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1. Dillon P, Thomas N, Sharpless N, Collichio F: Regression of advanced melanoma upon withdrawal of immunosuppression: case series and literature review. Med Oncol; 2010 Dec;27(4):1127-32
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  • [Title] Regression of advanced melanoma upon withdrawal of immunosuppression: case series and literature review.
  • We report two cases of stage IV malignant melanoma arising in patients treated with azathioprine for myasthenia gravis.
  • In both cases, the melanoma metastases regressed upon withdrawal of immunosuppression.
  • One patient remains melanoma free at 10 years, and the second patient experienced an 18-month disease free period.
  • There is one prior case report in the medical literature to support full immune reconstitution for treatment in advanced immunosuppression-related melanoma, and one case series suggesting that transplant patients developing melanoma may benefit from a switch to sirolimus.
  • Virtually, no data exist for the medical management of early stage melanoma in the immunosuppressed patients.
  • We review the limited preclinical data in support of immune reconstitution and the data on immunosuppression as a risk factor for melanoma.
  • We conclude that reduction or withdrawal of immunosuppression may be beneficial in patients with advanced stage melanoma and warrants further consideration in patients with early stage melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Azathioprine / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Melanoma / chemically induced. Myasthenia Gravis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Head and Neck Neoplasms / chemically induced. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Immunosuppression. Lung Neoplasms / chemically induced. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Review Literature as Topic. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19890737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-131X
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P01 ES014635
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS245968; NLM/ PMC3725585
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2. Fradet-Turcotte A, Archambault J: Recent advances in the search for antiviral agents against human papillomaviruses. Antivir Ther; 2007;12(4):431-51
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  • Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) is extremely common and associated with the development of benign warts or malignant lesions of the skin and mucosa.
  • Infection by a high-risk (oncogenic) anogenital HPV type, most often through sexual contacts, is the starting point of virtually all cases of cervical cancers and the majority of anal cancers.
  • The same viral types are also increasingly being linked with a subset of head-and-neck and non-melanoma skin cancers.
  • Although prophylactic vaccines are now available to protect against the four types most commonly found in cervical and anal cancers (HPV16 and HPV18) and anogenital warts (HPV6 and HPV11), these neither protect against all genital HPVs nor are of therapeutic utility for already infected patients.
  • This article reviews the recent progress made towards the development of antiviral agents to treat HPV infections, from target identification and validation to the discovery of lead compounds with therapeutic potential.

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  • (PMID = 17668552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] Antiviral therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / 68885-1; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / 68885-1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Viral Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 192
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ CAMS5300; NLM/ PMC4646640
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3. Luo D, Xia H: [Clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck malignant melanoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2001 May;23(3):256-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck malignant melanoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: Sixty-eight cases of head and neck malignant melanoma were reviewed.
  • There were 33 patients with melanoma in the nasal cavity and oral cavity, 35 patients with melanoma in the skin.
  • Immunohistochemical studies helped diagnosis as all of the 42 melanoma specimens were posture for S-100 and 90.5% positive for HMB45.
  • In 52 of the 68 cases, the tumor was excised surgically, with additional radiotherapy in 13 cases or chemotherapy in 21 cases.
  • In 56 patients followed-up, 12 survived for 5 years, including 9 cases of skin melanoma and 3 cases of nasal and oral melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The histo-pathological features of malignant melanoma vary significantly.
  • Immunohistochemical staining helps diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
  • The prognosis of malignant melanoma in nasal cavity and oral cavity is poor as compared to that in the skin of head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11783102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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4. Rigual NR, Popat SR, Jayaprakash V, Jaggernauth W, Wong M: Cutaneous head and neck melanoma: the old and the new. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2008 Mar;8(3):403-12
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  • [Title] Cutaneous head and neck melanoma: the old and the new.
  • The incidence rate of malignant melanoma has shown a rapid worldwide rise in recent years.
  • The staging and management of head and neck melanoma presents some unique challenges.
  • Surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment, while sentinel node biopsy is the most accurate staging modality for regional disease.
  • The complex regional anatomy and lymphovascular drainage of this region may account for the increased biologic aggressiveness and treatment challenges of this disease.
  • Improved understanding of the radiobiology of melanoma has resulted in new adjuvant radiotherapy approaches, yielding improved control rates.
  • The treatment outcomes of metastatic head and neck melanoma remain disappointing but important progress has been made in the understanding of melanoma biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms. Melanoma. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / drug therapy. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / radiotherapy. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / secondary. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / surgery. Immunotherapy. Interferons / therapeutic use. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18366288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interleukin-2; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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5. Schwipper V: [Malignant melanoma in the area of the head and neck]. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir; 2000 May;4 Suppl 1:S177-86
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  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma in the area of the head and neck].
  • Malignant melanoma is one of the most frequent malignancies of the skin.
  • This is particularly true of malignant melanoma in juveniles.
  • At Fachklinik Hornheide, a tumor center specializing in skin neoplasm with patients being referred from all over Germany, the number of melanoma patients treated per year has been approximately 500-550 for the past 10 years.
  • In the present study, the state-of-the-art therapy for primary melanoma and treatment of the regional lymph node system is discussed.
  • The radical treatment formerly advocated with wide tumor resection plus radical neck dissection is no longer justified for this immunogenic malignant tumor caused by endogenic as well as exogenic factors.
  • "Sentinel lymph node" imaging by means of radioactive substances for diagnosing possible melanoma metastases in adjacent lymph nodes has changed the therapeutical concept.
  • In addition to surgical resection of the tumor and neck dissection for removal of lymph nodes, adjuvant immunotherapy with interferon-alpha is capable of prolonging survival without a recurrence.
  • Palliative chemotherapy or immunotherapy are valuable options for cases with generalized melanoma.
  • Vaccination with a melanoma-associated antigen or dendritic cells is at an experimental stage and may become part of future treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 10938658.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-9417
  • [Journal-full-title] Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie : MKG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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6. Esmaeli B, Wang B, Deavers M, Gillenwater A, Goepfert H, Diaz E, Eicher S: Prognostic factors for survival in malignant melanoma of the eyelid skin. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2000 Jul;16(4):250-7
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors for survival in malignant melanoma of the eyelid skin.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the prognostic factors for survival and disease-free interval for malignant melanoma of the eyelid skin.
  • Twenty-four patients with eyelid skin melanoma were identified through a search of the tumor registry at M. D.
  • Primary treatment in all cases entailed wide local excision of the tumor.
  • Patients in whom regional lymph node metastasis developed underwent parotidectomy or neck dissection, with or without adjuvant chemotherapy or external beam radiation.
  • Survival analysis in terms of disease-free survival and recurrence-free survival was performed using age, sex, location of tumor (upper lid, lower lid, or both), histologic type of melanoma, Breslow thickness, and Clark's level as independent variables for survival.
  • RESULTS: Age, sex, location, and the histologic type of tumor were not significant prognostic indicators for survival in this cohort.
  • CONCLUSION: Clark's level > or = IV or Breslow thickness > or = 1.5 mm are poor prognostic indicators for malignant melanomas of the eyelid skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / mortality. Melanoma / mortality. Skin Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 10923972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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7. Aygenç E, Dakak Y, Ozdem C: [A case of auricular malignant melanoma]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2002 Jan-Feb;9(1):63-5
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  • [Title] [A case of auricular malignant melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Auriküler malign melanoma.
  • We performed auricular excision, total parathyroidectomy, and extended radical neck dissection in a 36-year-old male patient who developed auricular malignant melanoma.
  • Reconstruction of the surgical defect was made with a split-thickness skin graft.
  • The patient received radiotherapy and chemotherapy after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Ear, External / surgery. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neck Dissection. Parathyroidectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Skin Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 12122628.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] tur
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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8. Wang H, Zhan W, Chen H, Xu J: [Sinonasal malignant melanoma: 24 cases report]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jan;20(1):21-2
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  • [Title] [Sinonasal malignant melanoma: 24 cases report].
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the pathological and clinical features and treatment of sinonasal malignant melanoma.
  • METHOD: Twenty-four patients with sinonasal malignant melanoma were surgically treated, 18 cases were treated with lateral rhinotomy, two cases with partial maxillectomy and ligation of external carotid artery, two cases with Caldwell-Luc technique,two cases with craniofacial approach, four cases with neck dissection.
  • Among them, 14 patients were only treated by operation, eight cases by operation and radiotherapy, two cases combined by operation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Sinonasal malignant melanoma has an aggressive behavior and easy recurrence.
  • Early diagnosis and radical operation can improve the survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16548152.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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9. Ogawa T, Nakayama B, Hasegawa Y, Fujimoto Y, Kohmura T, Matsuura H, Miyata H: Treatment of malignant melanoma of the lower eyelid using anterolateral thigh flap. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2000 Jan;27(1):79-82
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  • [Title] Treatment of malignant melanoma of the lower eyelid using anterolateral thigh flap.
  • Malignant melanoma is a poor prognostic disease with the potential for high mortality despite early diagnosis and currently available treatment.
  • We reported a case of malignant melanoma of the left lower eyelid, and presented the surgical excision and reconstruction using anterolateral thigh flap for skin defect.
  • It is evident that comprehensive treatment using radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary for cutaneous malignant melanoma of head and neck areas.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Skin Transplantation / methods. Surgical Flaps. Thigh
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Postoperative Care. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 10648074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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10. Nishiura Y, Sakamoto K, Mihoki T, Takane Y, Maeda A, Miyajima Y, Nakashima T: [Autologous tumor-specific immunotherapy for recurrent malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2006 Nov;109(11):781-4
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  • [Title] [Autologous tumor-specific immunotherapy for recurrent malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity].
  • Malignant melanoma usually occurs in tissues containing large numbers of melanocytes, such as the skin, mucosa and eye, and is one of the most highly malignant tumors known.
  • No satisfactory treatment results have ever been reported.
  • We report here an effective course of immunotherapy consisting of the local injection and intra-venous administration of autologous tumor-cell-stimulated cytotoxic T lymphocytes in a patient with recurrent malignant melanoma.
  • She had been diagnosed as having malignant melanoma in 1996 and under went radio-chemotherapy at our hospital.
  • Following systematic chemotherapy, 23 local injections of cytotoxic T lymphocytes were performed.
  • Immunotherapy using cytotoxic T lymphocytes may be a useful strategy for controlling recurrent malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunotherapy / methods. Melanoma / therapy. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Interleukins / therapeutic use. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17165592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukins
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11. Wang Y, Cen Y, Li Z: [Therapeutic result of operation combined with large-dose of roferon-A for cutaneous malignant melanoma]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jan;21(1):37-9
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic result of operation combined with large-dose of roferon-A for cutaneous malignant melanoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of operation with large-dose of Roferon-A for cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: From January 1998 to December 2005, thirty-three patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma were treated.
  • In 33 patients, nine patients identified as clinical-stage I received singly enlarged-resection to the primary lesion and performed split-thickness skin graft dermoplasty or adjacent skin flap repair; twenty-three patients identified as clinical-stage II received enlarged-resection to the primary lesion and performed proximal lymphaden scavenge as well as received split-thickness skin graft dermoplasty; and one patient identified as clinical-stage III received palliative resection to the primary lesion.
  • CONCLUSION: The operation combined with large-dose of Roferon-A after operation was a more effective way to treat cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Recombinant Proteins. Skin Transplantation. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17305002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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12. Maier H, Mühlmeier G, Kraft K, Blumstein NM, Tisch M: [Primary malignant melanoma of the parotid gland: a case report and review of the literature]. HNO; 2008 Jun;56(6):627-32
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  • [Title] [Primary malignant melanoma of the parotid gland: a case report and review of the literature].
  • Malignant melanomas (MMs) of the parotid gland are relatively uncommon.
  • It is assumed that they originate in the glandular tissue or in intraglandular lymph nodes.
  • We present a case report and review of the literature on the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of intraparotid malignant melanoma.
  • Diagnosis is based primarily on B-scan ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • Patients with a cytological diagnosis of MM are further evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography and receive a thorough ear-nose-throat and dermatological examination.
  • The treatment of choice is total parotidectomy and selective neck dissection.
  • The effectiveness of adjuvant treatments such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy remains controversial.
  • Patients with primary MMs of the parotid gland appear to have a better prognosis than those with parotid metastases from melanomas of the skin or mucous membranes.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] HNO. 2006 Mar;54(3):166-70 [16091908.001]
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  • (PMID = 18066514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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13. Hu W, Nelson JE, Mohney CA, Willen MD: Malignant melanoma arising in a pregnant African American woman with a congenital blue nevus. Dermatol Surg; 2004 Dec;30(12 Pt 2):1530-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant melanoma arising in a pregnant African American woman with a congenital blue nevus.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of cutaneous melanoma in African-Americans is relatively low.
  • Despite the slightly greater occurrence of congenital melanocytic nevi in black persons compared with white persons, the cumulative risk of melanoma arising in these lesions is very small.
  • In addition, the overwhelming majority of melanomas in black persons occur on nonglaborous skin where congenital melanocytic nevi are rare.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to describe and an unusual case of melanoma arising in a congenital nevus with combined features of a blue nevus on the scalp of a pregnant African-American woman.
  • RESULTS: Histologic examination revealed a polypoid malignant melanoma arising in association with a congenital blue nevus in a young African-American woman.
  • Pathology from parotidectomy and neck dissection confirmed metastatic melanoma involving two intraparotid lymph nodes and 3 of 26 cervical lymph nodes.
  • Despite aggressive chemotherapy, she died in 1 year after the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / congenital. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Scalp

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  • (PMID = 15606833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Ishii A, Nishiguchi T, Kitagawa T, Yagi M, Hakamada A, Isoda K, Kurokawa I, Hara K, Mizutani H: A case of epidermotropic metastatic malignant melanoma with multiple nodular lesions of the scalp. J Dermatol; 2005 Oct;32(10):821-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of epidermotropic metastatic malignant melanoma with multiple nodular lesions of the scalp.
  • Epidermotropic metastatic malignant melanoma (EMMM) is a form of metastatic malignant melanoma that has dermal cell nests with epidermotropism and specific histopathological features.
  • The tumors developed one year before consultation and increased in size simultaneously.
  • The tumors did not respond to combination chemotherapy with dacarbazine, nimustine, vincristine, and interferon-beta.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


15. Murakami M, Wada T, Kashiwagi T, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Iizuka H: Nodular malignant melanoma with Spitz nevus-like pathological features finally confirmed by the pathological feature of the sentinel lymph node. J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;34(12):821-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nodular malignant melanoma with Spitz nevus-like pathological features finally confirmed by the pathological feature of the sentinel lymph node.
  • The clinical and histopathological similarities of nodular melanoma and Spitz nevus currently still make a definitive diagnosis difficult.
  • We report here a case of nodular melanoma that was extremely difficult to diagnose both clinically and histopathologically.
  • The primary tumor was a blackish nodule on the scalp and biopsy was performed for pathological diagnosis.
  • Although our first impression was malignant melanoma, we asked two dermatopathologists for second opinions; however, one diagnosed a melanoma and the other a Spitz nevus.
  • Histopathological diagnosis to establish whether it was a melanoma metastasis or nodal nevi was also difficult, and we again asked for second opinions from another dermatopathologist in the USA.
  • According to its clinical course and the histopathology of the sentinel lymph node with additional immunohistochemistry, this case was finally diagnosed as a nodular melanoma (T4aN1aM0, stage IIIA).
  • To date, the patient has been given five courses of chemotherapy at 6-month intervals, with no local recurrence or distant metastases so far.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


16. Ray CM, Kluk M, Grin CM, Grant-Kels JM: Successful treatment of malignant melanoma in situ with topical 5% imiquimod cream. Int J Dermatol; 2005 May;44(5):428-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful treatment of malignant melanoma in situ with topical 5% imiquimod cream.
  • BACKGROUND: Current treatment recommendations for malignant melanoma in situ include surgical excision with at least 0.5 cm margins.
  • On the head or neck, obtaining adequate surgical margins for melanoma can be challenging and often disfiguring.
  • METHODS: We report herein three cases of malignant melanoma in situ on the face treated with topical imiquimod cream.
  • RESULTS: Complete regression of malignant melanoma in situ was observed on treatment with 5% topical imiquimod cream.
  • The varied treatment regimens, rationale for using imiquimod rather than performing surgery, and the possible mechanisms of action are discussed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Topical imiquimod can be used successfully for the treatment of malignant melanoma in situ on the face.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Facial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15869545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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17. Kung B, Aftab S, Wood M, Rosen D: Malignant melanoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature. Ear Nose Throat J; 2009 Jan;88(1):E7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant melanoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature.
  • The thyroid gland is a relatively uncommon site for a secondary malignancy; even less common is a case of malignant melanoma metastatic to the thyroid.
  • We describe the case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a neck mass in the posterior triangle.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) identified the mass as a malignant melanoma.
  • The patient had had no known primary skin melanoma.
  • He underwent a left modified radical neck dissection, and the mass was discovered to be a positive lymph node.
  • Postoperatively, he declined to undergo radio- and chemotherapy.
  • FNAB again attributed the enlargement to malignant melanoma.
  • He developed ventilator-dependent respiratory failure and required a subtotal thyroidectomy for the placement of a tracheostomy tube.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19172560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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18. Prayson RA, Sebek BA: Parotid gland malignant melanomas. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2000 Dec;124(12):1780-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parotid gland malignant melanomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant melanomas are relatively unusual tumors in the parotid gland.
  • The majority of previously reported cases appear to represent metastatic lesions, often from cutaneous head and neck primaries.
  • METHODS: Retrospective clinicopathologic review of 12 cases of malignant melanoma involving the parotid gland encountered between 1980 and October 1999 at a tertiary referral center.
  • Eleven of 12 patients presented with a neck mass or nodule.
  • In 2 patients, a cutaneous melanoma and the parotid gland melanoma were diagnosed at the same time.
  • In 1 patient, melanoma was initially diagnosed in the parotid gland, and a definite primary was not uncovered.
  • All patients underwent excision of the parotid melanoma, which was accompanied by a lymph node biopsy or dissection in 10 out of 11 patients.
  • Four patients received adjuvant radiotherapy, and 3 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Four of 11 patients had ipsilateral cervical lymph node metastasis at the time of parotid tumor resection, and 5 patients had involvement of intraparotid lymph nodes by metastatic melanoma.
  • Prognosis is generally poor, although rare patients may survive a long period of time following surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11100057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9985
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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19. Guillot B, Blazquez L, Bessis D, Dereure O, Guilhou JJ: A prospective study of cutaneous adverse events induced by low-dose alpha-interferon treatment for malignant melanoma. Dermatology; 2004;208(1):49-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A prospective study of cutaneous adverse events induced by low-dose alpha-interferon treatment for malignant melanoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: A prospective study was designed to evaluate the incidence and clinical pattern of cutaneous side effects in a cohort of patients receiving adjuvant therapy with low-dose interferon for malignant melanoma.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort of 33 patients with stage IIA and IIB melanoma treated with low-dose alpha-interferon (3 MIU 3 times a week for 18 months) were prospectively enrolled in a single-center study.
  • The patients responded to a questionnaire on their medical history and were systematically examined for any cutaneous lesions before treatment and every 3 months afterwards.
  • CONCLUSION: Cutaneous adverse events during adjuvant immunotherapy of melanoma with low-dose alpha-interferon seem to be frequent but do not result in treatment discontinuation.
  • A good awareness of these side effects may be useful for a more accurate survey and clinical management of patients receiving this treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Diseases / chemically induced

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 14730237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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20. Tas F, Kurul S, Camlica H, Topuz E: Malignant melanoma in Turkey: a single institution's experience on 475 cases. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 Dec;36(12):794-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant melanoma in Turkey: a single institution's experience on 475 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the characteristics and the clinical outcomes of patients with cutaneous melanoma in Turkey.
  • RESULTS: Of the 475 adult cases with complete staging procedure, the incidence of localized (stages I-II) disease was 301 (63.4%), and followed by node involved (stage III) and metastatic (stage IV) disease with the incidence of 117 (24.6%) and 57 (12.0%), respectively.
  • Of 206 patients (43.4%) the diseases were located on extremities, 150 (31.6%) on the trunk, and 102 (21.5%) on the head and neck region.
  • The superficial spreading type was the commonest histology (52.2%).
  • Unresponsiveness to chemotherapy, visceral metastasis, multiple metastases and not given chemotherapy were the poor prognostic factors for overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17060409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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21. Hashemi M, Stark A, Hugo H, Mehdorn M: Intracranial trigeminal nerve metastasis of a desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma: case report. Cent Eur Neurosurg; 2009 May;70(2):91-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intracranial trigeminal nerve metastasis of a desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Desmoplastic neurotropic mela-noma is a rare and highly malignant variant of melanoma.
  • Solitary nervus trigeminus and Gasserian ganglion metastasis of a neurotropic melanoma has not been previously described in the literature.
  • 4 years previously he underwent tumor removal with an initial diagnosis of amelanotic malignant cutaneous melanoma; 1 year later, because of tumor recurrence, the patient underwent neck dissection, chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Histopathological studies proved the tumor to be a desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma (DNM) that was related to the previously treated malignant melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: A metastatic tumor arising solely in a trigeminal nerve from a cutaneous malignant melanoma is quite rare; to our knowledge this may be the first report of such a case in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Trigeminal Nerve. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
  • (PMID = 19711263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-4904
  • [Journal-full-title] Central European neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cent Eur Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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22. Richtig E, Soyer HP, Posch M, Mossbacher U, Bauer P, Teban L, Svolba G, Wolf IH, Fritsch P, Zelger B, Volc-Platzer B, Gebhart W, Mischer P, Steiner A, Pachinger W, Hintner H, Gschnait F, Rappersberger K, Pilarski P, Pehamberger H, European Cooperative Adjuvant Melanoma Treatment Study Group: Prospective, randomized, multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled trial comparing adjuvant interferon alfa and isotretinoin with interferon alfa alone in stage IIA and IIB melanoma: European Cooperative Adjuvant Melanoma Treatment Study Group. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Dec 1;23(34):8655-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prospective, randomized, multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled trial comparing adjuvant interferon alfa and isotretinoin with interferon alfa alone in stage IIA and IIB melanoma: European Cooperative Adjuvant Melanoma Treatment Study Group.
  • PURPOSE: The combination of interferon alfa (IFNalpha) and isotretinoin has shown a direct antiproliferative effect on human melanoma cell lines, but it remained unclear whether this combination is more effective than IFNalpha alone in patients with metastatic melanoma.
  • We evaluated safety and efficacy of IFNalpha and isotretinoin compared with IFNalpha alone as adjuvant treatment in patients with primary malignant melanoma stage IIA and IIB.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 407 melanoma patients in stage IIA (301 patients) and IIB (106 patients) were randomly assigned to either IFNalpha and isotretinoin (isotretinoin group; 206 patients) or IFNalpha and placebo (placebo group; 201 patients) after excision of the primary tumor.
  • IFNalpha was administered three times a week at a dose of 3 million units subcutaneously for 24 months.
  • CONCLUSION: The addition of isotretinoin to an adjuvant treatment of low-dose IFNalpha in patients with stage IIA and IIB melanoma had no significant effect on disease-free or overall survival and is therefore not recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Isotretinoin / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Double-Blind Method. Europe. Female. Humans. Hyperlipidemias / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Quality of Life. Skin Diseases / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Dec 1;23(34):8559-63 [16260699.001]
  • (PMID = 16260701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
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23. Khakoo AY, Halushka MK, Rame JE, Rodriguez ER, Kasper EK, Judge DP: Reversible cardiomyopathy caused by administration of interferon alpha. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med; 2005 Jan;2(1):53-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: A 56-year-old man with normal cardiac function received treatment with interferon alpha-2b for malignant melanoma.
  • Eight months after the initiation of therapy he developed fatigue and dyspnea on exertion.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Interferon alpha-2b-induced cardiomyopathy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Follow-Up Studies. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Heart Failure / chemically induced. Humans. Male. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Myocarditis / chemically induced. Recombinant Proteins. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 16265343.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Cardiovascular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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24. Michalopoulos P, Yawalkar N, Brönnimann M, Kappeler A, Braathen LR: Characterization of the cellular infiltrate during successful topical treatment of lentigo maligna with imiquimod. Br J Dermatol; 2004 Oct;151(4):903-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Imiquimod .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characterization of the cellular infiltrate during successful topical treatment of lentigo maligna with imiquimod.
  • Lentigo maligna (LM) is an in situ melanoma which usually occurs in sun-damaged skin on the head and neck of elderly patients.
  • Depending on the anatomical site and its size treatment of LM can be problematic and usually includes surgical excision or radiotherapy.
  • Recent reports indicate that topical imiquimod may be an effective treatment.
  • However, no data on the underlying immune response in the skin during treatment of LM with topical imiquimod are available so far.
  • Skin biopsy specimens were obtained before, during (at week 10) and 4 weeks after cessation of topical treatment with imiquimod 5% cream.
  • A complete clinical and histological clearance of the skin lesion was achieved, with no recurrence up to 9 months after the end of treatment.
  • In conclusion, our data indicate that imiquimod 5% cream induces a cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune response in situ which may account for the complete destruction of the malignant melanocytes in LM.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Facial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15491436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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25. Schlemmer M, Lindner LH, Abdel-Rahman S, Issels RD: [Principles, technology and indication of hyperthermia and part body hyperthermia]. Radiologe; 2004 Apr;44(4):301-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - MRI Scans.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical hyperthermia with controlled alteration of temperature (40 to 44 degrees C) in the target area is used in interdisciplinary treatment concepts for tumor treatment in combination with radiation and/or radiotherapy.
  • Besides the direct cytotoxic power of hyperthermia there is an immunomodulatory effect and a radiation and chemotherapy sensitizing effect in the heated tissue.
  • Clinical hyperthermia is an invasive or non-invasive supply of energy to the body of the patient, which leads to an artificial heating of the tumor and the surrounded tissue.
  • There are three different types of hyperthermia: local hyperthermia (LHT), regional hyperthermia (RHT) and part body hyperthermia (PBH).
  • I and phase II trials could show that the effects of radiation and chemotherapy can be altered by the simultaneous addition of hyperthermia.
  • Data of trials involving skin metastasis in malignant melanoma, local relapse in breast cancer, tumors of the head and neck with regional lymph node metastasis, as well as trials in colorectal tumors, bladder cancer, pancreatic cancer, cervical cancer and sarcoma are presented.
  • The results shows, that response to treatment can be improved by hyperthermia.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperthermia, Induced / instrumentation. Hyperthermia, Induced / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasms / therapy. Therapy, Computer-Assisted / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Humans. Patient Selection. Technology Assessment, Biomedical

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  • (PMID = 15042293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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26. Ekborn A, Hansson J, Ehrsson H, Eksborg S, Wallin I, Wagenius G, Laurell G: High-dose Cisplatin with amifostine: ototoxicity and pharmacokinetics. Laryngoscope; 2004 Sep;114(9):1660-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. AMIFOSTINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Ototoxicity is a common side effect of high-dose cisplatin treatment.
  • The trial was initiated to test the efficacy of amifostine protection in high-dose cisplatin treatment (125-150 mg/m) for metastatic malignant melanoma, to correlate the ototoxic outcome with cisplatin pharmacokinetics, and to evaluate the importance of using a selective analytical method for the quantification of cisplatin.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study of 15 patients with stage IV malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: Clinical follow-up of therapeutic response, pure-tone audiometry, and analysis of cisplatin and its monohydrated complex in blood ultrafiltrate by liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization were performed.
  • All patients had audiometric changes at one or more frequencies after the second treatment course, and all but one patient reported auditory symptoms.
  • CONCLUSION: Ototoxicity was unacceptable despite amifostine treatment.
  • Cisplatin pharmacokinetics during the first treatment course were not predictive of hearing loss.
  • Amifostine caused a lowering of dose-normalized area under the concentration-time curve for cisplatin and monohydrated complex.
  • Use of the unselective inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis leads to an overestimation of active drug.
  • Selective analysis of cisplatin is especially important when evaluating cisplatin pharmacokinetics during chemoprotector treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Amifostine / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Cisplatin / toxicity. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / chemically induced. Melanoma / drug therapy. Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Audiometry, Pure-Tone. Auditory Threshold / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Metabolic Clearance Rate / drug effects. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CIS-DIAMINEDICHLOROPLATINUM .
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  • (PMID = 15475801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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27. Stefanidou M, Tosca A, Themelis G, Vazgiouraki E, Balas C: In vivo fluorescence kinetics and photodynamic therapy efficacy of delta-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins in basal cell carcinomas and actinic keratoses; implications for optimization of photodynamic therapy. Eur J Dermatol; 2000 Jul-Aug;10(5):351-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In vivo fluorescence kinetics and photodynamic therapy efficacy of delta-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins in basal cell carcinomas and actinic keratoses; implications for optimization of photodynamic therapy.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical d-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has become a therapeutic option of growing interest for superficial non-melanoma precancerous and malignant lesions.
  • Therefore, the determination of fluorescence kinetics and spatial distribution in vivo versus time is a crucial point for the success of ALA-PDT.
  • In vivo spatial and quantitative detection of the fluorescence intensity versus time showed considerable variations among tumors of the same type, so light irradiation was performed according to patient individualities.
  • The results of fluorescence studies suggest that optimum irradiation time for BCC is approximately 3.5-5 hrs and for AK 5 hrs after ALA application, when relative maximal fluorescence intensity in correlation with fluorescence selectivity on the lesion, is obtained.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Porphyrins / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Female. Fluorescence. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Kinetics. Male. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10882942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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28. Myers M, Gurwood AS: Periocular malignancies and primary eye care. Optometry; 2001 Nov;72(11):705-12
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Eye Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: In 1985, an estimated 92,000 new cases of skin malignancies were diagnosed worldwide.
  • Based on reports from the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as the stratospheric ozone layer continues to be depleted, the number of new cases of skin cancer are predicted to climb by as many as 12 million over the next 50 years.
  • Up to 90% of all cases of skin cancer occur in the vicinity of the head or neck and 10% of those involve the eyelids.
  • METHODS: We surveyed the literature regarding the incidence, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management, prognosis, and prevention of the most common periocular malignancies.
  • The types of malignancies include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma.
  • RESULTS: The period of greatest risk for the development of skin cancer begins in the fourth decade and increases with advancing age.
  • Up to 20% of periocular skin lesions are malignant.
  • Perhaps the most-significant risk factor is innate skin coloration.
  • Workup for these entities includes biopsy as the first step in diagnosis and management of skin cancers.
  • Treatment alternatives, used when surgical intervention is unable to be tolerated, include radiation therapy, cryotherapy, chemotherapy, interferons, and recently developed photodynamic therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: The importance of gross observation, examination, and careful slit-lamp biomicroscopy of the ocular adnexa cannot be overstated as a means of detection, diagnosis, and management of beginning, impending, or worsening malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / diagnosis. Primary Health Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidence. Prognosis. United States

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  • (PMID = 12363258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-1839
  • [Journal-full-title] Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Optometry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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