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1. Goodwin RA, Asmis TR: Overview of systemic therapy for colorectal cancer. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 Nov;22(4):251-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Overview of systemic therapy for colorectal cancer.
  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and second leading cause of death from cancer in North America.
  • The authors provide an overview of the indications for both chemotherapy and targeted therapy, as well as discuss the efficacy and toxicity of systemic therapy.
  • They highlight the key studies that lead to the initial historical use of fluorouracil (5FU) based chemotherapy in the adjuvant and metastatic setting, the recent adoption of 5FU plus leucovorin (LV) and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) chemotherapy over 5FU when treating adjuvant patients, and the use of FOLFOX or 5FU plus LV and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) in metastatic patients.
  • They also review the role of chemotherapy in treating rectal cancer and resectable liver metastatic disease.
  • Future areas of research focus for systemic therapy of colorectal cancer are highlighted.

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  • (PMID = 21037816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2796098
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chemotherapy / adjuvant therapy / metastatic / targeted therapy
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2. Van De Wiele C, Defreyne L, Peeters M, Lambert B: Yttrium-90 labelled resin microspheres for treatment of primary and secondary malignant liver tumors. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2009 Jun;53(3):317-24
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  • [Title] Yttrium-90 labelled resin microspheres for treatment of primary and secondary malignant liver tumors.
  • Neither regional nor systemic chemotherapy significantly improve survival in the majority of patients presenting with liver metastases and their median survival is short.
  • While the incidence of hepatocellular (HCC) is increasingly worldwide, the various treatment approaches that hve been developed to treat non-resectable HCC have had minimal or moderate impact on overall survival.
  • SIR-Spheres (SIRS) are commercially available (90)Y-labelled resin microspheres that when selectively injected via the hepatic artery will become trapped in the tumor caplliary bed and will selectively deliver radiation to the tumor whilst sparing normal tissue.
  • First, available, predominantly phase I and II studies, on SIRS treatment performed in patients suffering from liver metastases as well as in patients suffering from multinodular asymptomatic unresectable HCC with a well preserved liver function have consistently reported a favourable safety profile for SIRS therapy; only a limited number of patients develop gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding.
  • Second, most of the studies also reported a high reponse rate to SIRS treatment resulting in increased life expectancy; median survival rates proved consistently higher when compared to historical controls.
  • Finally, in two randomized controlled phase III trials, benefits were demonstrated for SIRS combined with chemotherapy when compared to the chemo-arm alone in patients suffering from colorectal liver metastasis.
  • However, since these reports, novel, potentially more effective chemotherapeutics have been introduced for treating colorectal liver metastasis and the clinical value of (90)Y-Sirspheres when compared to these novel chemotherapeutics warrants confirmation and validation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radioisotopes / administration & dosage. Resins, Synthetic / chemistry. Yttrium Radioisotopes / administration & dosage. Yttrium Radioisotopes / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Carriers / chemistry. Humans. Microspheres. Radiopharmaceuticals / administration & dosage. Radiopharmaceuticals / chemistry. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 19521311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Resins, Synthetic; 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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3. Mehrabi A, Kashfi A, Fonouni H, Schemmer P, Schmied BM, Hallscheidt P, Schirmacher P, Weitz J, Friess H, Buchler MW, Schmidt J: Primary malignant hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: a comprehensive review of the literature with emphasis on the surgical therapy. Cancer; 2006 Nov 1;107(9):2108-21
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  • [Title] Primary malignant hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: a comprehensive review of the literature with emphasis on the surgical therapy.
  • Malignant hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEH) is a rare malignant tumor of vascular origin with unknown etiology and a variable natural course.
  • The authors present a comprehensive review of the literature on HEH with a focus on clinical outcome after different therapeutic strategies.
  • The reviewed parameters included demographic data, clinical manifestations, therapeutic modalities, and clinical outcome.
  • Most patients presented with multifocal tumor that involved both lobes of the liver.
  • Lung, peritoneum, lymph nodes, and bone were the most common sites of extrahepatic involvement at the time of diagnosis.
  • The most common management has been liver transplantation (LTx) (44.8% of patients), followed by no treatment (24.8% of patients), chemotherapy or radiotherapy (21% of patients), and liver resection (LRx) (9.4% of patients).
  • The 1-year and 5-year patient survival rates were 96% and 54.5%, respectively, after LTx; 39.3% and 4.5%, respectively, after no treatment, 73.3% and 30%, respectively, after chemotherapy or radiotherapy; and 100% and 75%, respectively, after LRx.
  • LRx has been the treatment of choice in patients with resectable HEH.
  • However, LTx has been proposed as the treatment of choice because of the hepatic multicentricity of HEH.
  • The role of different adjuvant therapies for patients with HEH remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / diagnosis. Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Liver Transplantation. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17019735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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4. Miyake M, Takeda Y, Hasuike Y, Kashiwazaki M, Mishima H, Ikenaga M, Mano M, Takada Y, Hirota S, Tsujinaka T: [A case of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor developing a resistance to STI571 (imatinib mesylate)]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2004 Oct;31(11):1791-4
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  • [Title] [A case of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor developing a resistance to STI571 (imatinib mesylate)].
  • Since malignant GISTs are resistant to conventional radiation therapy and chemotherapy, recurrent or malignant GIST has an extremely poor prognosis even after surgical resection.
  • The development of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, STI571 (imatinib mesylate, Glivec, Gleevec), which inhibits the BCR-ABL, PDGF-R alpha and c-kit receptors, has changed the management of unresectable malignant GIST and has improved the survival of patients with metastatic disease.
  • We report a patient with GIST and diffused peritoneal metastases, whose tumor initially responded to STI571 and eventually became resistant.
  • A 45-year-old woman underwent partial jejunostomy on September 3, 1998, under a diagnosis of submucosal tumor of the jejunum.
  • Pathological examination of the primary tumor revealed a strong c-kit expression and GIST was diagnosed.
  • A treatment with STI571 (400 mg/day) was initiated on October 15, 2001, and she was free from peritoneal masses for 8 months after the fourth operation.
  • However, the patient herself suspended the STI571 therapy for one month and multiple peritoneal metastases developed.
  • Although the treatment with STI571 was restarted at 400 mg/day, the peritoneal masses did not respond this time.
  • She died of liver, lung, and peritoneal metastases after the seventh cytoreductive operation on February 11, 2004.
  • Her tumors showed mutations in exons 9 or 11 of KIT, which had longer event-free and overall survival times than those tumors that had mutations of exons 13 or 17.
  • After the interruption of the treatment, an additional point mutation arose in exon 13 that caused a resistance to STI571.
  • Currently STI571 is the first-line therapy for non-resectable GISTs, but a single-agent therapy often leads to tumor resistance.
  • It is our hope that we will be able to design an alternative treatment to overcome such resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Exons / genetics. Female. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 15553717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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5. Dodd GD 3rd, Soulen MC, Kane RA, Livraghi T, Lees WR, Yamashita Y, Gillams AR, Karahan OI, Rhim H: Minimally invasive treatment of malignant hepatic tumors: at the threshold of a major breakthrough. Radiographics; 2000 Jan-Feb;20(1):9-27
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  • [Title] Minimally invasive treatment of malignant hepatic tumors: at the threshold of a major breakthrough.
  • Six existing minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of primary and secondary malignant hepatic tumors--radio-frequency ablation, microwave ablation, laser ablation, cryoablation, ethanol ablation, and chemoembolization--are reviewed and debated by noted authorities from six institutions from around the world.
  • All of the authors currently believe that surgery remains the treatment of choice for patients with resectable hepatic tumors.
  • However, the clinical results of each of the minimally invasive techniques presented have exceeded those obtained with conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
  • Thus, for nonsurgical patients, these techniques are becoming standard independent or adjuvant therapies.
  • In addition, with continued improvement in technology and increasing clinical experience, one or more of these minimally invasive techniques may soon challenge surgical resection as the treatment of choice for patients with limited hepatic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cryosurgery. Diathermy. Electrocoagulation. Humans. Laser Coagulation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Microwaves / therapeutic use. Patient Selection. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 10682768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-5333
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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6. Wildi SM, Gubler C, Hany T, Petrowsky H, Clavien PA, Jochum W, Gerlach T, Fried M, Mullhaupt B: Intraoperative sonography in patients with colorectal cancer and resectable liver metastases on preoperative FDG-PET-CT. J Clin Ultrasound; 2008 Jan;36(1):20-6
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  • [Title] Intraoperative sonography in patients with colorectal cancer and resectable liver metastases on preoperative FDG-PET-CT.
  • BACKGROUND: Combined fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-CT imaging has been shown to be of good diagnostic value in the preoperative evaluation of patients with colorectal cancer and liver metastases.
  • The adjunctive use of intraoperative sonography (IOUS) may have a limited impact on treatment selection in these patients.
  • PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performance of preoperative positron emission tomography (PET)-CT alone and PET-CT combined with IOUS in the evaluation of patients who are considered for curative resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with colorectal cancer who underwent resection of hepatic metastases and preoperative PET-CT (with or without contrast-enhanced CT) and IOUS were identified.
  • Fifteen patients had received preoperative chemotherapy.
  • In 4 cases, neither PET-CT nor IOUS correctly diagnosed the liver metastases.
  • In patients without preoperative chemotherapy (n = 16), the sensitivity of PET-CT alone and PET-CT combined with IOUS was 77% (95% CI 49-94%) and 100% (95% CI 79-100%), respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with colorectal carcinoma and potentially resectable liver metastases on preoperative PET-CT, IOUS can provide additional information that may alter decision making with regard to surgical technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Intraoperative Care / methods. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Ultrasonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography / statistics & numerical data. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17937421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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7. Hecht JR, Bedford R, Abbruzzese JL, Lahoti S, Reid TR, Soetikno RM, Kirn DH, Freeman SM: A phase I/II trial of intratumoral endoscopic ultrasound injection of ONYX-015 with intravenous gemcitabine in unresectable pancreatic carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2003 Feb;9(2):555-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Localized pancreatic carcinoma is rarely resectable and is resistant to conventional therapies.
  • ONYX-015 (dl1520) is an E1B-55kD gene-deleted replication-selective adenovirus that preferentially replicates in and kills malignant cells.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has the potential to conveniently and accurately deliver local therapy to the pancreas.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Twenty-one patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas or with metastatic disease, but minimal or absent liver metastases, underwent eight sessions of ONYX-015 delivered by EUS injection into the primary pancreatic tumor over 8 weeks.
  • The final four treatments were given in combination with gemcitabine (i.v., 1,000 mg/m(2)).
  • Patients received 2 x 10(10) (n = 3) or 2 x 10(11) (n = 18) virus particles/treatment.
  • RESULTS: After combination therapy, 2 patients had partial regressions of the injected tumor, 2 had minor responses, 6 had stable disease, and 11 had progressive disease or had to go off study because of treatment toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Viral Vaccines / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Adenoviridae / isolation & purification. Adult. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Injections, Intralesional. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Patient Selection. Safety. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12576418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / ONYX015; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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8. Tsushima T, Tsuji Y, Abe S, Tamura F, Mizushima T, Nagashima H, Oura K, Kukitsu T, Sumiyoshi T, Yoshizaki N, Kondo H: [A case of metastatic gastric endocrine cell carcinoma which could be curably resected after chemotherapy with S-1/CDDP]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 May;35(5):817-20
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  • [Title] [A case of metastatic gastric endocrine cell carcinoma which could be curably resected after chemotherapy with S-1/CDDP].
  • Gastric endocrine cell carcinoma is known to be highly malignant with a poor prognosis, and no standard treatment has been established.
  • We experienced a case of endocrine cell carcinoma of the stomach with liver and lymph node metastases.
  • The lesions became resectable at curability B after chemotherapy with S-1/cisplatin (CDDP).
  • A 30-mm tumor was found at the greater curvature of the lower body of the stomach, and was histologically diagnosed as an endocrine cell carcinoma from the biopsy specimen.
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed masses at S5 and S6 of the liver, and No. 4 lymph node enlargement.
  • Diagnosed as gastric endocrine cell carcinoma with liver and lymph node metastases, he was referred to our hospital.
  • We started chemotherapy with a daily dose of S-1 administered on days 1 to 14 and CDDP of 70 mg/m(2) on day 8, every 4 weeks.
  • After three courses of treatment, the primary lesion became a small scar and the metastatic lesions vanished from the CT and MRI.
  • Then we performed distal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection and partial liver resectomy.
  • Histological findings revealed no cancer cells, except for a few cells in the S5 liver lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Combinations. Gastrectomy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Oxonic Acid / administration & dosage. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18487920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Helmberger T, Holzknecht N, Schöpf U, Kulinna C, Rau H, Stäbler A, Reiser M: [Radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases. Technique and initial results]. Radiologe; 2001 Jan;41(1):69-76
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  • [Title] [Radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases. Technique and initial results].
  • Primary and secondary malignant hepatic tumors are the most common tumors with a much more higher incidence of hepatic metastases.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are in general ineffective.
  • Therefore, surgical resection is considered the method of choice in the treatment of malignant hepatic lesions.
  • Due to systemic disease, general medical or procedure-related reasons hindering surgery, only 25 to 45% of the patients with metastatic disease of the liver are suitable for a curative surgical therapy.
  • In resectable lesions thermoablative methods can offer an alternative to the surgical therapy.
  • In 4 cases a hematoma of the liver capsule occurred.
  • During the limited follow-up period of 9 months no local recurrency was seen, however 4 patients developed new hepatic metastases.
  • Beside differences in practicability it is not yet clarified if there are differences in the therapeutic efficacy of the different thermoablation methods.
  • Nevertheless, the results of the ablation therapy may parallel the results of the surgical resection.
  • Interstitial thermotherapy can provide a valuable contribution to local tumor control.
  • However, the final significance of the thermoablation techniques within oncological therapy regimens has to be evaluated in further multidisciplinary studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperthermia, Induced. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11220100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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10. Otte JB: Progress in the surgical treatment of malignant liver tumors in children. Cancer Treat Rev; 2010 Jun;36(4):360-71
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  • [Title] Progress in the surgical treatment of malignant liver tumors in children.
  • During the last decade, important progress has been made in the surgical treatment of malignant liver tumors in children.
  • For hepatoblastoma, there is a general consensus for combining surgical resection with neoadjuvant (and adjuvant) chemotherapy.
  • Long-term disease-free survival of around 85-90% can be achieved for resectable HB involving no more than three sections of the liver (PRETEXT I-III).
  • For unresectable HB without extrahepatic invasion (PRETEXT IV with involvement of all four sections and some cases of PRETEXT III with invasion of, or close contact with major venous structures), similar results can be obtained with total hepatectomy and liver transplantation.
  • For hepatocellular carcinoma, most often without underlying liver disease in children of the western world, results of resection with partial hepatectomy remain dismal, due to a high rate of recurrence.
  • In contrast, remarkable survival rates have been obtained during the last decade with liver transplantation.
  • Optimization of results require to concentrate children with a malignant liver tumors in specialized, multidisciplinary pediatric centers with expertise in chemotherapy and in both major liver resections and transplantation.
  • Enrolling these children in prospective trials should be encouraged, as well as prospective registration of transplanted patients in PLUTO (Pediatric Liver Unresectable Tumor Observatory-http://Pluto.cineca.org) in order to clarify issues unresolved by retrospective studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Child. Hepatoblastoma / pathology. Hepatoblastoma / surgery. Humans. Liver Transplantation. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20227190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1967
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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11. Shorter NA, Glick RD, Klimstra DS, Brennan MF, Laquaglia MP: Malignant pancreatic tumors in childhood and adolescence: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering experience, 1967 to present. J Pediatr Surg; 2002 Jun;37(6):887-92
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  • [Title] Malignant pancreatic tumors in childhood and adolescence: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering experience, 1967 to present.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant tumors of the pancreas are uncommon in children and adolescents and only recently have the most common tumor types been well characterized.
  • As a result, the treatment approach to these patients has yet to be standardized, and much of the information available in the literature, particularly with regard to the role of chemotherapy and radiation, is anecdotal.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of all patients less than 21 years of age with malignant pancreatic tumors who were cared for at Memorial Sloan-Kettering since 1967.
  • The pathologic types were pancreatoblastoma, 5; solid pseudopapillary tumor, 7; acinar cell carcinoma, 1; nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine neoplasm, 1; malignant VIPoma, 1; and PNET, 2.
  • A complete resection of the primary tumor was achieved in 82%, and 12 of 15 are alive, 10 with no evidence of disease.
  • Chemotherapy or radiation were used in selected cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Unlike malignant pancreatic tumors in adults, tumors in children and adolescents usually are resectable, and long-term survival is likely.
  • The roles of chemotherapy and radiation remain undefined.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pancreatectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome. Vipoma / pathology. Vipoma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 12037756.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Sayar D, Yaniv I, Goshen Y, Cohen IJ: Treatment of alpha-fetoprotein secreting hepatoblastoma by response of serum alpha-fetoprotein levels: a new concept. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Dec;18(8):509-18
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of alpha-fetoprotein secreting hepatoblastoma by response of serum alpha-fetoprotein levels: a new concept.
  • Hepatoblastoma, the commonest primary malignant liver tumor in infants and children, is usually associated with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels.
  • The authors sought to determine if AFP levels can be used to modify treatment, thereby avoiding the wait for formal imaging studies and prolonged suboptimal treatment and limiting the use of effective but toxic chemotherapy.
  • If AFP levels failed to improve, or increased on at least 2 successive examinations, the chemotherapy protocol was changed.
  • When an excellent response was achieved, less toxic chemotherapy was substituted.
  • Six of the 7 nonmetastatic patients (86%) remain disease-free (only one had a resectable tumor).
  • Chemotherapy changes resulted in reduced AFP levels in 7 patients.
  • This study supports the use of AFP monitoring to modify treatment in hepatoblastoma responding to therapy with less toxic drugs and the use of nonstandard therapy when suboptimal responses are obtained.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Hepatoblastoma / drug therapy. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child, Preschool. Decision Making. Drug Monitoring / methods. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / secretion. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11764100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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13. Palmer DH, Mautner V, Mirza D, Oliff S, Gerritsen W, van der Sijp JR, Hubscher S, Reynolds G, Bonney S, Rajaratnam R, Hull D, Horne M, Ellis J, Mountain A, Hill S, Harris PA, Searle PF, Young LS, James ND, Kerr DJ: Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: intratumoral administration of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding nitroreductase to patients with resectable liver cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2004 May 1;22(9):1546-52
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  • [Title] Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: intratumoral administration of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding nitroreductase to patients with resectable liver cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy depends on selective delivery of virus encoding a prodrug-activating enzyme to tumor, followed by systemic treatment with prodrug to achieve high levels of the activated cytotoxic at the intended site of action.
  • The use of the bacterial enzyme nitroreductase to activate CB1954 (5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) to a short lived, highly toxic DNA cross-linking agent has been demonstrated in tumor xenografts.
  • In this study, we report the first clinical trial investigating the feasibility, safety, and transgene expression of a replication-defective adenovirus encoding nitroreductase (CTL102) in patients with liver tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with resectable primary or secondary (colorectal) liver cancer received a single dose of CTL102 delivered by direct intratumoral inoculation 3 to 8 days before surgical resection.
  • CONCLUSION: Direct intratumoral inoculation of CTL102 to patients with primary and secondary liver cancer is feasible and well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoviridae / genetics. Aziridines / metabolism. Aziridines / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Escherichia coli Proteins / genetics. Escherichia coli Proteins / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation. Genetic Therapy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Nitroreductases / genetics. Nitroreductases / pharmacology. Prodrugs / administration & dosage. Prodrugs / therapeutic use. Transgenes

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2004 May 1;22(9):1535-7 [15051753.001]
  • (PMID = 15051757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aziridines; 0 / DNA Adducts; 0 / Escherichia coli Proteins; 0 / Flavoproteins; 0 / Prodrugs; 7865D5D01M / tretazicar; EC 1.7.- / NfsA protein, E coli; EC 1.7.- / Nitroreductases
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14. Schmidbauer S, Ladurner R, Jückstock H, Trupka AW, Mussack T, Hallfeldt KK: [Surgical and adjuvant therapy of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and their metastases. A retrospective analysis of personal patient group]. Chirurg; 2001 Aug;72(8):945-52
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  • [Title] [Surgical and adjuvant therapy of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and their metastases. A retrospective analysis of personal patient group].
  • [Transliterated title] Die operative und adjuvante Therapie neuroendokriner Tumoren des Gastrointestinaltrakts und ihrer Metastasen. Eine retrospektive Analyse des eigenen Patientenguts.
  • Surgical treatment and prognosis depend on the location of the tumor.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The most frequent primary sites were the ileum and jejunum (36%), appendix (36%), stomach (12%), pancreas (8%), colon (4%) and bronchus with hepatic metastasis (4%).
  • A malignant carcinoid syndrome was present in 8 patients.
  • In patients with neuroendocrine tumors, curative, radical tumor removal should be attempted.
  • Some patients with advanced disease needed some surgery for tumor debulking and resection of metastases.
  • In non-resectable liver metastases hepatic arterial chemotherapy and chemoembolization after implantation of port catheters seem to be very beneficial therapeutic options.
  • A fixed part of the therapeutic regime in progressive disease is adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and streptozotocin and symptomatic therapy with octreotide.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / drug therapy. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery. Middle Aged. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Octreotide / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Streptozocin / administration & dosage. Streptozocin / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11554141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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15. Andromanakos N, Filippou D, Papadopoulos V, Kouraklis G, Christianakis E, Kostakis A: New concepts in the therapeutic options of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. J BUON; 2007 Oct-Dec;12(4):445-52
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  • [Title] New concepts in the therapeutic options of liver metastases from colorectal cancer.
  • Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent malignant neoplasms causing approximately 10% of cancer deaths.
  • Up to 30% of patients with primary colorectal cancer have already liver metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis.
  • Untreated patients with liver metastases share a poor prognosis with an average survival of 12 months.
  • Only 10-15% of initial colorectal liver metastases are considered as being resectable.
  • In the remaining patients, the current trend is to downstage initially unresectable metastases by neoadjuvant therapy (systemic or regional chemotherapy, portal vein embolization - PVE - or hepatic artery chemoembolization), tumor ablation and two-stage hepatectomy, alone or in combinations.
  • This study reviews the current therapeutic options for colorectal liver metastases and their contribution to improve survival rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18067201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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16. Métairie S, Lucidi V, Castaing D: [Intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma]. J Chir (Paris); 2004 Sep;141(5):315-21
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  • [Title] [Intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma].
  • Intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) is a rare tumor which arises from the epithelial cells of the intra-hepatic bile ducts; it may develop in a healthy liver and bile ducts or in bile ducts with malignant predisposition (Caroli's syndrome, primary sclerosing cholangitis).
  • It has the worst prognosis of any tumor arising in the liver.
  • The most common clinical sign is a palpable tumor mass emphasizing that the tumor is usually detected at an advanced stage.
  • Aggressive surgical resection is the only treatment modality which has afforded even slight prolongation of survival; hepatic resection must be large with uninvolved resection margins.
  • When an IHCC is deemed resectable (localized tumor without hepatic metastases or intrahepatic or extrahepatic lymph node spread), pre-operative tumor embolization may be useful; when jaundice is present, percutaneous drainage of the dilated biliary system of the liver to be spared may also be necessary.
  • Neither adjuvant nor neo-adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy have shown proof of efficacity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Decision Trees. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15494665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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17. Chhajed PN, Tamm M: Radiofrequency heat ablation for lung tumors: potential applications. Med Sci Monit; 2003 Nov;9(11):ED5-7
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  • Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an image guided percutaneous procedure using thermal energy that is used to treat malignant lesions in various organs including liver, breast and lungs.
  • Current passing through tissue from the active electrode leads to ion agitation, which is converted by means of friction into heat leading to irreparable cellular damage and coagulation necrosis.
  • The potential benefits include decreased cost and morbidity, treating patients who are not surgical candidates due to age, co-morbidity or extent of disease and the possibility of performing the procedure on an outpatient basis.
  • The aim is usually to reduce tumor size.
  • However, caution should be exercised because selective tumor resection is not the gold standard to treat potentially resectable lung malignancies that are treated with lobectomy.
  • Obviously, lung volume reduction surgery combined with tumor resection has challenged this approach.
  • RFA might be the treatment of choice for multiple lung metastases that are usually approached surgically for long-term remission.
  • Other potential applications might be tumor size reduction by a non-surgical procedure followed by adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Furthermore, the risk of this procedure for pulmonary application has to be better defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Catheter Ablation / methods. Hyperthermia, Induced. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Electrodes. Humans. Ions. Necrosis. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 14586281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ions
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18. Nomura N, Fujii T, Kanazumi N, Takeda S, Nomoto S, Kasuya H, Sugimoto H, Yamada S, Nakao A: Nonfunctioning neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors: our experience and management. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2009;16(5):639-47
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We present our experience in the treatment of nonfunctioning neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors (NFNPTs) to define the clinical and pathological characteristics and to suggest proper management.
  • METHODS: The records of 17 patients with NFNPTs operated on between 1998 and 2008 were retrospectively reviewed, and all tumors were classified clinicopathologically as benign, uncertain, and malignant, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neuroendocrine tumors.
  • RESULTS: There were four benign, six uncertain, and seven malignant NFNPTs.
  • Most of these symptomatic patients had malignant tumors.
  • Mean tumor size of benign, uncertain, and malignant tumors were 1.0 +/- 0.3, 3.2 +/- 1.6, and 5.3 +/- 2.4 cm, respectively.
  • Metastatic lesions of malignant tumors were lymph node (six patients), liver (four patients), and adrenal gland (one patient).
  • Six of seven patients with malignant tumors underwent curative rejection.
  • There were recurrences in four of six patients with curatively rejected malignant tumors.
  • Two patients underwent more rejection, three patients received systemic chemotherapy, and two patients underwent radiofrequency ablation and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for liver metastases.
  • Survival of patients with malignant tumors was significantly shorter than that of patients with benign and uncertain tumors.
  • However, three patients with malignant tumors had long survival of more than 3 years, even with metastases or recurrences.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive surgical resection should be performed in patients with resectable NFNPTs, even with metastases.
  • Even when a tumor was unresectable or there were recurrences, long-time palliation could be achieved by a multidisciplinary approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreatectomy / methods. Probability. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19365596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-0691
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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19. Bastian PJ, Eidt S, Koslowsky TC, Wulke AP, Siedek M: Duodenal somatostatinoma: clinical and immunohistochemical patterns--difficult differential diagnosis in regard to gangliocytic paraganglioma: report of a case. Eur J Med Res; 2005 Mar 29;10(3):135-8
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  • The authors report a large duodenal somatostatinoma, a very rare tumor entity.
  • A 8.5 cm globular mass in the area of the unicate process of the pancreas was detected in a 45 year old caucasian female by computerized tomography.
  • Initial treatment consisted of right pancreatectomy with preservation of the pylorus.
  • Histological evaluation rendered a diagnosis of low-grade malignant neuroendocrine carcinoma with expression of somatostatin, respectively of somatostatinoma arising in the duodenum and infiltrating into the pancreas.
  • 26 months after the initial surgery liver and lymph node metastases were detected and surgically removed.
  • Treatment of choice is radical surgical resection with a possible cure in early stages of the disease.
  • Even a large tumor as ours is resectable with negative surgical margins.
  • Additional chemotherapy and supportive care may be beneficial for the patient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15851380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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