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1. Fadare O, Parkash V, Carcangiu ML, Hui P: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: clinicopathological features with an emphasis on uterine cervical involvement. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jan;19(1):75-82
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: clinicopathological features with an emphasis on uterine cervical involvement.
  • We report on the clinical and histological features of five cases of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor, with an emphasis on its involvement of the uterine cervix.
  • Pathologically, the tumor involved endocervix in three cases and involved uterine corpus in another two.
  • In three cases of cervical involvement, the neoplastic cells focally replaced endocervical surface and glandular epithelium, simulating high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • All patients received total hysterectomy and various regimes of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Three patients survived the tumor with no recurrences or metastases with follow-up periods of 3, 7 and 16 years.
  • One patient died of tumor metastasis 8 months after the diagnosis.
  • In summary, with its unusual ability to simulate an invasive squamous cell carcinoma and other epithelioid neoplasms, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor frequently poses a diagnostic challenge, especially when involving the uterine cervix.
  • High index of suspicion and an awareness of elevation of serum chorionic gonadotropin are crucial in reaching a correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chorionic Gonadotropin / analysis. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. DNA-Binding Proteins. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Phosphoproteins / analysis. Placental Lactogen / analysis. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Trans-Activators / analysis. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16258513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 9035-54-5 / Placental Lactogen
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2. Huang YD, Hung YC, Yeh LS, Chiang IP, Zeng GC, Chang WC: Synchronous ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma and endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Sep;45(3):264-7
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  • [Title] Synchronous ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma and endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a rare case of synchronous cancer consisting of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma and endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • Computed tomography showed an 18 x 16 cm right pelvic tumor, with both cystic and solid components, ascites and bilateral massive pleural effusion.
  • Cytology of the pleural effusion showed no malignant cells.
  • Extensive tumor thrombi were observed in the lymphovascular channels of the left ovary, bilateral tubes and uterus.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma, < 3 mm in depth, was also identified on the cervix.
  • The final surgical-pathologic stage of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma was stage IIIc and of endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma was stage IA1.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel was prescribed postoperatively, but the malignancy was not controlled due to lung, brain and vulva metastases.
  • Diagnosis should be based on histologic examination and requires appropriate treatment for both tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Necrosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / secondary


3. Caruso RA, Napoli P, Villari D, Starrantino M: Anaplastic (pleomorphic) subtype embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the cervix. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2004 Dec;270(4):278-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In rare cases, RMS can originate in the uterine cervix, with an incidence peak in the second decade.
  • CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 13-year-old girl diagnosed with an anaplastic (pleomorphic) subtype embryonal RMS of the endocervix, who was treated successfully with polypectomy followed by ifosfamide-vincristine-actinomycin combination chemotherapy and brachytherapy.
  • The patient exhibits no evidence of recurrence and has normal menstrual function 36 months following initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage


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4. Taşkin S, Taşkin EA, Cengiz B: Cervical intramural ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril; 2009 Jul;92(1):395.e5-7
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  • [Title] Cervical intramural ectopic pregnancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a cervical intramural ectopic pregnancy.
  • Ultrasonography and pelvic examination revealed an empty uterine cavity and a hyperechoic focus within an enlarged cyanotic anterior cervical lip.
  • One week later the anterior cervical lip was found to be ruptured.
  • INTERVENTION(S): Decidual tissue was removed from the ruptured area.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Histopathologic confirmation of chorionic villi and presence of a connection between the endocervix and the ruptured area.
  • RESULT(S): No connection was found with the endocervical channel when controlled with a 1-mm Hegar uterine dilator, and histopathologic examination of removed materials revealed chorionic villi.
  • CONCLUSION(S): The cervical intramural ectopic pregnancy is an extraordinary clinical situation and might lead to diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Pregnancy, Ectopic / diagnosis. Pregnancy, Ectopic / pathology


5. Posligua L, Malpica A, Liu J, Brown J, Deavers MT: Combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium with pagetoid spread. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Nov;132(11):1821-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the endometrium are rare tumors that can be pure, combined with endometrioid adenocarcinoma, or a component of malignant mixed müllerian tumor.
  • Recently, a case of combined small cell carcinoma and papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium was described for the first time.
  • We report the first case, to our knowledge, of combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium, with an unusual pagetoid spread of the neuroendocrine component into normal endometrial and endocervical glands.
  • The endometrial carcinoma had a small serous component, but most of the tumor was characterized by solid sheets of medium to large cells with abundant mitotic figures, numerous apoptotic bodies, and foci of necrosis.
  • Following surgery, the patient was treated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18976022.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083639; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA131183
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Bolla M, Berland E, Salvat J, Artignan X, de Cornulier J, Colonna M: Fast growing cervical carcinomas. A retrospective analysis of 20 IB-IIB FIGO. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2000 May;90(1):81-5
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  • [Title] Fast growing cervical carcinomas. A retrospective analysis of 20 IB-IIB FIGO.
  • INTRODUCTION: Fast growing cervix carcinomas have a pejorative outcome: they may occur quickly after cervical smears qualified as normal - within an interval from 12 to 18 months in women less than 50 years old, and involveing the endocervix.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty cases of fast-growing cancer of the uterine cervix classified according to the FIGO clinical staging system as IB (n=14), IIA (3), and IIB (3), have been reviewed and compared to a cohort of 160 cases not having this feature.
  • The treatment policy was equally distributed between a radio-surgical approach, cesium 137 intracavitary irradiation followed by radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy, or a definitive irradiation with pelvic external irradiation followed by cesium 137 intracavitary irradiation.
  • CONCLUSION: These poor results emphasize the need to intensify loco-regional therapy with a concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy within the framework of a multidisciplinary approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vaginal Smears


7. Alphandery C, Dagrada G, Frattini M, Perrone F, Pilotti S: Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix associated with endocervical adenocarcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jul-Aug;51(4):589-93
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix associated with endocervical adenocarcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix is an uncommon member of the neuroendocrine group of cervical carcinomas that is frequently intermixed with a non-SCC component in the form of an adenocarcinoma (ADC) or squamous carcinoma.
  • CASE: Colposcopy revealed a cervical mass in a 41-year-old woman and a Pap smear the presence of some tumor cells from SCC, which was confirmed by subsequent biopsy.
  • The patient received 3 cycles of chemotherapy and then underwent major surgery.
  • The cervical samples showed areas of endocervical ADC adjacent to and intermixed with the SCC.
  • On subsequent molecular investigation to assess clonality by microsatellite analysis, the presence of HR-HPV DNA18 on real-time polymerase chain reaction, p16(INK4a) fluorescence in situ hybridization status and the corresponding immunohistochemical expression supported the hypothesis that the two components of the tumor shared the same cell origin.
  • CONCLUSION: SCC of the cervix is a rare but distinct HR-HPV-18-related cervical carcinoma often intermixed with a clonally related non-small cell component consisting of an ADC or squamous carcinoma.
  • The presence of SCC tumor cells in a cervical smear should prompt a search for malignant glandular or squamous tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


8. Virtanen I, Gullberg D, Rissanen J, Kivilaakso E, Kiviluoto T, Laitinen LA, Lehto VP, Ekblom P: Laminin alpha1-chain shows a restricted distribution in epithelial basement membranes of fetal and adult human tissues. Exp Cell Res; 2000 Jun 15;257(2):298-309
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  • [Title] Laminin alpha1-chain shows a restricted distribution in epithelial basement membranes of fetal and adult human tissues.
  • Two novel monoclonal antibodies were raised and used to study the expression of laminin (Ln) alpha1-chain in developing and adult human tissues.
  • In both fetal and adult kidney, a distinct immunoreactivity was seen in basement membranes (BM) of most proximal tubules but not in the distal tubular or glomerular BM or in the basal laminae of blood vessels.
  • In the airways BM-confined reaction was only seen in fetal budding bronchial tubules (16-19 weeks) at the pseudoglandular stage of development.
  • In other adult tissues, immunoreactivity was found in BMs of thyroid, salivary, and mammary glands as well as in BMs of endometrium and endocervix, but not of ectocervix or vagina.
  • The results suggest that outside the central nervous system, Ln alpha1 chain shows a restricted and developmentally regulated expression in BMs of distinct epithelial tissues.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Antibody Specificity. Basement Membrane / metabolism. Cell Adhesion. Humans. Mice. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 10837144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4827
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Laminin; 151186-83-3 / laminin A
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9. Takami M, Maruyama A, Fukai H, Matsumoto H, Togo Y, Takimoto T, Sakamoto H, Yamamoto T: [A case of synchronous double cancer responding to UFT--dermoid cyst with secondary malignant transformation and uterine endometrial adenocarcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Jan;32(1):103-6
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  • [Title] [A case of synchronous double cancer responding to UFT--dermoid cyst with secondary malignant transformation and uterine endometrial adenocarcinoma].
  • We report here a case of synchronous dermoid cyst with secondary malignant tumor and uterine endometrial adenocarcinoma that responded to UFT.
  • The pathological findings were dermoid cyst with secondary malignant transformation.
  • After the operation she had underwent cyclic chemotherapy with CDDP, CPA, THP and 5-FU.
  • After three cycles of chemotherapy, a uterine recurrence was suspected from her uterine endocervical smear test.
  • The pathological findings were primary uterine endometrial adenocarcinoma, not metastasis from dermoid cyst with secondary malignant tumor.
  • After the second operation, she was treated with oral UFT (400 mg/day), as she refused chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Two months after the start of UFT, the tumor markers were reduced remarkably, and the patient maintained good QOL throughout the treatment without serious adverse events.
  • We conclude that UFT might be benefical in the treatment of advanced gynecologic cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Dermoid Cyst / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tegafur / therapeutic use. Uracil / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Hysterotomy. Ovariectomy. Quality of Life. Salpingostomy

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  • (PMID = 15675593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / UFT(R) drug; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil
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10. Fleming NA, Hopkins L, de Nanassy J, Senterman M, Black AY: Mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix in a 10-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Aug;22(4):e45-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Müllerian adenosarcoma is a rare neoplasm usually found in postmenopausal women.
  • It is a biphasic tumor, composed of a benign epithelial component and a malignant stromal component.
  • To date, this neoplasm has been reported in only 16 adolescent girls.
  • We present a case of a 10-year-old girl who was diagnosed with müllerian adenosarcoma arising from the endocervix, the youngest female ever reported.
  • The final pathology revealed müllerian adenosarcoma, favoring an endocervical origin.
  • At the level of the cervix, there were 3 polypoid gelatinous structures arising from the endocervix and extruding past the exocervix.
  • Hysteroscopic inspection of the uterine cavity did not find any abnormalities.
  • Pathology confirmed a diagnosis of müllerian adenosarcoma originating from the endocervix.
  • Uterine curettings were negative for malignancy.
  • After a thorough evaluation of the available literature, review with the Regional Tumor Board and extensive discussions with the family, a decision was made to perform a radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, upper vaginectomy and preservation of ovaries.
  • The procedure was uncomplicated.
  • CONCLUSION: Müllerian adenosarcoma of the endocervix is a very rare pediatric tumor.
  • Due to the rarity of this tumor in this age group, optimal therapy is uncertain.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation have not been used in the absence of extensive pelvic and/or residual disease.
  • Poor prognostic factors include depth of invasion, sarcomatous overgrowth and high-grade malignant features in the stromal component.
  • If recurrence occurs, it tends to be local and following prior conservative treatments such as cone biopsy or trachelectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


11. Park HM, Park MH, Kim YJ, Chun SH, Ahn JJ, Kim CI, Sung SH, Han WS, Kim SC: Mullerian adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth of the cervix presenting as cervical polyp: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2004 Sep-Oct;14(5):1024-9
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  • [Title] Mullerian adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth of the cervix presenting as cervical polyp: a case report and review of the literature.
  • In this report, we describe a case of MASO of the uterine cervix and review the clinical and pathological features of these tumors.
  • The patient was a 37-year-old woman with a cervical polypoid mass, which was morphologically considered as a benign endocervical polyp.
  • Microscopically, polypoid cervical mass showed diffuse and dense malignant spindle cell proliferation around the benign endocervical glands and also an area of markedly anaplastic and pleomorphic spindle cell proliferation, so called, sarcomatous overgrowth.
  • The patient has been followed-up and neither chemotherapy nor other adjuvant therapies have been administered.
  • It is extremely rare that MASO of the uterine cervix is presented in premenopausal woman.
  • Gynecologists and pathologists should be aware of the difficulties associated with a delay in the diagnosis of MASO when the tumor is present as a benign looking cervical polyp.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / pathology. Adenosarcoma / surgery. Polyps / pathology. Polyps / surgery. Uterine Cervical Diseases / pathology. Uterine Cervical Diseases / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Ovariectomy


12. Li H, Gou HY, Han JS, Li SM, Yang R, Qiao J: [Analysis of the diagnosis and treatment of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Oct;30(10):772-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Analysis of the diagnosis and treatment of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and the methods of diagnosis and treatment.
  • The diagnosis of MDA was confirmed in 8 cases by cervical punch biopsies (53.3%) and 2 cases by conization.
  • Several cysts were noted in sections of the endocervix.
  • However, the deviation of tumor cells was minimal.
  • The mean follow-up time was 51.0 months.
  • Three cases died of the disease relapse with an average survival time of 36.3 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma is rare, with minimal deviation of cell shape from the normal cervical cells and difficult in diagnosis.
  • A deep biopsy or conization is necessary when punch biopsy is not sufficient for diagnosis.
  • Immunohistochemistry is helpful to make an accurate diagnosis.
  • Surgery is the first choice for cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • Radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy should be given if needed.
  • The prognosis can be improved if a proper treatment plan is carried out.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Hysterectomy / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Conization. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Papanicolaou Test. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vaginal Smears


13. Ramos P, Ruiz A, Carabias E, Piñero I, Garzon A, Alvarez I: Müllerian adenosarcoma of the cervix with heterologous elements: report of a case and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Jan;84(1):161-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Müllerian adenosarcoma (MA) is a rare neoplasm composed of benign epithelial and malignant stromal components.
  • We describe another case of MA of the uterine cervix with heterologous elements and review the clinical and pathological features of these tumors.
  • CASE REPORT: A nulliparous 25-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital because of metrorrhagia and recurrent masses, dependent on the cervix, initially considered endocervical polyps.
  • Microscopically, the last curettage performed revealed a tumor composed of two elements, epithelial and mesenchymal.
  • The epithelial elements were benign endocervical type glands, and the mesenchymal were sarcomatous, containing minor foci of cartilage.
  • A diagnosis of endocervical heterologous adenosarcoma was reached, and a total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed.
  • The patient is alive 2 years after the surgical procedure.
  • Neither chemotherapy nor other adjuvant therapies have been administered, and she is clinically free of disease at the moment.
  • CONCLUSION: Because MA with heterologous elements seems to appear at the earliest stages of the reproductive lifespan in women, commonly with a history of recurrent polyps, and because its malignant potential is uncertain, gynecologists and pathologists should be aware and think about the possibility of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


14. Hamilton TC, Johnson SW: Recent insights into drug resistance in ovarian cancer. Methods Mol Med; 2001;39:89-106
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent insights into drug resistance in ovarian cancer.
  • Ovarian cancer, as used in this review on drug resistance, applies to the study of the problem in those malignant tumors which arise from the modified peritoneal mesothelial cells, which cover the ovarian surface.
  • These tumors are, by far, the most common malignancies of the ovary and display a remarkable range of histological features, which generally recapitulate those of the endocervix, endometrium, or Fallopian tube to which the ovarian surface epithelium is embryologically related.
  • Of direct relevance to the issue of chemotherapeutic responsiveness is the fact that, stage for stage, some of these tumor subtypes carry a worse prognosis.
  • The need for chemotherapy in ovarian cancer arises because this disease produces vague symptoms that occur only after it has spread from the confines of the ovary to the surfaces of the peritoneal cavity.
  • Hence, the majority of ovarian cancer patients require chemotherapy and its effective use has proved a tremendous challenge as evidenced by the approximately 14,000 deaths from this disease in the United States in 1997.

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  • (PMID = 21340760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-1894
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. De Pasquale MP, Leigh Brown AJ, Uvin SC, Allega-Ingersoll J, Caliendo AM, Sutton L, Donahue S, D'Aquila RT: Differences in HIV-1 pol sequences from female genital tract and blood during antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2003 Sep 1;34(1):37-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differences in HIV-1 pol sequences from female genital tract and blood during antiretroviral therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether HIV-1 replicates locally in the female genital tract during therapy, and to study whether endocervix is the dominant source of virus in cervicovaginal lavage fluid.
  • DESIGN: Sequence analyses of HIV-1 pol were performed from cervicovaginal secretions and blood plasma of HIV-infected women failing antiretroviral therapy with detectable viral load in both compartments, as well as from drug-naive subjects.
  • METHODS: Viral RNA was extracted from cervicovaginal lavage fluid, endocervical secretions collected by Sno-strips, and blood plasma.
  • Drug resistance mutations were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Resistant virus was detected concordantly in blood and genital tract specimens, consistent with drug selection pressure in both compartments.
  • However, drug-selected mutations often differed in each compartment, and phylogenetic analysis showed differences in virus lineage in these compartments, consistent with local replication in female genital tract.
  • Viruses in cervicovaginal lavage and endocervical secretions were genetically distinguishable, suggesting that endocervix is not the only source of virus found in cervicovaginal lavage.
  • CONCLUSION: These data support the hypothesis that HIV replication is compartmentalized within the female genital tract during antiretroviral therapy, which has implications for pathogenesis and for epidemiologic surveillance of drug-resistant virus.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / virology. Drug Resistance, Viral / genetics. Genes, pol / genetics. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Mutation. RNA, Viral / blood. Vagina / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Female. HIV Protease / genetics. HIV Reverse Transcriptase / genetics. HIV-1 / drug effects. Humans. Middle Aged. Phylogeny. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Treatment Failure. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 14501791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30-AI-42853; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI 47745; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI29193; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI40350; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / TW00767
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase; EC 3.4.23.- / HIV Protease
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16. Malpica A, Moran CA: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of two cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2002 Oct;6(5):281-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of two cases.
  • The two female patients are 35 and 51 years of age who presented with abnormal uterine bleeding of several weeks' duration.
  • On gynecologic examination, a mass in the cervical area was palpated and a biopsy was obtained.
  • Grossly, in both cases, the uterine cervix showed an ill-defined tumor involving the ectocervix and endocervix, measuring 3.0 and 4.0 cm in greatest dimension, respectively, and showing areas of necrosis and hemorrhage.
  • Histologic sections showed the presence of a malignant neoplasm arranged in cords and with a vague nesting pattern.
  • In one patient, the tumor had metastasized to lymph nodes.
  • Both patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and remain alive 5 and 18 months after initial diagnosis, respectively.
  • The present cases highlight the importance of keeping primitive neuroectodermal tumors in the differential diagnosis of small cell neoplasms of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA)
  • (PMID = 12376920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Gallardo A, Prat J: Mullerian adenosarcoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 55 cases challenging the existence of adenofibroma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Feb;33(2):278-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mullerian adenosarcomas are rare mixed tumors of low malignant potential that occur mainly in the uterus and also in extrauterine locations.
  • Thirty-seven tumors were of the uterine corpus, 11 of the cervix, 4 of the ovary, and 1 each of the fallopian tube, vagina, and Douglas peritoneum.
  • Treatment was known in 50 patients: 10 had polypectomy, 1 cone biopsy, and 39 hysterectomy, which was accompanied by bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in 24 and lymphadenectomy in 4.
  • Five patients had radiotherapy and 2 of them had chemotherapy.
  • Of 30 tumors of the uterine corpus, 17 were stage IA, 11 stage IB, 1 stage IC, and 1 stage IIIC.
  • Four cervical tumors were stage IB.
  • The tumor of the fallopian tube was stage IC, and the tumors of the vagina and recto-uterine pouch were confined to their site of origin.
  • Most uterine tumors were polypoid masses ranging from 1 to 20 cm (mean: 6.5 cm).
  • Fourteen of 30 uterine tumors (47%) had myometrial invasion that was minimal in 5, involved one-third of the myometrial thickness in 7, and more than 50% in 2.
  • Of 4 cervical tumors, 2 were endocervical polyps, 1 invaded one-third of the cervical wall, and the other invaded its full thickness.
  • Six developed metastases and 5 of them died of tumor.
  • Four had adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth; however, the other 2 patients had typical low-grade adenosarcomas of the uterine corpus and cervix, respectively, exhibiting only mild nuclear atypia of the stromal component and </=2 mitotic figures/10 high power fields.
  • The finding of such cases, which raises the controversy of whether or not adenofibroma exists as a tumor entity, prompted us to make a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of 23 typical adenosarcomas, 8 adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth, and 29 benign and malignant related lesions, including 7 clinically benign adenofibromas.
  • Adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth showed strong immunoreaction for Ki-67 and p53 and loss of CD10 and progesterone receptors immunostaining; in contrast, the immunoreaction for these tumor markers in typical adenosarcomas without sarcomatous overgrowth was similar to that of adenofibromas associated with favorable outcome and other benign lesions such as endometrial polyps and endometriosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Staging. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18941402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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