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1. Cascavilla N, Melillo L, D'Arena G, Greco MM, Carella AM, Sajeva MR, Perla G, Matera R, Minervini MM, Carotenuto M: Minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML M0): clinico-biological findings of 29 cases. Leuk Lymphoma; 2000 Mar;37(1-2):105-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML M0): clinico-biological findings of 29 cases.
  • Twenty-nine cases of minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia or AML M0 identified among 441 AML diagnosed in the last 12 years are reported.
  • Of the 29 patients, 27 were treated with intensive chemotherapy based on GIMEMA protocols.
  • Twelve out of 27 patients (44%) achieved a complete remission (CR) (in 2 cases after rescue therapy).
  • In conclusion, AML M0 is a subtype of AML antigenically well detectable, endowed with many adverse parameters (older age, TdT and CD34 expression, resistance to apoptosis, unfavorable cytogenetic abnormalities) and poor prognosis.
  • A very aggressive consolidation treatment can be useful to improve the outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Female. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis


2. Hentrich M, Rockstroh J, Sandner R, Brack N, Hartenstein R: Acute myelogenous leukaemia and myelomonocytic blast crisis following polycythemia vera in HIV positive patients: report of cases and review of the literature. Ann Oncol; 2000 Feb;11(2):195-200
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  • [Title] Acute myelogenous leukaemia and myelomonocytic blast crisis following polycythemia vera in HIV positive patients: report of cases and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) and myeloproliferative diseases are rare in HIV-infected individuals and optimal treatment has not been defined.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report on the cases of two HIV-infected men, one with AML and one with myeloid blast crisis after polycythaemia vera (PV).
  • RESULTS: Patient 1, a 57-year-old bisexual man known to be HIV seropositive for more than four years (CDC-category A1), presented with a pulmonary infiltrate.
  • A diagnosis of AML FAB M0 was made.
  • Pneumonia resolved under antibiotic treatment and the patient received induction chemotherapy.
  • However, he once more developed multiple pulmonary infiltrates and died of respiratory failure despite broad spectrum antibiotic and antimycotic therapy.
  • Patient 2 was a 63-year old HIV-positive hemophiliac (CDC A3) with a 10-year history of PV.
  • On admission his white cell count showed leukocytes 256.6 x 10(9)/l with 82% blasts.
  • Cytochemistry revealed myelomonocytic differentiation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of an HIV-infected individual with AML M0.
  • The literature describes the cases of 39 HIV+ patients with AML and only one further case with PV.
  • The association of both, myeloproliferative disease and AML with HIV infection is coincidental.
  • However, the proportion of FAB type M4/5 appears to be higher than in the general population.
  • Despite a high risk of treatment associated mortality durable remissions can be achieved in a small proportion of HIV-infected patients with AML.


3. Nagashima T, Izumi T, Muroi K, Miyasato A, Uchida M, Imagawa S, Komatsu N, Yoshida M, Hatake K, Miura Y, Ozawa K: [Two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia complicated with fatal gastrointestinal tract bleeding after treatment with idarubicin and cytarabine]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2000 Mar;27(3):487-90
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  • [Title] [Two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia complicated with fatal gastrointestinal tract bleeding after treatment with idarubicin and cytarabine].
  • We describe herein two newly diagnosed patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), who were treated twice with an idarubicin hydrochloride (IDR)-containing regimen as a response-orientated induction therapy.
  • The two patients were as follows: a 35-year-old male, FAB-M4, and a 47-year-old female, FAB-M0.
  • They received the same induction chemotherapy (IDR 12 mg/m2 for four days and cytarabine 100 mg/m2 for ten days).
  • During the period of myelosuppression, they developed severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
  • One died of sepsis, and the other of acute respiratory distress syndrome without a recovery in bone marrow.
  • Careful observation will be needed to prevent such severe complications after the treatment with IDR.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Idarubicin / adverse effects. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged


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4. Chen S, Xue Y, Zhu X, Wu Y, Pan J: Minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia with t(12;22)(p13;q11) translocation showing primary multidrug resistance and expressing multiple multidrug-resistant proteins. Acta Haematol; 2007;118(1):38-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia with t(12;22)(p13;q11) translocation showing primary multidrug resistance and expressing multiple multidrug-resistant proteins.
  • Here we report a rare chromosomal translocation, t(12;22)(p13;q11), which was detected in a 53-year-old female patient diagnosed as having minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0) according to the French-American-British classification criteria.
  • Interestingly, she presented primary multidrug resistance and did not respond to several kinds of chemotherapy regimens.
  • As far as we know, this is the first report of t(12;22)(p13;q11) translocation involving TEL and MN1 genes in an AML-M0 patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Multiple. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / analysis. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction


5. Chen MT, Wu HJ: Acute leukemia presenting as diabetes insipidus and bilateral exudative retinal detachment--a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2001 Mar;17(3):150-5
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  • [Title] Acute leukemia presenting as diabetes insipidus and bilateral exudative retinal detachment--a case report.
  • To report an unusual case of leukemia presenting as both bilateral exudative retinal detachment (ERD) and central diabetes insipidus (DI), we evaluate the clinical hematological records including bone marrow aspirations and CSF tapping, both osmolarity and electrolytes concentration of the serum and urine, brain MRI, fundus photographs and fluorescein angiographs in this 25-year-old female patient.
  • Examinations of peripheral blood and bone marrow aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML-M0).
  • Fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed bilateral ERD, dense choroidal leukemia cell infiltration with overlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction and focal areas of choroidal infarction.
  • Central DI and ERD may be presenting signs of acute leukemia and both may represent CNS involvement.
  • Rapid improvement in visual acuity and partial symptom relief of DI may ensue from appropriate chemotherapy and nasal DDAVP (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin) supply.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Insipidus / etiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Retinal Detachment / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Deamino Arginine Vasopressin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans


6. Iwata H, Kami M, Kishi Y, Oki Y, Tanaka Y, Takeuchi K, Yamazaki I, Suzuki R, Morinaga S, Mutou Y: Limitations of the diagnostic criteria for minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-MO). Leukemia; 2000 Nov;14(11):2013-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Limitations of the diagnostic criteria for minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-MO)
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Neoplastic Stem Cells / chemistry. Neoplastic Stem Cells / ultrastructure. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Reference Standards. Remission Induction

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  • [CommentIn] Leukemia. 2001 Oct;15(10):1673-4 [11587233.001]
  • (PMID = 11069040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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7. Miyata A, Fujii S, Kikuchi T, Kibata M: [Acute myelocytic leukemia (M0) in an elderly patient with relapsed granulocytic sarcoma (M7) of bone during the second period of complete remission 5 years after onset]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi; 2003 Mar;40(2):176-81
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  • [Title] [Acute myelocytic leukemia (M0) in an elderly patient with relapsed granulocytic sarcoma (M7) of bone during the second period of complete remission 5 years after onset].
  • He had suffered from acute myelocytic leukemia (AML: M0) in November 1994 and achieved the first complete remission (CR) then.
  • His AML relapsed in August 1996, but fortunately he achieved a second CR.
  • Histological examination of the biopsied bone tissue showed a diffuse proliferation of round cells with medium-sized or large nuclei.
  • On the basis of these findings we diagnosed these tumors as granulocytic sarcomas (GS), extramedullary recurrence of AML M7.
  • Although radiation (36Gy) to these tumors brought a temporary relief of the pain, he died of systemic relapse of AML in February 2001.
  • When presented CD7+ AML M0 had been diagnosed, but GS cells were also positive for CD 56 and CD41.
  • Although CD56 had not been examined initially, he might have been had myeloid/NK cell precursor acute leukemia and CD41 might be acquired later in the course of the disease.
  • It is known that AML M0, M7 and myeloid/NK cell precursor acute leukemia have poor prognoses, nevertheless he survived for 6 years.
  • It may be that intensive and repeated chemotherapy for AML can obtain excellent outcome in the elderly cases in good systemic condition and with favourable prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Sarcoma, Myeloid / pathology


8. Thiébaut A, Thomas X, Belhabri A, Anglaret B, Archimbaud E: Impact of pre-induction therapy leukapheresis on treatment outcome in adult acute myelogenous leukemia presenting with hyperleukocytosis. Ann Hematol; 2000 Sep;79(9):501-6
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  • [Title] Impact of pre-induction therapy leukapheresis on treatment outcome in adult acute myelogenous leukemia presenting with hyperleukocytosis.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) presenting with hyperleukocytosis is generally of poor prognosis due to an increased early death rate and a lower response to initial chemotherapy.
  • Between April 1985 and December 1995, all patients with newly diagnosed AML admitted to our institution with an initial white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 100 x 10(9)/l were scheduled to undergo leukapheresis.
  • Morphologic subtypes, according to the French-American-British classification, showed 3 M0, 16 M1, 6 M2, 10 M4, 16 M5, and 2 unclassified cases of AML.
  • The median WBC count at the time of starting chemotherapy was 85 x 10(9)/l (range 23-264 x 10(9)/l).
  • In this study, early death rate is lower than data previously published in the literature and almost all patients could receive chemotherapy.
  • This might suggest a benefit of initial leukapheresis in the treatment of AML presenting with hyperleukocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukapheresis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Leukocytosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


9. Horikoshi A, Takei K, Iriyama N, Uenogawa K, Ishizuka H, Shiraiwa H, Hosokawa Y, Sawada S, Kitoh T: Effect of L-asparaginase combined with vincristine and prednisolone on acute myeloblastic leukemia (M0) associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Acta Haematol; 2009;122(1):54-7
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  • [Title] Effect of L-asparaginase combined with vincristine and prednisolone on acute myeloblastic leukemia (M0) associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • She was eventually diagnosed as having acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML;.
  • M0) with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
  • We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of L-asparaginase (L-Asp), vincristine and prednisolone for both her AML and NHL.
  • Asparagine synthetase (AS) activity in her AML blast cells was undetectable.
  • A lymph node biopsy specimen revealed NHL of the marginal zone B cell type.
  • Complete remission (CR) of AML and NHL was achieved.
  • CR of the AML lasted for 18 months without further consolidation therapy.
  • We conclude that L-Asp can be an effective drug for the treatment of AML in which blasts are negative for AS.
  • [MeSH-major] Asparaginase / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Prednisolone / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase / metabolism. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Remission Induction

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  • [Copyright] 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 19816010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9662
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; EC 6.3.1.1 / Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase
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10. Ruiz-Argüelles GJ, Morales-Toquero A, Manzano C, Ruiz-Delgado GJ, Jaramillo P, Gonzalez-Carrillo ML, Reyes-Núñez V: t(8;21) (q22;q22) acute myelogenous leukemia in Mexico: a single institution experience. Hematology; 2006 Aug;11(4):235-8
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  • [Title] t(8;21) (q22;q22) acute myelogenous leukemia in Mexico: a single institution experience.
  • We analyze the prevalence and clinical features of a group of patients with t(8;21) (q22;q22) acute myeloblastic leukemia, identified in a single institution in México over a 10-year period.
  • Fifteen patients presented at the Centro de Hematología y Medicina Interna de Puebla from February 1995 to August 2005; only nine were treated and followed in the institution.
  • According to the French-American-British (FAB) morphological classification of leukemia, the morphology was M2 in four cases, M4 in three cases, M3 in one case and M0 in one.
  • In addition to the myeloid markers, lymphoid markers were identified in 6 patients.
  • Patients were induced to remission with combined chemotherapy and three subsequently underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT).
  • The median overall and disease-free survival has not been reached, being above 3390 days, the probability of survival at this time was 73%.
  • In this single-center experience in México, we found that the t(8;21) (q22;q22) variant of leukemia was more frequent than in Caucasian populations, that the co-expression of lymphoid markers in the blast cells is very frequent and that this malignancy is associated with a relatively good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 / genetics. Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / statistics & numerical data. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Mexico / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Transplantation, Autologous / statistics & numerical data. Transplantation, Homologous / statistics & numerical data. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17178661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8454
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AML1-ETO fusion protein, human; 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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11. Suzuki A, Kimura Y, Ohyashiki K, Kitano K, Kageyama S, Kasai M, Miyawaki S, Ohno R: Trisomy 10 in acute myeloid leukemia. Three additional cases from the database of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group (JALSG) AML-92 and AML-95. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2000 Jul 15;120(2):141-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Trisomy 10 in acute myeloid leukemia. Three additional cases from the database of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group (JALSG) AML-92 and AML-95.
  • To clarify the clinical and hematologic features of a rare numerical chromosome abnormality, we searched for trisomy 10 in acute myelogenous leukemias (AMLs) using the database of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group (JALSG) AML 92 and 95.
  • Among the sequentially registered patients of JALSG-AML 92 (655 patients) and JALSG-AML 95 (531 patients), chromosome results were obtained in 1,074 patients (90.6%), and we found 3 patients with trisomy 10 as a sole abnormality.
  • The first patient had an AML-M1 morphology with CD7 antigen; the patient obtained complete remission (CR) with the first course of chemotherapy.
  • The second patient had an AML-M1 morphology without expressing CD7 antigen; this patient obtained CR, but relapsed 3 months later, and underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
  • He suffered from chronic graft-versus-host disease and expired 38 months after the AML diagnosis.
  • The third patient had AML-M0 with CD7 positivity.
  • In the literature, the mean age of patients with trisomy 10 AML is 57.8 years, the gender ratio is M/F = 1.5, and the frequency of M0/M1/M2 is 85.7%.
  • 8%) of CD7 expression of leukemia cells is notable.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Trisomy


12. Mesa RA, Li CY, Ketterling RP, Schroeder GS, Knudson RA, Tefferi A: Leukemic transformation in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: a single-institution experience with 91 cases. Blood; 2005 Feb 1;105(3):973-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leukemic transformation in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: a single-institution experience with 91 cases.
  • Among 2333 consecutive patients with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) seen at our institution, 91 fulfilled the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for leukemic transformation (LT).
  • All episodes of LT were myeloid in origin (acute myeloid leukemia [AML]) with all French-American-British (FAB) subtypes represented except M3; the most frequent subtypes were M7 (25.4%), M0 (22.4%), and M2 (17.9%).
  • Cytogenetic studies during LT were available in 56 patients and revealed a clonal abnormality in 51 (91%): 30 patients had complex karyotype, 2 had core-binding factor gene lesions, and 18 had abnormalities of chromosome 5 or 7.
  • Twenty-four patients received AML-like induction chemotherapy that resulted in no complete remission: 41% reverted into chronic-phase disease and the incidence of treatment-related mortality was 33%.
  • The remaining 67 patients received either supportive care alone (48 patients) or low-intensity chemotherapy (19 patients).
  • Overall, survival was similarly poor in all 3 treatment categories.
  • The outcome of LT in MMM with current therapies is dismal and either supportive care alone or appropriate clinical trials should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia / drug therapy. Leukemia / pathology. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / pathology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology. Primary Myelofibrosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reference Values. Treatment Outcome


13. Schumann M, Kiewe P, Hartlieb S, Neumann M, Schilling A, Koch HC, Thiel E, Korfel A: Diffuse leukoencephalopathy and brain edema: unusual presentations of CNS relapse of acute myeloid leukemia. J Neuroimaging; 2010 Apr;20(2):198-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diffuse leukoencephalopathy and brain edema: unusual presentations of CNS relapse of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • An isolated CNS relapse is rarely seen in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • With the one-year-old history of an initially successfully treated FAB-M0 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in mind, a lumbar puncture was carried out that showed a vast number of myeloid blasts in the morphologic analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • In conjunction with normal findings in the peripheral blood-count with differential and the bone marrow examination a diagnosis of an isolated CNS relapse of the AML was made.
  • Cytarabine chemotherapy was initiated and the symptoms resolved rapidly.
  • To our surprise, cerebral imaging in the course of the treatment not only showed a resolution of the brain edema but also of the leukoencephalopathy, pointing to a direct infiltration of brain parenchyma by leukemic blasts.
  • The case highlights the relevance of the CNS as a pharmacologic "sanctuary" for tumor cells in patients that on prior treatments have not received intrathecal chemotherapy or chemotherapeutics that cross the blood-brain barrier.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Edema / diagnosis. Brain Edema / etiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukoencephalopathies / diagnosis. Leukoencephalopathies / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging


14. Yamada S, Hongo T, Okada S, Watanabe C, Fujii Y, Ohzeki T: Clinical relevance of in vitro chemoresistance in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia; 2001 Dec;15(12):1892-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical relevance of in vitro chemoresistance in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • To determine the clinical relevance of in vitro drug chemoresistance in childhood acute myeloid leukemia, we used an MTT assay to test leukemic cells from 132 newly diagnosed children.
  • Patients were diagnosed according to the French-American-British (FAB) classification as follows: M0 (n = 12), M1 (n = 16), M2 (n = 53), M4 (n = 17), M5 (n = 19) and M7 (n = 15).
  • The results revealed that, compared to leukemic cells from complete-responders (n = 107), those from non-responders who failed induction therapy (n = 17) were 1.4 to 5.0 times more resistant in vitro to cytarabine (P = 0.005), melphalan (P = 0.003), etoposide (P = 0.011), L-asparaginase (P = 0.017), aclarubicin (P = 0.026) and dexamethasone (P = 0.039).
  • For seven other drugs tested, the median lethal dose of 70% and leukemic cell survival of non-responders were higher than those of complete-responders, but the difference was not statistically significant.
  • We sought correlations between FAB subtypes and in vitro drug resistance.
  • Leukemias of the FAB M4 and M5 subtype were more sensitive to L-asparaginase (P = 0.01, P = 0.0036) than those of the FAB M2 subtype.
  • FAB M5 leukemia was more sensitive to etoposide than were the FAB M2, M4 and M7 subtypes (P = 0.001, P = 0.034, P = 0.023, respectively).
  • By contrast, FAB M5 leukemia was significantly more resistant to prednisolone and dexamethasone than were the FAB M0, M1, M2, M4 and M7 subtypes.
  • We sought correlations between in vitro drug resistance and long-term clinical outcome, but found no associations in this case.
  • These results suggest that in vitro resistance to cytarabine, melphalan, etoposide, L-asparaginase, aclarubicin and dexamethasone might represent factors that can predict response to the early course of therapy.
  • Selecting an appropriate anti-cancer drug according to the FAB classification together with drug sensitivity testing may contribute to improved prognoses in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Survival / drug effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome






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