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1. Fiorella R, Di Nicola V, Fiorella ML, Spinelli DA, Coppola F, Luperto P, Madami L: Major salivary gland diseases. Multicentre study. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2005 Jun;25(3):182-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Major salivary gland diseases. Multicentre study.
  • Malignant tumours instead were fewer in number compared to the literature (14% vs 25-30%); the most frequent being mucoepidermoid carcinoma (18.2%) of which 44% G1, 33% G2 and 23% G3.
  • Adenoid-cystic carcinoma was observed in 15.3% and < or = 10% for all the other most frequent histological malignant neoplasms.
  • Diagnostic work-up included echotomography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy, less used imaging techniques were computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, Sialo-computed tomography.
  • Surgical treatment of benign tumours consisted, in 50% of cases, in superficial paroditectomy and in approximately 30% of total paroditectomy.
  • The lateral neck dissection most frequently carried out was of functional type in 54% and selective type in 46% with removal of levels I-III and II-IV in approximately 60% of cases.
  • Post-operative-complementary radiotherapy was very frequently performed instead of chemotherapy.
  • Oncological results obtained were compared with those reported in the literature: in fact for all benign neoplasms relapse ratings are about 5%, while for malignant tumours the worst prognosis was in squamous cell carcinoma with median of 37.7 on survival and metastasis rate of 16.5%.
  • Finally, mucoepidermoid carcinoma tumours showed best survival, followed by adenoid-cystic carcinoma with ranges, respectively, 83 and 81.
  • [MeSH-major] Salivary Gland Neoplasms

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  • [ErratumIn] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2005 Oct;25(5):following 337
  • (PMID = 16450775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-100X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2639866
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2. Yamamoto T, Staples J, Wataha J, Lewis J, Lockwood P, Schoenlein P, Rao S, Osaki T, Dickinson D, Kamatani T, Schuster G, Hsu S: Protective effects of EGCG on salivary gland cells treated with gamma-radiation or cis-platinum(II)diammine dichloride. Anticancer Res; 2004 Sep-Oct;24(5A):3065-73
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  • [Title] Protective effects of EGCG on salivary gland cells treated with gamma-radiation or cis-platinum(II)diammine dichloride.
  • Dysfunction of salivary glands is often associated with aging and cancer therapy.
  • The current study investigated whether -(-) epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major green tea polyphenol, protects normal salivary gland cells from the effects of gamma-irradiation and the chemotherapy drug cis-platinum(II)diammine dichloride (CDDP).
  • Human immortalized salivary acinar and ductal cells, and oral squamous cell carcinoma cells were irradiated with gamma-rays or treated with CDDP, with or without pretreatment with EGCG, followed by MTT and BrdU incorporation assays.
  • The results demonstrated that EGCG protected the normal salivary gland cells from chemical or irradiation-induced damage.
  • However, protection of oral cancer cells by EGCG was also observed if EGCG was at physiologically achievable salivary concentrations but not at higher concentrations, suggesting that the combination of green tea consumption with cancer therapy requires further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Catechin / analogs & derivatives. Catechin / pharmacology. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Radiation-Protective Agents / pharmacology. Salivary Glands / drug effects. Salivary Glands / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / radiation effects. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Cyclin D. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / metabolism. Cyclins / metabolism. DNA / biosynthesis. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Gamma Rays. Humans. Mouth Neoplasms / metabolism. Mouth Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Tetrazolium Salts. Thiazoles

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  • (PMID = 15517917.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097258-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents; 0 / Tetrazolium Salts; 0 / Thiazoles; 298-93-1 / thiazolyl blue; 8R1V1STN48 / Catechin; 9007-49-2 / DNA; BQM438CTEL / epigallocatechin gallate; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDK4 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinases; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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3. Yoshimura T, Sumida T, Liu S, Onishi A, Shintani S, Desprez PY, Hamakawa H: Growth inhibition of human salivary gland tumor cells by introduction of progesterone (Pg) receptor and Pg treatment. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Dec;14(4):1107-16
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  • [Title] Growth inhibition of human salivary gland tumor cells by introduction of progesterone (Pg) receptor and Pg treatment.
  • Cancer of the salivary gland is one of the common cancers in the head and the neck regions.
  • This type of cancer develops in the minor and the major salivary glands, and it sometimes metastasizes to other organs, particularly the lung.
  • Morphologic mimicry and similarity in the expression of steroid hormone receptors between salivary gland tumors (SGTs) and breast tumors are well-known phenomena and are occasionally debated in the field of surgical pathology.
  • Progesterone (Pg), one of the female sex steroid hormone, is intimately involved in the development of the mammary gland.
  • In this study, we used ACCM, a human adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line established from the salivary gland, in order to clarify the role of the Pg receptor (PR) on cell proliferation.
  • Our results provided significant insights into the mechanism of suppression of the proliferative property of the cells via the function of PR, and suggested that PR reintroduction therapy might be a viable method of inhibiting human SGT progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Progesterone / therapeutic use. Receptors, Progesterone / physiology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Telomerase / genetics. Telomerase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18045962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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4. Sharma K, Rathi AK, Khurana N, Mukherji A, Kumar V, Singh K, Bahadur AK: A retrospective study of 18 cases of adenoid cystic cancer at a tertiary care centre in Delhi. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Oct-Dec;47(4):424-9
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  • CONTEXT: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare neoplasm that usually arises from the salivary, lacrimal, or other exocrine glands.
  • AIM: To analyze the presentation and natural history of cases of adenoid cystic tumors of salivary glands in our institution; and to compare with the existing literature.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 18 patients of ACC of the salivary glands treated between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed with respect to clinical presentation, stage, and histology.
  • RESULTS: There were 8 cases of major salivary gland tumors (47%), of which 2 were in the submandibular and 6 were involving the parotid.
  • Ten patients (53%) had minor salivary gland involvement.
  • Two patients had metastasis at the time of presentation.
  • Radiotherapy was delivered to 16 patients and chemotherapy to 6 patients (concurrent, n = 3 and adjuvant, n = 3) and no adjuvant therapy was given to 2 patients.
  • No patient developed local or distant failure during the study duration.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. India. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Oral Surgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21131757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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5. Lennerz JK, Perry A, Mills JC, Huettner PC, Pfeifer JD: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the cervix: another tumor with the t(11;19)-associated CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jun;33(6):835-43
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the cervix: another tumor with the t(11;19)-associated CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion.
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the uterine cervix is a controversial entity.
  • By strict morphologic criteria, the tumor has features identical to those of salivary gland MEC and is characterized by nests composed of 3 cell types (epidermoid, intermediate, and mucin producing) in the absence of overt glandular differentiation.
  • Given the morphologic similarity between MEC of the cervix and MEC of the salivary glands, we sought to determine if MEC of the cervix harbors the t(11;19)(q21;p13) characteristic of MEC of the major and minor salivary glands, a rearrangement that results in fusion of the cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate coactivator CRTC1 to the Notch coactivator MAML2.
  • Our results demonstrate that cervical tumors defined as MEC by strict morphologic criteria harbor genetic aberrations involving the genes characteristically rearranged in MEC of the salivary glands, and suggest that cervical MEC is an entity distinct from conventional cervical adenosquamous carcinoma.
  • The development of drug therapy targeted to the genes rearranged in MEC underscores the importance of correct classification of cervical MEC because the diagnosis may hold therapeutic implications different from other cervical malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 19092631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK079798-01A2; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK066062; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK079798; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK079798-01A2; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK066062-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK066062-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRTC1 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MAML2 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Transcription Factors
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6. Guzzo M, Locati LD, Prott FJ, Gatta G, McGurk M, Licitra L: Major and minor salivary gland tumors. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2010 May;74(2):134-48
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  • [Title] Major and minor salivary gland tumors.
  • Malignant salivary gland tumors are rare.
  • Painless swelling of a salivary gland should always be considered as suspicious, especially if no sign of inflammation is present.
  • Signs and symptoms related to major salivary gland tumors differ from those concerning minor salivary gland tumors, as they depend on the different location of the salivary gland.
  • Surgical excision represents the standard option in the treatment of resectable tumors of both major and minor salivary glands.
  • Neutron, heavy ions or proton radiotherapy may be a treatment option for inoperable locoregional disease.
  • Surgery, irradiation or re-irradiation are treatment options for local relapse, whereas radical neck dissection is indicated for regional relapses.
  • Metastatic disease may be either treated with radiotherapy or palliative chemotherapy, depending on the site of metastases.
  • For highly selected patients the employment of anti-androgen therapy is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Salivary Gland Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prognosis. Recurrence. Salivary Glands, Minor / pathology. Salivary Glands, Minor / surgery

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19939701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0461
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 149
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7. Pacheco-Ojeda L, Domeisen H, Narvaez M, Tixi R, Vivar N: Malignant salivary gland tumors in Quito, Ecuador. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2000 Nov-Dec;62(6):296-302
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  • [Title] Malignant salivary gland tumors in Quito, Ecuador.
  • OBJECTIVES: Malignant salivary gland tumors (MSGT) are uncommon.
  • The goal of this study was to review a 16-year experience of a major general hospital in the treatment of these lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1982 to 1998, 308 salivary gland tumors were surgically treated at the Hospital 'Carlos Andrade Marin' of the Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security in Quito, Ecuador, an Andean city of approximately 2 million inhabitants.
  • Malignant lesions were found in 58 cases (19%): 37 out of 194 parotid gland tumors (19%), 7 out of 86 submandibular tumors (8%) and 14 out of 28 minor salivary gland tumors (50%).
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common histologic types.
  • Thirty-one (53%) patients were treated by surgery alone; postoperative radiation therapy was additionally given to 22 (38%), and surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were applied in 5 cases (9%).
  • Twelve patients (21%) developed distant metastasis (DM; 2 in more than one site): 7 in the lungs, 2 in the brain, 2 in the bone and 1 each in the liver, subcutaneous tissue and pleura.
  • There were no significant differences in mortality according to the site of the primary tumor or histologic type, but stage and involved surgical margins were important prognostic factors (p = 0.006 and 0.003).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The surgical or multimodality treatment of MSGT has provided a good locoregional control (78%) and 68% 10-year survival in a series of patients treated at the oncology department of a general hospital in Quito, Ecuador.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / therapy. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Ecuador / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Salivary Glands / pathology. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11054011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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8. Airoldi M, Fornari G, Pedani F, Marchionatti S, Gabriele P, Succo G, Bumma C: Paclitaxel and carboplatin for recurrent salivary gland malignancies. Anticancer Res; 2000 Sep-Oct;20(5C):3781-3
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel and carboplatin for recurrent salivary gland malignancies.
  • BACKGROUND: The use of chemotherapy for recurrent salivary gland carcinomas is under investigation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients (10 males, 4 females; median age 55 years, range 20-70) with recurrent carcinomas of major (9 patients) and minor (5 patients) salivary gland origin (histology: 1 adenocarcinoma, 10 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 2 undifferentiated carcinoma, 1 mucoepidermoid carcinoma) were treated with carboplatin AUC 5.5 + paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 (3-hour infusion) on day 1 (interval = 3 weeks).
  • The median survival time was 13.5 months for PR/NC patients, 6 months for non responders; median overall survival was 12.5 months (3-17+).
  • CONCLUSION: This combination had a moderate activity; the treatment was well tolerated and toxicity was manageable.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11268454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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9. Taxy JB: Squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland: a review of the diagnostic considerations. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2001 Jun;125(6):740-5
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  • [Title] Squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland: a review of the diagnostic considerations.
  • CONTEXT: Squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland has several possible sources:.
  • (1) high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, (2) metastasis or direct invasion from a primary skin carcinoma, (3) metastasis from a distant primary carcinoma, or (4) a primary malignant neoplasm.
  • The latter is conventionally regarded as a diagnosis of exclusion after a history of squamous carcinoma elsewhere has been obtained or there is a positive mucin stain.
  • DESIGN: Eleven cases of squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland are presented and the literature reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Two cases, 1 metastatic from a histologically identical squamous carcinoma from the ipsilateral tonsil and 1 with in situ squamous carcinoma in a duct, demonstrated positive mucicarmine stains.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland exhibits a histologic sameness that precludes accurate subclassification and assignation of origin.
  • Also irrespective of tumor origin, the clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment is similar.
  • Adjuvant therapy (eg, radical neck dissection, radiation, chemotherapy) is not uniformly applied.
  • The traditional subclassification of squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland may not be clinically relevant.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mucins / metabolism. Parotid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 11371224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9985
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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10. Katori H, Tsukuda M: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with cyclophosphamide, pirarubicin, and cisplatin for patients with locally advanced salivary gland carcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol; 2006 Dec;126(12):1309-14
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  • [Title] Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with cyclophosphamide, pirarubicin, and cisplatin for patients with locally advanced salivary gland carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: This concurrent chemoradiotherapy with CPA, THP, and CDDP showed major antitumor activity with manageable toxicity as treatment of advanced salivary gland carcinoma patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a concurrent chemoradiotherapy using cyclophosphamide (CPA), pirarubicin (THP), and cisplatin (CDDP) in patients with locally advanced salivary gland carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with previously untreated stage III-IV salivary gland carcinoma were entered in this trial between January 2000 and September 2005.
  • Chemotherapy consisted of CPA 400 mg/m2 on day 1, THP 40 mg/m2 by 6-h infusion on day 1, and CDDP 60 mg/m2 by 2-h infusion on day 1.
  • Radiotherapy (2.0 Gy/fraction/day, mean total dose: 67.2 Gy (64.0-72.0 Gy)) administered 5 days per week, was targeted to begin on day 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17101593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; D58G680W0G / pirarubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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11. Stennert E, Kisner D, Jungehuelsing M, Guntinas-Lichius O, Schröder U, Eckel HE, Klussmann JP: High incidence of lymph node metastasis in major salivary gland cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2003 Jul;129(7):720-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High incidence of lymph node metastasis in major salivary gland cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence and risk factors for clinically apparent and occult lymph node metastases in patients with major salivary gland cancers.
  • Patients were treated with surgery alone (55%); surgery and radiation therapy (43%); or a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy (2%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We found a high incidence of lymph node metastasis from major salivary gland cancers.
  • Neck dissections should be considered as an integral part of the surgical approach in patients with major salivary gland cancer, especially if no postoperative radiation therapy is planned.
  • [MeSH-major] Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 12874071.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Airoldi M, Cortesina G, Giordano C, Pedani F, Cavalot A, Marcato P, Beatrice F, Bumma C: Update and perspectives on non-surgical treatment of salivary gland malignancies. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2003 Oct;23(5):368-76
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  • [Title] Update and perspectives on non-surgical treatment of salivary gland malignancies.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice for major and minor salivary gland malignancies.
  • Herein, the role of radiation and medical treatment in the multidisciplinary management of salivary gland tumours is discussed.
  • Combination of three dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensive-modulated radiation therapy provide better local tumour delineation, better field design to encompass the tumour allowing dose escalation to target while sparing the surrounding normal tissue.
  • Cisplatin-based chemotherapy provides a response rate > or = 45%, in a palliative setting.
  • Recent studies evaluated the expression of molecular targets in salivary gland carcinomas (c-kit = 53-90%, EGFR = 25-85%, c-erb-B2 = 11-58%, p53 = 11-67%, H ras = 18%); these targets are very important since new targeted drugs are now available.
  • Anti-androgen therapy might have a role in the management of patients with ductal carcinoma.
  • These new targeted drugs could be integrated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced/metastatic salivary gland malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Salivary Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Forecasting. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Palliative Care. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Conformal. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15108487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-100X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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13. Fu ZC, Zhang B, Fu ZJ: As2O3 may be a treatment option for adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary gland. Med Hypotheses; 2010 Dec;75(6):490-1
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  • [Title] As2O3 may be a treatment option for adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary gland.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon tumor of the head and neck that may occur in any salivary gland tissue.
  • Discouraging treatment outcomes may be related to perineural spread, loco regional invasion, and an unusually high incidence of metastatic potential.
  • It presents a number of challenges related to facial nerve management and disease extension into surrounding soft tissue and bony compartments.
  • ACC mostly occurring in the major and minor salivary glands, has some unique characteristics such as slow growth, diffuse invasion, and high incidence of distant metastasis.
  • It is a high malignant carcinoma characterized by intensive local invasion and insidious distant metastasis to the lung at an early stage, which is responsible for a poor long-term survival rate.
  • The main clinical treatment to adenoid cystic carcinoma depended on surgical operation in the past.
  • However, it was not so easy to completely excise adenoid cystic carcinoma which resulting in the residual of tumor cells.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma is not sensitive to conventional chemotherapeutics, so it is necessary to explore a new kind of drug which possesses inhibition and killing effects to this tumor.
  • Arsenic trioxide (A(S2)O(3), ATO), a trivalent inorganic arsenite, has been proved to be an effective therapeutic agent against acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Numerous reports have revealed that arsenite exerts its therapeutic activity by induction of apoptosis.
  • A(S2)O(3) may become a treatment option for adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / drug therapy. Growth Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Oxides / therapeutic use. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20656411.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2777
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Growth Inhibitors; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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14. Möller P, Perrier M, Ozsahin M, Monnier P: A prospective study of salivary gland function in patients undergoing radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2004 Feb;97(2):173-89
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  • [Title] A prospective study of salivary gland function in patients undergoing radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the impact of head and neck cancer treatment on salivary function.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The study was conducted on 54 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma with confirmed (n = 50) or suspected (n = 4) primary oropharyngeal localization who were treated with radiation alone or in combination with surgery or chemotherapy, or both.
  • The following groups were considered in the evaluation: 1, the entire pool of patients; 2, those undergoing surgery and those not undergoing surgery before radiation; 3, those undergoing resection and those not undergoing resection of the submandibular gland.
  • RESULTS: Head and neck surgery, particularly when submandibular gland resection was performed, had a negative impact on salivary flow rates but did not influence pH or buffering capacity.
  • Nonetheless, the effect of surgery on salivary flow rates decreased progressively and disappeared at 3 to 6 months after radiotherapy.
  • More than two thirds of the salivary output was lost during radiation treatment.
  • All patients were experiencing salivary dysfunction at 1 year after completion of radiotherapy, with average decreases of 93% (P < .0001) and 95% (P < .0001) for whole resting salivary flow and whole stimulated salivary flow, respectively, compared with the preradiotherapy values.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The result of this study confirms that cancer treatment involving full-dose radiotherapy (RTH) to all major salivary glands for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx induces severe hyposalivation with alteration of salivary pH and buffering capacity.
  • Head and neck surgery has a negative impact on salivary flow rates, especially when the submandibular gland is removed.
  • However, surgery before irradiation is not a factor aggravating hyposalivation when postoperative radiotherapy includes all the major salivary glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Salivary Glands / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Buffers. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Saliva / radiation effects. Secretory Rate / radiation effects. Submandibular Gland / surgery. Xerostomia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 14970776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Buffers
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15. Airoldi M, Pedani F, Succo G, Gabriele AM, Ragona R, Marchionatti S, Bumma C: Phase II randomized trial comparing vinorelbine versus vinorelbine plus cisplatin in patients with recurrent salivary gland malignancies. Cancer; 2001 Feb 1;91(3):541-7
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  • [Title] Phase II randomized trial comparing vinorelbine versus vinorelbine plus cisplatin in patients with recurrent salivary gland malignancies.
  • BACKGROUND: Some previous studies have shown that vinorelbine (VNB) is active in recurrent salivary gland tumors.
  • Four patients had been treated with prior surgery (S) or radiotherapy (RT), 27 patients had been treated with S plus RT, and 5 patients had been treated with S plus RT plus mitoxantrone.
  • Eighteen patients had major salivary gland tumors, and 18 patients had minor salivary gland tumors; 9 patients had adenocarcinoma, 22 patients had adenoid cystic carcinoma, 1 patient had a malignant mixed carcinoma, 3 patients had undifferentiated carcinoma, and 1 patient had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • Grade 2-3 nausea and emesis was statistically higher (P < 0.001) in Arm A; there was no significant difference with regard to other side-effects between the two treatment arms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: VNB is a drug with moderate activity in salivary gland malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives. Vinblastine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11169936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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16. Someya M, Sakata K, Nagakura H, Nakata K, Oouchi A, Hareyama M: The changes in irradiated salivary gland function of patients with head and neck tumors treated with radiotherapy. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2003 Jul;33(7):336-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The changes in irradiated salivary gland function of patients with head and neck tumors treated with radiotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: To investigate and analyze changes in irradiated salivary gland function of patients with head and neck tumors treated with radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with head and neck tumors, who received 40-70 Gy of irradiation to all major salivary glands, were analyzed.
  • The salivary gland function was defined by the weight of saliva.
  • RESULTS: With vitamin C stimulation, the weight of saliva in patients whose doses were < or =50 Gy, was significantly higher than that of patients whose doses were > or = 58 Gy (2.48 +/- 0.33 g vs. 0.73 +/- 0.18 g, P = 0.0003).
  • When doses administered to salivary glands were < or =50 Gy, the stimulated saliva secretion recovered over time, after irradiation.
  • However, when the doses of irradiation were > or = 58 Gy, there was no recovery in saliva secretion even after a few years.
  • Multiple regression analysis showed that age and chemotherapy may not affect salivary gland function even years after radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: When salivary glands were irradiated with doses < or =50 Gy, gradual recovery of salivary gland function was observed over time, whereas there was no significant recovery when the irradiation dose was >58 Gy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Salivary Glands / physiopathology. Salivary Glands / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 12949059.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid
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17. Hatta C, Terada T, Okita J, Kakibuchi M, Kubota A, Sakagami M: Clinicopathological study of undifferentiated carcinoma of the parotid gland. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2003 Aug;30(3):273-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathological study of undifferentiated carcinoma of the parotid gland.
  • OBJECTIVE: Undifferentiated carcinoma of the salivary gland is a rare malignant tumor, and is difficult to distinguish from other poorly differentiated types of carcinoma or sarcoma.
  • The present study investigated clinical and pathological characteristics for undifferentiated carcinoma of the parotid gland.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients with previously untreated carcinoma of the major salivary glands were treated at our institution between 1986 and 1999.
  • Of these, five patients (two males, three females) were diagnosed with undifferentiated carcinoma of the parotid gland and treated.
  • Tumors in these two patients included a small portion of poorly differentiated epidermoid or mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • The remaining three patients did not show any differentiated portions, and histological findings demonstrated heterogeneous patterns of lymphoepithelial carcinoma, small cell carcinoma and unclassified (a pattern of malignant hemangiopericytoma), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Investigation using multislice sections is needed to diagnose undifferentiated carcinoma of the salivary glands.
  • Regarding prognosis, carcinoma that is too poorly differentiated but including slightly-differentiated portions should be considered undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • All patients died of distant metastasis despite radical surgery, suggesting that chemotherapy is needed to improve patient outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Parotid Gland / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12927291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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18. Locati LD, Bossi P, Perrone F, Potepan P, Crippa F, Mariani L, Casieri P, Orsenigo M, Losa M, Bergamini C, Liberatoscioli C, Quattrone P, Calderone RG, Rinaldi G, Pilotti S, Licitra L: Cetuximab in recurrent and/or metastatic salivary gland carcinomas: A phase II study. Oral Oncol; 2009 Jul;45(7):574-8
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  • [Title] Cetuximab in recurrent and/or metastatic salivary gland carcinomas: A phase II study.
  • EGFR overexpression in salivary gland carcinomas provides the rational for the investigation of anti-EGFR treatments in recurrent and/or metastatic salivary gland cancers (RMSGCs).
  • From April to December 2005, 30 patients [23 adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and 7 non-ACC] were treated with cetuximab at 400mg/m(2)/week followed by 250mg/m(2)/week until progression, major toxicity or voluntary discontinuation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18804410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
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19. Ellies M, Gottstein U, Rohrbach-Volland S, Arglebe C, Laskawi R: Reduction of salivary flow with botulinum toxin: extended report on 33 patients with drooling, salivary fistulas, and sialadenitis. Laryngoscope; 2004 Oct;114(10):1856-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reduction of salivary flow with botulinum toxin: extended report on 33 patients with drooling, salivary fistulas, and sialadenitis.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was the evaluation of the clinical data of 33 patients who had had drooling attributable to various diseases, salivary fistulas, and sialadenitis and had been treated with injection of botulinum toxin type A (Botox).
  • A controlled follow-up study documenting efficiency, possible side effects, and duration of the effect of treatment was also performed.
  • METHODS: Thirty-three patients with drooling attributable to head and neck carcinoma, neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, or idiopathic hypersalivation or with salivary fistula or chronic sialadenitis received injections of 20 to 65 U botulinum toxin type A into salivary glands under sonographic control.
  • The entire salivary flow rate and the output per minute of the salivary analytes thiocyanate, total protein, alpha-amylase, acid phosphatase, kallikrein, and immunoglobulin A were measured at various times before and after injection.
  • The patients were examined with regard to severity of their symptoms, including sonographic control investigation of their cephalic salivary glands.
  • In general, salivary flow rates and thiocyanate output dropped sharply within 1 week after injection and had increased again after a period of 12 to 16 weeks.
  • Sonography did not reveal any major changes in salivary gland parenchyma, and side effects were not noted.
  • CONCLUSION: Reduction of salivary flow in patients with drooling, salivary fistulas, or chronic sialadenitis by local injection of botulinum toxin type A into the salivary glands proved to be a dependable therapy for these disorders, as shown in the present extended report on 33 patients.
  • Based on their results, the authors recommend botulinum toxin injection as the therapy of choice in patients with the problem of drooling.
  • [MeSH-major] Botulinum Toxins, Type A / administration & dosage. Neuromuscular Agents / administration & dosage. Salivary Gland Fistula / drug therapy. Sialadenitis / drug therapy. Sialorrhea / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Injections. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Salivation / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15454785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuromuscular Agents; EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A
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20. Bernardini FP, Devoto MH, Croxatto JO: Epithelial tumors of the lacrimal gland: an update. Curr Opin Ophthalmol; 2008 Sep;19(5):409-13
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  • [Title] Epithelial tumors of the lacrimal gland: an update.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this article is to offer an update on the treatment and prognosis of the most common epithelial tumors of the lacrimal gland, report on new pathological entities and offer a review of the classification of lacrimal gland tumors.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Improvements have been made in the understanding of lacrimal gland lesions with the knowledge that lacrimal gland tumors compare to the more common counterparts of the major salivary glands.
  • Therefore, the WHO's classification of salivary gland tumors has been adapted to the lacrimal gland pathology.
  • Until recently, primary adenocarcinomas of the lacrimal gland were not further subclassified, but they can now be divided into low-grade and high-grade malignancies.
  • The adjunctive use of intra-arterial cytoreductive chemotherapy for the management of adenoid cystic carcinoma is one of the most important advancements on the management of these aggressive tumors.
  • Another important step forward has been taken on carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland, which is subclassified into noninvasive carcinoma, with an excellent prognosis after complete excision and invasive carcinoma for which the prognosis is still guarded despite adjunctive radiotherapy.
  • SUMMARY: This article offers an update on diagnosis, classification and treatment of common and rare epithelial lacrimal gland tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18772674.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-7021
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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21. Pester U, Günzel T, Franzen A: [Small cell carcinoma of parotid gland--a case report]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2008 Apr;87(4):265-9
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  • [Title] [Small cell carcinoma of parotid gland--a case report].
  • BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the major salivary glands are very seldom.
  • If there is such a tumor always have in mind that it can be a metastatic process of another small cell carcinoma in other locations of the body.
  • CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 72-year-old woman suffering from a small cell carcinoma of Parotid gland.
  • Because a surgical therapy was impossible she underwent a radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: First choice for therapy of tumors of the major salivary glands is surgical therapy in combination with radiation/chemotherapy.
  • If this is not possible a primary radiotherapy sometimes in combination with chemotherapy seems to be another therapeutic option.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Parotid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18038375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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22. Pfeffer MR, Talmi Y, Catane R, Symon Z, Yosepovitch A, Levitt M: A phase II study of Imatinib for advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma of head and neck salivary glands. Oral Oncol; 2007 Jan;43(1):33-6
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  • [Title] A phase II study of Imatinib for advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma of head and neck salivary glands.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands is characterized by a poor response to chemotherapy.
  • Most cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma express the c-kit protein.
  • We therefore hypothesized that Imatinib may be an effective drug in patients with locally advanced or metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and conducted a phase 2 trial in order to study this.
  • Patients with locally advanced or metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and c-kit positive tumours were eligible.
  • Treatment was begun at a dose of Imatinib of 400mg/day.
  • All other patients stopped treatment after 2-14 (median 6) months due to progressive disease.
  • Imatinib has no major effect on advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16757202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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23. Ellies M, Laskawi R, Rohrbach-Volland S, Arglebe C, Beuche W: Botulinum toxin to reduce saliva flow: selected indications for ultrasound-guided toxin application into salivary glands. Laryngoscope; 2002 Jan;112(1):82-6
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  • [Title] Botulinum toxin to reduce saliva flow: selected indications for ultrasound-guided toxin application into salivary glands.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The study investigates the effect of local injections of botulinum toxin type A (Botox) into the major salivary glands of the head in various states of hypersalivation.
  • In particular, we studied pathological states with permanent as well as passing hypersalivation disorders and present new indications for local application of botulinum toxin to the salivary glands.
  • METHODS: A total of 55 to 65 units of Botox were injected under sonographic control into the left and right parotid and submandibular glands of four patients with hypersalivation resulting from head and neck carcinoma, tracheostomy, and "idiopathic" hypersalivation disorder.
  • At defined time intervals following injection, flow rate, total protein and immunoglobulin A content, and the enzymatic activities of amylase, acid phosphatase, and kallikrein were determined in the saliva.
  • The patients were clinically examined to assess the severity of their symptoms, including sonographic control of the major salivary glands.
  • Salivary flow rate had considerably dropped, whereas the concentrations of the salivary components were much increased.
  • Sonography did not reveal any changes of the salivary gland parenchyma.
  • Therapeutic side effects were absent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of hypersalivation by local injections of Botox into the salivary glands of the head is a reliable and efficient therapy without side effects for certain otolaryngological diseases, especially if injections are performed under sonographic control.
  • Extension of this therapeutic concept to other indications is suggested.
  • [MeSH-major] Botulinum Toxins, Type A / administration & dosage. Parotid Gland / drug effects. Salivation / drug effects. Sialorrhea / drug therapy. Submandibular Gland / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Injections. Male. Middle Aged. Secretory Rate / drug effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11802043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A
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24. Rosenthal DI, Chambers MS, Weber RS, Eisbruch A: A phase II study to assess the efficacy of amifostine for submandibular/sublingual salivary sparing during the treatment of head and neck cancer with intensity modulated radiation therapy for parotid salivary sparing. Semin Oncol; 2004 Dec;31(6 Suppl 18):25-8
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  • [Title] A phase II study to assess the efficacy of amifostine for submandibular/sublingual salivary sparing during the treatment of head and neck cancer with intensity modulated radiation therapy for parotid salivary sparing.
  • Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows for relative parotid salivary gland sparing for patients undergoing treatment for head and neck squamous cell cancer, but is less reliable for sparing the submandibular glands.
  • Cytoprotection with amifostine (Ethyol; Medimmune Inc, Gaithersburg, MD) has been shown to decrease rates of acute and late xerostomia in patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck squamous cell cancer.
  • The addition of amifostine to IMRT may augment parotid salivary sparing, and add submandibular/sublingual, and minor salivary gland sparing resulting in greater salivary flow rates and a more physiologic saliva.
  • Eligible patients include those slated to receive definitive IMRT for early oropharynx cancer or postoperative RT, both without chemotherapy, for more advanced cancers.
  • Clinical target volume (CTV) 1 will receive 60 to 66 Gy, CTV2 will receive 60 Gy, and CTV3 will receive 54 to 57 Gy.
  • The mean dose goal for the parotid gland is 25 Gy.
  • Whole mouth and individual major salivary gland stimulated and unstimulated saliva will be collected before and after therapy at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months.
  • Xerostomia outcomes will be correlated with salivary dose volume histogram data.
  • The results of this study will give an indication of the objective and subjective benefit of combined IMRT physical parotid salivary sparing and amifostine chemical cytoprotection for combined salivary gland sparing and reduction in the rate of xerostomia in patients undergoing IMRT for head and neck squamous cell cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Amifostine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Parotid Gland / radiation effects. Radiation-Protective Agents / therapeutic use. Submandibular Gland / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 15726519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine
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25. Issing PR, Hemmanouil I, Wilkens L, Karstens H, Lenarz T: [Long term results in adenoidcystic carcinoma]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2002 Feb;81(2):98-105
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  • [Title] [Long term results in adenoidcystic carcinoma].
  • BACKGROUND: Due to the discreet initial symptoms and the locally aggressive infiltration with perineural spread the adenoidcystic carcinoma (ACC) presents a special diagnostical and therapeutical challenge.
  • The major salivary glands were affected in 26 cases.
  • The exact distribution of the ACC was: parotid gland (n = 18), submandibular gland (n = 8), oral cavity (n = 10), paranasal sinuses (n = 11), nasopharynx (n = 4) and larynx (n = 3).
  • No definitive differentiation was possible in 10 specimens.
  • Except one patient all 54 underwent surgical therapy.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy was additionally given in 25 cases which was combined with a chemotherapy in 6 patients.
  • Lymphnode metastases were observed in 13 patients after a latency of 3.3 years in average, but predominantly pulmonary metastases as distant spread developed in 18 patients after 5.8 years significantly later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Due to the uncommon biological behaviour with a slow growth on the one hand side and an aggressive local invasion on the other hand side the ACC can be regarded as a challenging malignant disease for the clinician whose adequate therapy does not allow any standardized regime.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic. Mouth Neoplasms. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms. Salivary Gland Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery. Parotid Neoplasms / therapy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Submandibular Gland. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11914946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Huber PE, Debus J, Latz D, Zierhut D, Bischof M, Wannenmacher M, Engenhart-Cabillic R: Radiotherapy for advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma: neutrons, photons or mixed beam? Radiother Oncol; 2001 May;59(2):161-7
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy for advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma: neutrons, photons or mixed beam?
  • PURPOSE: To compare retrospectively radiotherapy with neutrons, photons, and a photon/neutron mixed beam in patients with advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1983 and 1995, 75 patients with inoperable, recurrent, or incompletely resected adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck received radiotherapy that consisted of either fast 14.1 MV DT neutrons (median dose 16 neutron Gy), linac-based photon irradiation (median dose 64 photon Gy), or both (median dose 8 neutron Gy and 32 photon Gy).
  • Follow-up ranged from 1 to 160 months (median 51 months), and the surviving patients had a minimum follow-up of 3 years at the time of analysis.
  • In multivariate analysis postoperative radiotherapy (P = 0.003) and small tumor size (P = 0.01) were associated with high local control, while primary therapy (P = 0.006) and negative lymph nodes (P = 0.01) were associated with longer survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Fast neutron radiotherapy provides higher local control rates than a mixed beam and photons in advanced, recurrent or not completely resected adenoid cystic carcinoma of the major and minor salivary glands.
  • The type of radiation does not impact survival, which is dominated by the high number of distant metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / radiotherapy. Neutrons / therapeutic use. Photons / therapeutic use. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


27. Takagi D, Fukuda S, Furuta Y, Yagi K, Homma A, Nagahashi T, Inuyama Y: Clinical study of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2001 May;28 Suppl:S99-102
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical study of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • OBJECTIVE: We examined prognostic factors and outcome of the primary treatment in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the head and neck.
  • Patients with major salivary gland ACC obtained the best 10-year survival rate (83%), while those with paranasal sinus ACC had the worst survival rate (33%).
  • Chemotherapy failed in some patients and was not dramatically effective by itself.
  • Long-term follow-up is necessary for better prognosis of patients treated with radical treatment regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11683353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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28. Palencár D, Hedera J, Fedeles J, Dolezal J, Pind'ák D: Reconstruction of a circular defect of the hypopharynx and cervical part of esophagus by a free jejunal flap (case report). Acta Chir Plast; 2005;47(2):35-7

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  • In this article, the authors present a case of complete hypopharynx closure in an oncology patient with a larynx carcinoma.
  • The patient is a 60-year-old male diagnosed in 2002 with epidermoid carcinoma of larynx.
  • The patient underwent laser resection of the tumor followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • In 2003 the patient underwent pharyngo - laryngectomy for relapse of the larynx carcinoma.
  • Postoperatively the patient developed pharyngo - cutaneous fistula, which was reconstructed at the otorhinolaryngology department by a muscle - cutaneous flap from the pectoralis major muscle.
  • During the course of healing the patient developed complete hypopharynx and cervical esophagus closure.
  • On the second day after the surgery patient developed salivary fistula in the wound.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Hypopharynx / surgery. Jejunum / transplantation. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Laser Therapy. Male. Postoperative Complications. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Salivary Gland Fistula / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16035154.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgiae plasticae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Plast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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29. Salama AR, Jham BC, Papadimitriou JC, Scheper MA: Metastatic neuroendocrine carcinomas to the head and neck: report of 4 cases and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2009 Aug;108(2):242-7
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  • Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is a cancer arising from neuroendocrine cells, most commonly in the lungs.
  • Here, we present 4 cases of metastatic NEC to the jaws and major salivary glands.
  • Treatment included surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Mandibular Neoplasms / secondary. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19615663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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30. Thorstad WL, Chao KS, Haughey B: Toxicity and compliance of subcutaneous amifostine in patients undergoing postoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Semin Oncol; 2004 Dec;31(6 Suppl 18):8-12
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  • [Title] Toxicity and compliance of subcutaneous amifostine in patients undergoing postoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy for head and neck cancer.
  • Standard conventional radiation therapy for advanced head and neck tumors typically involves administering high radiation dose to the major salivary glands bilaterally.
  • Xerostomia is one of the most prevalent late side effects of radiation for head and neck malignancies, and patients cite it as the major cause of decreased quality of life.
  • The degree of xerostomia has been reported to depend on the radiation dose and volume of salivary gland irradiated.
  • Several studies show dose-volume-response relationships in the salivary glands, suggesting the possibility of significant improvement in saliva production postradiation, as well as quality of life, if radiation techniques can spare the salivary glands.
  • A growing body of literature supports the premise that intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows irradiation of tumor targets in the head and neck while sparing substantial portions of salivary glands.
  • Early clinical experience has shown substantial sparing of salivary flow following IMRT, and suggests at least equal tumor control but improved xerostomia compared with patients receiving standard radiation techniques.
  • We hypothesize that the addition of a radiation protector, such as amifostine (Ethyol; Medimmune Inc, Gaithersburg, MD) may further improve salivary function over that obtained with IMRT alone.
  • To test this hypothesis, we have initiated a pilot clinical trial to compare unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates 6 months and 1 year after IMRT + amifostine with historic controls treated with IMRT alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Amifostine / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation-Protective Agents / adverse effects. Xerostomia / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Injections, Subcutaneous. Patient Compliance. Pilot Projects. Postoperative Period. Radiation Dosage. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Salivary Glands / drug effects. Salivation / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15726516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine
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31. Ellies M, Laskawi R, Rohrbach-Volland S, Arglebe C: Up-to-date report of botulinum toxin therapy in patients with drooling caused by different etiologies. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2003 Apr;61(4):454-7
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  • [Title] Up-to-date report of botulinum toxin therapy in patients with drooling caused by different etiologies.
  • We also present a controlled follow-up study documenting efficiency, possible adverse events, and duration of the effect of treatment.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with drooling caused by head and neck carcinoma, neurodegenerative diseases, or stroke received injections of 50 to 65 U botulinum toxin A (Botox; Allergan, Irvine, CA) in both submandibular and both parotid glands under sonographic control.
  • We measured whole salivary flow rate and the salivary analytes of total protein, alpha-amylase, acid phosphatase, kallikrein, and immunoglobulin A at various times before and after injection.
  • The patients were examined for severity of symptoms, including sonographic investigation of cephalic salivary glands.
  • In general, salivary flow rates dropped sharply within 1 week after injection but had risen again after 12 weeks.
  • Conversely, analyte concentrations increased in the first stages of treatment and later decreased, returning to pretherapy levels.
  • Sonography did not reveal any major changes of salivary gland parenchyma, and side effects were absent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Local injection of botulinum toxin A into the salivary glands proved to be a dependable therapy for drooling caused by various etiologies, as shown in 13 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Botulinum Toxins, Type A / administration & dosage. Neuromuscular Agents / administration & dosage. Salivary Glands / drug effects. Salivation / drug effects. Sialorrhea / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Saliva / chemistry. Saliva / secretion. Salivary Proteins and Peptides / analysis. Secretory Rate / drug effects. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons J Oral Maxillofac Surg 61:454-457, 2003
  • (PMID = 12684962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-2391
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuromuscular Agents; 0 / Salivary Proteins and Peptides; EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A
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32. Bennett CL, Lane D, Stinson T, Glatzel M, Buntzel J: Economic analysis of amifostine as adjunctive support for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: preliminary results from a randomized phase II clinical trial from Germany. Cancer Invest; 2001;19(2):107-13
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  • 28 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck received adjunctive or primary radiotherapy (5 days per week with daily fractions of 2 Gy, up to a total dose of 60 Gy) in conjunction with carboplatin (70 mg/m2) on days 1-5 and days 21-26.
  • All patients received radiation encompassing at least 75% of the major salivary glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Amifostine / economics. Amifostine / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Costs and Cost Analysis. Female. Germany. Hospitalization / economics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiation-Protective Agents / adverse effects. Radiation-Protective Agents / economics. Radiation-Protective Agents / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11296615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine
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33. Sakamoto K, Izumaru S, Kurita T, Miyajima Y, Nakashima T: [Clinical review of mucoepidermoid carcinomas]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2005 Feb;108(2):142-9
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  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a rare head and neck cancer tumor, composed of both mucous and epidermoid cells.
  • We retrospectively reviewed the case of 36 such patients hospitalized in the last 24 years (between 1978 and 2002) at Kurume University Hospital, focusing on origin, treatment, and treatment outcome.
  • In this study, 33 patients undergoing currative treatment were studied in detail.
  • Tumors originated in major salivary glands in 24 and in the oral cavity, paranasal cavity, and oropharynx in 3 each.
  • Salivary gland carcinomas were graded, clinically and histopathologically based on the criteria of Goode et al. as follows: low (n = 3), intermediate (n = 3), and high (n = 18).
  • Five-year overall survival was 64%, i.e., 56% in salivary gland malignancy, 67% in oral cavity malignancy, 100% in paranasal cavity malignancy and 100% in oropharynx malignancy.
  • In 31 patients not undergoing chemotherapy, 6 died of distant metastasis.
  • These results emphasize the necessity of radiotherapy and chemotherapy after surgical treatment for head and neck mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15765727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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