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1. Barbaric D, Alonzo TA, Gerbing RB, Meshinchi S, Heerema NA, Barnard DR, Lange BJ, Woods WG, Arceci RJ, Smith FO: Minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (FAB AML-M0) is associated with an adverse outcome in children: a report from the Children's Oncology Group, studies CCG-2891 and CCG-2961. Blood; 2007 Mar 15;109(6):2314-21
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  • [Title] Minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (FAB AML-M0) is associated with an adverse outcome in children: a report from the Children's Oncology Group, studies CCG-2891 and CCG-2961.
  • To assess the impact of minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0) morphology in children, we analyzed 2 sequential Children's Cancer Group AML clinical trials.
  • We compared presenting characteristics and outcomes of 82 CCG-2891 and CCG-2961 patients with de novo, non-Down syndrome (DS) AML-M0 with those of 1620 patients with non-M0 AML, and of 10 CCG-2891 patients with DS-associated AML-M0 with those of 179 with DS-associated non-M0 AML.
  • The non-DS AML-M0 children had a lower white blood cell (WBC) count (P = .001) than their non-M0 counterparts and a higher incidence of chromosome 5 deletions (P = .002), nonconstitutional trisomy 21 (P = .027), and hypodiploidy (P = .002).
  • Outcome analyses considering all children with non-DS AML demonstrated no significant differences between M0 and non-M0 patients.
  • Analyses restricted to intensive-timing CCG-2891 and CCG-2961 demonstrated comparable complete response (CR) rates (79% and 78%) between non-DS M0 and non-M0 patients.
  • OS from end of induction (45% +/- 17% versus 63% +/- 3%; P = .038), event-free survival (EFS; 23% +/- 11% versus 41% +/- 3%; P = .018), and disease-free survival (DFS; 31% +/- 14% versus 52% +/- 3%; P = .009) were inferior in the M0 group.
  • There was no significant outcome difference between DS-associated AML-M0 and non-M0 children.
  • This study suggests that intensively treated non-DS-associated AML-M0 children have an inferior outcome compared with children with non-M0 AML.

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  • (PMID = 17158236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 98413; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 98543
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1852193
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2. Schaich M, Illmer T, Seitz G, Mohr B, Schäkel U, Beck JF, Ehninger G: The prognostic value of Bcl-XL gene expression for remission induction is influenced by cytogenetics in adult acute myeloid leukemia. Haematologica; 2001 May;86(5):470-7
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  • [Title] The prognostic value of Bcl-XL gene expression for remission induction is influenced by cytogenetics in adult acute myeloid leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is growing evidence that altered expression of genes belonging to the BcL-2 family of apoptosis regulators might influence chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in malignant cells and therefore could confer multidrug resistance.
  • So far expression studies of apoptosis-regulating genes on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have mainly focused on Bcl-2 itself and most of them have not included other factors involved in drug resistance or apoptosis as parameters determining response to chemotherapy, disease progression and survival.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We therefore examined Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bax gene expression in 235 adult patients with de novo or secondary myeloid leukemia.
  • Bcl-2 expression correlated with FAB subtype M0 (p=0.03), Bax with M5b (p=0.02) and Bcl-XL with M6 (p=0.005).
  • Remarkably Bax was significantly less frequently expressed in de novo AML patients with high risk cytogenetics (p=0.007).
  • However, in the multivariate analysis regarding the group of de novo AML patients < or =60 years with intermediate risk cytogenetics, Bcl-XL expression was found to be an independent negative prognostic factor for response to induction therapy (p=0.04).
  • In contrast, no prognostic impact of Bcl-XL expression on treatment response was seen within the group of patients with high risk cytogenetic findings.
  • INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the prognostic value of Bcl-XL gene expression for treatment response in AML patients < or =60 years is dependent on cytogenetics.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / diagnosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers. Cytogenetic Analysis. Gene Expression. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Remission Induction. bcl-2-Associated X Protein. bcl-X Protein

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  • (PMID = 11410409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-6078
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Progressive vaccinia in a military smallpox vaccinee - United States, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep; 2009 May 22;58(19):532-6
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  • The service member had been newly diagnosed with acute mylegenous leukemia M0 (AML M0).
  • During evaluation for a chemotherapy-induced neutropenic fever, he was found to have an expanding and nonhealing painless vaccination site 6.5 weeks after receipt of smallpox vaccine.
  • The quantities of investigational and licensed therapeutics and diagnostics used were greater than anticipated based on existing smallpox preparedness plans.
  • To support future public health needs adequately, the estimated national supply of therapeutics and diagnostic resources required to care for smallpox vaccine adverse events should be reevaluated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Clostridium Infections. DNA, Viral / analysis. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Male. Military Personnel. Multiple Organ Failure. Pseudomonas Infections. United States

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  • (PMID = 19478722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-861X
  • [Journal-full-title] MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 0 / Smallpox Vaccine
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4. Mesa RA, Li CY, Ketterling RP, Schroeder GS, Knudson RA, Tefferi A: Leukemic transformation in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: a single-institution experience with 91 cases. Blood; 2005 Feb 1;105(3):973-7
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  • [Title] Leukemic transformation in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: a single-institution experience with 91 cases.
  • Among 2333 consecutive patients with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) seen at our institution, 91 fulfilled the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for leukemic transformation (LT).
  • All episodes of LT were myeloid in origin (acute myeloid leukemia [AML]) with all French-American-British (FAB) subtypes represented except M3; the most frequent subtypes were M7 (25.4%), M0 (22.4%), and M2 (17.9%).
  • Twenty-four patients received AML-like induction chemotherapy that resulted in no complete remission: 41% reverted into chronic-phase disease and the incidence of treatment-related mortality was 33%.
  • The remaining 67 patients received either supportive care alone (48 patients) or low-intensity chemotherapy (19 patients).
  • Overall, survival was similarly poor in all 3 treatment categories.
  • The outcome of LT in MMM with current therapies is dismal and either supportive care alone or appropriate clinical trials should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia / drug therapy. Leukemia / pathology. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / pathology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology. Primary Myelofibrosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reference Values. Treatment Outcome


5. Tamm I, Richter S, Oltersdorf D, Creutzig U, Harbott J, Scholz F, Karawajew L, Ludwig WD, Wuchter C: High expression levels of x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and survivin correlate with poor overall survival in childhood de novo acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res; 2004 Jun 1;10(11):3737-44
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  • [Title] High expression levels of x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and survivin correlate with poor overall survival in childhood de novo acute myeloid leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: Apoptosis-related proteins are important molecules for predicting chemotherapy response and prognosis in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • However, data on the expression and prognostic impact of these molecules in childhood AML are rare.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using flow cytometry and Western blot analysis, we, therefore, investigated 45 leukemic cell samples from children with de novo AML enrolled and treated within the German AML-BFM93 study for the expression of apoptosis-regulating proteins [CD95, Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-xL, procaspase-3, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP-1), survivin].
  • RESULTS: XIAP (P < 0.002) but no other apoptosis regulators showed maturation-dependent expression differences as determined by French-American-British (FAB) morphology with the highest expression levels observed within the immature M0/1 subtypes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that apoptosis-related molecules are associated with maturation stage, cytogenetic risk groups, and therapy outcome in childhood de novo AML.
  • The observed association of XIAP with immature FAB types, intermediate/poor cytogenetics, and poor overall survival should be confirmed within prospective pediatric AML trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / metabolism. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / biosynthesis. Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antigens, CD95 / biosynthesis. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Caspase 3. Caspases / biosynthesis. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Male. Neoplasm Proteins. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. Risk. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein. bcl-2-Associated X Protein

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  • (PMID = 15173080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein; 0 / XIAP protein, human; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP3 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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6. Sperr WR, Jordan JH, Baghestanian M, Kiener HP, Samorapoompichit P, Semper H, Hauswirth A, Schernthaner GH, Chott A, Natter S, Kraft D, Valenta R, Schwartz LB, Geissler K, Lechner K, Valent P: Expression of mast cell tryptase by myeloblasts in a group of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Blood; 2001 Oct 1;98(7):2200-9
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  • [Title] Expression of mast cell tryptase by myeloblasts in a group of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Under physiologic conditions other myeloid cells are virtually tryptase negative.
  • However, tryptases are also expressed in several myeloid leukemia cell lines.
  • In this study, serum total tryptase levels were determined in 150 patients with acute leukemias (de novo acute myeloid leukemia [AML], n = 108; secondary AML, n = 25; acute lymphoid leukemia [ALL], n = 17) by fluoroenzyme immunoassay.
  • Elevated tryptase levels (> 15) were detected in 42 (39%) of 108 patients with de novo AML and in 11 (44%) of 25 patients with secondary AML.
  • In de novo AML, elevated tryptase levels were frequently detected in patients with French-American-British classification M0 (6 of 9), M2 (9 of 14), M3 (4 of 6), and M4eo (7 of 7), and less frequently in M1 (7 of 20), M4 (6 of 26), M5 (2 of 18), M6 (0 of 5), or M7 (1 of 3).
  • As assessed by Northern blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, AML cells expressed alpha-tryptase messenger RNA (mRNA) but little or no beta-tryptase mRNA.
  • In AML patients with elevated serum tryptase before chemotherapy, who entered complete remission, tryptase levels returned to normal or near normal values.
  • Together, tryptase is expressed in myeloblasts in a group of AML and may serve as a useful disease-related marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / enzymology. Myeloid Cells / enzymology. Serine Endopeptidases / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Biomarkers. Bone Marrow Cells / enzymology. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mast Cells / enzymology. Mast Cells / metabolism. Microscopy, Immunoelectron. Middle Aged. Monocytes / enzymology. Monocytes / metabolism. Monocytes / pathology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Remission Induction. Tryptases

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  • (PMID = 11568008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI20487; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR45441
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.59 / Tryptases
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7. Tóthová E, Fricova M, Stecová N, Kafková A, Elbertová A: High expression of Bcl-2 protein in acute myeloid leukemia cells is associated with poor response to chemotherapy. Neoplasma; 2002;49(3):141-4
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  • [Title] High expression of Bcl-2 protein in acute myeloid leukemia cells is associated with poor response to chemotherapy.
  • Flow cytometric expression of bcl-2 protein was analyzed in 67 newly diagnosed acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patients using an anti-bcl-2 monoclonal antibody by direct immunofluorescence technique and results were correlated with FAB subtype, CD34 expression and clinical outcome.
  • The percentage of bcl-2+ cells was higher in M0 and M1 types according to French-American-British classification.
  • The mean fluorescence index (MFI), expressed as the ratio of sample channel:control mean channel was significantly higher (p=0.01) in M0 (19.0) and M1 (17.6) than M4 (11.7) and M5 (8.9) cytotypes.
  • High percentage expression of bcl-2 and MFI index of bcl-2 was associated with a low complete remission rate after intensive chemotherapy (40.4% in cases with 20% and more positive cells vs 72% in cases with less than 20% positive cells).
  • By statistical analysis we also demonstrated that both bcl-2 high MFI (>16) and CD34 expression are independent prognostic factors for achieving CR in AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12097997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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8. Cascavilla N, Melillo L, D'Arena G, Greco MM, Carella AM, Sajeva MR, Perla G, Matera R, Minervini MM, Carotenuto M: Minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML M0): clinico-biological findings of 29 cases. Leuk Lymphoma; 2000 Mar;37(1-2):105-13
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  • [Title] Minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML M0): clinico-biological findings of 29 cases.
  • Twenty-nine cases of minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia or AML M0 identified among 441 AML diagnosed in the last 12 years are reported.
  • Of the 29 patients, 27 were treated with intensive chemotherapy based on GIMEMA protocols.
  • Twelve out of 27 patients (44%) achieved a complete remission (CR) (in 2 cases after rescue therapy).
  • In conclusion, AML M0 is a subtype of AML antigenically well detectable, endowed with many adverse parameters (older age, TdT and CD34 expression, resistance to apoptosis, unfavorable cytogenetic abnormalities) and poor prognosis.
  • A very aggressive consolidation treatment can be useful to improve the outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Female. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis


9. Miyawaki S, Tanimoto M, Kobayashi T, Minami S, Tamura J, Omoto E, Kuriyama K, Hatake K, Saito K, Ohno R: [Effect of etoposide added to individualized induction therapy of adult acute myeloid leukemia--the JALSG-AML-92 Study. Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2000 Jul;27(8):1160-7
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  • [Title] [Effect of etoposide added to individualized induction therapy of adult acute myeloid leukemia--the JALSG-AML-92 Study. Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group].
  • A multicenter prospective randomized study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of etoposide added to the standard remission induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Consecutively registered newly diagnosed adult AML patients were randomized to receive either daunorubicin (40 mg/m2/day x 4 or more), behenoyl cytarabine (200 mg/m2/day x 10 or more) and 6-mercaptopurine (70 mg/m2/day x 10 or more) (BH-AC-DM), or the same three drugs plus etoposide (100 mg/m2/day x 5) (BH-AC-EDM) for response-oriented individualized induction therapy.
  • The patients achieving complete remission (CR) received the same 3 courses of consolidation therapy followed by 6 courses of maintenance/intensification therapy.
  • M3 was excluded and M0 was included.
  • In conclusion, the present study failed to show any advantage of the addition of etoposide to the standard individualized induction therapy in adult AML, even among M4 and M5.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. Adolescent. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies


10. Suzuki A, Kimura Y, Ohyashiki K, Kitano K, Kageyama S, Kasai M, Miyawaki S, Ohno R: Trisomy 10 in acute myeloid leukemia. Three additional cases from the database of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group (JALSG) AML-92 and AML-95. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2000 Jul 15;120(2):141-3
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  • [Title] Trisomy 10 in acute myeloid leukemia. Three additional cases from the database of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group (JALSG) AML-92 and AML-95.
  • To clarify the clinical and hematologic features of a rare numerical chromosome abnormality, we searched for trisomy 10 in acute myelogenous leukemias (AMLs) using the database of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group (JALSG) AML 92 and 95.
  • Among the sequentially registered patients of JALSG-AML 92 (655 patients) and JALSG-AML 95 (531 patients), chromosome results were obtained in 1,074 patients (90.6%), and we found 3 patients with trisomy 10 as a sole abnormality.
  • The first patient had an AML-M1 morphology with CD7 antigen; the patient obtained complete remission (CR) with the first course of chemotherapy.
  • The second patient had an AML-M1 morphology without expressing CD7 antigen; this patient obtained CR, but relapsed 3 months later, and underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
  • He suffered from chronic graft-versus-host disease and expired 38 months after the AML diagnosis.
  • The third patient had AML-M0 with CD7 positivity.
  • In the literature, the mean age of patients with trisomy 10 AML is 57.8 years, the gender ratio is M/F = 1.5, and the frequency of M0/M1/M2 is 85.7%.
  • 8%) of CD7 expression of leukemia cells is notable.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Trisomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD7 / analysis. Databases as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged


11. Graf M, Hecht K, Reif S, Pelka-Fleischer R, Pfister K, Schmetzer H: Expression and prognostic value of hemopoietic cytokine receptors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML): implications for future therapeutical strategies. Eur J Haematol; 2004 Feb;72(2):89-106
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  • [Title] Expression and prognostic value of hemopoietic cytokine receptors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML): implications for future therapeutical strategies.
  • There is evidence to suggest, that those receptors (R) could play a role in leukemia with respect to cell differentiations and its regulation, prognosis, and pathobiology.
  • Knowledge of individual cytokine receptor (CKR) profiles could provide new discoveries about CKR-supported therapeutic considerations.
  • METHODS: We have studied the expression of CKR on mononuclear bone marrow (BM) cells of 89 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at first diagnosis, three patients at relapse or with persisting AML and eight healthy probands by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis using directly fluorescein-conjugated antibodies: CD114 (hG-CSF-R), CD116 (hGM-CSF-R), CD117 (hSCF-R), CD123 (hIL-3-R), CD130 (gp130subunit), CD135 (hFL-R).
  • RESULTS: All investigated CKR were more frequently expressed in AML-samples than in healthy BM-samples, except CD130, which was only expressed on 5-6% of AML-blasts in all and with only one healthy BM-sample being CD130(+).
  • Within the French-American-British (FAB) types we observed a maturation- and lineage (granulocytic/monocytic)-committed expression profile.
  • Monocytic subtypes (FAB-type M4/M5) showed significantly more GM-CSF-R(+) (P = 0.001) and FL-R(+) (P = 0.001) and significantly less stem cell factor-R (SCF-R(+)) (P = 0.02) cases.
  • Highest proportions of G-CSF-R(+) blasts were observed in FAB-type M3.
  • In undifferentiated leukemias (FAB-type M1, M2) high amounts of SCF-R(+), IL-3-R(+), and FL-R(+) blasts could be detected.
  • FL-R was the only CKR, which was positive in FAB-type M0 (n = 2).
  • For clinical evaluation only patients treated by the AML-CG-protocol, were included (n = 53).
  • CONCLUSION: We can conclude, that CKR-expression in AML is maturation- and lineage-committed and the proportions of especially early acting CKR have influence on relapse-free survival probability of AML-patients, independently of the karyotype.
  • With respect to the individual CKR status the benefit of cytokines as priming agents, as agents to treat neutropenia or to influence the metabolism of chemotherapy can be discussed under new points of view.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / immunology. Receptors, Cytokine / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Marrow Cells / immunology. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Recurrence. Time Factors


12. Eibl M, Auner HW, Zinke-Cerwenka W, Sill H, Dornbusch HJ, Linkesch W: High-risk AML complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis: successful treatment with nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation and long-term administration of voriconazole. Ann Hematol; 2004 Feb;83(2):133-6
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  • [Title] High-risk AML complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis: successful treatment with nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation and long-term administration of voriconazole.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) associated with central diabetes insipidus (DI) and chromosomal aberrations is characterised by a very poor prognosis.
  • We present a 28-year-old female with AML FAB M0, preceding DI and cytogenetic abnormalities (monosomy 7 and inversion of chromosome 9).
  • Initial antifungal treatment, including liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin and itraconazole, was replaced by voriconazole after deterioration of pulmonary aspergillosis, resulting in improvement, stabilisation and finally, also as the combined effect of discontinuation of the immunosuppressive therapy, in disappearance of signs and symptoms.
  • The presented case study thus demonstrates that high-risk AML with concomitant invasive fungal infection may be safely and effectively treated by nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation and long-term administration of voriconazole.
  • [MeSH-major] Antifungal Agents / administration & dosage. Aspergillosis / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / microbiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Lung Diseases, Fungal / drug therapy. Pyrimidines / administration & dosage. Stem Cell Transplantation. Triazoles / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Myeloablative Agonists / therapeutic use. Radiography, Thoracic. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Transplantation Conditioning / methods. Voriconazole

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  • (PMID = 14530879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Myeloablative Agonists; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Triazoles; JFU09I87TR / Voriconazole
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13. Ozçelik T, Ali R, Ozkalemkaş F, Ozkocaman V, Coşkun H, Erişen L, Filiz G: A case of granulocytic sarcoma during complete remission of acute myeloid leukemia with multiple masses involving the larynx and nasopharynx. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2003 Dec;11(6):183-8
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  • [Title] A case of granulocytic sarcoma during complete remission of acute myeloid leukemia with multiple masses involving the larynx and nasopharynx.
  • A thirty-seven-year-old male patient presented with dysphagia and hoarseness six months after complete remission of acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0), which had been treated with chemotherapy.
  • Sagittal and axial magnetic resonance scans of the nasopharynx and neck showed a mass in the left retropharyngeal and perivertebral regions, 6x4 cm in size; another mass in the left vallecula, and infiltration of the right preepiglottic tissue by another mass of 2 cm.
  • A diagnosis of granulocytic sarcoma without leukemia relapse was made and the FLAG-Ida regimen was administered, after which partial regression of the masses was observed.
  • However, the patient died due to a pulmonary infection on the 17th day of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Hoarseness / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15567934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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14. Lemez P, Vítek A, Michalová K, Zemanová Z, Lukásová M: [Long-term results of the UHKT-911 study of adult patients under 65 years of age with de novo acute myeloid leukemias without favorable karyotypes]. Vnitr Lek; 2003 Mar;49(3):174-80

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  • [Title] [Long-term results of the UHKT-911 study of adult patients under 65 years of age with de novo acute myeloid leukemias without favorable karyotypes].
  • Between February 1991 and April 1994 induction chemotherapy of 32 adult consecutive patients under 65 years with de novo acute myeloid leukemias (AML) was started in the study UHKT-911.
  • Their AML were classified according to the FAB classification: 3 M0, 3 M1, 9 M2, 14 M4, 3 M5.
  • Induction chemotherapy consisted of 1-2 cycles with 3-4 doses of daunorubicin (DNR) 45 mg/m2/d i.v. and 14 doses of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) 200 mg/m2 per 3-h infusion every 12 hours.
  • After the treatment patients, not being in complete remission, got the HD cycle with 10 high-doses of Ara-C 2000 mg/m2 per 3-h infusion every 12 hours i.v. and DNR 45 mg/m2/d i.v. on days 4 and 5, then the EMi cycle composed of etoposide 100 mg/m2/d i.v. for 5 days and mitozantrone 10-12 mg/m2/d i.v. on days 1, 3 and 5.
  • Five patients died between days 5 and 24 of treatment of infections, two patients were resistant to 4 cycles of induction therapy and survived 8.4 and 13.5 months.
  • After 62 months in CR a pancytopenia with dysplastic bone marrow changes developed in one of them, probably a secondary myelodysplastic syndrome, lasting for further 33 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12728590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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15. Nagashima T, Izumi T, Muroi K, Miyasato A, Uchida M, Imagawa S, Komatsu N, Yoshida M, Hatake K, Miura Y, Ozawa K: [Two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia complicated with fatal gastrointestinal tract bleeding after treatment with idarubicin and cytarabine]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2000 Mar;27(3):487-90
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  • [Title] [Two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia complicated with fatal gastrointestinal tract bleeding after treatment with idarubicin and cytarabine].
  • We describe herein two newly diagnosed patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), who were treated twice with an idarubicin hydrochloride (IDR)-containing regimen as a response-orientated induction therapy.
  • The two patients were as follows: a 35-year-old male, FAB-M4, and a 47-year-old female, FAB-M0.
  • They received the same induction chemotherapy (IDR 12 mg/m2 for four days and cytarabine 100 mg/m2 for ten days).
  • During the period of myelosuppression, they developed severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
  • One died of sepsis, and the other of acute respiratory distress syndrome without a recovery in bone marrow.
  • Careful observation will be needed to prevent such severe complications after the treatment with IDR.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Idarubicin / adverse effects. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 10740646.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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16. Pagano L, Pulsoni A, Mele L, Tosti ME, Cerri R, Visani G, Melillo L, Candoni A, Clavio M, Nosari A, Petti MC, Martino B, Mele A, Levis A, Allione B, Almici C, Equitani F, Leone G, Mandelli F, Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adults: Acute myeloid leukemia in patients previously diagnosed with breast cancer: experience of the GIMEMA group. Ann Oncol; 2001 Feb;12(2):203-7
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  • [Title] Acute myeloid leukemia in patients previously diagnosed with breast cancer: experience of the GIMEMA group.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in a multicenter retrospective study, the clinical and laboratory characteristics and the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) previously diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) among an adult acute leukemia population.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between June 1992 and July 1996, 3934 new cases of adults with acute leukemia were recorded in GIMEMA Archive of Adult Acute Leukemia (2964 AML, 901 ALL, 69 acute leukemia expressing both myeloid and lymphoid surface markers).
  • RESULTS: Two hundred patients (5.1%) presented with a history of previous malignancy (21 of them were affected by ALL and 179 by AML).
  • Twenty-seven patients received chemo- and/or radiotherapy for breast cancer (7 only chemotherapy, 6 only radiotherapy, and 14 combined treatment).
  • All patients were surgically treated but in 10 patients surgical debridement was the sole therapy for breast cancer.
  • The drugs most frequently employed were alkylating agents (18 patients), topoisomerase II inhibitors (9 patients), antimetabolites (20 patients) (CMF, CEF and MMM combinations).
  • Considering morphological features, FAB subtypes were 4 M0, 5 M1, 11 M2, 5 M3, 8 M4, 3 M5, and 1 M6.
  • Thirty-four patients received chemotherapy for sAML, and twenty-five of them achieved a CR (74%), with a median duration of twenty-eight weeks (5-280+).

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  • (PMID = 11300325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Thiébaut A, Thomas X, Belhabri A, Anglaret B, Archimbaud E: Impact of pre-induction therapy leukapheresis on treatment outcome in adult acute myelogenous leukemia presenting with hyperleukocytosis. Ann Hematol; 2000 Sep;79(9):501-6
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  • [Title] Impact of pre-induction therapy leukapheresis on treatment outcome in adult acute myelogenous leukemia presenting with hyperleukocytosis.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) presenting with hyperleukocytosis is generally of poor prognosis due to an increased early death rate and a lower response to initial chemotherapy.
  • Between April 1985 and December 1995, all patients with newly diagnosed AML admitted to our institution with an initial white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 100 x 10(9)/l were scheduled to undergo leukapheresis.
  • Morphologic subtypes, according to the French-American-British classification, showed 3 M0, 16 M1, 6 M2, 10 M4, 16 M5, and 2 unclassified cases of AML.
  • The median WBC count at the time of starting chemotherapy was 85 x 10(9)/l (range 23-264 x 10(9)/l).
  • In this study, early death rate is lower than data previously published in the literature and almost all patients could receive chemotherapy.
  • This might suggest a benefit of initial leukapheresis in the treatment of AML presenting with hyperleukocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukapheresis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Leukocytosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11043421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
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18. Jenkins C, Hewamana S, Gilkes A, Neelakantan S, Crooks P, Mills K, Pepper C, Burnett A: Nuclear factor-kappaB as a potential therapeutic target for the novel cytotoxic agent LC-1 in acute myeloid leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2008 Dec;143(5):661-71
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  • [Title] Nuclear factor-kappaB as a potential therapeutic target for the novel cytotoxic agent LC-1 in acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been implicated in a number of malignancies and has been suggested to be a potential molecular target in the treatment of leukaemia.
  • This study demonstrated the constitutive activation of NF-kappaB in human myeloid blasts and a clear correlation between NF-kappaB expression and in vitro cytoprotection.
  • High NF-kappaB expression was found in many of the poor prognostic acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) subtypes, such as French-American-British classification M0 and M7, and the poor cytogenetic risk group.
  • The in vitro effects of LC-1, a novel dimethylamino-parthenolide analogue, were assessed in 62 primary untreated AML samples.
  • LC-1 was found to be cytotoxic to AML cells in a dose-dependent manner, mediated through the induction of apoptosis.
  • The median drug concentration necessary to kill 50% of the cells was 4.5 micromol/l for AML cells, compared with 12.8 micromol/l for normal marrow cells.
  • Consequently, LC-1 treatment provides a proof of principle for the use of NF-kappaB inhibitors in the treatment of AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / metabolism. NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors. Sesquiterpenes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apoptosis. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19036014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / LC-1 compound; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Sesquiterpenes
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19. Colovic N, Tosic N, Aveic S, Djuric M, Milic N, Bumbasirevic V, Colovic M, Pavlovic S: Importance of early detection and follow-up of FLT3 mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Ann Hematol; 2007 Oct;86(10):741-7
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  • [Title] Importance of early detection and follow-up of FLT3 mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Mutations in the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene, such as internal tandem duplication (FLT3/ITD) in the juxtamembrane domain and point mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain, are the most common abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • FLT3/ITD and FLT3/D835 mutations were analyzed in 113 Serbian adult AML patients using polymerase chain reaction.
  • The mutations occurred most frequently in M5 and M0 subtypes of AML.
  • However, changes in the pattern of FLT3/D835 mutations in initial and relapsed AML were observed.
  • Our results indicate an association of FLT3/ITD with the adverse outcome in AML patients treated with standard induction chemotherapy.
  • Because FLT3/ITD mutation is a target for specific therapeutic inhibition, its early detection could be helpful in clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Point Mutation. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Risk Factors. Stem Cell Transplantation. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Homologous. Yugoslavia

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  • (PMID = 17579862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0584
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
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20. Lu Y, Jin J, Chen ZM, Lou JY, Xu WL: [Analysis of 32 cases of acute leukemia with abnormality of chromosome 7]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi; 2004 Dec;21(6):596-9
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  • [Title] [Analysis of 32 cases of acute leukemia with abnormality of chromosome 7].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the incidence and prognostic significance of chromosome 7 anomaly in acute leukemia.
  • METHODS: Conventional cytogenetic analysis of R-band was used to detect the abnormalities of chromosome 7 in 410 acute leukemia patients.
  • The incidence of -7/7q- in M0, M1 and M2 was higher than that in other subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • In 30 cases treated with chemotherapy, 11 cases acquired complete remission (CR) and the CR rate was lower than that for all concurrent cases of acute leukemia(36.7% vs 65.8%); the CR rate of AML with -7/7q- was lower than that of AML with normal karyotype(25% vs 55.6%).
  • There was no difference in the CR rate between acute lymphocytic leukemia(ALL) with -7/7q- and ALL with normal chromosome (57.1% vs 77.8%), but 4 cases with -7/7q- which attained complete remission for a time relapsed early.
  • CONCLUSION: -7/7q- was the frequent aberration in chromosome 7 anomaly, which was often detected in M0, M1 and M2.
  • It might be associated with the pathogenesis of acute leukemia; the patients with chromosome 7 anomaly had poorer prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15583990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-9406
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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21. Tóthová E, Stecová N, Kafková A, Fricová M, Guman T, Elbertová A: [Relation between Bcl-2 protein expression and results of therapy in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia]. Vnitr Lek; 2004 Feb;50(2):139-42
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  • [Title] [Relation between Bcl-2 protein expression and results of therapy in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia].
  • Flow cytometric expression of Bcl-2 protein was analyzed in 67 newly diagnosed acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patients using an anti-Bcl-2 monoclonal antibody by direct immunofluorescence technique and result were correlated with FAB subtype, CD34 expression and clinical outcome.
  • The percentage of Bcl-2+ cells was higher in M0 and M1 types according French-American-British classification.
  • The mean fluorescence index (MFI), expressed as the ratio of sample channel: control mean channel was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in M0 (19.0) and M1 (17.6) than M4 (11.7) and M5 (8.9) cytotypes.
  • High percentage expression of Bcl-2 and MFI index of Bcl 2 was associated with a low complete remission rate after intensive chemotherapy (40.4% in cases with 20% and more positive cells vs 72% in cases with less than 20% positive cells).
  • By statistical analysis we also demonstrated that both Bcl-2 high MFI (> 16) and CD34 expression are independent prognostic factors for achieving CR in AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15077589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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22. Oh SH, Park TS, Cho SY, Kim MJ, Huh J, Kim B, Song SA, Lee JY, Jun KR, Shin JH, Kim HR, Lee JN: Acute myeloid leukemia associated with t(10;17)(p13-15;q12-21) and phagocytic activity by leukemic blasts: a clinical study and review of the literature. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Oct 1;202(1):43-6
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  • [Title] Acute myeloid leukemia associated with t(10;17)(p13-15;q12-21) and phagocytic activity by leukemic blasts: a clinical study and review of the literature.
  • Translocation (10;17)(p13-15;q12-21) in acute leukemia is rarely reported in the literature.
  • Here, we present both a novel t(10;17) case study and a review of relevant literature on t(10;17) in acute leukemia (10 cases).
  • In summary, we came to the following preliminary conclusions: t(10;17) is associated with poorly differentiated acute leukemia subtype [90%; eight cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML M0, M1) and one case of acute undifferentiated leukemia], phagocytic activity by blasts occurs (30%), and the survival time was short in three of the seven t(10;17) cases for whom follow-up data were available (median, 8 months).
  • More clinical studies concerning the prognosis, treatment response, and survival of patients with t(10;17) are necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Leukemia / drug therapy. Leukemia / genetics. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Blast Crisis / pathology. Child. Chromosome Mapping. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Daunorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Peroxidase / metabolism. Phagocytes / pathology

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  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Childhood Leukemia.
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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20804920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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23. Schumann M, Kiewe P, Hartlieb S, Neumann M, Schilling A, Koch HC, Thiel E, Korfel A: Diffuse leukoencephalopathy and brain edema: unusual presentations of CNS relapse of acute myeloid leukemia. J Neuroimaging; 2010 Apr;20(2):198-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diffuse leukoencephalopathy and brain edema: unusual presentations of CNS relapse of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • An isolated CNS relapse is rarely seen in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • With the one-year-old history of an initially successfully treated FAB-M0 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in mind, a lumbar puncture was carried out that showed a vast number of myeloid blasts in the morphologic analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • In conjunction with normal findings in the peripheral blood-count with differential and the bone marrow examination a diagnosis of an isolated CNS relapse of the AML was made.
  • Cytarabine chemotherapy was initiated and the symptoms resolved rapidly.
  • To our surprise, cerebral imaging in the course of the treatment not only showed a resolution of the brain edema but also of the leukoencephalopathy, pointing to a direct infiltration of brain parenchyma by leukemic blasts.
  • The case highlights the relevance of the CNS as a pharmacologic "sanctuary" for tumor cells in patients that on prior treatments have not received intrathecal chemotherapy or chemotherapeutics that cross the blood-brain barrier.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Edema / diagnosis. Brain Edema / etiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukoencephalopathies / diagnosis. Leukoencephalopathies / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Recurrence


24. Chen MT, Wu HJ: Acute leukemia presenting as diabetes insipidus and bilateral exudative retinal detachment--a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2001 Mar;17(3):150-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acute leukemia presenting as diabetes insipidus and bilateral exudative retinal detachment--a case report.
  • To report an unusual case of leukemia presenting as both bilateral exudative retinal detachment (ERD) and central diabetes insipidus (DI), we evaluate the clinical hematological records including bone marrow aspirations and CSF tapping, both osmolarity and electrolytes concentration of the serum and urine, brain MRI, fundus photographs and fluorescein angiographs in this 25-year-old female patient.
  • Examinations of peripheral blood and bone marrow aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML-M0).
  • Fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed bilateral ERD, dense choroidal leukemia cell infiltration with overlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction and focal areas of choroidal infarction.
  • Central DI and ERD may be presenting signs of acute leukemia and both may represent CNS involvement.
  • Rapid improvement in visual acuity and partial symptom relief of DI may ensue from appropriate chemotherapy and nasal DDAVP (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin) supply.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Insipidus / etiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Retinal Detachment / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Deamino Arginine Vasopressin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans






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