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1. Moozar KL, Wong CS, Couture J: Anorectal malignant melanoma: treatment with surgery or radiation therapy, or both. Can J Surg; 2003 Oct;46(5):345-9
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  • [Title] Anorectal malignant melanoma: treatment with surgery or radiation therapy, or both.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anorectal malignant tumours are increasing in frequency for unknown reasons.
  • Surgery is the principal treatment, and the role of adjuvant therapy has not been defined.
  • We therefore decided to review the experience of the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, a large tertiary care cancer hospital, with respect to the surgical management of anorectal melanoma.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the charts of all registered patients with anorectal malignant melanoma (AMM) treated with surgery or radiotherapy, or both, at the hospital between 1980 and 1999, paying particular attention to survival, and local and distant recurrences.
  • RESULTS: There were 14 patients, all of whom were followed up to the time of death or for a minimum of 28 months for surviving patients.
  • Local therapy included local resection alone in 7 cases and abdominoperineal resection in 7.
  • Seven patients received pelvic irradiation at some time during their disease, using different doses and fractionation schemes.
  • Three of them had concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy with no tumour regression.
  • Six patients were alive 1 year after treatment (median survival 32.5 mo [range from 21-51 mo]).
  • Eight patients had a rapid evolution of their disease with a median survival of 5.5 (range from 3-12) months.
  • The overall survival was poor regardless of local treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colostomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Time Factors

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  • [Cites] Trop Gastroenterol. 2000 Apr-Jun;21(2):86-7 [10881635.001]
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  • (PMID = 14577706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-428X
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3211713
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2. Eum EA, Kim H, Kim YM, Woo SJ, Cho JH, Min YJ, Park JH: Anorectal and gastric peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified in a non-AIDS patient. Korean J Intern Med; 2006 Dec;21(4):262-5
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  • [Title] Anorectal and gastric peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified in a non-AIDS patient.
  • Anorectum is a rare location for malignant lymphoma.
  • Involvement of is rare even for the lynphoma associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and AIDS has a relatively increased frequency of anorectal lymphoma.
  • We report here on a case of anorectal and gastric peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (PTCLu) in a non-AIDS patient.
  • He underwent systemic chemotherapy and upfront autologous stem cell transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / diagnosis. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Gastroscopy. Humans. Male. Sigmoidoscopy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


3. de Parades V, Bauer P, Benbunan JL, Bouillet T, Cottu PH, Cuenod CA, Durdux C, Fléjou JF, Atienza P: [Initial pretherapeutic assessment of anal epidermoid carcinoma]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Feb;31(2):157-65
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  • Anal epidermoid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor, comprising less than 5% of all carcinomas of the colon, rectum, and anus.
  • The primary therapy now includes radiotherapy, often in combination with chemotherapy.
  • Therapeutic indications are based on locoregional staging, the presence of visceral metastases and an evaluation of the medical history.
  • Anorectal endosonography is helpful in evaluating locoregional extension.
  • In addition, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography scanning and inguinal sentinel lymph node procedure should play a role in a more selective approach in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17347624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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4. Snoj M, Rudolf Z, Cemazar M, Jancar B, Sersa G: Successful sphincter-saving treatment of anorectal malignant melanoma with electrochemotherapy, local excision and adjuvant brachytherapy. Anticancer Drugs; 2005 Mar;16(3):345-8
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  • [Title] Successful sphincter-saving treatment of anorectal malignant melanoma with electrochemotherapy, local excision and adjuvant brachytherapy.
  • Anorectal malignant melanoma is a rare tumor and there is no consensus on whether aggressive or local management is more appropriate.
  • Therefore, new adjuvant treatment strategies to permit local sphincter-saving excisions are warranted.
  • In our case, a large anorectal malignant melanoma was successfully treated preoperatively by electrochemotherapy with cisplatin that, by reducing the tumor size, enabled sphincter-saving local excision.
  • Fourteen months after the beginning of treatment, the patient is without signs of local recurrence and is continent.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brachytherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy / methods. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15711188.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Köksal N, Müftüoglu T, Günerhan Y, Uskent N: Complete remission of the liver metastases of anorectal malignant melanoma with regional chemotherapy: a case report. Hepatogastroenterology; 2000 May-Jun;47(33):612-4
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  • [Title] Complete remission of the liver metastases of anorectal malignant melanoma with regional chemotherapy: a case report.
  • The prognosis of anorectal malignant melanoma is very poor.
  • We present a 48-year-old male patient with anorectal malignant melanoma and multiple liver metastases who underwent abdominoperineal resection.
  • A port system was implanted to the gastroduodenal artery for regional chemotherapy for liver metastases.
  • Both regional chemotherapy and immunotherapy were initiated 4 weeks postoperatively.
  • Computed tomography scan was taken after the 2nd and 4th cycles of chemotherapy and the tumor had not responded to chemotherapy.
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were taken on the 10th and 12th months after operation, respectively, no evidence of metastases in the liver was noted.
  • No case of complete remission of liver metastases of anorectal malignant melanoma with regional intraarterial chemotherapy and systemic immunochemotherapy has been previously reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 10918997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Interleukin-2; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Tsigris C, Pikoulis E, Bramis J, Leppäniemi A, Alexiou D, Bastounis E: Malignant melanoma of the anorectal area. Report of two cases. Dig Surg; 2000;17(2):194-6
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma of the anorectal area. Report of two cases.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Primary anorectal melanoma is a very rare malignant tumor with no more than 300 cases reported in the literature.
  • METHODS: Two cases of anorectal melanoma are reported herein.
  • RESULTS: Both patients, aged 44 and 74 years, presented at the outpatient department with anal bleeding, one after being treated for 3 months with antihemorrhoidal drugs.
  • The diagnosis was established with proctoscopy and biopsy, and a palliative abdominoperineal resection in the presence of lymph node metastases was performed followed by chemotherapy with vindesine.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For the time being there is no convincing proof of the value of either types of proposed surgical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Hemorrhoids / diagnosis. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 10781992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-4886
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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7. Sucker C, Dölken G, Stockschläder M: [Malignant melanoma of the anorectal mucosa]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2004 Jul 2;129(27):1504-6
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  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma of the anorectal mucosa].
  • [Transliterated title] Malignes Melanom der anorektalen Schleimhaut.
  • Histological examination established the diagnosis of anorectal malignant melanoma.
  • TREATMENT AND COURSE: An radical abdominoperineal rectal resection amputation was performed.
  • CONCLUSION: Anorectal malignant melanoma is a rare cause in the differential diagnosis of anorectal tumours.
  • Surgery remains the therapy of choice.
  • Chemotherapy and immunotherapy are principally used in a palliative setting.
  • Despite advances in therapy, the prognosis of this tumour entity remains unfavourable.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia, Hypochromic / etiology. Colonoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15227591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-0472
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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8. Tezuka K, Inaba Y, Hayashi K, Miura T, Moriya T, Takiguchi M, Isobe H, Watabe S, Yanagawa N: [A case of liver metastasis from anorectal malignant melanoma on hemodialysis treated by chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Oct;34(10):1709-12
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  • [Title] [A case of liver metastasis from anorectal malignant melanoma on hemodialysis treated by chemotherapy].
  • We report a case on hemodialysis with liver metastases from anorectal malignant melanoma treated by dacarbazine (DTIC).
  • An elastic soft mass was palpated in the anal canal, and a biopsy specimen was diagnosed as anorectal malignant melanoma histologically.
  • Two and a half years after surgery, computed tomography showed multiple liver metastases.
  • We chose chemotherapy consisting of DTIC 100 mg for five consecutive days every 4 weeks in addition to hemodialysis (3 times a week).
  • After three cycles of chemotherapy, liver metastases were stable, but new lung metastases were found.
  • After 12 cycles of chemotherapy, liver metastases became stable, but lung metastases were progressive.
  • We conclude that administration of DTIC undergoing hemodialysis for malignant melanoma with renal failure seems to be useful without severe adverse events.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / drug therapy. Renal Dialysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17940397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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9. Ishizone S, Koide N, Karasawa F, Akita N, Muranaka F, Uhara H, Miyagawa S: Surgical treatment for anorectal malignant melanoma: report of five cases and review of 79 Japanese cases. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2008 Dec;23(12):1257-62
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment for anorectal malignant melanoma: report of five cases and review of 79 Japanese cases.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anorectal malignant melanoma (AMM) is a relatively rare disease.
  • Because of its poor prognosis, the optimal surgical treatment for AMM is still controversial and difficult to determine.
  • We also review the present five cases along with 74 other Japanese cases reported between 1997 and 2006 and discuss the role of surgery in the treatment of AMM.
  • There was no significant difference in survival between AMM patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, AMM patients treated by curative surgery can expect long-term survival, although the usefulness of adjuvant chemotherapy for AMM patients is controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Rectum / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18633625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Kawano N, Tashiro M, Taguchi M, Kihara Y, Yoshikawa I, Syukuwa K, Yamasaki M, Kume K, Otsuki M: [Combined treatment with dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta in a patient with advanced anorectal malignant melanoma]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Nov;105(11):1627-33
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  • [Title] [Combined treatment with dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta in a patient with advanced anorectal malignant melanoma].
  • A 73-year-old man, who was diagnosed as having advanced anorectal malignant melanoma (Stage IV), was treated with combination chemotherapy using dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta.
  • After the first course of chemotherapy, rectal tumor was decreased in size with less anal pain and liver tumor was disappeared.
  • Twenty-four months after the first treatment, the patient is survived.
  • DAC-Tam IFN-beta therapy may improve the management of patients who have advanced MM of the anorectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Humans. Interferon-beta / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Nimustine / administration & dosage. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18987448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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11. Ulmer A, Metzger S, Fierlbeck G: Successful palliation of stenosing anorectal melanoma by intratumoral injections with natural interferon-beta. Melanoma Res; 2002 Aug;12(4):395-8
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  • [Title] Successful palliation of stenosing anorectal melanoma by intratumoral injections with natural interferon-beta.
  • Anorectal malignant melanoma is an uncommon tumour.
  • In particular, very few palliative treatment strategies have been described for patients with advanced disease.
  • We report on an 80 year old patient with locally advanced anorectal melanoma nearly completely blocking the anal orifice and disseminated metastases.
  • We propose that conservative treatment strategies such as intratumoral injections with interferon-beta should be considered as a palliative treatment option for stenosing anorectal melanoma before an abdominoperineal resection is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Interferon-beta / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Palliative Care. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Constriction, Pathologic. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Female. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Injections, Intralesional. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Quality of Life. Rectal Prolapse / etiology. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 12170190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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12. Sasaki S, Kojima T, Hidemura A, Hatanaka K, Uekusa T, Ishimaru M: [A case report of anorectal malignant melanoma showing a complete response after DTIC/ACNU/VCR therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Oct;37(10):1999-2002
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  • [Title] [A case report of anorectal malignant melanoma showing a complete response after DTIC/ACNU/VCR therapy].
  • The patient was diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the anorectum using colonoscopy.
  • Post-operative CT scan demonstrated multiple metastases in the liver, and he received two courses of combined chemotherapy, DAV regimen (dacarbazine: DTIC 100 mg iv days 1-5, nimustine hydrochloride: ACNU 100 mg iv day 1, vincristine sulfate: VCR 1 mg iv day 1), leading to a complete response.
  • However, malignant melanoma cells were found in hernia contents at the operation for left inguinal hernia, which led to a diagnosis of recurrent malignant melanoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete response in a patient with multiple liver metastases of anorectal malignant melanoma after DAV regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Nimustine / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20948273.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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13. Stroh C, Manger T: [Primary amelanotic anorectal melanoma--a case report]. Zentralbl Chir; 2007 Dec;132(6):560-3

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  • [Title] [Primary amelanotic anorectal melanoma--a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Das primäre amelanotische Melanom des Rektums - Ein Fallbericht.
  • METHODS: In literature 5 cases of amelanotic malignant melanoma were reported.
  • The overall survival time is 10 months after diagnosis.
  • 7 months after a wide local excision of the tumour and interferon therapy in case of the absence of pararectal, inguinal metastases and other metastases the patient developed pararectal metastasis.
  • We started chemotherapy with Dacarbazin and with regard of the tumour progress the chemotherapy was changed to Vindesin 25 months after first operation supported by a radiotherapy with 40 Gray.
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of primary malignant anorectal melanoma is poor, irrespective of surgical treatment.
  • Wide local resection is the first choice for primary anorectal melanoma.
  • Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy should be considered in the treatment of anorectal melanoma to influence the overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease Progression. Endosonography. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery. Intestinal Mucosa / ultrasonography. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Proctoscopy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 18098086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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14. Maqbool A, Lintner R, Bokhari A, Habib T, Rahman I, Rao BK: Anorectal melanoma--3 case reports and a review of the literature. Cutis; 2004 Jun;73(6):409-13
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  • [Title] Anorectal melanoma--3 case reports and a review of the literature.
  • Anorectal melanoma is an uncommon disease.
  • We report 3 cases of anorectal melanoma: a 40-year-old woman with anorectal melanoma with local recurrence after an abdominoperineal resection (APR); a 30-year-old woman with anorectal melanoma and multiple liver metastases returning with multiple masses in the rectum and 2 nodules above and below the left clavicle after receiving chemotherapy; and a 62-year-old woman with inguinal node metastases.
  • The histologic findings in all 3 cases revealed malignant tumor composed of atypical melanocytes diagnosed as malignant melanoma of the rectum.
  • The patient was noncompliant with chemotherapy and died after several months.
  • In the second case, chemotherapeutic treatment was begun.
  • Seven months after receiving chemotherapy, the patient returned with multiple metastases.
  • Anorectal melanoma is highly aggressive and unresponsive to both radical surgery and local control.
  • Although supplemental therapy may improve quality of life and prolong survival, the 5-year survival rate is 10% with a mean survival time of 15 to 25 months.
  • In the 3 cases presented, metastatic disease was present at the time of diagnosis.
  • At this stage, APR with lymphadenectomy followed by some form of adjuvant therapy is our recommended treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15224786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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15. Yang BL, Shao WJ, Sun GD, Chen YQ, Huang JC: Perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from chronic anorectal fistulae: a review from single institution. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2009 Sep;24(9):1001-6
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  • [Title] Perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from chronic anorectal fistulae: a review from single institution.
  • BACKGROUND: Mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from a chronic anorectal fistula is rare, with few reports in the literature.
  • METHODS: From our retrospective chart review, we identified three patients with chronic perianal fistula-in-ano who were subsequently found to have developed perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma on biopsy.
  • RESULTS: Two of three patients who received irradiation and chemotherapy were still alive during 28 and 24 months of follow-up, respectively without any evidence of distant metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fistula-associated perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignant transformation of chronic fistula-in-ano.
  • Although radical resection of the tumour with abdominoperineal resection remains the surgical treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / etiology. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Rectal Fistula / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Chronic Disease. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Surgical Procedures, Operative. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19205706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1262
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Lehrnbecher T, Marshall D, Gao C, Chanock SJ: A second look at anorectal infections in cancer patients in a large cancer institute: the success of early intervention with antibiotics and surgery. Infection; 2002 Oct;30(5):272-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A second look at anorectal infections in cancer patients in a large cancer institute: the success of early intervention with antibiotics and surgery.
  • BACKGROUND: Infection of anorectal region represents a significant complication of anti-cancer therapy.
  • Anorectal infection occurs in patients receiving aggressive chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: 82 episodes of anorectal infection in 64 patients with malignant diseases occurring over 12 years at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) were retrospectively reviewed.
  • There were no deaths associated with anorectal infection in the 12 years reviewed compared to seven of 44 in the previous decade (p = 0.003).
  • Antibiotic therapy alone was successful in managing 25/82.
  • Modification of antibiotic therapy with further anaerobic coverage was administered successfully in 39/77 episodes.
  • CONCLUSION: This study illustrates that anorectal infections in cancer patients can be successfully managed with antibiotic therapy and local care; surgery can be withheld unless there is evidence of progressive infection or substantial fluctuance and necrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anus Diseases / drug therapy. Anus Diseases / surgery. Bacterial Infections / drug therapy. Bacterial Infections / surgery. Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gram-Negative Bacteria / drug effects. Gram-Negative Bacteria / isolation & purification. Gram-Positive Bacteria / drug effects. Gram-Positive Bacteria / isolation & purification. Humans. Male. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Middle Aged. Oncology Service, Hospital. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome. United States


17. Nakamura T, Ide H: [Malignant melanoma of the alimentary tract]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 May;30(5):619-25
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  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma of the alimentary tract].
  • We reviewed case reports of malignant melanoma in the alimentary tract and discussed the diagnosis and treatment.
  • Cases of malignant melanoma in the alimentary tract have mostly originated from the esophagus and an anorectal lesion.
  • Malignant melanoma of the alimentary tract might be more aggressive than that of the skin.
  • A combined modality treatment including progressive chemotherapy and biotherapy is expected to improve the prognosis of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Esophageal Neoplasms. Melanoma. Rectal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Nimustine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12795092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; DAV protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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18. Fukui R, Hata F, Yasoshima T, Honma T, Nomura H, Sasaki K, Nishimori H, Sasaki K, Kutomi G, Ohno K, Oikawa I, Sasaki K, Tarumi K, Ishiyama Y, Kobayashi K, Yamamoto N, Hirata K: Malignant melanoma of the anorectum: report of four cases. Surg Today; 2002;32(6):555-8
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma of the anorectum: report of four cases.
  • Four cases of anorectal malignant melanoma are reported in this paper.
  • All patients underwent an abdominoperineal resection with lymph node dissection for a curative operation and received postoperative chemotherapy with dacarbazine, ranimustine, and vincristine, either with or without interferon-beta.
  • The other three patients had advanced diseases at the time of diagnosis, and died within 3 years after operation.
  • The prognosis of anorectal malignant melanoma is considered to be directly related to tumor size and depth.
  • Therefore, a staging system and treatments based on the tumor size and depth (or thickness) are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 12107786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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19. Mistrangelo M, Mobiglia A, Cassoni P, Castellano I, Maass J, Martina MC, Bellò M, Mussa A: [Verrucous carcinoma of the anus or Buschke-Lowenstein tumor of the anus: staging and treatment. Report of 3 cases]. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S29-30
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  • [Title] [Verrucous carcinoma of the anus or Buschke-Lowenstein tumor of the anus: staging and treatment. Report of 3 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Il carcinoma verrucoso dell'ano o tumore di buschke-lowenstein dell'ano: stadiazione e trattamento presentazione di 3 casi.
  • INTRODUCTION: Giant condyloma acuminatum or Buschke Lowenstein tumor of the anorectal and perianal regions is an uncommon entity that commonly affects genitalia.
  • The hallmark of the disease is the high rate of recurrence (66%) and malignant transformation (56%).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: At the Oncological Surgical Department, University of Turin, three patients were diagnosed with a Buschke Lowenstein tumor.
  • In two cases immunodeficiency was evidentiated (HIV in one case and ciclosporin treatment in the second one).
  • All patients were submitted to extensive local surgical treatment.
  • One patient with a small persistence of the disease was treated with cryotherapy.
  • All inguinal nodes revealed negative to definitive histological exam, that confirmed the diagnosis of Buschke Lowenstein tumor of the primary lesion.
  • Local surgery with elettrocautery or laser is the first treatment of choice, even if abdominoperineal amputation sec.
  • Others treatments proposed are radiotherapy, chemotherapy, interferon, iniquimod and so on.
  • Other studies are requested to value the best treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16437884.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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20. de Parades V, Etienney I, Bauer P, Bourguignon J, Meary N, Mory B, Sultan S, Taouk M, Thomas C, Atienza P: Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis--an effective but not risk-free procedure: a prospective study of 33 patients. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Aug;48(8):1535-41
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  • [Title] Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis--an effective but not risk-free procedure: a prospective study of 33 patients.
  • The treatment was effective in 23 cases (70 percent): 13 patients had complete cessation of bleeding and 10 patients had only minor bleeding.
  • None of the strictures was malignant.
  • CONCLUSION: Formalin application is an effective treatment for chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis.
  • In our opinion, therefore, formalin application should be reserved for severe hemorrhagic proctitis refractory to medical treatment and should be thoroughly discussed in cases of anorectal radiation-induced stricture, prior anal incontinence, or treated anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Formaldehyde / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / drug therapy. Hemostatics / therapeutic use. Proctitis / drug therapy. Radiation Injuries / drug therapy. Rectal Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anus Diseases / etiology. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Blood Transfusion. Constriction, Pathologic / etiology. Fecal Incontinence / etiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Retreatment. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Apr;49(4):530-1; author reply 531-2 [16416079.001]
  • (PMID = 15933799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemostatics; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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