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1. Moozar KL, Wong CS, Couture J: Anorectal malignant melanoma: treatment with surgery or radiation therapy, or both. Can J Surg; 2003 Oct;46(5):345-9
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  • [Title] Anorectal malignant melanoma: treatment with surgery or radiation therapy, or both.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anorectal malignant tumours are increasing in frequency for unknown reasons.
  • Surgery is the principal treatment, and the role of adjuvant therapy has not been defined.
  • We therefore decided to review the experience of the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, a large tertiary care cancer hospital, with respect to the surgical management of anorectal melanoma.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the charts of all registered patients with anorectal malignant melanoma (AMM) treated with surgery or radiotherapy, or both, at the hospital between 1980 and 1999, paying particular attention to survival, and local and distant recurrences.
  • RESULTS: There were 14 patients, all of whom were followed up to the time of death or for a minimum of 28 months for surviving patients.
  • The mean ages at diagnosis were 56 years for men and 68 years for women.
  • Local therapy included local resection alone in 7 cases and abdominoperineal resection in 7.
  • Seven patients received pelvic irradiation at some time during their disease, using different doses and fractionation schemes.
  • Three of them had concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy with no tumour regression.
  • Six patients were alive 1 year after treatment (median survival 32.5 mo [range from 21-51 mo]).
  • The overall survival was poor regardless of local treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colostomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 14577706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-428X
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3211713
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2. Singer M, Mutch MG: Anal melanoma. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):78-87
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  • [Title] Anal melanoma.
  • Anal melanoma is rare and aggressive malignancy.
  • Unlike cutaneous melanoma, anal melanoma has no known risk factors.
  • Surgical excision remains the cornerstone of therapy.
  • There are no long-term survivors of stage II or III disease; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment remain crucial.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy, interferon, and radiation may offer some benefit.

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  • (PMID = 20011314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780102
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Melanoma / abdominoperineal resection / anal / malignancy / wide local excision
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3. Spugnini EP, Filipponi M, Romani L, Dotsinsky I, Mudrov N, Baroni A, Ruocco E, Laieta MT, Montesarchio V, Cassandro R, Citro G, Baldi A: Local control and distant metastasis after electrochemotherapy of a canine anal melanoma. In Vivo; 2007 Sep-Oct;21(5):897-9
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  • [Title] Local control and distant metastasis after electrochemotherapy of a canine anal melanoma.
  • Canine anal melanoma is an aggressive neoplasm that rapidly leads to constipation in dogs, thus mimicking the behavior of their human counterpart.
  • Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a safe palliative therapy for such neoplasm and warrants further investigations in dogs as well humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / drug therapy. Dog Diseases / pathology. Electrochemotherapy. Melanoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Female. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18019432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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4. Antonescu CR, Busam KJ, Francone TD, Wong GC, Guo T, Agaram NP, Besmer P, Jungbluth A, Gimbel M, Chen CT, Veach D, Clarkson BD, Paty PB, Weiser MR: L576P KIT mutation in anal melanomas correlates with KIT protein expression and is sensitive to specific kinase inhibition. Int J Cancer; 2007 Jul 15;121(2):257-64
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  • [Title] L576P KIT mutation in anal melanomas correlates with KIT protein expression and is sensitive to specific kinase inhibition.
  • Activating mutations in either BRAF or NRAS are seen in a significant number of malignant melanomas, but their incidence appears to be dependent to ultraviolet light exposure.
  • More recently, activating KIT mutations have been described in rare cases of metastatic melanoma, without further reference to their clinical phenotypes.
  • In this study, we investigated a group of anal melanomas for the presence of BRAF, NRAS, KIT and PDGFRA mutations.
  • No BRAF or PDGFRA mutations were identified in either KIT positive or negative anal melanomas.
  • In vitro drug testing of stable transformant Ba/F3 KIT(L576P) mutant cells showed sensitivity for dasatinib (previously known as BMS-354825), a dual SRC/ABL kinase inhibitor, and imatinib.
  • These results suggest that a subset of anal melanomas show activating KIT mutations, which are susceptible for therapy with specific kinase inhibitors.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17372901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA047179; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA064593; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA008748; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / HL/DK55748
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Thiazoles; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; RBZ1571X5H / Dasatinib
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5. Yaramov N, Sokolov M, Angelov K, Petrov B, Pavlov V: [Malignant melanoma of the anus and rectum]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2010;(2-3):5-7
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  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma of the anus and rectum].
  • There is approximately 300 cases of malignant melanoma written in the world literature.
  • We write up 13 operated from us for 15 years cases of melanoma of the anus and rectum.
  • Despite the complex treatment--surgical, chemotherapy etc. the prognosis is at large poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21972686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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6. Tezuka K, Inaba Y, Hayashi K, Miura T, Moriya T, Takiguchi M, Isobe H, Watabe S, Yanagawa N: [A case of liver metastasis from anorectal malignant melanoma on hemodialysis treated by chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Oct;34(10):1709-12
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  • [Title] [A case of liver metastasis from anorectal malignant melanoma on hemodialysis treated by chemotherapy].
  • We report a case on hemodialysis with liver metastases from anorectal malignant melanoma treated by dacarbazine (DTIC).
  • A 61-year-old man presented with anal bleeding.
  • An elastic soft mass was palpated in the anal canal, and a biopsy specimen was diagnosed as anorectal malignant melanoma histologically.
  • Two and a half years after surgery, computed tomography showed multiple liver metastases.
  • We chose chemotherapy consisting of DTIC 100 mg for five consecutive days every 4 weeks in addition to hemodialysis (3 times a week).
  • After three cycles of chemotherapy, liver metastases were stable, but new lung metastases were found.
  • After 12 cycles of chemotherapy, liver metastases became stable, but lung metastases were progressive.
  • Subsequently, the patient died of respiratory failure 4 years after surgery, 1 year and 7 months after the diagnosis of multiple liver metastases.
  • We conclude that administration of DTIC undergoing hemodialysis for malignant melanoma with renal failure seems to be useful without severe adverse events.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / drug therapy. Renal Dialysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17940397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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7. Köksal N, Müftüoglu T, Günerhan Y, Uskent N: Complete remission of the liver metastases of anorectal malignant melanoma with regional chemotherapy: a case report. Hepatogastroenterology; 2000 May-Jun;47(33):612-4
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  • [Title] Complete remission of the liver metastases of anorectal malignant melanoma with regional chemotherapy: a case report.
  • The prognosis of anorectal malignant melanoma is very poor.
  • We present a 48-year-old male patient with anorectal malignant melanoma and multiple liver metastases who underwent abdominoperineal resection.
  • A port system was implanted to the gastroduodenal artery for regional chemotherapy for liver metastases.
  • Both regional chemotherapy and immunotherapy were initiated 4 weeks postoperatively.
  • Computed tomography scan was taken after the 2nd and 4th cycles of chemotherapy and the tumor had not responded to chemotherapy.
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were taken on the 10th and 12th months after operation, respectively, no evidence of metastases in the liver was noted.
  • No case of complete remission of liver metastases of anorectal malignant melanoma with regional intraarterial chemotherapy and systemic immunochemotherapy has been previously reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 10918997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Interleukin-2; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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8. Nakamura T, Ide H: [Malignant melanoma of the alimentary tract]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 May;30(5):619-25
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  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma of the alimentary tract].
  • We reviewed case reports of malignant melanoma in the alimentary tract and discussed the diagnosis and treatment.
  • Cases of malignant melanoma in the alimentary tract have mostly originated from the esophagus and an anorectal lesion.
  • Malignant melanoma of the alimentary tract might be more aggressive than that of the skin.
  • A combined modality treatment including progressive chemotherapy and biotherapy is expected to improve the prognosis of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Esophageal Neoplasms. Melanoma. Rectal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Nimustine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12795092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; DAV protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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9. Kawano N, Tashiro M, Taguchi M, Kihara Y, Yoshikawa I, Syukuwa K, Yamasaki M, Kume K, Otsuki M: [Combined treatment with dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta in a patient with advanced anorectal malignant melanoma]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Nov;105(11):1627-33
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  • [Title] [Combined treatment with dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta in a patient with advanced anorectal malignant melanoma].
  • A 73-year-old man, who was diagnosed as having advanced anorectal malignant melanoma (Stage IV), was treated with combination chemotherapy using dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta.
  • After the first course of chemotherapy, rectal tumor was decreased in size with less anal pain and liver tumor was disappeared.
  • Twenty-four months after the first treatment, the patient is survived.
  • DAC-Tam IFN-beta therapy may improve the management of patients who have advanced MM of the anorectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Humans. Interferon-beta / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Nimustine / administration & dosage. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18987448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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10. Ishizone S, Koide N, Karasawa F, Akita N, Muranaka F, Uhara H, Miyagawa S: Surgical treatment for anorectal malignant melanoma: report of five cases and review of 79 Japanese cases. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2008 Dec;23(12):1257-62
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment for anorectal malignant melanoma: report of five cases and review of 79 Japanese cases.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anorectal malignant melanoma (AMM) is a relatively rare disease.
  • Because of its poor prognosis, the optimal surgical treatment for AMM is still controversial and difficult to determine.
  • We also review the present five cases along with 74 other Japanese cases reported between 1997 and 2006 and discuss the role of surgery in the treatment of AMM.
  • There was no significant difference in survival between AMM patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, AMM patients treated by curative surgery can expect long-term survival, although the usefulness of adjuvant chemotherapy for AMM patients is controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Rectum / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Dis Colon Rectum. 1997 Jun;40(6):661-8 [9194459.001]
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  • (PMID = 18633625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Sasaki S, Kojima T, Hidemura A, Hatanaka K, Uekusa T, Ishimaru M: [A case report of anorectal malignant melanoma showing a complete response after DTIC/ACNU/VCR therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Oct;37(10):1999-2002
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  • [Title] [A case report of anorectal malignant melanoma showing a complete response after DTIC/ACNU/VCR therapy].
  • The patient was diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the anorectum using colonoscopy.
  • Cancer cells were found in regional lymph nodes.
  • Post-operative CT scan demonstrated multiple metastases in the liver, and he received two courses of combined chemotherapy, DAV regimen (dacarbazine: DTIC 100 mg iv days 1-5, nimustine hydrochloride: ACNU 100 mg iv day 1, vincristine sulfate: VCR 1 mg iv day 1), leading to a complete response.
  • However, malignant melanoma cells were found in hernia contents at the operation for left inguinal hernia, which led to a diagnosis of recurrent malignant melanoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete response in a patient with multiple liver metastases of anorectal malignant melanoma after DAV regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Nimustine / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20948273.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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12. Ulmer A, Metzger S, Fierlbeck G: Successful palliation of stenosing anorectal melanoma by intratumoral injections with natural interferon-beta. Melanoma Res; 2002 Aug;12(4):395-8
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  • [Title] Successful palliation of stenosing anorectal melanoma by intratumoral injections with natural interferon-beta.
  • Anorectal malignant melanoma is an uncommon tumour.
  • Unlike for cutaneous melanoma, there are few guidelines for its optimal management.
  • In particular, very few palliative treatment strategies have been described for patients with advanced disease.
  • We report on an 80 year old patient with locally advanced anorectal melanoma nearly completely blocking the anal orifice and disseminated metastases.
  • We propose that conservative treatment strategies such as intratumoral injections with interferon-beta should be considered as a palliative treatment option for stenosing anorectal melanoma before an abdominoperineal resection is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Interferon-beta / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Palliative Care. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Constriction, Pathologic. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Female. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Injections, Intralesional. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Quality of Life. Rectal Prolapse / etiology. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 12170190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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13. Vietharsdóttir H, Moeller PH, Jóhannsson J, Jónasson JG: [Anal cancer in Iceland 1987-2003. A population based study]. Laeknabladid; 2006 May;92(5):365-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer in Iceland 1987-2003. A population based study].
  • OBJECTIVE: Anal cancer is a rare disease.
  • The aim of this study was to describe anal cancer in Iceland in 1987-2003 with respect to incidence, histologic type, treatment, recurrence rate and survival.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study in which all malignant anal tumours diagnosed in Iceland in the period 1987-2003 were reviewed with respect to patient outcome.
  • This is a nationwide, population-based study of malignant tumours of the anal region.
  • RESULTS: From 1987-2003 thirty-eight patients were diagnosed with anal cancer, 28 females and 10 males.
  • The average age at diagnosis was 63.4 years.
  • Age standardized incidence rates for anal cancer in Iceland were 0.3 (+/-0.2) of 100.000 males and 0.9 (+/-0.4) of 100.000 females.
  • The remaining histologic types were malignant melanoma (n=3), adenosquamous carcinoma (n=1), adenocarcinoma (n=1), GIST (n=1) and undifferentiated carcinoma (n=2).
  • The duration of symptoms before diagnosis ranged from 2 weeks to 96 months (mean value 3.5 months).
  • Treatment modalities used were chemotherapy (n=12), radiotherapy (n=25) and local excision (n=18) and/or APR (n=5).
  • One patient received no treatment.
  • Many patients were treated with more than one treatment modality (n=18).
  • Twelve patients had recurrent cancer.
  • The mean value of the time from diagnosis of the primary to the recurrent cancer was 15.6 months (range, 5.9-117).
  • Sixteen patients remain with disease and ten have died of anal cancer.
  • The five year survival rate for patients diagnosed in the years 1987 to 1998 is 75% but cancer-specific survival is 82%.
  • CONCLUSION: Age-standardized incidence for anal cancer in Iceland is similar to other regions.
  • Average age at diagnosis, male-female ratio and prognosis is similar to reports in other studies.
  • The proportion of adenocarcinoma of the anus is lower in Iceland than elsewhere.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Defecation. Female. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Iceland / epidemiology. Incidence. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Pain / etiology. Pruritus / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16741319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-7213
  • [Journal-full-title] Læknablađiđ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laeknabladid
  • [Language] ice
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iceland
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14. Snoj M, Rudolf Z, Cemazar M, Jancar B, Sersa G: Successful sphincter-saving treatment of anorectal malignant melanoma with electrochemotherapy, local excision and adjuvant brachytherapy. Anticancer Drugs; 2005 Mar;16(3):345-8
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  • [Title] Successful sphincter-saving treatment of anorectal malignant melanoma with electrochemotherapy, local excision and adjuvant brachytherapy.
  • Anorectal malignant melanoma is a rare tumor and there is no consensus on whether aggressive or local management is more appropriate.
  • Therefore, new adjuvant treatment strategies to permit local sphincter-saving excisions are warranted.
  • In our case, a large anorectal malignant melanoma was successfully treated preoperatively by electrochemotherapy with cisplatin that, by reducing the tumor size, enabled sphincter-saving local excision.
  • Fourteen months after the beginning of treatment, the patient is without signs of local recurrence and is continent.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brachytherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy / methods. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15711188.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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15. Hornick JL, Jaffe ES, Fletcher CD: Extranodal histiocytic sarcoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 14 cases of a rare epithelioid malignancy. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 Sep;28(9):1133-44
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  • Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in lymph nodes, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Seven tumors arose in soft tissue (6 lower limb; 1 upper limb), 5 in the gastrointestinal tract (1 involving both stomach and colon, 1 ileum, 2 rectum, 1 anus), 1 in the nasal cavity, and 1 in the lung.
  • Six patients were treated with postoperative radiation and 7 with chemotherapy (CHOP or ProMACE-MOPP).
  • Two tumors recurred locally, and 5 patients developed distant spread: 3 to lymph nodes, 1 to lung, and 1 to bone.
  • At the last follow-up, 2 patients have died of disseminated disease, 4 and 5 months following initial diagnosis.
  • Histiocytic sarcoma may arise primarily in soft tissue and shows reproducible histologic features, including abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and a prominent inflammatory infiltrate.
  • Metastatic carcinoma, metastatic melanoma, and large cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas should be excluded by immunohistochemistry.

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  • (PMID = 15316312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Winburn GB: Anal carcinoma or "just hemorrhoids"? Am Surg; 2001 Nov;67(11):1048-58
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal carcinoma or "just hemorrhoids"?
  • Cancers of the anal margin and anal canal are extremely rare and often misdiagnosed.
  • From January 1985 through July 2000, 50 patients were diagnosed with anal cancer at two institutions.
  • This retrospective review includes all available cases of anal cancer including all histologies.
  • Patient charts were analyzed for diagnosis, staging, treatment, survival, and recurrence rate.
  • The pathologic diagnosis included 44 (88%) with squamous cell carcinoma, three (6%) with melanoma, two (4%) with adenocarcinoma, and one (2%) with Paget's disease.
  • Chemoradiotherapy was the primary treatment modality in 25 patients (50%).
  • Three patients (6%) received an APR as primary treatment, three (6%) in combination with chemoradiation, and four (8%) for salvage therapy.
  • Fourteen patients (28%) underwent wide local excision (WLE) as the primary treatment.
  • Two patients (4%) underwent WLE plus chemoradiation therapy.
  • One patient (2%) underwent WLE and chemotherapy.
  • Thirteen patients (26%) died of anal cancer; the average time to death from diagnosis was 13.2 months.
  • Three of these deaths were in patients with melanoma who presented with stage IV disease.
  • Thirty-two patients (64%) are alive, and 30 (60%) of these patients are free of disease (mean time since diagnosis 32.5 months, range 2-151 months).
  • Six patients (12%) had recurrence after treatment (mean time to recurrence 12.6 months; range 3-26 months).
  • Anal cancers continue to present at an advanced stage, with a high mortality rate.
  • Anal melanoma in particular is an aggressive and highly fatal cancer.
  • APR remains the recommended salvage therapy for advanced anal carcinomas that fail primary treatment.
  • Early recognition and detection of primary and recurrent disease is necessary for improved outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hemorrhoids / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11730221.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Wilkins K, Turner R, Dolev JC, LeBoit PE, Berger TG, Maurer TA: Cutaneous malignancy and human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Feb;54(2):189-206; quiz 207-10
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  • Malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma are examples of cutaneous malignancies that have a more aggressive course in patients with HIV.
  • The incidence of HIV-associated Kapsosi's sarcoma has markedly decreased since the advent of HIV antiretroviral therapy.
  • Other types of cutaneous lymphoma and HIV-associated pseudo-CTCL are discussed.
  • This article addresses prevention, treatment, and follow-up strategies for this at-risk population.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Animals. Anti-Retroviral Agents / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Herpesviridae Infections / epidemiology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. Immunity, Cellular. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / epidemiology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / epidemiology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / immunology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / therapy. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Risk Factors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Seroepidemiologic Studies

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  • (PMID = 16443048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 274
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