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1. Wu PP, Kuo SC, Huang WW, Yang JS, Lai KC, Chen HJ, Lin KL, Chiu YJ, Huang LJ, Chung JG: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induced apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway. Anticancer Res; 2009 Apr;29(4):1435-42
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  • [Title] (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induced apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway.
  • Nevertheless, there are no reports to date about the molecular mechanisms and signal pathways of EGCG on the induction of apoptosis in human adrenal NCI-H295 cancer cells.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect and molecular mechanisms of EGCG on human adrenal NCI-H295 cancer cells.
  • The results showed that EGCG induced growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
  • When NCI-H295 cells were treated with 20 microM EGCG, the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased and intracellular free Ca(2+) increased in a time-dependent manner as analysed by flow cytometry.
  • EGCG promoted caspase-8, -9 and -3 activities in a time-dependent manner.
  • Based on the above findings, it was confirmed that EGCG may be a drug candidate for the treatment of human adrenal cancer in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Caspases / metabolism. Catechin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Calcium / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects. Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured


2. Mitsiades CS, Mitsiades NS, McMullan CJ, Poulaki V, Shringarpure R, Akiyama M, Hideshima T, Chauhan D, Joseph M, Libermann TA, García-Echeverría C, Pearson MA, Hofmann F, Anderson KC, Kung AL: Inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 tyrosine kinase activity as a therapeutic strategy for multiple myeloma, other hematologic malignancies, and solid tumors. Cancer Cell; 2004 Mar;5(3):221-30
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  • [Title] Inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 tyrosine kinase activity as a therapeutic strategy for multiple myeloma, other hematologic malignancies, and solid tumors.
  • Insulin-like growth factors and their receptor (IGF-1R) have been implicated in cancer pathophysiology.
  • We demonstrate that IGF-1R is universally expressed in various hematologic (multiple myeloma, lymphoma, leukemia) and solid tumor (breast, prostate, lung, colon, thyroid, renal, adrenal cancer, retinoblastoma, and sarcoma) cells.
  • Specific IGF-1R inhibition with neutralizing antibody, antagonistic peptide, or the selective kinase inhibitor NVP-ADW742 has in vitro activity against diverse tumor cell types (particularly multiple myeloma), even those resistant to conventional therapies, and triggers pleiotropic antiproliferative/proapoptotic molecular sequelae, delineated by global transcriptional and proteomic profiling.
  • NVP-ADW742 monotherapy or its combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy had significant antitumor activity in an orthotopic xenograft MM model, providing in vivo proof of principle for therapeutic use of selective IGF-1R inhibitors in cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematologic Neoplasms / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents. Bone Marrow / metabolism. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Multiple Myeloma. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / metabolism. Pyrimidines / pharmacology. Pyrroles / pharmacology. Transplantation, Heterologous / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15050914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / P0-1 78378; United States / PHS HHS / / R0-1 50947
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ADW 742; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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3. Schteingart DE: Conventional and novel strategies in the treatment of adrenocortical cancer. Braz J Med Biol Res; 2000 Oct;33(10):1197-200
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  • [Title] Conventional and novel strategies in the treatment of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a highly malignant neoplasm with an incidence of two per million people per year.
  • Several treatment strategies have resulted in temporary or partial tumor regression but very few cases have attained long survival.
  • Surgical resection of the primary tumor and metastases is most effective.
  • Mitotane (o,p'-DDD) is an adrenalytic drug effective in inducing a tumor response in 33% of patients treated.
  • Mitotane requires metabolic transformation for therapeutic action.
  • Tumors may vary in their ability to metabolize mitotane and the ability of tumors to transform mitotane may predict the clinical response to the drug.
  • Preliminary data show a possible correlation between metabolic activity of neoplastic adrenocortical tissue and response to mitotane.
  • Future approaches to the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma are likely to be based on blocking or reversing the biological mechanisms of tumorigenesis.
  • Angiogenic and chemotactic mechanisms may play a role in adrenal tumor growth and inhibition of these mechanisms may result in inhibition of tumor growth.
  • New mitotane analogs with greater adrenalytic potential could be a promising approach to developing more effective and selective therapies for adrenal cancer.
  • Alternative approaches should attempt to suppress tumor growth by means of compounds with anti-angiogenic and anti-chemotactic activity.

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  • (PMID = 11004720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0100-879X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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4. Takehara K, Miyata Y, Matsuo M, Sakai H, Minami Y, Kanetake H: [A case of malignant pheochromocytoma associated with von Recklinghausen's disease]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2001 Apr;47(4):257-60
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  • [Title] [A case of malignant pheochromocytoma associated with von Recklinghausen's disease].
  • A 48-year-old woman suffering from chest and lumbar pain was referred to our clinic for treatment.
  • Computed tomography demonstrated a large tumor in the left adrenal gland and a small lesion in the liver, with the levels of plasma and urinary catecholamines being elevated.
  • 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed abnormal accumulations in the left adrenal tumor and multiple-bone lesions.
  • A diagnosis of malignant pheochromocytoma with liver and bone metastases was made, and the patient received chemotherapy.
  • Seven months after the diagnosis of malignant pheochromocytoma, she died of pulmonary edema due to disease progression.
  • Autopsy revealed malignant pheochromocytoma with liver, lung, bone and lymph nodes metastases.
  • To our knowledge, only 7 cases of malignant pheochromocytoma associated with von Recklinghausen's disease have been reported in Japan.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Cafe-au-Lait Spots / complications. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Pheochromocytoma / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 11411100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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5. Kim HM, Ikeda M, Okano M, Miyoshi N, Hirose H, Yamashita S, Takemasa I, Mizushima T, Yamamoto H, Sekimoto M, Doki Y, Mori M: [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2548-50
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy].
  • We report a case of 57-year-old woman suffering from advanced sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence.
  • Sigmoidectomy was performed for sigmoid colon cancer in January 2002.
  • She received a UFT + CPT-11 regimen as preoperative chemotherapy for liver metastasis (S2, S7) from December 2002.
  • A partial liver resection (S2, S7) was performed for liver metastasis in July 2003, and the UFT + CPT-11 was introduced as adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • However, adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence was detected in February 2007, and mFOLFOX6 was performed as preoperative chemotherapy.
  • Right adrenalectomy and para-aortic lymph node dissection was performed in July 2007. mFOLFOX6 as postoperative chemotherapy was done, mFOLFOX6 + bevacizumab was started because of CEA increase.
  • The chemotherapy was performed for 23 courses and temporarily stopped due to adverse reactions, such as peripheral neuropathy (grade 2), general fatigue (grade 1), and nausea (grade 1).
  • She had no recurrence for almost 3 years after a resection of adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Aorta. Bevacizumab. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Hepatectomy. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 21224635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; 1-UFT protocol; Folfox protocol
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6. Narimoto K, Mizokami A, Izumi K, Mihara S, Sawada K, Sugata T, Shimamura M, Miyazaki K, Nishino A, Namiki M: Adrenal androgen levels as predictors of outcome in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with combined androgen blockade using flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen. Int J Urol; 2010 Apr;17(4):337-45
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  • [Title] Adrenal androgen levels as predictors of outcome in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with combined androgen blockade using flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen.
  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical effects of flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen for combined androgen blockade in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) initially treated with bicalutamide as a first-line anti-androgen.
  • METHODS: Our study population consisted of 16 patients with CRPC who were treated with flutamide (375 mg daily) as second-line hormonal therapy.
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were measured to investigate the relationship between plasma androgens and outcome following treatment.
  • Furthermore, adrenal androgen levels in a medium of adrenal cancer cell line were also measured.
  • RESULTS: Second-line hormonal therapy using flutamide resulted in a reduction of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in 14 (87.5%) of 16 patients.
  • In vitro, 3 micromol/L flutamide suppressed DHEA, androstenedione and androstenediol synthesis compared with bicalutamide in a medium of adrenal cancer cell line.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that flutamide suppresses the adrenal androgens in comparison with bicalutamide.
  • The responsiveness and response duration of flutamide can be predicted in patients with a higher baseline androstenediol level and a lower DHEA level.
  • Metabolites from adrenal androgens contribute to the progression of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Androgens / blood. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / secretion. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy


7. Tupikowski W, Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Florczak A: [Adrenocortical carcinoma and its treatment]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online); 2004 Feb 26;58:27-36
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  • [Title] [Adrenocortical carcinoma and its treatment].
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor with an annual incidence of 1 to 2 cases per million people.
  • It is a very aggressive tumor, with a median survival of 28 months, and is slightly more common in women (58.6%) than in men (41.4%).
  • Most adrenocortical neoplasms are hormone functional.
  • The rapid onset of Cushing 's syndrome, with its virilizing features, is characteristic of this cancer.
  • Adrenal tumors are often detected at an advanced stage.
  • Complete surgical resection is the only curative treatment for adrenal cancer.
  • Treatment also includes chemotherapy, especially with mitotane, usually in combination with doxorubicin, etoposide, and cisplatin.
  • Results of treatment are not satisfying, so adjuvant multicenter trials are still underway.

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  • (PMID = 15069374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1732-2693
  • [Journal-full-title] Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej (Online)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online)
  • [Language] POL
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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8. Cerquetti L, Bucci B, Marchese R, Misiti S, De Paula U, Miceli R, Muleti A, Amendola D, Piergrossi P, Brunetti E, Toscano V, Stigliano A: Mitotane increases the radiotherapy inhibitory effect and induces G2-arrest in combined treatment on both H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cell lines. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Jun;15(2):623-34
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  • [Title] Mitotane increases the radiotherapy inhibitory effect and induces G2-arrest in combined treatment on both H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cell lines.
  • This drug and radiotherapy are used also in adrenal cancer treatment even if their biological action in this neoplasia remains unknown.
  • We investigated the effects of o,p'-DDD and ionizing radiations (IR) on cell growth inhibition and cell cycle perturbation in H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • Both cell lines were irradiated at a 6 Gy dose and were treated with o,p'-DDD 10(-5) M separately and with IR/o,p'-DDD in combination.
  • This combination treatment induced an irreversible inhibition of cell growth in both adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • In order to study the molecular mechanism involved in the G2 irreversible arrest, we have considered the H295R cell line showing the highest inhibition of cell proliferation associated with a noteworthy G2 arrest.
  • The kinase activity also shows an increase in the treated cells with combination therapy.
  • The same irreversible block on G2 phase, induced by IR/o,p'-DDD treatment, happened in H295R cells with restored wild-type p53 suggesting that this mechanism is not mediated by p53 pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Mitotane / pharmacology. Radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Division / radiation effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin B / metabolism. Cyclin B1. G2 Phase / drug effects. G2 Phase / radiation effects. Humans. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Steroids / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18509009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Steroids; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDC2 Protein Kinase
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9. Schteingart DE, Benitez R, Bradford C, Narayan A, Wang S: Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2010 Dec;30(12):4805-9
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  • [Title] Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that response of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) to pro-apoptosis drugs depends on expression of anti-apoptosis genes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins was determined in two human adrenal cancer cell lines, NCI-H-295 and RL-251.
  • Two pro-apoptosis drugs, gossypol (G) and docetaxel (D) were tested in vitro and in vivo in a human ACC/SCID mouse chimera.
  • CONCLUSION: This study provided proof of concept that expression of Bcl-XL determines response to pro-apoptosis drugs.
  • Profiling adrenal tumors for expression of anti-apoptosis genes may provide clues to their potential response to drugs that induce apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. bcl-X Protein / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Genes, bcl-2. Gossypol / pharmacology. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Taxoids / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 21187456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; KAV15B369O / Gossypol
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10. Nomura K, Kimura H, Shimizu S, Kodama H, Okamoto T, Obara T, Takano K: Survival of patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma and efficacy of combined cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Aug;94(8):2850-6
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  • [Title] Survival of patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma and efficacy of combined cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy.
  • CONTEXT: About 10% of pheochromocytomas are malignant.
  • Exact survival has not been reported, nor has an analysis of the efficacy of chemotherapy on survival time.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the survival curves and survival times of patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy on prolongation of life.
  • PATIENTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Thirty-two patients with metastasized malignant pheochromocytoma were analyzed for survival.
  • Survival curves were compared among the 16 patients in this group treated with combined chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine (CVD) and the nine patients not treated with chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: The survival curve of the 32 patients declined continuously and linearly to at least 20 yr after the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • In the 25 patients whose primary tumor was excised, patients who already had metastases at the time of pheochromocytoma diagnosis had better survival than those whose metastases were found later.
  • The survival rate after diagnosis of metastasis was worse in the CVD group than in controls.
  • When the effects of CVD were examined after stratifying several factors, female gender and adrenal origin of tumor were found to be negative prognostic factors for CVD chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: The present study revealed a long survival time.
  • CVD chemotherapy was not shown to extend survival, especially for women and patients with adrenal gland-derived primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19470630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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11. Imataki O, Makimoto A, Kojima R, Sakiyama M, Hosono A, Takaue Y: Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Apr;11(2):156-8
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  • [Title] Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy in adolescents and young adults.
  • The prognosis of unresectable/metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma remains very poor because the rarity of the tumor has made it difficult to establish treatment guidelines, and diagnosis and the resultant treatment can be greatly delayed.
  • We treated a 24-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma of the right adrenal gland which extended to the inferior vena cava.
  • Although she underwent surgical resection of the extensive tumor as the primary treatment, the disease recurred in the lung and liver as multiple metastases shortly after surgery.
  • She received intensive multimodality therapy, including chemotherapy with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin (TIP regimen), embolization of the feeding arteries, and proton irradiation for the liver mass.
  • Although this experience is limited, we suggest that TIP chemotherapy was effective for adrenocortical carcinoma, and a graft-versus-tumor effect after reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation may have contributed to the prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Graft vs Host Disease. Humans


12. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Cichocki A: Clinical role of determination of plasma mitotane and its metabolites levels in patients with adrenal cancer: results of a long-term follow-up. J Exp Ther Oncol; 2005;5(2):125-32
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  • [Title] Clinical role of determination of plasma mitotane and its metabolites levels in patients with adrenal cancer: results of a long-term follow-up.
  • Our study aimed at evaluation of the relations between the plasma levels of mitotane (o,p'-DDD) and its metabolites, o,p'-DDA and o,p'-DDE, and the efficacy of Mitotane therapy during a long-term follow-up.
  • The o,p'-DDA/o,p'-DDD ratio rose significantly mainly in the first 1-3 months of therapy.
  • The o,p'-DDE levels rose slowly, reaching higher values in long-term therapy, over 12 months of mitotane administration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / blood. Mitotane / analogs & derivatives. Mitotane / blood

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  • (PMID = 16471038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-4117
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental therapeutics & oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Ther. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 34113-46-7 / 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)acetic acid; 3424-82-6 / 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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13. Tanaka K, Kumano Y, Kanomata N, Takeda M, Hara I, Fujisawa M, Kawabata G, Kamidono S: Oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma. Urology; 2004 Aug;64(2):376-7
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  • A 54-year-old man presented with a right subcostal mass.
  • Computed tomography demonstrated a massive tumor in the right abdomen.
  • Because renal or adrenal cancer was suspected, right adrenalectomy and nephrectomy were performed.
  • Five months postoperatively, multiple metastases had developed and were treated with surgical resection, chemotherapy, vascular embolization, and radiotherapy.
  • At last follow-up, the patient was alive with pulmonary and adrenal metastases and undergoing treatment with mitotane.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Embolization, Therapeutic. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Nephrectomy. Ribs / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15302503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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14. Montoya M, Brown JW, Fishman LM: Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):302-5
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  • [Title] Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that is usually fatal within a short time after diagnosis.
  • We have investigated the effects on the growth and survival of SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture of some currently used and some potentially new agents in the treatment of adrenal cancer.
  • Established drugs tested were mitotane, cisplatin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, and suramin.
  • All the other agents tested required much higher doses for effect, including mitotane, the current most commonly used chemotherapy for adrenal cancer, with an EC (50) of 3.3x10 (-4) M.
  • These data suggest that paclitaxel, 2-methoxyestradiol, and cytosine arabinofuranoside should be further evaluated for their potential in the chemotherapy of adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18491247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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15. Horstmann M, Merseburger AS, Stenzl A, Kuczyk M: [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors]. Urologe A; 2006 May;45(5):605-8
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  • [Title] [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Systemische Therapie maligner Nebennierentumoren.
  • Systemic treatment of advanced-stage adrenal malignancies is most often only palliative.
  • Mitotane alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and vincristine are established therapeutic concepts for the treatment of metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • New therapeutic options are tumor vaccination and treatment with antiangiogenic drugs.
  • Metaiodobenzylguanidine as a radiotherapeutic drug or chemotherapeutic combination therapies that include cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine are applied for systemic treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas.. However, the clinical efficacy of the latter regimen needs further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Palliative Care / methods. Terminal Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 16622644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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16. Bastida CM, Tejada F, Cremades A, Peñafiel R: Aminoglutethimide, a steroidogenesis inhibitor, abolishes hormonal induction of ornithine decarboxylase in steroidogenic tissues: evidence for its role as cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2001 Feb 16;281(1):244-8
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  • [Title] Aminoglutethimide, a steroidogenesis inhibitor, abolishes hormonal induction of ornithine decarboxylase in steroidogenic tissues: evidence for its role as cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor.
  • Aminoglutethimide (AMG), a potent inhibitor of steroidogenesis used in the treatment of breast cancer and some adrenal pathologies, abolished the induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) elicited by peptide hormones and by dibutyryl-cAMP in steroidogenic tissues.
  • This inhibition may explain some of the effects observed in AMG treatment which cannot be ascribed to its direct effect on the cytochrome P450scc complex or aromatase.
  • Taking into account that ODC, the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, is elevated in many types of cancer and that overexpression of this enzyme is associated with cell transformation, one may speculate that the inhibitory action of AMG on protein kinase A represents a positive colateral effect of this drug in cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Animals. Aromatase / metabolism. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Chorionic Gonadotropin / metabolism. Chorionic Gonadotropin / pharmacology. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gonads / drug effects. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Ketoconazole / pharmacology. Male. Mice. Ovary / metabolism. Polyamines / metabolism. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11178987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Polyamines; 0O54ZQ14I9 / Aminoglutethimide; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 4.1.1.17 / Ornithine Decarboxylase; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole
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17. Nagase H, Yokouchi H, Ide Y, Okada K, Yanagisawa T, Mukai R, Ota H, Maruyama K, Murata K, Kinuta M: [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2747-9
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  • [Title] [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma].
  • Computed tomography revealed a tumor of right adrenal gland and a tumor of upper lobe of the right lung.
  • Adrenal tumor had rapidly increased, so we performed adrenectomy.
  • At first adrenal tumor was diagnosed as primary adrenal cancer because its histological findings did not coincide with those of common histologic types of lung cancer.
  • As there were possibilities that one of adrenal or lung tumor was primary and the other was metastatic or both of the two were double primary, we performed right upper lobectomy.
  • Lung tumor was diagnosed as primary pleomorphic carcinoma containing spindle-shaped tumor cells and adenocarcinoma, and then the diagnosis of adrenal tumor was corrected as metastasis of lung cancer.
  • Two months after the lung operation, cervical lymph node swelling, metastasis of stomach and local recurrence of adrenal tumor appeared.
  • After he underwent six courses of systemic chemotherapy of carboplatin and paclitaxel, a clinical complete response was obtained and no recurrence is observed for 4 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 21224700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Strosberg JR, Hammer GD, Doherty GM: Management of adrenocortical carcinoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2009 Jul;7(7):752-8; quiz 759
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  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumors that arise from the cortex of the adrenal gland with an incidence 1 to 2 per million.
  • The rarity of this tumor translates into a paucity of experience in managing patients in most medical centers.
  • Because clinical series are small and prospective evaluation of treatment strategies is limited, the current state of knowledge is strongly influenced by expert consensus opinion from a few medical centers specializing in ACCs.
  • This article describes the basic diagnostic and prognostic issues in adrenal cancer management, and presents detailed rationales for therapeutic management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Catecholamines / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Metanephrine / analysis. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19635227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Catecholamines; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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19. Sfaxi M, Bouzouita A, Bouasker I, Kourda N, Ben Slama MR, Ben Jilani Baltaji S, Chebil M: [Primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma. A case report rarer than B-cell lymphoma]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Jun;69(3):249-53
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  • [Title] [Primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma. A case report rarer than B-cell lymphoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphome surrénalien primitif bilatéral de phénotype T. Un cas clinique beaucoup plus rare que le lymphome B.
  • Primary adrenal lymphoma is a rare condition.
  • Adrenal lymphoma is often bilateral and in most of the cases of B-cell type.
  • The prognosis is bad and patient can die early because of acute adrenal insufficiency.
  • We report a case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted for acute adrenal insufficiency due to primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma.
  • Clinical features and imaging are not specific. (18)F-FDG PET Scan is an excellent mean to detect malignant tumor of adrenal gland.
  • The standard treatment is chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Fatal Outcome. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Lymphoma, B-Cell / epidemiology. Male. Multiple Organ Failure. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 18455145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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20. Li B, Lei W, Shao K, Zhang C, Chen Z, Shi S, He J: Characteristics and prognosis of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus. Melanoma Res; 2007 Aug;17(4):239-42
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  • [Title] Characteristics and prognosis of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus.
  • Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is an extremely rare but highly aggressive tumor.
  • The preoperative diagnosis is complicated for the lack of specificity.
  • Unfortunately, the prognosis of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus remains dismal from most literatures.
  • To better understand this special condition, we reviewed the medical records of patients with primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus in our center, retrospectively.
  • Seven cases were seen at Cancer Hospital (Institute) of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from 1975 through 2006.
  • Only one patient, however, was pathologically diagnosed as primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus preoperatively.
  • Four of the six patients had metastasis to the liver, adrenal gland, heart and lymph nodes, respectively.
  • Our data show that primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is a highly aggressive disease with poor prognosis.
  • Surgery remains the first selected therapy.
  • The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is still uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Esophagectomy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17625454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Michael H, Lucia J, Foster RS, Ulbright TM: The pathology of late recurrence of testicular germ cell tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 Feb;24(2):257-73
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  • A total of 91 men had histologically documented late recurrences of testicular germ cell tumors characterized by a complete response to treatment with a subsequent disease-free interval of at least 2 years and no evidence of a second primary lesion.
  • Ninety percent of the patients for whom information was available received chemotherapy shortly after their initial diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumors; most of the other patients were known to have stage I disease initially.
  • Thus, teratoma was the most common type of neoplasm in late recurrences.
  • Excluding teratoma coexisting with other types of neoplasms, yolk sac tumor was the most frequent type of tumor in patients with late recurrence.
  • It occurred in 47% of patients, either alone or with teratoma, another nonteratomatous germ cell tumor type, or a "nongerm cell malignant tumor."
  • Unusual types of yolk sac tumor, including glandular, parietal, clear cell, and pleomorphic patterns, were seen frequently in late recurrences and often raised differential diagnostic problems with "nongerm cell" carcinomas.
  • A smaller number of late recurrences consisted of other types of neoplasms.
  • Twenty percent of patients with late recurrence had a nonteratomatous germ cell tumor other than yolk sac tumor, either alone, with yolk sac tumor, or with a "nongerm cell malignant tumor."
  • Most of these nonteratomatous germ cell tumors other than yolk sac tumor were embryonal carcinoma, although rarely seminoma and choriocarcinoma were encountered.
  • "Nongerm cell malignant tumors," including both sarcomas and carcinomas of various types, occurred in 23% of late-recurrence patients, either alone or with a nonteratomatous germ cell tumor.
  • Late recurrences were seen in many different sites in these patients, including the retroperitoneum, abdomen, pelvis, liver, mediastinum, lung, bone (femur, vertebra, and rib), lymph nodes outside the retroperitoneum and mediastinum (supraclavicular, neck, and axillary regions), scrotum and inguinal regions, adrenal gland, chest wall, and buttocks.
  • Patients whose late recurrences consisted of pure "nongerm cell malignant tumor" or pure germ cell tumor (yolk sac tumor or other types) had a much worse prognosis: Only 36% to 37% were alive with no evidence of disease.
  • Patients with two different types of nonteratomatous malignancies in their late recurrences had a dismal clinical course: Only 17% with both yolk sac tumor and other nonteratomatous germ cell tumor had no evidence of disease, whereas no patient with both nonteratomatous germ cell tumor and "nongerm cell malignant tumor" was disease free.
  • Furthermore, late recurrence is not likely to respond to chemotherapy and is best treated by surgical excision when possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Embryonal / complications. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / therapy. Choriocarcinoma / complications. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / complications. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / therapy. Sarcoma / complications. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Seminoma / complications. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / therapy. Teratoma / complications. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 10680894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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22. Morawietz L, Kuhnen C, Katenkamp D, Le Coutre P, Ladhoff A, Petersen I: Unusual sarcomatoid neoplasm of the lung suggesting a myofibrosarcoma. Virchows Arch; 2005 Dec;447(6):990-5
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  • [Title] Unusual sarcomatoid neoplasm of the lung suggesting a myofibrosarcoma.
  • Myofibrosarcoma is a rare neoplasm that occurs mainly in the head and neck region and extremities of middle-aged patients.
  • We report the case of a 47-year-old male patient with a malignant mesenchymal pulmonary tumor affecting almost the entire lower left lobe.
  • Clinically suggestive for a lung carcinoma, the tumor showed typical features of a myofibrosarcoma.
  • DNA cytometry revealed aneuploidy with a peak in the near triploid range.
  • Shortly after resection of the primary tumor, the patient showed multiple distant metastases in the contralateral lung, the mediastinal lymph nodes, the left adrenal gland, and the pectoral and deltoid muscle, which responded well to chemotherapy.
  • The case report will discuss the evidence for the final diagnosis of a primary pulmonary myofibrosarcoma and the differential diagnosis of sarcomatoid tumors of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Myosarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Pneumonectomy. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16158184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Schuppert F, Berger D, Peters H, Schröder S, Schöfl C, Tischler J, Hiller WF, von zur Mühlen A: [A young woman with neurofibromatosis 1 (Recklinghausen disease), abdominal tumor and hypertension]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2000 Nov 17;125(46):1390-4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOXORUBICIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A young woman with neurofibromatosis 1 (Recklinghausen disease), abdominal tumor and hypertension].
  • [Transliterated title] Eine junge Patientin mit Neurofibromatose Typ 1 (Morbus Recklinghausen), Unterbauchtumor und Hypertonus.
  • HISTORY AND ADMISSION FINDINGS: A 38-year-old woman, known to have type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1; von Recklinghausen's disease) and recurrence of a malignant haemangiopericytoma in the lower abdomen developed hypertension.
  • Physical examination revealed tachycardia and paleness of the distal digits, in addition to multiple neurofibromas and café-au-lait spots.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: A tumour was found in the region of the right adrenal gland, in addition to the known haemangiopericytoma.
  • TREATMENT AND COURSE: Because of the extensive local changes the recurrent haemangiopericytoma was only partially resected.
  • At the same time a right adrenalectomy was performed without complication.
  • Instead she was given weekly palliative chemotherapy with adriamycin, with little improvement.
  • She died several weeks later from the malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / surgery. Hemangiopericytoma / surgery. Hypertension / complications. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Exons. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Neurofibromin 1. Palliative Care. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tachycardia

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  • (PMID = 11129996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-0472
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neurofibromin 1; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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24. Ciftci AO, Tanyel FC, Senocak ME, Büyükpamukçu N: Pheochromocytoma in children. J Pediatr Surg; 2001 Mar;36(3):447-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Information recorded for each patient included age, sex, past medical and family history, clinical characteristics, diagnostic methods, treatment, pathologic findings, and outcome.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen children with a mean age of 10.7 +/- 2.9 years consisting of 12 boys and 4 girls were treated for PHEO.
  • Sporadic cases of PHEO accounted for 14 patients (88%), whereas 2 children had von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b (MEN2b).
  • The diagnosis of PHEO was made by laboratory and radiologic studies.
  • Preoperative medical therapy was done in all patients.
  • Two patients with localized disease and 2 patients with regional disease had benign recurrences in right (n = 2) and left (n = 2) adrenal glands within 3 to 7 years after operation.
  • Pathologic examination found apparently malignant features in 3 patients who presented with regional (n = 2) or metastatic (n = 1) disease and underwent incisional biopsy (n = 2) or partial excision (n = 1).
  • Pathologic features suggestive of malignancy were noted in 4 patients presenting with regional (n = 2) and localized disease (n = 2).
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was commenced postoperatively in all patients with malignant and suggestive of malignant pathologic features.
  • Of the 3 patients with malignant disease, 2 patients in whom only incisional biopsies were done had distant metastases and died of disease within 2 years.
  • Another patient with malignancy who had MEN2b was lost to follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis and total excision are the most important aspects of accurate treatment for childhood PHEO.
  • Pre- intra- and postoperative medical management is as important as the surgical procedure.
  • Our surgical treatment policy is mainly minimizing the risk of recurrence while preserving adequately functioning adrenal medullar tissue.
  • None of the clinical, laboratory, or pathologic features are reliable predictors for recurrence and discrimination of malignancy.
  • Because of the steadily increasing incidence of precancerous genetic syndromes related to adrenal glands and poor prognosis of advanced-stage PHEO, childhood cases of hypertensive disorders should receive a detailed and vigorous diagnostic evaluation and appropriate treatment as given to adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Pheochromocytoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome. Turkey


25. Emmert S, Zutt M, Haenssle H, Neumann C, Kretschmer L: Inefficacy of vindesine monotherapy in advanced stage IV malignant melanoma patients previously treated with other chemotherapeutic agents. Melanoma Res; 2003 Jun;13(3):299-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inefficacy of vindesine monotherapy in advanced stage IV malignant melanoma patients previously treated with other chemotherapeutic agents.
  • The anti-melanoma activity of vindesine as a single or polychemotherapeutic agent has been reported previously in adjuvant and first-line melanoma treatment.
  • In this study, we investigated the usefulness of vindesine monotherapy as salvage therapy in stage IV melanoma patients after failure of other chemotherapies.
  • Previous systemic treatment consisted of polychemotherapy or combined chemo-immunotherapy.
  • All 13 patients suffered from visceral metastases (three lung, one liver, one adrenal gland and eight multiple visceral metastases).
  • A median of three vindesine treatments was administered.
  • Despite the various pre-treatments, the toxicity of vindesine was mild.
  • In all 13 patients, vindesine treatment was stopped due to disease progression.
  • The median survival after primary tumour diagnosis was 42 months (8-151 months), the survival after entering stage IV was 11 months (3-35 months), and the survival after starting vindesine therapy was 4 months (1-22 months).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Vindesine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alopecia / chemically induced. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12777986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; RSA8KO39WH / Vindesine
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26. Valo I, Verrièle V, Giraud P, Lorimier G, Guyétant S, Sommelet D: [Thyroid metastases of an adrenocortical carcinoma 41 years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor]. Ann Pathol; 2004 Jun;24(3):264-7
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  • [Title] [Thyroid metastases of an adrenocortical carcinoma 41 years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastases thyroïdiennes d'un corticosurrénalome 41 ans après le diagnostic de la tumeur initiale.
  • Thyroid metastasis are rare and represent less than 4% of malignant thyroid tumors in clinical series.
  • They can develop many years after diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • We report a case of thyroid metastasis of adrenocortical carcinoma, 41 years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • Based on current literature, we offer a brief review on thyroid metastasis and differential diagnosis of thyroid gland clear cell neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / urine. Humans. Hydrocortisone / urine. Kidney Neoplasms / chemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Nephrectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thyroidectomy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15480262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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27. Plouin PF, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, La Batide Alanore A, Salenave S, Duclos JM: [Recent progress in the diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and treatment of pheochromocytomas]. Rev Med Interne; 2000 Dec;21(12):1075-85
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. EPINEPHRINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Recent progress in the diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and treatment of pheochromocytomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Progrès récents dans le diagnostic, l'évaluation pronostique et le traitement des phéochromocytomes.
  • INTRODUCTION: Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-secreting neoplasm of chromaffin tissue.
  • Biochemical tests should be performed only in patients at high risk of pheochromocytoma, and an imaging procedure only in those with positive biochemical tests.
  • The tumor can be located by computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and specific scintigraphy.
  • Ten to 20% of pheochromocytomas result from hereditary diseases, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, von Hippel Lindau disease, and neurofibromatosis 1.
  • About 10% of the cases are malignant either at first operation or during follow-up, malignancy being diagnosed by the presence of lymph node, visceral or bone metastases.
  • The probability of a recurrence is positively correlated with the urinary excretion of metanephrines and tumor size.
  • Recurrences are more frequent in cases with ectopic tumors and in those with a low plasma epinephrine to total catecholamine ratio.
  • FUTURE PROSPECTS AND PROJECTS: Treatment for malignant recurrences includes surgery, therapeutic embolization, chemotherapy, and the application of therapeutic doses of metaiodobenzylguanidine.
  • Metyrosine, phenoxybenzamine, or somatostatin analogs may help to control blood pressure and to alleviate symptoms in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma; however such a treatment has no antiproliferative effect.

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  • (PMID = 11191675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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28. Schteingart DE: Adjuvant mitotane therapy of adrenal cancer - use and controversy. N Engl J Med; 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2415-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOTANE .

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  • [Title] Adjuvant mitotane therapy of adrenal cancer - use and controversy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 20;357(12):1257-8; author reply 1259 [17891838.001]
  • [CommentOn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2372-80 [17554118.001]
  • (PMID = 17554125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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