of patients with a good prognosis-signature received chemotherapy and were potentially overtreated.
  • In this German study population, MammaPrint would have resulted in altered treatment advice for adjuvant systemic therapy in 40% of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Computational Biology / methods. Female. Germany. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Estrogen / genetics. Receptors, Progesterone. Reproducibility of Results. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 21042777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-244X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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27. Damush TM, Perkins A, Miller K: The implementation of an oncologist referred, exercise self-management program for older breast cancer survivors. Psychooncology; 2006 Oct;15(10):884-90
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  • [Title] The implementation of an oncologist referred, exercise self-management program for older breast cancer survivors.
  • BACKGROUND: With increased breast cancer survivor rates among older women, the negative outcomes of breast cancer treatment may linger for years.
  • We recruited 34 breast cancer survivors seen for a follow-up oncology visit at two university cancer treatment centers.
  • Average time since diagnosed was 3.1 years; 45% had stage I breast cancer and 55% had stage II; 62% received chemotherapy and 59% received a mastectomy.
  • We compared scores between time periods using t-tests.
  • CONCLUSION: An exercise self-management format referred by an oncologist is efficacious for implementing a lifestyle modification change among older breast cancer survivors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / rehabilitation. Exercise. Quality of Life. Self Care

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  • (PMID = 16378317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1057-9249
  • [Journal-full-title] Psycho-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychooncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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28. Malin JL, Kahn KL, Adams J, Kwan L, Laouri M, Ganz PA: Validity of cancer registry data for measuring the quality of breast cancer care. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2002 Jun 5;94(11):835-44
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  • [Title] Validity of cancer registry data for measuring the quality of breast cancer care.
  • BACKGROUND: Various groups have called for a national system to monitor the quality of cancer care.
  • The validity of cancer registry data for quality of cancer care has not been well studied.
  • We investigated the validity of such information in the California Cancer Registry.
  • METHODS: We compared registry data associated with care with data abstracted from the medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer.
  • Compared with the medical record data gold standard, the accuracy of registry data was higher for hospital-based services (sensitivity = 95.0% for mastectomy, 94.9% for lumpectomy, and 95.9% for lymph node dissection) than for ambulatory services (sensitivity = 9.8% for biopsy, 72.2% for radiation therapy, 55.6% for chemotherapy, and 36.2% for hormone therapy).
  • Quality scores calculated from registry data were 5 percentage points (95% CI = 3 to 7 percentage points) lower for patients with stage I breast cancer, 16 percentage points (95% CI = 12 to 20 percentage points) lower for patients with stage II breast cancer, and 20 percentage points (95% CI = 8 to 32 percentage points) lower for patients with stage III breast cancer than were corresponding scores calculated from medical record data (all P<.001).
  • The greater difference in quality scores for stage II and III patients revealed that disease severity and setting of care affected the validity of registry data.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cancer registry data for quality measurement may not be valid for all care settings, but registries could provide the infrastructure for collecting data on the quality of cancer care.
  • We urge that funding be increased to augment data collection by cancer registries.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Databases, Factual / standards. Quality Assurance, Health Care. Registries / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Ambulatory Care. California / epidemiology. Continental Population Groups. Female. Health Maintenance Organizations. Hospitals. Humans. Medical Records / standards. Medical Records / statistics & numerical data. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 12048271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. McCarthy CM, Pusic AL, Sclafani L, Buchanan C, Fey JV, Disa JJ, Mehrara BJ, Cordeiro PG: Breast cancer recurrence following prosthetic, postmastectomy reconstruction: incidence, detection, and treatment. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2008 Feb;121(2):381-8
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  • [Title] Breast cancer recurrence following prosthetic, postmastectomy reconstruction: incidence, detection, and treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of prosthetic reconstruction on the incidence, detection, and management of locoregional recurrence following mastectomy for invasive breast cancer.
  • Only patients with invasive breast cancer who had 2 years or more of follow-up and/or patients who had recurrence within 2 years of their primary cancer were included.
  • RESULTS: In total, 618 patients who underwent mastectomy for invasive breast cancer from 1995 until 1999 were evaluated.
  • Three hundred nine patients who had immediate, tissue expander/implant reconstruction were matched to 309 women who underwent mastectomy alone on the basis of age (+/-5 years) and breast cancer stage (I, II, or III).
  • Median time to detection of a locoregional recurrence was 2.3 years (range, 0.1 to 7.2 years) in the reconstructed cohort and 1.9 years (range, 0.1 to 8.8 years) in the nonreconstructed cohort (p = 0.733).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that there is no difference in the incidence of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients who undergo immediate, tissue expander/implant reconstruction compared with those patients who do not have reconstruction.
  • Prosthetic breast reconstruction does not appear to hinder detection of locoregional cancer recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Implantation / adverse effects. Breast Implants / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty / methods. Mastectomy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


30. Chao KK, Vicini FA, Wallace M, Mitchell C, Chen P, Ghilezan M, Gilbert S, Kunzman J, Benitez P, Martinez A: Analysis of treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity using the MammoSite breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial-breast irradiation: the william beaumont hospital experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Sep 1;69(1):32-40
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  • [Title] Analysis of treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity using the MammoSite breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial-breast irradiation: the william beaumont hospital experience.
  • PURPOSE: To review our institution's experience of treating patients with the MammoSite (Cytyc Corp., Marlborough, MA) breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI), for determining short-term treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From January 2000 to April 2006, 80 patients treated with breast-conserving therapy (BCT) received adjuvant radiation using the MammoSite (34 Gy in 3.4-Gy fractions prescribed to 1.0 cm from the balloon surface).
  • Twenty-three patients (29%) had Stage 0 breast cancer, 46 (57%) had Stage I breast cancer, and 11 (14%) had Stage II breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: Two ipsilateral breast-tumor recurrences (IBTRs) (2.5%) developed for a 3-year actuarial rate of 2.9% (no regional failures were observed).
  • Younger age at diagnosis was the only variable associated with IBTR (continuous variable, p = 0.044; categorical variable [<55 years vs. >/=55 years], p = 0.012).
  • Patients with applicator-to-skin spacing <7 mm and those who received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy exhibited lower rates of good/excellent cosmetic results, though the association was not statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Early-stage breast-cancer patients treated with adjuvant APBI using the MammoSite catheter exhibited a 3-year treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity similar to those observed with other forms of interstitial APBI at this length of follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Breast / radiation effects. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Dose Fractionation. Esthetics. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 May 1;71(1):317; author reply 317-8 [18406902.001]
  • (PMID = 17467920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Klika RJ, Callahan KE, Golik KS: Exercise capacity of a breast cancer survivor: a case study. Med Sci Sports Exerc; 2008 Oct;40(10):1711-6
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  • [Title] Exercise capacity of a breast cancer survivor: a case study.
  • PURPOSE: The processes by which we assess, create an individualized exercise program, and monitor training of a breast cancer survivor who was participating in a fitness plan during and after surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation treatments were examined over a 391-d period.
  • CASE STUDY: A 57-yr-old female was diagnosed with stage I breast cancer (approximately 1.2 cm diameter, estrogen positive, HER2/neu negative) with no lymph node involvement.
  • After lumpectomy and axillary node dissection, the client completed chemotherapy treatment (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil (CMF)) followed by 33 bouts of radiation therapy.
  • Assessment (body composition, VO2max, lactate threshold, pulmonary function testing) was measured 4 d postdiagnosis and 2 months after treatments had ended.
  • There was a significant decrease in VO2max (-7.8%) before and after treatment (56.4 to 52.0 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1), respectively).
  • During the treatment phase (6.8 months), the client averaged 1.19 exercise sessions per day, with an average duration of 48.1 +/- 25.2 min at approximately 57% of VO2max (approximately 32 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A cancer survivor who engaged in a medically supervised and proactive fitness plan starting from the day of diagnosis maintained a realistic level of physiologic function during and after cancer treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / physiopathology. Exercise
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Energy Metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Oxygen Consumption. Physical Fitness. Quality of Life. Respiratory Function Tests. Survivors


32. Pavlista D, Dusková M, Novotný J, Zikán M, Strunová M, Freitag P, Zivný J: [Complications of axillary dissection in breast carcinoma ]. Ceska Gynekol; 2002 Nov;67(6):333-7
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  • [Title] [Complications of axillary dissection in breast carcinoma ].
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the work was to evaluate the incidence and type of postoperative complications after radical exenteration of the axilla in conjunction with an implemented surgical operation.
  • METHOD: The authors made a retrospective analysis of postoperative complications in 116 selected patients, who underwent partial breast surgery or ablation of the breast with dissection of the axilla at the Gynaecological and Obstetric Clinic, First Medical Faculty Charles University and General Faculty Hospital in Prague in 1994-2000 on account of breast cancer stage I and II according to FIGO.
  • The group comprised patients where radiotherapy or chemotherapy of the axilla was not used.
  • The patients were at least 12 months after operation without signs of locoregional relapse of the disease and in the dissected axillary tissue at least 10 lymph nodes were found.
  • The authors compared the incidence of complaints in relation to age, the number of dissected nodes and extent of the breast surgery.
  • There was a statistically significant relationship (P < 0.05) between the incidence of infection and the extent of the breast surgery which probably was associated with the wound area.
  • As to late complications (oedema, paraesthesia, stiffness, pain and weakness of the upper extremity) a significant relationship was found with lower painfulness in patients above 55 years (P < 0.05) and lower sensation of weakness and paraesthesias in patients with partial breast operations (P < 0.05).
  • The higher number of subjective complications in patients after ablation of the breast is explained not only by the size of the wound area but also by psychosocial reasons.
  • CONCLUSION: Dissection of the axilla is part of standard surgical treatment of breast cancer.
  • The surgical operation without radio- or chemotherapy is associated in 65% cases with long-term morbidity of the patients.
  • With regard to the shift of diagnosis of breast cancer to earlier stages it is important to seek a less invasive staging method which will reduce the patient's morbidity.

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  • (PMID = 12661371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] CZE
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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33. Linjawi A, Kontogiannea M, Halwani F, Edwardes M, Meterissian S: Prognostic significance of p53, bcl-2, and Bax expression in early breast cancer. J Am Coll Surg; 2004 Jan;198(1):83-90
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of p53, bcl-2, and Bax expression in early breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The use of adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast carcinoma is controversial, with most advocating its use in high-risk patients as defined by specific clinicopathologic parameters.
  • Both bcl-2 and p53, which play a role in determining tumor growth by their effects on apoptosis and cell proliferation respectively, may serve to delineate this subset more accurately.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic value of bcl-2, Bax, and mutant p53 in stage I breast cancer.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 75 patients with stage Ic breast carcinoma diagnosed from 1989 to 1992 were identified retrospectively and clinicopathologic parameters such as age, tumor size, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, disease-free survival and overall survival obtained.
  • Paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissues were immunostained with bcl-2, Bax and p53 monoclonal antibodies using a standard avidin biotin peroxidase reaction.
  • RESULTS: Mean patient age was 58 years (range 29 to 79 years) with a median followup of 80 months from time of diagnosis.
  • Expression of bcl-2 was associated with hormone receptor expression and tumor diploid status.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that bcl-2 expression is significantly associated with hormonal receptor status and that p53 is a significant prognostic marker for survival in early breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Genes, bcl-2 / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / mortality. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Regression Analysis. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. bcl-2-Associated X Protein

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  • (PMID = 14698315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein
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34. Santiago RJ, Wu L, Harris E, Fox K, Schultz D, Glick J, Solin LJ: Fifteen-year results of breast-conserving surgery and definitive irradiation for Stage I and II breast carcinoma: the University of Pennsylvania experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Jan 1;58(1):233-40
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  • [Title] Fifteen-year results of breast-conserving surgery and definitive irradiation for Stage I and II breast carcinoma: the University of Pennsylvania experience.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the 15-year outcomes for women with early stage breast cancer after breast conservation therapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1977 and 1990, 937 women with Stage I and II breast carcinoma (55% T1N0, 16% T2N0, 18% T1N1, and 11% T2N1) underwent lumpectomy, axillary lymphadenectomy, and definitive irradiation.
  • Of the 937 patients, 375 (40%) received adjuvant chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy, including 249 (92%) of the 270 women with pathologically positive nodes.
  • The 15-year contralateral breast cancer rate was 12%.
  • The most common first events were distant failure (13%), local failure (10%), contralateral breast cancer (7%), and second malignant neoplasms (6%).
  • The local failure rate at 10 years for favorable subsets of tumors characterized by mammographic detection, resection with negative margins, treatment with chemotherapy, and treatment with hormones was 8%, 10%, 10%, and 7%, respectively.
  • Local failures were most commonly observed within (true recurrence), or just outside (marginal miss), the primary tumor bed (66%, 85 of 128).
  • CONCLUSION: These high rates of survival and local control confirm that breast conservation therapy yields favorable results in women with early breast cancer into the second decade after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 14697443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Ishikawa M, Nakayama K, Yeasmin S, Katagiri A, Iida K, Nakayama N, Miyazaki K: [Paclitaxel + carboplatin (TC)-resistant stage Ic squamous cell carcinomas arising in mature cystic teratomas of the ovary]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Apr;37(4):747-52
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  • [Title] [Paclitaxel + carboplatin (TC)-resistant stage Ic squamous cell carcinomas arising in mature cystic teratomas of the ovary].
  • Malignant transformation of an ovarian mature cystic teratoma is very rare; it arises in about 1-2% of all dermoid cysts.
  • No standard treatment has been established for advanced and recurrent disease.
  • She was treated with chemotherapy(TC), but the carcinoma recurred 2 months after completing first-line chemotherapy.
  • She began second-line chemotherapy (PEC: CBDCA+PEP+etoposide), but became disoriented on the second day of treatment, and could not complete the schedule.
  • Case 2 was a 60-year-old woman diagnosed with stage Ic disease when she underwent a computed tomography scan during chemotherapy for breast cancer recurrence in her liver.
  • She underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), and was treated with chemotherapy (TC+trastuzumab).
  • She received 5 courses, but the breast cancer metastases enlarged and her chemotherapy regimen was changed.
  • She developed ileus and underwent a colostomy.
  • She then underwent transcatheter arterial embolization via the inferior mesenteric artery and received cisplatin (100 mg/body) as second-line chemotherapy.
  • The tumor was reduced in size about 30%, for a partial remission.
  • However, her breast cancer recurrence was exacerbated and she died.
  • The results of TAE, however, showed that it may be an effective second-line therapy for recurrent squamous cell carcinoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Palliative Care

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  • (PMID = 20414041.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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36. Rech AJ, Mick R, Kaplan DE, Chang KM, Domchek SM, Vonderheide RH: Homeostasis of peripheral FoxP3(+) CD4 (+) regulatory T cells in patients with early and late stage breast cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother; 2010 Apr;59(4):599-607
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  • [Title] Homeostasis of peripheral FoxP3(+) CD4 (+) regulatory T cells in patients with early and late stage breast cancer.
  • Although therapeutic strategies have been proposed to deplete Tregs in patients with breast cancer and other malignancies, dynamic changes in the Treg compartment as a function of stage and treatment of breast cancer remain poorly understood.
  • Here, we evaluated peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells and FoxP3(+) CD4(+) T cells from 45 patients with early or late stage breast cancer and compared percentages, absolute counts, and Treg function to those from healthy volunteers (HV) of comparable age.
  • Patients having completed adjuvant chemotherapy and patients with metastatic cancer exhibited significantly lower absolute CD4 counts and significantly higher percentages of FoxP3(+) CD4(+) T cells.
  • In contrast, the absolute counts of circulating FoxP3(+) CD4(+) T cells did not differ significantly among early stage patients, late stage patients, or HV.
  • Thus, although Tregs comprise an increased percentage of circulating CD4(+) T cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer and patients in remission after completing the adjuvant chemotherapy, the systemic Treg pool, as measured by absolute counts, appears relatively constant regardless of disease stage or treatment status.
  • Total CD4(+) T cell counts are not constant, however, suggesting that homeostatic mechanisms, or susceptibility to cytotoxic or malignant insults, fundamentally differ for regulatory and non-regulatory CD4(+) T cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / immunology. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism. Homeostasis. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / metabolism. CTLA-4 Antigen. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immune Tolerance. Interferon-gamma / secretion. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19855964.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0851
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111377
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CTLA-4 Antigen; 0 / CTLA4 protein, human; 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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37. Park YH, Kim SH, Choi SJ, Ryoo BY, Kang YK, Lee SS: Primary malignant lymphoma of the breast: clinicopathological study of nine cases. Leuk Lymphoma; 2004 Feb;45(2):327-30
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  • [Title] Primary malignant lymphoma of the breast: clinicopathological study of nine cases.
  • Primary lymphoma of the breast is rare, accounting for 1.7-2.2% of extranodal lymphomas and 0.38-0.7% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL).
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes of patients with primary breast lymphomas (PBL).
  • We conducted a retrospective review of the NHL cases diagnosed at Korea Cancer Center Hospital between 1989 and 2002.
  • All patients were women (median age, 45 years) and usually presented with breast masses that had recently become enlarged.
  • Six cases involved the breast alone (stage IE), whereas 3 cases also involved the ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes (stage IIE).
  • There was no uniform approach to the treatment of PBL.
  • Modified radical mastectomy and chemotherapy was performed in 4 cases, modified radical mastectomy and chemoradiotherapy was performed in 1 case, chemoradiotherapy alone, modified radical mastectomy alone, chemotherapy alone, and radiotherapy alone were performed in 1 case each.
  • All cases achieved complete remission, but median overall survival was 12 months, showing very poor prognosis irrespective of the type of treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Phenotype. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15101719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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38. Okawa Y, Sugiyama K, Aiba K, Hirano A, Uno S, Hagino T, Kawase K, Shioya H, Yoshida K, Usui N, Kobayashi M, Kobayashi T: Successful combination therapy with trastuzumab and Paclitaxel for adriamycin- and docetaxel-resistant inflammatory breast cancer. Breast Cancer; 2004;11(3):309-12
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  • [Title] Successful combination therapy with trastuzumab and Paclitaxel for adriamycin- and docetaxel-resistant inflammatory breast cancer.
  • We present a case of adriamycin-and docetaxel-resistant inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) in which partial response was achieved with combination therapy using trastuzumab and paclitaxel.
  • A 48-year old woman noticed a lump in her right breast.
  • She was diagnosed with IBC and the disease was staged as T4d N1 M0, stage III B.
  • The patient was started on neoadjuvant chemotherapy with adriamycin (50 mg/m2) and docetaxel (60 mg/m2) administered every three weeks.
  • After one month, contralateral breast swelling indicated bilateral IBC.
  • To treat the clinically advanced breast cancer, combination therapy with trastuzumab (initially 4 mg/kg followed by two or more cycles of 2 mg/kg) and paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) were given intravenously every week for eight cycles and then every two weeks thereafter.
  • A total of 32 courses of therapy were performed, the pleural effusion completely disappeared and partial response was maintained for a duration of 482 days.
  • This report suggests that weekly combination therapy of trastuzumab and paclitaxel was useful for treatment of adriamycin-and docetaxel-resistant metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Leukopenia / chemically induced. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / therapy. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Trastuzumab. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15550852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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39. Dawood S, Resetkova E, Gonzalez-Angulo AM: Trastuzumab administration associated with change in HER2 status. Clin Breast Cancer; 2008 Aug;8(4):366-9
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  • Recent results from large randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that administration of trastuzumab reduces the risk of death by half in patients with early-stage breast cancer; however, controversy still exists as to the timing and duration of treatment with trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting and whether its administration should be continued after recurrence of disease.
  • We present the unusual case of a patient with HER2/neu-positive stage I breast cancer who, after receiving adjuvant trastuzumab, relapsed to develop HER2/neu-negative metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18757266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-8209
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical breast cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23CA121994-01
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
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40. Padhani AR, Ah-See ML, Makris A: MRI in the detection and management of breast cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2005 Apr;5(2):239-52
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  • [Title] MRI in the detection and management of breast cancer.
  • Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now at a stage where the evidence is suggesting widespread potential in the management of patients with known or suspected breast cancers.
  • MRI is used as a supplementary tool to complement conventional methods of breast evaluation because it has excellent problem-solving capabilities.
  • Many indications for clinical breast MRI are recognized, including resolving findings on mammography, staging of breast cancer when multiple or bilateral disease is suspected, and detecting the occult primary breast cancer presenting with malignant axillary lymphadenopathy but no detectable lesion on conventional breast examination.
  • There is also encouraging ongoing research evaluating its role for the assessment of patients at high risk of breast cancer, for primary staging of cancers in radiographically dense breasts and for the assessment of response to chemotherapy.
  • This article will review both the technical aspects of performing and interpreting breast MRI, as well as the current and possible future roles of breast MRI, comparing its strengths and weaknesses with conventional imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15877522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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41. Kronowitz SJ, Kuerer HM: Advances and surgical decision-making for breast reconstruction. Cancer; 2006 Sep 1;107(5):893-907
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  • [Title] Advances and surgical decision-making for breast reconstruction.
  • In patients who undergo breast reconstruction after mastectomy, choosing the appropriate timing and the best method of reconstruction are essential to optimize outcomes and to minimize the potential for postoperative complications.
  • Anderson Cancer Center, the clinicopathologic factors that are used in the surgical decision-making for breast reconstruction after mastectomy include the breast cancer stage, status of axillary sentinel lymph node, smoking status, body habitus, preexisting scars, prior radiation therapy, and planned or previous chemotherapy.
  • Immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy is preferable for patients who have a low risk of requiring postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) (Stage I breast cancer).
  • Delayed reconstruction may be preferable in patients who are deemed preoperatively to require PMRT (Stage III breast cancer) to avoid difficulties associated with radiation delivery after an immediate breast reconstruction.
  • In patients who are deemed preoperatively to be at an increased risk of requiring PMRT (Stage II breast cancer), delayed-immediate breast reconstruction may provide an additional option.
  • The approach to breast reconstruction will need to be adapted to maintain an appropriate balance between minimizing the risk of recurrence and providing the best possible aesthetic outcomes as the indications for PMRT and other treatment modalities continue to change.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Decision Making. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Surgical Flaps. Time Factors. Tissue Expansion. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16862569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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42. Björklund P, Svedlund J, Olsson AK, Akerström G, Westin G: The internally truncated LRP5 receptor presents a therapeutic target in breast cancer. PLoS One; 2009;4(1):e4243
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  • [Title] The internally truncated LRP5 receptor presents a therapeutic target in breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a common malignant disease, which may be caused by a number of genes deregulated by genomic or epigenomic events.
  • Deregulated WNT/beta-catenin signaling with accumulation of beta-catenin is common in breast tumors, but mutations in WNT signaling pathway components have been rare.
  • An aberrantly spliced internally truncated LRP5 receptor (LRP5Delta666-809, LRP5Delta) was shown recently to be resistant to DKK1 inhibition, and was required for beta-catenin accumulation in hyperparathyroid tumors and parathyroid tumor growth.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show, by reverse transcription PCR and Western blot analysis, that LRP5Delta is frequently expressed in breast tumors of different cancer stage (58-100%), including carcinoma in situ and metastatic carcinoma.
  • LRP5Delta was required in MCF7 breast cancer cells for the non-phosphorylated active beta-catenin level, transcription activity of beta-catenin, cell growth in vitro, and breast tumor growth in a xenograft SCID mouse model.
  • Furthermore, an anti-LRP5 antibody attenuated beta-catenin activity, inhibited cell growth, and induced apoptosis in LRP5Delta-positive MCF7 and T-47D breast cancer cells, but not in control cells.
  • LRP5 antibody therapy may have a significant role in the treatment of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. LDL-Receptor Related Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-5. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Transplantation. Receptors, LDL / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. Wnt3 Protein. Wnt3A Protein. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19158955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / LDL-Receptor Related Proteins; 0 / LRP5 protein, human; 0 / Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-5; 0 / Lrp4 protein, mouse; 0 / Lrp5 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, LDL; 0 / WNT3 protein, human; 0 / WNT3A protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / Wnt3 Protein; 0 / Wnt3 protein, mouse; 0 / Wnt3A Protein; 0 / Wnt3a protein, mouse; 0 / beta Catenin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627768
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43. Davidson B, Shafat I, Risberg B, Ilan N, Trope' CG, Vlodavsky I, Reich R: Heparanase expression correlates with poor survival in metastatic ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Feb;104(2):311-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression of Heparanase, an enzyme involved in cancer metastasis and angiogenesis, in ovarian and breast carcinoma cells in effusions.
  • METHODS: Heparanase protein expression was analyzed in malignant effusions from ovarian (=200) and breast (=41) carcinoma patients using immunocytochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Heparanase was expressed at the cell membrane in 106/200 (53%) ovarian and 22/41 (54%) breast carcinomas.
  • Cytoplasmic expression was found in 180/200 (90%) ovarian and 26/41 (63%) breast carcinomas.
  • In univariate survival analysis of ovarian carcinoma patients with post-chemotherapy effusions, membrane expression in >5% of tumor cells correlated with shorter overall survival (OS, p=0.013).
  • FIGO stage (p=0.03 for all patients, p=0.045 for those with post-chemotherapy specimens) and response to first-line chemotherapy (p<0.0001 for all patients, p=0.049 for those with post-chemotherapy specimens) were the clinical parameters related to OS.
  • In Cox analysis of this subset of patients, heparanase expression (p=0.02) and response to chemotherapy (p=0.049) were independent predictors of poor OS.
  • Heparanase expression did not correlate with survival in breast carcinoma.
  • The correlation between heparanase expression and poor survival in ovarian carcinoma suggests a role for this molecule in ovarian cancer metastasis and supports its role as a marker of aggressive clinical behavior at disease recurrence.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Ascitic Fluid / enzymology. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Cell Membrane / enzymology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17030350.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.2.1.- / heparanase; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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44. Bergman L, Beelen ML, Gallee MP, Hollema H, Benraadt J, van Leeuwen FE: Risk and prognosis of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen for breast cancer. Comprehensive Cancer Centres' ALERT Group. Assessment of Liver and Endometrial cancer Risk following Tamoxifen. Lancet; 2000 Sep 9;356(9233):881-7
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  • [Title] Risk and prognosis of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen for breast cancer. Comprehensive Cancer Centres' ALERT Group. Assessment of Liver and Endometrial cancer Risk following Tamoxifen.
  • BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen increases the risk of endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: We did a nationwide case-control study on the risk and prognosis of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen use for breast cancer.
  • Information on tamoxifen use and other risk factors for endometrial cancer was obtained from 309 women with endometrial cancer after breast cancer (cases), and 860 matched controls with breast cancer but without endometrial cancer.
  • For 276 cases, we obtained tissue blocks of endometrial cancer to review the diagnosis, and used immunohistochemistry to examine hormone-receptor status and overexpression of p53.
  • Risk of endometrial cancer increased with longer duration of tamoxifen use (p < 0.001), with relative risks of 2.0 (1.2-3.2) for 2-5 years and 6.9 (2.4-19.4) for at least 5 years compared with non-users.
  • Endometrial cancers of stage III and IV occurred more frequently in long-term tamoxifen users (> or = 2 years) than in non-users (17.4% vs 5.4%, p=0.006).
  • Long-term users were more likely than non-users to have had malignant mixed mesodermal tumours or sarcomas of the endometrium (15.4% vs 2.9%, p < or = 0.02), p53-positive tumours (31.4% vs 18.2%, p=0.05), and negative oestrogen-receptor concentrations (60.8% vs 26.2%, p < or = 0.001).
  • 3-year endometrial-cancer-specific survival was significantly worse for long-term tamoxifen users than for non-users (76% for > or = 5 years, 85% for 2-5 years vs 94% for non-users, p=0.02).
  • INTERPRETATION: Long-term tamoxifen users have a worse prognosis of endometrial cancers, which seems to be due to less favourable histology and higher stage.
  • However, the benefit of tamoxifen on breast-cancer survival far outweighs the increased mortality from endometrial cancer.
  • Nevertheless, we seriously question widespread use of tamoxifen as a preventive agent against breast cancer in healthy women.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemically induced. Estrogen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):65-6; author reply 67 [11197376.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):66-7 [11197379.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):68 [11197381.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):68 [11197382.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2000 Sep 9;356(9233):868-9 [11036885.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2001 Jan 6;357(9249):67-8 [11197380.001]
  • (PMID = 11036892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0140-6736
  • [Journal-full-title] Lancet (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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45. Sorenmo K: Canine mammary gland tumors. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract; 2003 May;33(3):573-96
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  • The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status.
  • This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation.
  • Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs.
  • Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious.
  • Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling.
  • Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Dog Diseases / therapy. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / diagnosis. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Dogs. Female. Neoplasm Staging. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 12852237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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46. Wang YJ, Wang N, Wang B, Qin WX, Xue CY: [Comparison of clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of triple-negative with Her-2-overexpressing breast cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 May;31(5):346-50
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  • [Title] [Comparison of clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of triple-negative with Her-2-overexpressing breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and disease-free survival of triple-negative breast cancer with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-overexpressing (Her-2-overexpressing) breast cancer.
  • METHODS: 770 breast cancer patients were surgically treated between 1998 and 2003 in Changhai Hospital, Shanghai.
  • The differences between triple-negative breast cancer and Her-2-overexpressing breast cancers were analyzed in p53 and E-cadherin status, age, tumor size, tumor location, histological types and grading, lymph node metastasis, AJCC stage, chemotherapy and surgical procedures,as well as identified prognostic factors with regards to disease-free survival.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-six (12.5%) patients with triple-negative phenotype, and 164 (21.3%) with Her-2-overexpressing one were identified from the 770 breast cancer patients.
  • When compared with Her-2-overexpressing breast cancer patients, triple negative breast cancer patients experienced more lymph node metastases (71.9% vs. 58.5%, P = 0.034), and had a higher percentage of more than 10 lymph nodes metastases (26.0% vs. 12.2%, P = 0.034); and showed a higher percentage of histological grade 3 (67.7% vs. 42.1%, P<0.0001).
  • Furthermore, the tumor size was found to be related to lymph node metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer patients (P = 0.024).
  • CONCLUSION: Compared with Her-2-overexpressing breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer is more malignant and has a poorer disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cadherins / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


47. Bash-Babula J, Toppmeyer D, Labassi M, Reidy J, Orlick M, Senzon R, Alli E, Kearney T, August D, Shih W, Yang JM, Hait WN: A Phase I/pilot study of sequential doxorubicin/vinorelbine: effects on p53 and microtubule-associated protein 4. Clin Cancer Res; 2002 May;8(5):1057-64
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  • PURPOSE: Few molecular determinants of sensitivity to cancer chemotherapy exist.
  • In experimental systems, p53 regulates the sensitivity to antimicrotubule drugs through its effect on microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4).
  • MAP4 is the major microtubule-associated protein in nonneuronal tissues and promotes microtubule polymerization.
  • We reported that wild-type p53 induction by doxorubicin in C127 breast cancer cells repressed MAP4, decreased microtubule polymerization, and increased Vinca alkaloid sensitivity.
  • The goals of this Phase I/pilot clinical trial were to determine: (a) the safety of delivering a DNA-damaging agent (doxorubicin) followed in sequence by treatment with an antimicrotubule drug (vinorelbine); and (b) the feasibility of detecting activation of p53 and repression of MAP4 in patients' tissues.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) and tumor were obtained from 16 women with locally advanced (stage IIIb) or metastatic (stage IV) breast cancer before doxorubicin treatment and immediately before treatment with vinorelbine 24 or 48 h later.
  • RESULTS: After doxorubicin treatment, p53 increased in 12 of 14 PBMNC and 4 of 10 tumor samples.
  • Changes in MAP4 were variable; however, in samples in which p53 was induced, MAP4 decreased in 7 of 12 PBMNC and 3 of 4 breast cancer specimens.
  • Immunohistochemistry confirmed lower MAP4 expression in tumor cells after doxorubicin treatment.
  • Seven of 16 patients had a partial response, and treatment was well tolerated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the ability to detect the activation of p53 and the repression of MAP4 in normal and malignant tissues in patients treated with a DNA-damaging agent, and that an antimicrotubule drug can be administered safely at a time when cells may be more sensitive to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia / chemically induced. Blotting, Western. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Fatigue / chemically induced. Female. Fever / chemically induced. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / cytology. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / drug effects. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / drug effects. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Neoplasm Staging. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Pilot Projects. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / drug effects. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Vomiting / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 12006519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA72720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA78695; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA82607
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MAP4; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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48. Mimeault M, Batra SK: Targeting of cancer stem/progenitor cells plus stem cell-based therapies: the ultimate hope for treating and curing aggressive and recurrent cancers. Panminerva Med; 2008 Mar;50(1):3-18
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  • [Title] Targeting of cancer stem/progenitor cells plus stem cell-based therapies: the ultimate hope for treating and curing aggressive and recurrent cancers.
  • The rapid progression from aggressive primary cancers into locally advanced and invasive and/or metastatic diseases remains a big obstacle for an early diagnosis and curative therapeutic intervention for cancer patients.
  • The late-stage leukemias and disseminated and metastatic sarcomas, melanomas, brain tumors and epithelial cancers are the devastating diseases associated with a high rate of recurrence after treatment with the conventional clinical therapies including surgery, ionizing radiation, hormonal therapy and systemic chemotherapy, which generally lead to the death of patients.
  • Therefore, the establishment of the molecular events underlying cancer initiation and progression into locally invasive and metastatic diseases is of major interest in basic cancer research as well as for the development of new effective clinical therapeutic options against the recurrent and lethal cancers.
  • Recent advances have led to the identification of specific oncogenic products that are implicated in the malignant transformation of adult stem/progenitor cells into leukemic or tumorigenic and migrating cancer stem/progenitor cells during cancer progression.
  • Of therapeutic interest, the molecular targeting of deregulated signaling elements in cancer stem/progenitor cells and their local microenvironment represents a new potential strategy for the development of more effective clinical treatments against aggressive cancers.
  • Particularly, the combined use of chemotherapeutic drugs to eradicate cancer-initiating cells with hematopoietic stem cell or genetically-modified stem cell transplant is emerging as potential cancer treatments that hold great promise in the area of clinical cancer research.
  • These targeting and stem cell-based therapies may offer the ultimate hope for treating and even curing the patients diagnosed with locally advanced cancers at high risk of recurrence, metastatic and/or relapsed cancers in the clinics.

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  • (PMID = 18427384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-0808
  • [Journal-full-title] Panminerva medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Panminerva Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078590; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111294; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111294; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA78590
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 210
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS526856; NLM/ PMC3828640
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49. Kisselbach C, Ristic AD, Pankuweit S, Karatolius K, Maisch B: [Women and pericardial neoplastic manifestations of the heart and pericardium]. Herz; 2005 Aug;30(5):409-15; quiz 429-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Despite the proportions, most women believe that heart disease is a man's disease and that they will die of breast cancer.
  • Data on epidemiology and incidence are rare: there is only an estimated incidence of cardiac neoplasm at necropsy ranging from 0,001% to 0,3%.
  • The most common tumor entity is benign cardiac myxoma.
  • Malignant heart tumors are less common.
  • Most often they are different types of sarcomas, which have a poor outcome and affect more males than females.
  • Metastatic tumors of the heart are 100 times more common than the primary ones.
  • They originate mainly from melanomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and cancer, especially of the lung or breast.
  • Indeed in women breast cancer is the most common metastatic tumor associated with pericardial effusion.
  • To prevent death from tamponade, pericardiocentesis, in addition to the systemic chemotherapy, is mandatory, best when instillation of chemotherapeutics (cisplatin or thiotepa) or radioisotopes is given into the pericardial sac to prevent recurrence of the effusion.
  • However, more of the malignant tumors may be curable if exactly diagnosed at an earlier stage.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of all patients with cardiac and pericardial neoplasm exactly diagnosed by endomyocardial or epicardial biopsy and pericardiocentesis, using hospital medical records and a biopsy and pericardiocentesis registry from 2000-2005 with 297 patients.
  • RESULTS: In 76 cases (25.6%) a neoplasm was the reason for a pericardial effusion.
  • 36 women suffered from the breast carcinoma (47%) and 40 males lung cancer (42%) as the firstly metastatic tumor.
  • By contrast, the preventive checkup and aftercare will gain more prognostic importance, especially in case of breast cancer, to earlier recognize a secondary cardiac neoplasm by biopsy and pericardiocentesis with intrapericardial treatment of neoplastic pericarditis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / epidemiology. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Registries. Risk Assessment / methods

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  • (PMID = 16132244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-9937
  • [Journal-full-title] Herz
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Herz
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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50. Martin LA, Davies GL, Weigel MT, Betambeau N, Hills MJ, Salter J, Walsh G, A'Hern R, Dowsett M: Pre-surgical study of the biological effects of the selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib in patients with primary breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Oct;123(3):829-36
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CELECOXIB .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pre-surgical study of the biological effects of the selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib in patients with primary breast cancer.
  • Cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) is implicated in the regulation of aromatase transcription in malignant breast tissue and has been considered as a potential target for tissue specific aromatase suppression.
  • We initiated a randomised controlled pre-surgical study of celecoxib versus no treatment in women with primary breast cancer to determine the effects of COX-2 inhibition on markers of biological response.
  • Postmenopausal women (50-80 years of age) with stage I or II, primary breast cancer, were randomised 2:1 to receive 400 mg/day celecoxib or no treatment for 14 days prior to surgery.
  • A core biopsy was obtained pre- and post-treatment.
  • Comparisons between the treatment groups were conducted using the Mann-Whitney test with a two-sided 5% significance.
  • The change in the no-treatment group was -8.1% (P = 0.24).
  • There is only modest evidence for a biological effect of celecoxib in primary breast cancer.
  • However, the trend towards a reduction in Ki67 in ER-positive breast cancer warrants further investigations in a larger cohort of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Pyrazoles / administration & dosage. Sulfonamides / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD31 / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Biopsy. Celecoxib. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. London. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Postmenopause. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20697803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Sulfonamides; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib
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51. Ruhland B, Dittmer C, Thill M, Diedrich K, Fischer D: Metastasized hemangiopericytoma of the breast: a rare case. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Sep;280(3):491-4
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  • [Title] Metastasized hemangiopericytoma of the breast: a rare case.
  • Liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, as well as hemangiopericytoma, are part of the soft tissue sarcoma group.
  • Little is known about the progress, prognosis and dissemination of this infrequent tumor entity.
  • We present the case of a woman, who received primary diagnosis of a malignant hemangiopericytoma of the left breast.
  • She underwent a mastectomy with an axillary lymph node sampling (stage pT3 pN0 cM0), as adjuvant therapy was not mandatory.
  • Eight months after diagnosis, the patient presented with lumbar back pain, gluteal pain and right accentuated adynamia in both legs because of a disseminated osseous metastasis.
  • Two months after initiation of chemotherapy the patient died.
  • Diagnostic criteria and treatment principles in the metastatic situation are presented in addition to the literature to give a review about this rare malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Hemangiopericytoma / secondary. Hemangiopericytoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 19169699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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52. Merrick HW 3rd, Gunderson LL, Calvo FA: Future directions in intraoperative radiation therapy. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2003 Oct;12(4):1099-105
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  • [Title] Future directions in intraoperative radiation therapy.
  • It is difficult to establish the degree of effectiveness of IORT as a component of treatment in some of the malignancies currently being treated by IORT.
  • Locally advanced pancreatic cancer is a typical example of a neoplasm for which it has been challenging to find effective advances in treatment.
  • The survival time of patients who have this disease is limited to 9 to 12 months (median), with a 2-year survival rate of 10% to 20% following even the most effective chemoradiation.
  • It is perhaps overly optimistic to expect that IORT will significantly enhance survival, because currently available systemic treatment options have not meaningfully affected either overall patient survival times or the rate of distant metastasis in either the adjuvant setting or for metastatic disease.
  • It is encouraging, however, that Willett has reported five patients with 5-year survival times in the Massachusetts General Hospital IOERT series for unresectable pancreatic cancer (C.G.
  • Also encouraging is the report from the Medical College of Ohio of a 5-year rate of 33% in a small group of patients with resectable pancreatic cancers treated with single IORT doses (without EBRT or chemotherapy) as the sole adjuvant to surgical resection.
  • At the same institution, during the same time period, the same group of surgeons observed that no patient with resectable pancreatic cancer survived longer than 13 months following surgical resection alone [7].
  • Exciting possibilities involve the use of IORT when treating early-stage malignant disease, as is detailed in the chapter on breast cancer.
  • The use of [table: see text] IORT as adjuvant therapy seems to be associated with an extremely low incidence of in-breast local recurrence.
  • Whether this is because of early stage of the disease or the adjuvant EBRT is not entirely clear at the time of this writing. (The results of ongoing randomized studies may not be powered sufficiently to resolve the question.
  • Also exciting is the use of IORT as the sole radiation [table: see text] treatment following limited excision of breast cancer.
  • Equally exciting is the finding of meaningful survival of 20% to 40% of patients who have local or regionally recurrent cancers when IORT is used as a component of treatment together with EBRT, maximal resection, and chemotherapy, as indicated.
  • Many of these patients still have excessive rates of both local and distant relapse, however, necessitating the rationale for well-controlled multi-institutional studies that involve alternate systemic therapies, radiation sensitizers, among other criteria.
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Forecasting. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Patient Care Team

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  • (PMID = 14989135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Batura-Gabryel H, Foremska-Iciek J: Lung cancer in the elderly--increasing epidemiological problem of 21st century. Rocz Akad Med Bialymst; 2005;50 Suppl 1:152-5
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  • [Title] Lung cancer in the elderly--increasing epidemiological problem of 21st century.
  • Lung cancer is the second most common malignant neoplasm after prostate and breast cancers.
  • The elderly people over 65, are the most numerous population suffering from lung cancer.
  • More than 80% of all types of lung cancers make non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and less than 20%--small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
  • The choice of the managment must be individually considered and should be based on the stage of cancer clinical advance, clinical and functional status, concomitant diseases, nutritional status, cognitive functions.
  • The patients age is not a contradiction for the introducement of the treatment.
  • Surgical treatment is a method by choice at the early stages of NSCLC.
  • Single-agent chemotherapy seems to be benficial for the elderly with advanced NSCLC in good general condition, mainly due to less toxicity and satisfactory the survival rate.
  • Unfortunately, the effectivity of the therapy is occupied by its toxicity.
  • Still frequent occurrence and late diagnosis of lung cancer, high mortality, low efficiency of chemo- and radiotherapy causes the necessity of newer research for more effective screening methods, more effective and safer lung cancer treatment schemes for the elderly.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16119652.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Roczniki Akademii Medycznej w Białymstoku (1995)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rocz. Akad. Med. Bialymst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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54. Li Q, Feng FY, Chen Q, Jiao SC, Li F, Wang HQ, Huang WX, Ling CQ, Li MZ, Ren J, Zhang Y, Qin FZ, Zhou MZ, Zhu RZ: [Multicenter phase II clinical trial of uroacitides injection in the treatment for advanced malignant tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Jul;30(7):534-7
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  • [Title] [Multicenter phase II clinical trial of uroacitides injection in the treatment for advanced malignant tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy, safety and the life quality improvement of uroacitides injection in the treatment for patients with advanced malignant tumors.
  • METHODS: A total of 160 patients with advanced stage cancers were enrolled into this multicenter, open and non-randomized phase II clinical trial, including cancers of the lung (33 cases), liver (45 cases), breast (17 cases), esophagus (11 cases), stomach (18 cases), colon (19 cases), pancreas (3 cases) and kidney (4 cases), and glioma (10 cases).
  • The total objective response rate (ORR, CR + PR)) and tumor control rate (CR + PR + MR + SD) of the 138 evaluable patients were 5.8% and 65.2%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Methyltransferases / therapeutic use. Peptides / therapeutic use. Phenylacetates / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / blood. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Catheterization, Central Venous. Colorectal Neoplasms / blood. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Nausea / chemically induced. Neoplasm Staging. Quality of Life. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome. Vomiting / chemically induced. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19062723.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Phenylacetates; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 0 / cell differentiation agent II; EC 2.1.1.- / Methyltransferases
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55. Fok JY, Ekmekcioglu S, Mehta K: Implications of tissue transglutaminase expression in malignant melanoma. Mol Cancer Ther; 2006 Jun;5(6):1493-503
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  • [Title] Implications of tissue transglutaminase expression in malignant melanoma.
  • Human malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive form of cancer; the 5-year survival rate in patients with stage III or IV disease is <5%.
  • In patients with metastatic melanoma, systemic therapy becomes ineffective because of the high resistance of melanoma cells to various anticancer therapies.
  • We have found previously that development of the drug resistance and metastatic phenotypes in breast cancer cells is associated with increased tissue transglutaminase (TG2) expression.
  • These findings indicated that activation of endogenous TG2 could serve as a strategy for inducing apoptosis in malignant melanomas.
  • Importantly, tumor samples from patients with malignant melanomas showed strong expression of TG2, suggesting that TG2 expression is selectively up-regulated during advanced developmental stages of melanoma.
  • Overall, our results suggest that TG2 expression contributes to the development of chemoresistance in malignant melanoma cells by exploiting integrin-mediated cell survival signaling pathways.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cell Adhesion. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Membrane / drug effects. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Culture Media, Serum-Free. Dacarbazine / pharmacology. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Fibronectins / metabolism. GTP-Binding Proteins. Humans. Immunoprecipitation. Integrin beta Chains / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Signal Transduction. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16818508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / PSOCA 093459
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media, Serum-Free; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Integrin beta Chains; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / integrin beta5; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; EC 2.3.2.- / transglutaminase 2; EC 2.3.2.13 / Transglutaminases; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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56. Wertel I, Barczynski B, Kotarski J: The role of dendritic cells in cytotoxic immune response regulation in ovarian cancer micro-environment. Front Biosci; 2008;13:2177-90
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  • [Title] The role of dendritic cells in cytotoxic immune response regulation in ovarian cancer micro-environment.
  • Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy.
  • At the time of diagnosis most patients present with an advanced stage of the disease and require multidisciplinary systemic treatment, including surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Despite good initial response to cytostatics, the vast majority of patients develops a recurrence and will need novel therapeutic strategies, as relapsed ovarian cancer is still incurable.
  • One promising treatment option is the use of dendritic cells (DCs) which might induce effective anti-tumor immunity.
  • The ability of DCs to generate an anti-cancer response has been documented in various kinds of human tumors, including malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and breast cancer tumors.
  • Although DCs were identified in the micro-environment of ovarian cancer, lack of clearly defined ovarian-specific tumor antigens capable of being recognized by T cells is considered the major prohibiting factor in ovarian cancer vaccine development.
  • There is therefore a strong need to identify and employ attractive candidates for tumor-specific antigens.
  • In this review we will focus on current knowledge of the influence of DC mechanisms of cytotoxic T-cell responses and recent advances in DC identification in ovarian cancer patients, in addition to summarizing the data on DC vaccinations in these patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigen Presentation. Antigens, Neoplasm / chemistry. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Immune System. Immunotherapy / methods. Ligands. T-Lymphocytes / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17981701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-9946
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front. Biosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Ligands
  • [Number-of-references] 142
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57. Canavan TP, Doshi NR: Cervical cancer. Am Fam Physician; 2000 Mar 1;61(5):1369-76
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  • [Title] Cervical cancer.
  • Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide, after breast cancer.
  • The presence of high-risk human papillomavirus genital subtypes increases the risk of malignant transformation.
  • Widespread use of the Papanicolaou smear has dramatically reduced the incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries.
  • Once cervical cancer is diagnosed, clinical staging takes place.
  • Early-stage tumors can be managed with cone biopsy or simple hysterectomy.
  • Higher stage tumors can be treated surgically or with radiotherapy.
  • Advanced metastatic disease may respond to radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy.
  • Protein markers for detection of recurrence and vaccines for prevention of cervical cancer are under investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Tumor Virus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Female. Humans. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Prognosis


58. Kolwijck E, Boss EA, van Altena AM, Beex LV, Massuger LF: Stage IV epithelial ovarian carcinoma in an 18 year old patient presenting with a Sister Mary Joseph's nodule and metastasis in both breasts: a case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Dec;107(3):583-5
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  • [Title] Stage IV epithelial ovarian carcinoma in an 18 year old patient presenting with a Sister Mary Joseph's nodule and metastasis in both breasts: a case report and review of the literature.
  • In children and adolescents, it is very rare, and in such cases it mostly concerns tumors of low malignant potential or low stage I tumors.
  • CASE: We describe an 18-year-old girl presenting with umbilical metastasis as a first sign of an extremely aggressive stage IV ovarian serous papillary adenocarcinoma without an objective response to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy.
  • She developed metastasis in both breasts and died 28 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first case of a stage IV epithelial ovarian cancer under the age of 20 years.
  • Furthermore, uncommon breast metastasis and a Sister Mary Joseph's nodule have never been described at such young age.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Umbilicus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Adolescent. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / secondary. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17904207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. El Omari-Alaoui H, Lahdiri I, Nejjar I, Hadadi K, Ahyoud F, Hachi H, Alhilal M, Errihani H, Benjaafar N, Souadka A, El Gueddari BK: Male breast cancer. A report of 71 cases. Cancer Radiother; 2002 Dec;6(6):349-51
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  • [Title] Male breast cancer. A report of 71 cases.
  • Male breast cancer is rare; it constitutes 0.2-1.5% of all malignant tumours in men and 1% of all breast cancers.
  • The goal of this retrospective study is to analyse the epidemiologic, clinic, therapeutic and evolutive profiles of this disease in 71 cases collected at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat, Morocco, between the years 1985 and 1998.
  • For that, the disease was diagnosed at an advanced stage.
  • Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most frequent pathologic type (91.5% of cases).
  • Management consisted especially of radical mastectomy, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and hormonal therapy with or without chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Incidence. Male. Mastectomy, Radical. Middle Aged. Morocco / epidemiology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 12504771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
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60. Dal Cortivo L, Cottu PH, Lotz JP, Robert I, Extra JM, Miclea JM, Marty M, Marolleau JP: Residual tumor cell contamination in peripheral blood stem cells collections of 117 breast cancer patients evaluated by immunocytochemical technique. J Hematother Stem Cell Res; 2001 Dec;10(6):855-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Residual tumor cell contamination in peripheral blood stem cells collections of 117 breast cancer patients evaluated by immunocytochemical technique.
  • During the last years, high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell support have been thought to improve the treatment of poor-prognosis breast cancer.
  • Nevertheless, the question remained as to whether the reinfusion of contaminating residual malignant cells could contribute to relapse.
  • By using an immunocytochemical method, we have analyzed the tumor cell contamination of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) collected from advanced breast cancer patients.
  • We studied 153 PBSC samples from 117 stage III and IV breast cancer patients and compared two screening methods-the usual microscopic observation and the automated cellular image analysis system (ACIS-assisted) screening.
  • With manual observation, we found that 7 of 117 patients (5.9%) presented circulating epithelial tumor cells in 9 of 153 (5.8%) PBSC analyzed, whereas automated screening allowed positive detection in 15 of the same 117 patients (12.8%) and in 18 of the 153 PBSC (11.7%).
  • No difference was found between presence or absence of circulating tumor cells and previous chemotherapy treatment (p = 0.5) or stage TNM (p = 0.13) in this group of poor-prognosis breast cancer.
  • We did not find incidence of infusion of contaminated PBSC on overall survival or time to progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / cytology. Leukapheresis / standards. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Blood Cells / cytology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Immunohistochemistry / standards. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11798511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-8165
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hematotherapy & stem cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hematother. Stem Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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61. Wahl RL: Current status of PET in breast cancer imaging, staging, and therapy. Semin Roentgenol; 2001 Jul;36(3):250-60
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  • [Title] Current status of PET in breast cancer imaging, staging, and therapy.
  • The exact roles of PET in the imaging management of patients with known or suspected breast cancer are still in evolution.
  • Distinguishing malignant from benign primary breast disease would seem better addressed by biopsy.
  • With a positive predictive value of FDG PET for cancer over 96%, any FDG-avid breast lesion is highly suspicious and merits biopsy.
  • Although PET in theory should be useful for depicting multifocal disease before surgery, the limitations in detecting small lesions in the breast limit the contribution of PET at present.
  • It is most likely that PET will have a greater role in depicting primary breast lesions as dedicated PET imaging devices for the breast evolve.
  • PET can depict internal mammary nodes, but the accuracy of the method in this setting is not known, nor is there consensus on how identifying internal mammary node metastases will change treatment.
  • Based on the available data, for pT1 breast lesions, PET, if negative, is not an adequate replacement for sentinel node surgery or axillary dissection.
  • Clearly PET can stage metastatic disease well.
  • PET seems very well suited to detecting recurrences in soft tissues and the brachial plexus region in particular.
  • The utility of PET in planning the treatment of individual patients appears promising.
  • Although results must be confirmed in larger studies, it appears safe to conclude that failure of a chemotherapy regimen to decrease FDG uptake promptly in a breast cancer portends poor response.
  • This does not hold true for hormonal therapy.
  • Thus, PET has shown considerable promise in breast cancer imaging, but in the author's experience is best applied to solve difficult imaging questions in specific patients and is not recommended for routine evaluation of the breast cancer patient.
  • However, in larger primary tumors, the ability to use PET for staging and to plan treatment response suggest it will be more widely used.
  • Additional studies with newer PET imaging devices and FDG and other tracers will help us better determine the role of PET in routine clinical care of the patient with known or suspected breast cancer.
  • Certainly, this represent a fertile area for translational research studies over the next several years with the potential to significantly alter the way breast cancer is imaged and managed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 11475071.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-198X
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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62. Silver SA, Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Mezzetti TP, Tavassoli FA: Mesonephric adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix: a study of 11 cases with immunohistochemical findings. Am J Surg Pathol; 2001 Mar;25(3):379-87
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  • We describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 11 examples of this neoplasm, which occurred in women between the ages of 35 and 72 years (mean, 52 years).
  • Eight tumors were stage IB, and one each was stage IIB and IVB; in one, the stage was unknown.
  • Microscopically, the carcinomas showed various morphologies, most commonly a small tubular pattern or a ductal pattern resembling endometrioid adenocarcinoma; one tumor had an associated malignant spindle cell component.
  • The patients with stage IIB and IVB disease had local recurrences after 2.2 and 0.7 years and died of progressive disease at 3.2 and 0.8 years, respectively.
  • In a patient with stage IB disease, a mediastinal metastasis and a malignant pleural effusion developed 5.6 years after diagnosis, and the patient died of disease at 6.2 years.
  • Another patient with stage IB disease and a positive vaginal cuff margin that recurred locally after 1.7 years received chemotherapy and was alive and clinically free of disease at 2.5 years.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate


63. Nowak D, Stewart D, Koeffler HP: Differentiation therapy of leukemia: 3 decades of development. Blood; 2009 Apr 16;113(16):3655-65
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  • [Title] Differentiation therapy of leukemia: 3 decades of development.
  • A characteristic feature of leukemia cells is a blockade of differentiation at a distinct stage in cellular maturation.
  • In the 1970s and 1980s, studies demonstrating the capabilities of certain chemicals to induce differentiation of hematopoietic cell lines fostered the concept of treating leukemia by forcing malignant cells to undergo terminal differentiation instead of killing them through cytotoxicity.
  • The best proof of principle for differentiation therapy has been the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with all-trans retinoic acid.
  • However, a multitude of studies demonstrating partial progress and improvements and, finally, the new powerful possibilities of forward and reverse engineering of differentiation pathways by manipulation of transcription factors support the continued enthusiasm for differentiation therapy of leukemia in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Epigenesis, Genetic / drug effects. History, 20th Century. History, 21st Century. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / agonists. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19221035.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 186
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2943835
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64. Miller WR, Anderson TJ, Dixon JM: Anti-tumor effects of letrozole. Cancer Invest; 2002;20 Suppl 2:15-21
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LETROZOLE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anti-tumor effects of letrozole.
  • The use of drugs, which inhibit estrogen biosynthesis, is an attractive treatment for postmenopausal women with hormone-dependent breast cancer.
  • Estrogen deprivation is most specifically achieved using inhibitors which block the last stage in the biosynthetic sequence, i.e., the conversion of androgens to estrogens by the aromatase enzyme.
  • Recently, a new generation of aromatase inhibitors has been developed.
  • When given orally in milligram amounts per day to postmenopausal women, the drug almost totally inhibits peripheral aromatase and causes a marked reduction in circulating estrogens to levels that are often undetectable in conventional assays.
  • Similarly, neoadjuvant studies demonstrate that letrozole substantially inhibits aromatase activity in both malignant and nonmalignant breast tissues, and markedly suppresses endogenous estrogens within the breast cancers.
  • Thus, tumor expression of progesterone receptors and the cell-cycle marker Ki67 is significantly and consistently reduced with treatment.
  • These results translated into clinical benefit in a series of 24 breast cancers treated neoadjuvantly with letrozole (either 2.5 or 10 mg): tumor volume reductions > 25% were observed in 23 women, and > 50% reductions in 18 patients.
  • Thus, in a multicenter randomized trial of letrozole vs. tamoxifen (PE 024), clinical study outcomes were superior for letrozole in comparison with tamoxifen with regard to overall tumor response and an increase in the proportion of patients treated by breast conserving surgery.
  • Letrozole has also been used in advanced breast cancer, both as second-line hormone treatment following tamoxifen failure, and more recently as first-line therapy.
  • Trials of second-line treatment in which letrozole has been compared with either older aromatase inhibitors or progestins have shown equivalent or superior clinical activity and improved tolerability favoring letrozole.
  • In first-line comparison with tamoxifen in metastatic disease, a phase III trial of over 900 postmenopausal women showed letrozole to be significantly better than tamoxifen in terms of overall tumor response rates, clinical benefit, and time to treatment failure.
  • In patients with ER-rich tumors, high rates of pathological and clinical response have been documented, and large phase III trials against established treatments such as tamoxifen and progestin suggest superior (or at least equivalent) clinical efficacy.
  • Letrozole is a drug of immense potential and in the future is likely to occupy a central role in the management of postmenopausal women with hormone-dependent breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Aromatase Inhibitors. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Triazoles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / adverse effects. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use. Estrogens / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / surgery. Postmenopause. Salvage Therapy. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12442345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 7LKK855W8I / letrozole
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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65. Djeu JY, Wei S: Clusterin and chemoresistance. Adv Cancer Res; 2009;105:77-92
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Resistance to anticancer agents is one of the primary impediments to effective cancer therapy.
  • Chemoresistance occurs not only to clinically established therapeutic agents but also to novel targeted therapeutics.
  • Both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms have been implicated in drug resistance but it remains controversial which mechanisms are responsible that lead to failure of therapy in cancer patients.
  • Its role has been documented in prostate cancer for paclitaxel/docetaxel resistance as well as in renal, breast, and lung tumor cells.
  • Moreover, it is abnormally upregulated in numerous advanced stage and metastatic cancers spanning prostate, renal, bladder, breast, head and neck, colon, cervical, pancreatic, lung carcinomas, melanoma, and lymphoma.
  • It is noteworthy that only the cytoplasmic/secretory clusterin form (sCLU), and not the nuclear form, is expressed in aggressive late stage tumors, which is in line with its antiapoptotic function.
  • Resistance to targeted death-inducing molecules, tumor necrosis factor, Fas and TRAIL, or histone deacetylase inhibitors can also be mediated by sCLU.
  • Expression of sCLU may be an adaptive response to genotoxic and oxidative stresses but this adaptive response could pose a threat in malignant cells being treated with cytotoxic agents by enhancing their survival potential.
  • The actual mechanisms for sCLU induction are unclear but STAT1 is required for its constitutive upregulation in docetaxel-resistant tumor cells.
  • Thus, sCLU has a key role in preventing apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents and has the potential to be targeted for cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Clusterin / physiology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Resistance, Multiple. Humans. Oxidative Stress

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  • (PMID = 19879424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098080
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLU protein, human; 0 / Clusterin
  • [Number-of-references] 78
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS539156; NLM/ PMC3889866
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