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1. Abood GJ, Go A, Malhotra D, Shoup M: The surgical and systemic management of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Surg Clin North Am; 2009 Feb;89(1):249-66, x
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The surgical and systemic management of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas comprise a class of rare tumors that can be associated with symptoms of hormone overproduction.
  • Five distinct clinical endocrinopathies are associated with neuroendocrine tumors; however, most of these tumors remain asymptomatic and follow an indolent course.
  • Complete surgical resection offers the only hope for cure, but understanding the basic biology of the tumors has advanced the medical management in metastatic disease.
  • Although hepatic artery embolization is currently the preferred mode of nonsurgical palliation for pain and hormonal symptoms, other modalities may play a role in metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Catheter Ablation. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / drug therapy. Gastrinoma / surgery. Humans. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Insulinoma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19186239.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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2. Libé R, Chanson P: [Endocrine tumors of the pancreas (EPTs) in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1): up-date on prognostic factors, diagnostic procedures and treatment]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2007 Jun;68 Suppl 1:1-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Endocrine tumors of the pancreas (EPTs) in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1): up-date on prognostic factors, diagnostic procedures and treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Les tumeurs endocrines du pancréas lors de la néoplasie endocrinienne multiple type 1 (NEM1): actualités sur les facteurs pronostiques, l'imagerie et le traitement.
  • Endocrine pancreatic tumors (EPTs) are uncommon tumors, representing 1-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms.
  • They are categorized on the basis of their clinical features into functioning and non-functioning tumors.
  • EPTs may be part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1), an autosomal dominant syndrome due to inactivating germline mutation of the menin gene.
  • The most prevalent are the gastrinomas (20-60%), then the insulinomas (5-10%), the glucagonamas and VIPomas (6-10%), whereas the nonfunctioning EPTs are present in 20-40% of patients.
  • Among the different imaging techniques, echoendoscopy, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are indicated for the detection of the primary tumor, but (III)In-octreotide scintigraphy has the highest sensitivity for detecting metastases.
  • The choice of treatment is still debated and is different when the tumor occurs as a part of the MEN syndrome.
  • The surgical treatment is the first choice for insulinomas and is more controversial for gastrinomas.
  • The medical treatment includes somatostatin analogues (SA), chemotherapy and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha).
  • SA seem to improve the symptoms and have an antiproliferative effect, the most striking effect being seen in patients with VIPomas.
  • Chemotherapy, which is generally proposed as a combination of streptozotocin (STZ) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or doxorubicin, is indicated when the tumors tend to grow.
  • Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) stimulates the immune system, blocks the tumor cells in the G1/S-phase of the cell cycle, inhibits protein and hormone synthesis and inhibits angionenesis.
  • Treatment with IFN has been shown to produce symptomatic response in 40-60% of patients, a biochemical response in 30-60% and tumor shrinkage in 10-15%.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Islet Cell. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Prognosis


3. Corbetta S, Peracchi M, Cappiello V, Lania A, Lauri E, Vago L, Beck-Peccoz P, Spada A: Circulating ghrelin levels in patients with pancreatic and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: identification of one pancreatic ghrelinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2003 Jul;88(7):3117-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Circulating ghrelin levels in patients with pancreatic and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: identification of one pancreatic ghrelinoma.
  • Although the expression of ghrelin has been demonstrated in most gastrointestinal carcinoids and pancreatic tumors, the circulating levels of this peptide have been marginally assessed in patients with these disorders.
  • We measured plasma ghrelin levels in 16 patients with gastrointestinal carcinoid (10 with midgut and 6 with gastric carcinoid), 24 patients with pancreatic tumor (8 with gastrinoma, 2 with insulinoma, 2 with vipoma, 1 with glucagonoma, and 11 with nonfunctioning tumor), and 35 healthy controls.
  • Plasma ghrelin levels recorded in patients with gastroenteropancreatic tumors were similar to controls (mean +/- SE, 182.7 +/- 66.5 pM in patients vs. 329 +/- 32 pM in controls, P = not significant), and no significant difference between gastrointestinal and pancreatic, functioning and nonfunctioning, and metastatic and nonmetastatic tumors was observed.
  • One patient with metastatic nonfunctioning pancreatic tumor had circulating ghrelin levels of 12,000 pM that were slightly reduced during chemotherapy and interferon therapy.
  • In conclusion, the study showed that carcinoids and pancreatic tumors rarely cause ghrelin hypersecretion.
  • However, in this series, 1 pancreatic ghrelinoma not associated with clinical features of acromegaly was identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / blood. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / blood. Pancreatic Neoplasms / blood. Peptide Hormones / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Gastrinoma / blood. Ghrelin. Glucagonoma / blood. Humans. Insulinoma / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Vipoma / blood

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  • (PMID = 12843152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones
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4. Pratz KW, Ma C, Aubry MC, Vrtiska TJ, Erlichman C: Large cell carcinoma with calcitonin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-associated Verner-Morrison syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc; 2005 Jan;80(1):116-20
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  • [Title] Large cell carcinoma with calcitonin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-associated Verner-Morrison syndrome.
  • Verner-Morrison syndrome, characterized by diarrhea, hypokalemia, and hypochlorhydria, is caused most commonly by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-secreting islet cell tumors of the pancreas.
  • Verner-Morrison syndrome has not been described as a paraneoplastic syndrome in non-small cell lung cancer.
  • We describe a 38-year-old man with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer of large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation who presented with bone metastasis and intractable secretory diarrhea that was unresponsive to pharmacological treatment, including octreotide.
  • Laboratory evaluation indicated elevated serum calcitonin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide levels.
  • Chemotherapy resulted in a transient response in the patient's diarrhea and neuroendocrine markers.
  • The patient did not respond to further therapy and died 5 months after onset of back pain.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first published case of large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation associated with treatment-responsive paraneoplastic Verner-Morrison syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / secretion. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / secretion. Pancreatic Neoplasms / etiology. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / etiology. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / metabolism. Vipoma / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Octreotide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15667039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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5. Shaib W, Mitchell K, Saif MW: Amelioration of symptoms and reduction of VIP levels after hepatic artery chemoembolization in a patient with sandostatin resistant VIPoma. Yale J Biol Med; 2010 Mar;83(1):27-33
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  • [Title] Amelioration of symptoms and reduction of VIP levels after hepatic artery chemoembolization in a patient with sandostatin resistant VIPoma.
  • Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide secreting islet cell tumors (VIPomas) are neuroendocrine tumors that secrete excessive amounts of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) that cause distinct syndromes characterized by large-volume diarrhea, hypokalemia, and dehydration.
  • The annual incidence of these tumors is estimated to be about one per 10,000,000 individuals in the general population.
  • We report a successful treatment of VIPoma with hepatic chemoembolization of a metastatic hepatic lesion evidenced by a reduction of VIP levels and resolutions of symptoms in a patient with pancreatic VIPoma unresponsive to increased doses of an octreotide analog.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Embolization, Therapeutic. Hepatic Artery / surgery. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / metabolism. Vipoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20351979.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4056
  • [Journal-full-title] The Yale journal of biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yale J Biol Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2844690
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; VIPoma / hepatic artery chemoembolization
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6. Halászlaki C, Horváth H, Kiss L, Takács I, Speer G, Nagy Z, Winternitz T, Dabasi G, Zalatnai A, Patócs A, Lakatos P: [Verner-Morrison syndrome: a case study]. Orv Hetil; 2010 Jul 4;151(27):1111-4
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  • [Title] [Verner-Morrison syndrome: a case study].
  • [Transliterated title] Verner-Morrison-szindróma egy esete.
  • Verner and Morrison described a syndrome of watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and achlorhydria (WDHA) in 1958.
  • VIPomas producing high amounts of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) commonly originate from the pancreas.
  • Typical symptoms play a momentous role in the diagnosis of VIPoma.
  • Morbidity from untreated WDHA syndrome is associated with long-standing dehydration and with electrolyte and acid-base metabolism disorders, which may cause chronic renal failure.
  • Assessment of specific marker (VIP) offers high sensitivity in establishing the diagnosis.
  • Imaging modalities include endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and particularly, scintigraphy with somatostatin analogues.
  • Treatment options include resection of the tumor, chemotherapy or the reduction of symptoms with somatostatin analogues.
  • VIPoma cases may be associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms. Vipoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Achlorhydria / etiology. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diarrhea / etiology. Endosonography. Female. Humans. Hypokalemia / etiology. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20558361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
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7. Ruszniewski P, Ish-Shalom S, Wymenga M, O'Toole D, Arnold R, Tomassetti P, Bax N, Caplin M, Eriksson B, Glaser B, Ducreux M, Lombard-Bohas C, de Herder WW, Delle Fave G, Reed N, Seitz JF, Van Cutsem E, Grossman A, Rougier P, Schmidt W, Wiedenmann B: Rapid and sustained relief from the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome: results from an open 6-month study of the 28-day prolonged-release formulation of lanreotide. Neuroendocrinology; 2004;80(4):244-51
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  • [Title] Rapid and sustained relief from the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome: results from an open 6-month study of the 28-day prolonged-release formulation of lanreotide.
  • This 6-month, open, non-controlled, multicenter, dose-titration study evaluated the efficacy and safety of 28-day prolonged-release (PR) lanreotide in the treatment of carcinoid syndrome.
  • Eligible patients had a carcinoid tumor with > or =3 stools/day and/or > or =1 moderate/severe flushing episodes/day.
  • Six treatments of 28-day PR lanreotide were administered by deep subcutaneous injection.
  • Seventy-one patients were treated.
  • Flushing decreased from a mean of 3.0 at baseline to 2.3 on day 1, and 2.0 on day 2, with a daily mean of 2.1 for the first week post-treatment (p < 0.05).
  • Diarrhea decreased from a mean of 5.0 at baseline to 4.3 on day 1 (p < 0.05), and 4.5 on day 2, with a daily mean of 4.4 for the first week post-treatment (p < 0.001).
  • By month 6, flushing and diarrhea had significantly decreased from baseline by a mean of 1.3 and 1.1 episodes/day, respectively (both p < or = 0.001); 65% of patients with flushing as the target symptom and 18% of diarrhea-target patients achieved > or =50% reduction from baseline.
  • Median urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and chromogranin A levels decreased by 24 and 38%, respectively.
  • Treatment was well tolerated.
  • 28-day PR lanreotide was effective in reducing the symptoms and biochemical markers associated with carcinoid syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Delayed-Action Preparations / therapeutic use. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / drug therapy. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chromogranins / blood. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Evaluation / methods. Female. Flushing / drug therapy. Flushing / physiopathology. Humans. Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid / urine. Male. Middle Aged. Quality of Life. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Vipoma / drug therapy. Vipoma / physiopathology

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  • [CommentIn] Neuroendocrinology. 2005;81(3):137-8 [15976511.001]
  • (PMID = 15627802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 54-16-0 / Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid
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8. Fernández-Martínez AB, Bajo AM, Valdehita A, Isabel Arenas M, Sánchez-Chapado M, Carmena MJ, Prieto JC: Multifunctional role of VIP in prostate cancer progression in a xenograft model: suppression by curcumin and COX-2 inhibitor NS-398. Peptides; 2009 Dec;30(12):2357-64
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  • [Title] Multifunctional role of VIP in prostate cancer progression in a xenograft model: suppression by curcumin and COX-2 inhibitor NS-398.
  • We used an in vivo model of human experimental prostate cancer in order to shed a new light on the effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on tumor growth as well as its pro-metastatic potential in this disease.
  • The regulatory role of VIP on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression as well as on matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2 and 9) activities was examined.
  • A selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, and curcumin were used to block VIP effects.
  • Xenografts of VIP-treated PC3 prostate cancer cells in nude mice gave tumors that grew significantly faster than those in the untreated group.
  • It is conceivably a result of both the trophic effect of VIP on prostate cancer cells and the proangiogenic action of the neuropeptide in the growing tumor.
  • We show the overexpression at mRNA and/or protein levels of VIP, its main receptor VPAC(1), the major angiogenic factor VEGF, and the pro-inflammatory enzyme COX-2 as well as the increased activity of MMP-2 and 9 in tumors derived from VIP-treated PC3 cells as compared with control group.
  • The overexpression of the above biomarkers was suppressed in tumors derived from VIP-treated PC3 cells that had been previously incubated with curcumin or NS-398.
  • Thus, the potential therapeutic role of curcumin and selective COX-2 inhibitors in combination with available VIP antagonists should be considered in prostate cancer therapy as supported by their inhibitory activities on tumor cell growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Curcumin / pharmacology. Nitrobenzenes / pharmacology. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Sulfonamides / pharmacology. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cyclooxygenase 2. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Nude. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19772879.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5169
  • [Journal-full-title] Peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Peptides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitrobenzenes; 0 / Sulfonamides; 123653-11-2 / N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methanesulfonamide; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; EC 1.14.99.- / Ptgs2 protein, mouse; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin
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9. Rammer M, Kirchgatterer A, Höbling W, Stockhammer M, Knoflach P: [W.D.H.A. Syndrome due to occult neuroendocrine malignancy with concomitant liver metastases]. Z Gastroenterol; 2003 Feb;41(2):185-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [W.D.H.A. Syndrome due to occult neuroendocrine malignancy with concomitant liver metastases].
  • [Transliterated title] Okkulte, maligne neuroendokrine Neoplasie mit Lebermetastasen als Ursache eines WDHA-Syndroms.
  • In June 1999, a 62-year-old man is hospitalised to evaluate the sonographic suspicion of liver metastases.
  • The biopsy of the liver shows a malignant neuroendocrine tumour.
  • Further diagnostic investigation including gastroscopy, colonoscopy, enteroclysis, thoracal and abdominal CT and somatostatin-receptor-scintigraphy does not localise the primary tumour.
  • In the absence of clinical symptoms a wait and see procedure with clinical and imaging controls at regular intervals is arranged.
  • The existence of secretory diarrhoea, hypokalaemia and hypercalcaemia arouses suspicion of vipoma.
  • This is proven by a remarkably elevated plasma concentration of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP).
  • Once more, an accurate investigation is started but no primary tumour can be discovered despite extensive liver metastases.
  • A vipoma is a rare differential diagnosis of secretory diarrhoea.
  • This case report describes the remarkable constellation of liver metastases of a malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm without a primary tumour and the clinical presentation of a W.D.H.A. syndrome (watery diarrhoea, hypokalaemia and hypo- or achlorhydria).
  • Despite extensive disease, therapy with octreotide and prednisolone provides a good clinical response.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Vipoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Liver / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Radioligand Assay. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / blood. Water-Electrolyte Balance / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12592602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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10. Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Nikolaou P, Giannatou E, Safioleas M, Mallas E, Polyzos A: VIPomas: an update in diagnosis and management in a series of 11 patients. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jul-Aug;52(64):1259-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] VIPomas: an update in diagnosis and management in a series of 11 patients.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: VIPoma is a rare pancreatic endocrine tumor (PET) which secretes excessive amounts of VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide) that causes a special clinical syndrome characterized by secretory diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria.
  • Among a total number of 76 patients (pts) with PETs, we present in this study 11 pts with VIPoma syndrome focusing on our diagnostic and therapeutic approach, in parallel with a brief review of the literature.
  • METHODOLOGY: Eleven pts (7 males and 4 females), aged from 2 to 83 years (mean age 53.1 years) were included.
  • The diagnosis was based upon compatible clinical features and serum VIP values and was supported by the estimation of other peptides and neuroendocrine markers such as gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide and chromogranin-A (CgA).
  • In 10/11 pts, diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically.
  • The primary or metastatic lesions were located by conventional imaging methods or by OCTREOSCAN or Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS).
  • VIP levels at the time of diagnosis were more than 3 or 10 times the upper normal limit in 7/11 (63.6%) or 4/11 (36.4%) pts, respectively.
  • The primary lesion was detected by CT scan or MRI in 6/11 (54.5%), with EUS or abdominal angiography in 4/11 (36.4%).
  • OCTREOSCAN revealed a solitary lesion in the right hepatic lobe, not detected by all the previous studies, while it detected, as a whole, the primary lesion in 10/11 (91%), and the metastases in 3/4 (75%) pts.
  • In 7/11 (63.6%) the primary lesion was located in the pancreas, whereas in the rest it was in the duodenum or retroperitoneum.
  • A surgical resection was possible in 7/11 (63.6%) pts, while pts with metastatic disease already or poorly differentiated tumors also received additional treatment with somatostatin analogues and chemotherapy.
  • Liver metastases and poor differentiation of tumors seemed to be negative prognostic factors.
  • Also, surgical treatment, as extensive as possible, in combination with somatostatin analogues or chemotherapy when necessary, may also result in prolonged survival, also in patients with advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pancreatectomy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16001675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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11. Lecorguillé M, Hammel P, Couvelard A, O'Toole D, Ratouis A, Belghiti J, Lévy P, Ruszniewski P: [Jejunal vipoma]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2004 Aug-Sep;28(8-9):797-800
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Jejunal vipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Localisation jéjunale d'un vipome.
  • We report here case of a 57-year-old woman presenting with a metastatic vipoma revealed by secretory diarrhea and severe ionic disorders successfully treated by somatostatin administration.
  • The primitive tumour, located in the jejunum, was identified peroperatively.
  • Both the primitive lesion and the liver metastases were resected at the same time.
  • Early tumour relapse occurred and was unsuccessfully treated by systemic chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, streptozotocin and doxorubin) and chemoembolization.
  • [MeSH-major] Jejunal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15646540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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12. Song S, Shi R, Li B, Liu Y: Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic vasoactive intestinal peptide endocrine tumors. Pancreas; 2009 Oct;38(7):811-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic vasoactive intestinal peptide endocrine tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss our experience in diagnosing and treating pancreatic vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting tumors (VIPomas) by summarizing clinical information of 4 patients.
  • METHOD: Clinical manifestations, laboratory examination, imaging features, surgical findings, and pathological findings of 4 patients with VIPoma admitted in our hospital from 1991 to the present are discussed.
  • Hepatic metastasis occurred in 2 patients.
  • The pancreatic body and tail were the main locations of lesions.
  • Two tumors were shown in the pancreatic body and tail in 1 patient.
  • Two patients with hepatic metastases received a combination therapy of octreotide, surgery, and chemotherapy, which resulted in symptom improvement and normalization of the serum potassium values.
  • Distal pancreatic resection and second resection of hepatic metastatic lesions were performed in 1 patient.
  • Resection of the pancreatic body and tail was done in 1 patient, and pancreatoduodenectomy was performed in another patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Typical symptoms play an important role in the diagnosis of VIPoma.
  • Octreotide therapy has advanced the preoperative electrolyte management, and the combination of octreotide, chemotherapy, and surgery may be helpful in metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19657309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4828
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
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13. Oda Y, Tanaka Y, Naruse T, Sasanabe R, Tsubamoto M, Funahashi H: Expression of somatostatin receptor and effects of somatostatin analog on pancreatic endocrine tumors. Surg Today; 2002;32(8):690-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of somatostatin receptor and effects of somatostatin analog on pancreatic endocrine tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Somatostatin analogs have been administered to patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors in an attempt to inhibit hormone hypersecretion and prevent tumor growth.
  • The aim of this study was to immunohistochemically evaluate the expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in human pancreatic endocrine tumors, and to determine whether the expression of these subtypes is correlated with the effectiveness of the somatostatin analogs.
  • METHODS: Somatostatin receptor subtypes 1, 2, and 3 (sst 1, 2, and 3) were immunohistochemically investigated in seven pancreatic endocrine tumors: four insulinomas, one VIPoma, and two nonfunctioning tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I, using paraffin sections.
  • RESULTS: Cells were homogeneously stained in the tumor region.
  • There was no difference among the immunohistochemical stainings of somatostatin receptor subtypes according to most tumor characteristics; however, the expression of sst 2 was extremely positive, and the expression of sst 3 was moderately positive in the specimen from a patient in whom the octreotide injection had proven very effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Insulinoma / drug therapy. Insulinoma / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / drug therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / metabolism. Vipoma / drug therapy. Vipoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12181718.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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