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1. Cines DB, Liebman H, Stasi R: Pathobiology of secondary immune thrombocytopenia. Semin Hematol; 2009 Jan;46(1 Suppl 2):S2-14
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  • Primary immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) remains a diagnosis of exclusion both from nonimmune causes of thrombocytopenia and immune thrombocytopenia that develops in the context of other disorders (secondary immune thrombocytopenia).
  • The pathobiology, natural history, and response to therapy of the diverse causes of secondary ITP differ from each other and from primary ITP, so accurate diagnosis is essential.
  • Immune thrombocytopenia can be secondary to medications or to a concurrent disease, such as an autoimmune condition (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], antiphospholipid antibody syndrome [APS], immune thyroid disease, or Evans syndrome), a lymphoproliferative disease (eg, chronic lymphocytic leukemia or large granular T-lymphocyte lymphocytic leukemia), or chronic infection, eg, with Helicobacter pylori, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV).
  • Response to infection may generate antibodies that cross-react with platelet antigens (HIV, H pylori) or immune complexes that bind to platelet Fcgamma receptors (HCV), and platelet production may be impaired by infection of megakaryocyte (MK) bone marrow-dependent progenitor cells (HCV and HIV), decreased production of thrombopoietin (TPO), and splenic sequestration of platelets secondary to portal hypertension (HCV).
  • Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disorder, where necessary, play an important role in patient management.

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  • (PMID = 19245930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Hematol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL040387-16; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL040387; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL040387-16
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 185
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS99872; NLM/ PMC2682438
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2. Kim DH, Kamel-Reid S, Chang H, Sutherland R, Jung CW, Kim HJ, Lee JJ, Lipton JH: Natural killer or natural killer/T cell lineage large granular lymphocytosis associated with dasatinib therapy for Philadelphia chromosome positive leukemia. Haematologica; 2009 Jan;94(1):135-9
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  • [Title] Natural killer or natural killer/T cell lineage large granular lymphocytosis associated with dasatinib therapy for Philadelphia chromosome positive leukemia.
  • Dasatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is known to modulate or suppress T-cell activation and proliferation.
  • We report a series of 8 patients who developed chronic peripheral lymphocytosis, identified as natural killer cells or natural killer/T-cells based on their large granular lymphocyte morphologies and CD16(+), CD56(+), CD3(-) or CD3(+) immunophenotypic profiles, out of 18 patients receiving dasatinib therapy.
  • All cases that developed large granular lymphocyte lymphocytosis achieved optimal molecular response (8/8 in large granular lymphocyte(+) patients vs. 3/10 in large granular lymphocyte(-) patients, p=0.002).
  • A (51)Cr release assay demonstrated that natural killer cell cytotoxicity has been enhanced in a case of large granular lymphocyte lymphocytosis compared to normal healthy donors, and that natural killer cell cytotoxicity in dasatinib-responders was superior to that in non-responders.
  • In summary, the present study suggests that natural killer or natural killer/T cell lineage large granular lymphocyte lymphocytosis develops in association with dasatinib therapy and that large granular lymphocyte might have a therapeutic effect on Ph(+) leukemic cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Cell Lineage / drug effects. Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Lymphocytosis / chemically induced. Natural Killer T-Cells / drug effects. Pyrimidines / adverse effects. Thiazoles / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Dasatinib. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19066329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Thiazoles; RBZ1571X5H / Dasatinib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2625403
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3. Morris JC, Janik JE, White JD, Fleisher TA, Brown M, Tsudo M, Goldman CK, Bryant B, Petrus M, Top L, Lee CC, Gao W, Waldmann TA: Preclinical and phase I clinical trial of blockade of IL-15 using Mikbeta1 monoclonal antibody in T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2006 Jan 10;103(2):401-6
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  • [Title] Preclinical and phase I clinical trial of blockade of IL-15 using Mikbeta1 monoclonal antibody in T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • Twelve patients with T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia and associated hematocytopenia were treated in a phase I dose-escalation trial with the murine monoclonal antibody Mikbeta1.
  • Mikbeta1 treatment was not associated with significant toxicity or with the development of an immune response to the infused monoclonal antibody.
  • Nevertheless, no patients manifested a reduction in peripheral leukemic cell count or an amelioration of their hematocytopenia.
  • This latter observation may reflect the fact that the monoclonal T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia leukemic cells of the patients did not produce IL-2 or IL-15 or require their actions for cell survival.
  • In light of the lack of toxicity and lack of immunogenicity of the antibody observed in the present study and the role for IL-15 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, clinical trials should be performed using the humanized version of Mikbeta1 in groups of patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and refractory celiac disease.

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  • (PMID = 16387851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Interleukin-15; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1326174
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4. Robak T: Emerging drugs for rarer chronic lymphoid leukemias. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs; 2008 Mar;13(1):95-118
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Emerging drugs for rarer chronic lymphoid leukemias.
  • BACKGROUND: Rarer indolent lymphoid leukemias include well defined mature B-cell and T-cell neoplasm with widely varying natural history and specific morphological, immunophenotypic and molecular characteristics.
  • Among these are prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL), hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and its variants, large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGLL) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL).
  • OBJECTIVE: To present current therapies and emerging drugs potentially useful in the treatment of rarer chronic lymphoid leukemias.
  • RESULTS/CONCLUSION: New drugs including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), new purine analogs, small molecules targeting specific molecular targets and other agents are included.
  • Future research should focus on the novel therapeutic strategies based on the molecular pathogenic mechanisms and the development of new targeted therapies for each distinct chronic lymphoid leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drugs, Investigational / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chronic Disease. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18321151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7623
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on emerging drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Emerg Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drugs, Investigational
  • [Number-of-references] 189
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5. Granjo E, Lima M, Correia T, Lisboa C, Magalhães C, Cunha N, Teixeira MA, Queirós ML, Candeias J, Matutes E: Cd8(+)/V beta 5.1(+) large granular lymphocyte leukemia associated with autoimmune cytopenias, rheumatoid arthritis and vascular mammary skin lesions: successful response to 2-deoxycoformycin. Hematol Oncol; 2002 Jun;20(2):87-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cd8(+)/V beta 5.1(+) large granular lymphocyte leukemia associated with autoimmune cytopenias, rheumatoid arthritis and vascular mammary skin lesions: successful response to 2-deoxycoformycin.
  • We report a case of CD8(+)/V beta 5.1(+) T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL leukemia) presenting with mild lymphocytosis, severe autoimmune neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, polyarthritis and recurrent infections with a chronic disease course.
  • Immunophenotyping showed an expansion of CD3(+)/TCR alpha beta(+)/CD8(+bright)/CD11c(+)/CD57(-)/CD56(-) large granular lymphocytes with expression of the TCR-V beta 5.1 family.
  • Southern blot analysis revealed a clonal rearrangement of the TCR beta-chain gene.
  • Hematopoietic growth factors, high dose intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids were of limited therapeutic benefit to correct the cytopenias.
  • During the disease course, the patient developed a severe cutaneous leg ulcer and bilateral vascular mammary skin lesions.
  • Treatment with 2-deoxycoformycin resulted in both clinical and hematological complete responses, including the resolution of vascular skin lesions.
  • Combined immuno-staining with relevant T-cell associated and anti-TCR-V beta monoclonal antibodies proved to be a sensitive method to assess the therapeutic effect of 2-deoxycoformicin and to evaluate the residual disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD8. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / complications. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Lymphoid / immunology. Pentostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD3 / analysis. Breast / blood supply. Female. Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte / immunology. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Leg Ulcer / complications. Neutropenia / complications. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta / immunology. Thrombocytopenia / complications


6. Nagata Y, Ohashi K, Fukuda S, Kamata N, Akiyama H, Sakamaki H: Clinical features of dasatinib-induced large granular lymphocytosis and pleural effusion. Int J Hematol; 2010 Jun;91(5):799-807
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical features of dasatinib-induced large granular lymphocytosis and pleural effusion.
  • During follow-up of leukocyte counts in 20 consecutive patients (age range 29-81 years) treated with dasatinib, 9 patients (7 chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase, 2 Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoid leukemia in complete remission) developed lymphocytosis (>3,000/microl).
  • Peripheral blood smears revealed a population of large granular lymphocytes.
  • Large granular lymphocytosis (LGL) was first noted between 1 and 8 months after initiation of dasatinib, and it has persisted up to 33 months from the onset of LGL in one patient.
  • Peak numbers of large granular lymphocytes ranged from 2,915 to 17,425/microl.
  • The occurrence of LGL might interfere with achieving molecular response (MR, real-time quantification of major BCR-ABL1 mRNA less than 50 copies/microg RNA) in our small cohort; 8 (89%) of 9 patients with LGL attained MR, while only 6 (55%) of 11 patients without LGL eventually achieved MR.
  • With respect to the relationship between LGL and pleural effusion (PE), 3 (27%) of 11 patients without LGL developed PE, while 5 (56%) of 9 patients with LGL developed PE.
  • Moreover, the mean peak number of LGL was 9,215/microl, which was much higher than the mean peak number (4,635/microl) of LGL in patients without PE.
  • These results may suggest possible association of both events in our cohorts.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / chemically induced. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Pleural Effusion / chemically induced. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Pyrimidines / adverse effects. Thiazoles / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Dasatinib. Female. Humans. Lymphocytes / pathology. Lymphocytosis / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20405252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Thiazoles; RBZ1571X5H / Dasatinib
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7. Mohan SR, Clemente MJ, Afable M, Cazzolli HN, Bejanyan N, Wlodarski MW, Lichtin AE, Maciejewski JP: Therapeutic implications of variable expression of CD52 on clonal cytotoxic T cells in CD8+ large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Haematologica; 2009 Oct;94(10):1407-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Therapeutic implications of variable expression of CD52 on clonal cytotoxic T cells in CD8+ large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia is a clonal proliferation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes which often results in severe cytopenia.
  • Current treatment options favor chronic immunosuppression.
  • Alemtuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored CD52, is approved for patients refractory to therapy in other lymphoid malignancies.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined treatment outcomes in 59 patients with CD8+ T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, 41 of whom required therapy.
  • Eight patients with severe refractory cytopenia despite multiple treatment regimens had been treated with subcutaneous alemtuzumab as salvage therapy.
  • Flow cytometry was used to monitor expression of glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored CD52, CD55, and CD59 as well as to characterize T-cell clonal expansions by T-cell receptor variable beta-chain (Vbeta) repertoire.
  • RESULTS: Analysis of the effects of alemtuzumab revealed remissions with restoration of platelets in one of one patient, red blood cell transfusion independence in three of five patients and improvement of neutropenia in one of three, resulting in an overall response rate of 50% (4/8 patients).
  • Clonal large granular lymphocytes exhibited decreased CD52 expression post-therapy in patients refractory to treatment.
  • Samples of large granular lymphocytes collected prior to therapy also unexpectedly had a significant proportion of CD52-negative cells while a healthy control population had no such CD52 deficiency (p=0.026).
  • CONCLUSIONS: While alemtuzumab may be highly effective in large granular lymphocytic leukemia, prospective serial monitoring for the presence of CD52-deficient clonal cytotoxic T-lymphocytes should be a component of clinical trials investigating the efficacy of this drug.
  • CD52 deficiency may explain lack of response to alemtuzumab, and such therapy may confer a survival advantage to glycophosphatidylinositol-negative clonal cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

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  • (PMID = 19794084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113972; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR019397; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR 019397
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CD52 antigen; 0 / Glycoproteins; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2754957
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8. Takahashi T, Otani I, Okuda M, Inoue M, Ito K, Sakai M, Koie H, Yamaya Y, Watari T, Sato T, Kanayama K, Tokuriki M: Malignant transformation of T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia in a dog. J Vet Med Sci; 2007 Jun;69(6):677-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant transformation of T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia in a dog.
  • An 8-year-old spayed female Golden Retriever was referred to us for evaluation of mild lymphocytosis.
  • The peripheral lymphocytes were comprised of mostly large granular lymphocytes (LGLs), and flow cytometry showed that they were mostly CD3+8+ T lymphocytes.
  • Clonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor gene was identified in the peripheral blood, and the dog was therefore diagnosed with LGL chronic leukemia.
  • The dog was subclinical without treatment until hospitalization on day 154, at which point the lymphocytes looked like lymphoblasts and the surface markers changed to CD3-8-.
  • This was regarded as malignant transformation from LGL chronic leukemia to the acute type.
  • Sequential chemotherapy was started, but the dog died on day 190.
  • Necropsy revealed tumor cell infiltration into the heart, skin, and brain.

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  • (PMID = 17611371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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9. Sretenovic A, Antic D, Jankovic S, Gotic M, Perunicic-Jovanovic M, Jakovic L, Mihaljevic B: T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL) leukemia: a single institution experience. Med Oncol; 2010 Jun;27(2):286-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL) leukemia: a single institution experience.
  • BACKGROUND: T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL) leukemia is a rare lymphoproliferative disease which usually affects elderly people.
  • The clinical course of T-LGL leukemia is generally indolent, with lymphocytosis and splenomegaly in 20-50% patients, hepatomegaly in 5-20% of patients, and less commonly, lymphadenopathy.
  • T-LGL leukemia is associated with immunological abnormalities: rheumatoid factor with or without rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Coombs positive hemolytic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), positive anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), hypogammaglobulinemia, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia.
  • Aim To compare clinical and laboratory features of T-LGL leukemia patients and their responses to different chemotherapy regimens.
  • METHODS: Six patients (3 males and 3 females) with T-LGL leukemia were analyzed.
  • The diagnosis was based on accepted morphologic criteria, immunophenotype, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements.
  • RESULTS: All patients exhibited lymphocytosis, mainly with unusual morphologies, splenomegaly, and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).
  • Three patients were treated with a Fludarabine-Cyclophosphamide (FC) combination as initial therapy while three patients received CHOP.
  • Two patients received more than one treatment regimen.
  • One patient died due to T-LGL leukemia in first year after diagnosis, one patient died 4 years after diagnosis, two patients interrupted their treatment, and two patients are still alive.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Further prospective studies are needed for establishing a gold standard therapy for T-LGL leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / blood. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19306076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-131X
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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10. Ferrajoli A, Faderl S, Ravandi F, Estrov Z: The JAK-STAT pathway: a therapeutic target in hematological malignancies. Curr Cancer Drug Targets; 2006 Dec;6(8):671-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The JAK-STAT pathway: a therapeutic target in hematological malignancies.
  • The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway is prominent both in normal hematopoiesis and in hematological malignancies.
  • STATs are phosphorylated on tyrosine residues via JAK kinases and on serine residues by a variety of serine/threonine kinases.
  • STAT proteins mediate cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, transformation, and other fundamental cell functions.
  • In addition constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT pathway has been reported in various types of leukemias such as acute myelogenous leukemia, T-LGL leukemia, and multiple myeloma.
  • This review describes the pathophysiological role of this pathway in hematological malignancies and the potential benefits of JAK-STAT inhibition.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Janus Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. STAT Transcription Factors / antagonists & inhibitors. Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Humans. PPAR gamma / agonists. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 17168672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current cancer drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Cancer Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / STAT Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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11. Moosig F, Schoch R, Kneba M: [T-large granular lymphocyte leukaemia. An important differential diagnosis to Felty's syndrome]. Z Rheumatol; 2006 Sep;65(5):447-51
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  • [Title] [T-large granular lymphocyte leukaemia. An important differential diagnosis to Felty's syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Die T-large Granular Lymphocyte Leukämie (T-LGL-Leukämie). Eine wichtige Differenzialdiagnose zum Felty-syndrom.
  • T-Large Granular Lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukaemia is a rare clonal disease characterized by neutropenia and/or anaemia.
  • Because of its strong association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), T-LGL leukaemia is an important differential diagnosis to Felty's syndrome.
  • This differentiation might be especially difficult since, in severe RA with extraarticular manifestations, there is often an expanded memory effector T-cell population which can hardly be separated from T-LGL leukaemia cells by means of immunophenotyping.
  • The main criterion for T-LGL leukaemia is the detection of a clonal T-cell-receptor rearrangement by PCR.
  • First-line therapy consists of weekly low-dose methotrexate.
  • There are very limited data from therapy studies.
  • The German CLL study group has initiated a protocol using parenteral low-dose methotrexate as first-line therapy and fludarabine as second-line medication.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Lymphoid / diagnosis. Leukemia, T-Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / diagnosis. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Felty Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16450150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-1855
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Rheumatol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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12. Fortune AF, Kelly K, Sargent J, O'Brien D, Quinn F, Chadwick N, Flynn C, Conneally E, Browne P, Crotty GM, Thornton P, Vandenberghe E: Large granular lymphocyte leukemia: natural history and response to treatment. Leuk Lymphoma; 2010 May;51(5):839-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large granular lymphocyte leukemia: natural history and response to treatment.
  • Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL) is an indolent T lymphoproliferative disorder that was difficult to diagnose with certainty until clonality testing of the T cell receptor gene became routinely available.
  • We studied the natural history and response to treatment in 25 consecutive patients with T-LGL diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 in which the diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis, to define an effective treatment algorithm.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 27-78), with a male to female ratio of 1:1.8 and presenting features of fatigue (n = 13), recurrent infections (n = 9), and/or abnormal blood counts (n = 5).
  • Thirteen patients with symptomatic disease were treated as follows: pentostatin (nine patients), cyclosporine (six patients), methotrexate (three patients), and alemtuzumab in two patients in whom pentostatin was ineffective.
  • Pentostatin was the single most effective therapy, with a response rate of 75% and minimal toxicity.
  • Treatment of T-LGL should be reserved for patients with symptomatic disease, but in this series, pentostatin treatment was less toxic and more effective than cyclosporine or methotrexate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibodies, Neoplasm / administration & dosage. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Pentostatin / administration & dosage. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20367569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 395575MZO7 / Pentostatin; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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13. Olteanu H, Harrington AM, Ramirez S, Kroft SH, Hari P: Efficacy and safety of long-term (>7 year) alemtuzumab therapy for refractory T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2010 Aug;150(4):480-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy and safety of long-term (>7 year) alemtuzumab therapy for refractory T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 20456357.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
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14. Anoop P, Ravindranathan G, Osuji N, Dearden CE, Wotherspoon A, Bain BJ, Matutes E: Epstein-Barr virus negative large B-cell lymphoma during long term immunomodulatory therapy for T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2010 Jan;148(2):337-9
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus negative large B-cell lymphoma during long term immunomodulatory therapy for T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / chemically induced. Methotrexate / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Cyclophosphamide. Disease Progression. Doxorubicin. Humans. Male. Prednisone. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine

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  • (PMID = 19804452.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CHOP protocol
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15. Monjanel H, Hourioux C, Arbion F, Colombat P, Lissandre S, Regner MP, Senecal D: Rapid and durable molecular response of refractory T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia after alemtuzumab treatment. Leuk Res; 2010 Aug;34(8):e197-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rapid and durable molecular response of refractory T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia after alemtuzumab treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20211489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5835
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
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16. Pawarode A, Wallace PK, Ford LA, Barcos M, Baer MR: Long-term safety and efficacy of cyclosporin A therapy for T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2010 Feb;51(2):338-41
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  • [Title] Long-term safety and efficacy of cyclosporin A therapy for T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / complications. Neutropenia / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20038217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
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