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1. Wan Y, Wang X, Zheng N, Shi J: [Clinical research of selective bronchial artery infusion and chemotherapy of lung cancer]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi; 2003 Oct 20;6(5):378-80

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical research of selective bronchial artery infusion and chemotherapy of lung cancer].
  • BACKGROUND: To study the effect of selective bronchial artery infusion (BAI) and chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with intermediate and advanced lung cancer.
  • METHODS: Forty-five cases of advanced lung cancer were treated by BAI, which were compared with 40 cases of advanced lung cancer treated by systemic chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: The response rate of BAI (33/44, 75.0%) was better than that of systemic chemotherapy (20/40, 50.0%)( P < 0.05).
  • The side-effect of BAI was lower than that of systemic chemotherapy ( P < 0.05), but one case occured paraplegia after BAI.
  • The response rate of small cell undifferentiated lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was 94.5% (17/18), 66.6% (14/21) and 40.0% (2/5) respectively in the BAI group.
  • Significant difference of the response rate was found in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma between the two groups ( P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: BAI has better response rate and less toxicity than systemic chemotherapy in intermediate and advanced lung cancer, especially in patients with squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Small cell undifferentiated lung carcinoma should be treated by systemic chemotherapy firstly and then BAI.
  • Adenocarcinoma should be treated by BAI firstly and then other therapy.

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  • (PMID = 21306684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3419
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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2. Rosell R, Perez-Roca L, Sanchez JJ, Cobo M, Moran T, Chaib I, Provencio M, Domine M, Sala MA, Jimenez U, Diz P, Barneto I, Macias JA, de Las Peñas R, Catot S, Isla D, Sanchez JM, Ibeas R, Lopez-Vivanco G, Oramas J, Mendez P, Reguart N, Blanco R, Taron M: Customized treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer based on EGFR mutations and BRCA1 mRNA expression. PLoS One; 2009;4(5):e5133
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  • [Title] Customized treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer based on EGFR mutations and BRCA1 mRNA expression.
  • BACKGROUND: Median survival is 10 months and 2-year survival is 20% in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • A small fraction of non-squamous cell lung cancers harbor EGFR mutations, with improved outcome to gefitinib and erlotinib.
  • Experimental evidence suggests that BRCA1 overexpression enhances sensitivity to docetaxel and resistance to cisplatin.
  • In order to further examine the effect of EGFR mutations and BRCA1 mRNA levels on outcome in advanced NSCLC, we performed a prospective non-randomized phase II clinical trial, testing the hypothesis that customized therapy would confer improved outcome over non-customized therapy.
  • In an exploratory analysis, we also examined the effect of RAP80 and Abraxas mRNA levels.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We treated 123 metastatic non-squamous cell lung carcinoma patients using a customized approach.
  • RNA and DNA were isolated from microdissected specimens from paraffin-embedded tumor tissue.
  • Patients with EGFR mutations received erlotinib, and those without EGFR mutations received chemotherapy with or without cisplatin based on their BRCA1 mRNA levels: low, cisplatin plus gemcitabine; intermediate, cisplatin plus docetaxel; high, docetaxel alone.
  • An exploratory analysis examined RAP80 and Abraxas expression.
  • Median survival exceeded 28 months for 12 patients with EGFR mutations, and was 11 months for 38 patients with low BRCA1, 9 months for 40 patients with intermediate BRCA1, and 11 months for 33 patients with high BRCA1.
  • Two-year survival was 73.3%, 41.2%, 15.6% and 0%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chemotherapy customized according to BRCA1 expression levels is associated with excellent median and 2-year survival for some subsets of NSCLC patients , and RAP80 could play a crucial modulating effect on this model of customized chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] BRCA1 Protein / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Mutation. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Pharmacogenetics / methods. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Dosage Calculations. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Survival Rate. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19415121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00883480
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA1 Protein; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / FAM175A protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RAP80 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2673583
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3. Hirano T, Kato H, Maeda M, Gong Y, Shou Y, Nakamura M, Maeda J, Yashima K, Kato Y, Akimoto S, Ohira T, Tsuboi M, Ikeda N: Identification of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy responders in non-small cell lung cancer by novel biomarker. Int J Cancer; 2005 Nov 10;117(3):460-8
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  • [Title] Identification of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy responders in non-small cell lung cancer by novel biomarker.
  • Cisplatin-based (CDDP-based) adjuvant chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was reported to yield 5-15% improvement in 5-year survival compared to complete resection alone.
  • The purpose of our study is the establishment of a preselection of good responders for CDDP-based adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • We investigated protein expressions comparing intensity between parent strains (H69 and PC14 lung cancer cultured cells) and resistant strains against CDDP using 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE).
  • Immunohistochemically, we evaluated the relationship between protein expression associated with CDDP-resistance and the clinical effects of platinum-based postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy using 126 surgically-resected NCLC materials.
  • We detected 2 kinds of polypeptides that changed expression levels on 2-DE gels.
  • The analyses of the amino acid sequence showed that these polypeptides were reticulocalbin (RCN) and glutathione-S-transferase-pi (GST-pi).
  • The 2-DE analysis showed decreased expression in RCN and overexpression in GST-pi with the acquisition of CDDP-drug resistance.
  • RCN-transfectant of H69 CDDP-resistant strain showed intermediate sensitivity between the parent strain and the CDDP-resistant strain.
  • RCN-positive cases showed a statistically significant better disease-free survival only in the cases receiving postoperative platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection (p = 0.007).
  • In the cases without postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy no relationship between the outcome and these expressions was seen.
  • The evaluation of RCN and GST-pi might provide valuable information concerning postoperatively therapeutic strategy from the standpoint of individualized postoperative therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium-Binding Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Isoenzymes / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cancer Vaccines. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / toxicity. Cloning, Molecular. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Glutathione S-Transferase pi. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Peptide Fragments / chemistry. Transfection


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4. Pelosi G, Volante M, Papotti M, Sonzogni A, Masullo M, Viale G: Peptide receptors in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung as potential tools for radionuclide diagnosis and therapy. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2006 Dec;50(4):272-87
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  • [Title] Peptide receptors in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung as potential tools for radionuclide diagnosis and therapy.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung are carcinomas characterized by different impact on the patients' prognosis, ranging from relatively indolent, low- to intermediate-grade neoplasms with longer life expectation (i.e., typical and atypical carcinoids) to very aggressive and poorly differentiated neoplasms with dismal prognosis (i.e., large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell lung cancer).
  • The standard treatment of typical or atypical carcinoids is the complete surgical resection, whereas the role of radio-chemotherapy in a multimodality treatment or for palliation remains controversial.
  • Conversely, high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas are in primis treated by aggressive combination chemotherapy, deserving surgical resection for uncommon low-stage tumors.
  • Since evidence has been accumulated that neuroendocrine tumors of the lung are supplied with a wide array of peptide receptors detectable on cell membranes by immunohistochemical methods, innovative strategies for diagnosis and radiometabolic therapy have been devised to target these molecules for the correct clinical management of the patients.
  • In this paper, the structural and functional aspects and the clinical applications of the detection of several peptide receptors in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors will be reviewed, including somatostatin receptors, vasoactive intestinal peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide family receptors, cholecystokinin /gastrin receptors, bombesin/gastrin releasing peptide receptors, neurotensin receptors, substance P receptors, neuroepeptide Y receptors, calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors, atrial natriuretic peptide receptors, glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptors, oxytocin receptors and endothelin receptors.
  • Only a detailed knowledge of the peptide receptor distribution in these tumor types, especially in uncommon neoplasms such as atypical carcinoids and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, is pivotal for planning the most adequate interventions for the patients' diagnosis and therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Lung Neoplasms. Radioisotopes. Receptors, Peptide / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17043625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Peptide
  • [Number-of-references] 166
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5. Saint-Jacques N, Rayson D, Al-Fayea T, Virik K, Morzycki W, Younis T: Waiting times in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Aug;3(8):865-70
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Lung Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Waiting times in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • INTRODUCTION: Wait times in cancer care continue to be an important clinical, social, and political issue.
  • This study examines wait times along the care path from suspicious imaging study (Detection) to adjuvant chemotherapy initiation (Chemotherapy) for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who undergo surgical resection.
  • METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed in 2005 with NSCLC who underwent curative-intent surgery in Nova Scotia, Canada was conducted to abstract dates of care events (Detection, Surgery Consultation, Surgery, Medical Oncology [MO] Referral, MO Consultation and Chemotherapy) and patient characteristics.
  • Multifactorial regression methods were used to identify statistically-significant cofactors associated with wait times at various resolutions of care intervals (low, intermediate, high).
  • RESULTS: A median wait time of 141 days elapsed between Detection-Chemotherapy; and a median 107 and 52 days elapsed between Detection-Surgery and Surgery-Chemotherapy, respectively.
  • A number of demographic, clinical, epidemiological, and system resource dependant factors influenced wait times at different resolutions, and were best detailed utilizing high resolution analysis.
  • Wait time between MO referral-MO Consultation was inversely related to that experienced in the preceding interval of Surgery-MO Referral.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a first detailed examination of wait times experienced by NSCLC patients undergoing curative-intent surgery according to care interval definitions; demonstrates the value of high care interval resolution analysis to detect bottlenecks in access to care; and reports on the interdependence of elapsed times between care events along the care path for cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Waiting Lists
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / statistics & numerical data. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Smoking. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18670304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Bordoni R: Consensus conference: multimodality management of early- and intermediate-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Oncologist; 2008 Sep;13(9):945-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Consensus conference: multimodality management of early- and intermediate-stage non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Surgery is the mainstay of treatment in early- and intermediate-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), yet recurrences are frequent.
  • Studies have documented the benefits of chemotherapy administered after resection, but a number of questions remain regarding how overall outcomes can be further improved.
  • Preoperative staging should be done in accordance with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, but endoscopic fine needle aspiration of enlarged mediastinal nodes can be used, and if histology is positive for malignancy, mediastinoscopy can be avoided.
  • Neoadjuvant systemic therapy is not generally recommended but can be considered to downstage an unresectable patient.
  • Adjuvant systemic therapy is not recommended for stage IA and IB patients; however, adverse prognostic factors are acceptable reasons to consider adjuvant systemic therapy in the latter.
  • Adjuvant systemic therapy is recommended for stage IIA, IIB, and IIIA patients, consistent with recent American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines.
  • Adjuvant radiation therapy is not recommended for N0 and N1 patients, but is used in N2 patients to decrease local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18779538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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7. Gualberto A, Dolled-Filhart M, Gustavson M, Christiansen J, Wang YF, Hixon ML, Reynolds J, McDonald S, Ang A, Rimm DL, Langer CJ, Blakely J, Garland L, Paz-Ares LG, Karp DD, Lee AV: Molecular analysis of non-small cell lung cancer identifies subsets with different sensitivity to insulin-like growth factor I receptor inhibition. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Sep 15;16(18):4654-65
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  • [Title] Molecular analysis of non-small cell lung cancer identifies subsets with different sensitivity to insulin-like growth factor I receptor inhibition.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify molecular determinants of sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to anti-insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) therapy.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 216 tumor samples were investigated, of which 165 consisted of retrospective analyses of banked tissue and an additional 51 were from patients enrolled in a phase II study of figitumumab, a monoclonal antibody against IGF-IR, in stage IIIb/IV NSCLC.
  • Subcellular localization of IRS-1 and phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt1 were also analyzed.
  • RESULTS: IGF-IR was differentially expressed across histologic subtypes (P = 0.04), with highest levels observed in squamous cell tumors.
  • Elevated IGF-IR expression was also observed in a small number of squamous cell tumors responding to chemotherapy combined with figitumumab (P = 0.008).
  • Because no other biomarker/response interaction was observed using classical histologic subtyping, a molecular approach was undertaken to segment NSCLC into mechanism-based subpopulations.
  • Principal component analysis and unsupervised Bayesian clustering identified three NSCLC subsets that resembled the steps of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition: E-cadherin high/IRS-1 low (epithelial-like), E-cadherin intermediate/IRS-1 high (transitional), and E-cadherin low/IRS-1 low (mesenchymal-like).
  • Furthermore, a higher response rate to the combination of chemotherapy and figitumumab was observed in transitional tumors (71%) compared with those in the mesenchymal-like subset (32%; P = 0.03).
  • Only one epithelial-like tumor was identified in the phase II study, suggesting that advanced NSCLC has undergone significant dedifferentiation at diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: NSCLC comprises molecular subsets with differential sensitivity to IGF-IR inhibition.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20670944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES015704-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA58183; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES015704; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES015704; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058183; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA094118
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Retracted Publication; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; VE267FC2UB / figitumumab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS226076; NLM/ PMC2952544
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8. Socinski MA, Sandler AB, Miller LL, Locker PK, Hanover CK, Elfring GL, Israel VK, Pirotta N, Natale RB: Phase I trial of the combination of irinotecan, paclitaxel, and carboplatin in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Feb 15;19(4):1078-87
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  • [Title] Phase I trial of the combination of irinotecan, paclitaxel, and carboplatin in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose, toxicities, and dose suitable for phase II/III trials of irinotecan (CPT-11) combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC were enrolled to this multicenter, phase I study.
  • The initial regimen was paclitaxel 225 mg/m(2)/3 h, followed by carboplatin area under the curve (AUC) 6 over 30 minutes on day 1, and CPT-11 starting at 40 mg/m(2) over 90 minutes, days 1 and 8, every 3 weeks.
  • The regimen was amended, with doses reduced to paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2)/3 h, carboplatin AUC 5 and CPT-11 at 40 mg/m(2), all on day 1 every 3 weeks.
  • Subsequent patients received an intermediate CPT-11 dose of 100 mg/m(2).
  • RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were enrolled; 32 patients were assessable for safety, and 31 were assessable for tumor response.
  • The primary first-cycle dose-limiting toxicities were neutropenia and diarrhea.
  • Objective tumor response was observed in 39% (12/31, 95% confidence interval, 22% to 58%).
  • The median time to tumor progression was 6.8 months, median survival 11.0 months, and 1-year survival probability 0.46.
  • The combination shows appreciable activity, and survival data are favorable.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 11181672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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9. Lockhart AC, Bukowski R, Rothenberg ML, Wang KK, Cooper W, Grover J, Appleman L, Mayer PR, Shapiro M, Zhu AX: Phase I trial of oral MAC-321 in subjects with advanced malignant solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2007 Jul;60(2):203-9
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  • PURPOSE: MAC-321 is a novel taxane that has demonstrated exceptional activity in human xenograft models when administered intravenously and orally.
  • Preclinical studies of MAC-321 have shown antitumor activity in MDR-expressing and paclitaxel-resistant tumors.
  • Preliminary antitumor activity of MAC-321 was also examined.
  • METHODS: Key eligibility criteria included adult subjects with refractory solid tumors or solid tumors for which conventional therapy was unsuitable or did not exist, good performance status (ECOG ( 2), and adequate hematologic, hepatic, and renal functions.
  • Plasma pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling was performed during the first cycle of therapy.
  • Two subjects developed dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) at 75 mg/m(2); one subject with grade 3 and one subject with grade 4 neutropenia with fever.
  • Three subjects treated at an intermediate dose level of 60 mg/m(2) had no DLTs.
  • MAC-321 was rapidly absorbed with a mean C (max) value of less than 1 h.
  • Disease stabilization was seen in four subjects with the following tumors: mesothelioma (14 cycles), chondrosarcoma (12 cycles), small cell carcinoma (10 cycles), and prostate carcinoma (6 cycles).
  • Four subjects had disease stabilization.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Area Under Curve. Biological Availability. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Fever / chemically induced. Half-Life. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17091249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / MAC321; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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10. Valsecchi M, Garberi J, Ferrandini S, Berenguer R, Trini E, Politi P: [A prevalent genetic variety of UDP-glycuronosyl transferase predicts high risk of irinotecan toxicity]. Medicina (B Aires); 2007;67(1):57-60
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  • [Transliterated title] Una variedad genetica de la UDP- glucuronosil transferasa asociada a toxicidad gastrointestinal por irinotecan.
  • The advances in genetics and molecular biology have raised new areas in medicine, such as pharmacogenomics, which tries to predict drug responses and toxicities based on the individual genetic variability, describing the so called: pharmacogenomic syndromes.
  • Oncology would find this development extremely useful because of the severe toxicity of chemotherapy.
  • There are a lot of genetic loci under investigation for their potential in predicting drug toxicity, but only three of them have showed clinical usefulness up to now.
  • In particular, quantification of the number of thymine-adenine (TA) dinucleotics in the promoter region of the UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase 1A1 enzime (TA indel) proved to be capable of predicting severe neutropenia in patients exposed to intermediate or high doses of irinotecan.
  • Herein we report a case of a patient with small cell lung cancer who suffered severe hematological and gastrointestinal toxicity after being treated with relatively low doses (65 mg/m(2)) of irinotecan and whose leucocyte DNA analysis showed the presence of seven TA repetitions in both alleles.
  • This case is an example of the clinical applicability and the utility of the test as a toxicity predictor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Genetic Variation / genetics. Glucuronosyltransferase / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neutropenia / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Genetic Markers / drug effects. Genetic Markers / genetics. Humans. Middle Aged. Risk

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  • (PMID = 17408023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Genetic Markers; 7673326042 / irinotecan; EC 2.4.1.- / UGT1A1 enzyme; EC 2.4.1.17 / Glucuronosyltransferase; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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11. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • The most common presentation was abdominal/pelvic pain (6 cases), followed by ascites (2 cases), pelvic mass, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal bloating (1 case each).
  • In 8 cases, NSCNEC was associated with other epithelial neoplasms, including mucinous neoplasms of low malignant potential, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, mixed endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma, and a high-grade carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • In 2 cases, the tumor was associated with a mature cystic teratoma; one of them also containing an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • A single case was associated with a benign ovarian cyst.
  • The latter case had a dermoid cyst in the contralateral ovary.
  • NSCNEC represented anywhere from 10% to 90% of the ovarian tumor.
  • Microscopically, the neuroendocrine component was usually composed of large and/or intermediate oval to round cells.
  • In 2 cases, the intermediate cells were intermixed with small cells.
  • All tumors had a brisk mitotic activity.
  • According to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system, 4 cases were stage I tumors, 3 cases were stage III tumors, and 4 cases were stage IV tumors.
  • Seven patients were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • One patient had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omentectomy and appendectomy followed by chemotherapy; 1 patient had a total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy; one had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy, and one had a right salpingo-oophorectomy with appendectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • Five patients died of disease at 2, 3, 9, 20, and 36 months.
  • One patient is alive with disease at 8 months and 5 are alive without evidence of disease at 11, 28, 37, 66, and 68 months.
  • Four of 5 patients who died of disease had either stage III or IV tumors and 3 of 5 patients who are alive without evidence of disease have stage I tumors.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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12. Kusayanagi S, Konishi K, Miyasaka N, Sasaki K, Kurahashi T, Kaneko K, Akita Y, Yoshikawa N, Kusano M, Yamochi T, Kushima M, Mitamura K: Primary small cell carcinoma of the stomach. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2003 Jun;18(6):743-7
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  • [Title] Primary small cell carcinoma of the stomach.
  • We report on an 80-year-old man with primary gastric small cell carcinoma (SmCC).
  • An upper gastrointestinal examination revealed an irregularly ulcerated tumor, 60 mm in diameter, on the lesser curvature of the stomach body extending to the cardia.
  • An endoscopic biopsy revealed a solid proliferation of intermediate-sized tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and scanty cytoplasm.
  • Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase and chromogranin A, but negative for carcinoembryonic antigen.
  • No tumor was detected on examination of the chest.
  • Therefore, primary gastric SmCC was diagnosed preoperatively.
  • To date, only 38 cases of primary gastric SmCC, including our case, have been reported.
  • In the reported cases of gastric SmCC, the endoscopic findings frequently indicated a submucosal tumor.
  • Gastric SmCC is clinically aggressive and has an extremely poor prognosis, even when discovered at an early stage.
  • Although a standard treatment for gastric SmCC has not been established, intensive chemotherapy should be considered to promote long-term survival.
  • We believe that careful examination, including immunohistochemical investigation, is necessary for determining the therapeutic strategy whenever gastric SmCC is suspected during endoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy. Carcinoembryonic Antigen. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase

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  • (PMID = 12753162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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13. Katsura T, Tanaka K, Yoshida F, Kasahara K, Shimizu M, Adachi M: [An autopsy case of systemic sclerosis with small cell carcinoma of the lung]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2000 Oct;38(10):788-91
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  • [Title] [An autopsy case of systemic sclerosis with small cell carcinoma of the lung].
  • We report an autopsy of a 69-year-old woman who had systemic sclerosis with small cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • She had interstitial pneumonia associated with systemic sclerosis and was admitted to our hospital because of acute on chronic respiratory failure due to a respiratory tract infection.
  • Histopathological examination at autopsy revealed intermediate cell type small cell carcinoma of the lung and usual interstitial pneumonia.
  • It is generally said that the most common type of lung cancer associated with systemic sclerosis is adenocarcinoma or alveolar cell carcinoma, and that small cell carcinoma is rare.
  • No autopsy case of systemic sclerosis with small cell carcinoma of the lung has ever been reported in Japan.
  • Small cell carcinoma of the lung is more responsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy than other histological types of lung cancer.
  • Patients with small cell lung cancer are generally treated with chemotherapy alone or a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • It is important to remember that the lung cancers that may be complicated with systemic sclerosis include not only adenocarcinoma and alveolar cell carcinoma but also small cell carcinoma of the lung, because the histological type may dictate the treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Autopsy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / complications. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Scleroderma, Systemic / complications

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  • (PMID = 11186926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Lewiński T, Zuławski M: Small cell lung cancer survival: 3 years as a minimum for predicting a favorable outcome. Lung Cancer; 2003 May;40(2):203-13
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  • [Title] Small cell lung cancer survival: 3 years as a minimum for predicting a favorable outcome.
  • OBJECTIVES: To define the minimum survival time indicating a significantly reduced risk of recurrence of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) basing on the evaluation of survival of patients (pts) with SCLC who underwent anatomic staging and were exposed to combination chemotherapy (CT) (including combined modality treatment).
  • METHODS: Eight pts being our 'historic' group submitted to the NCI Registry for Long Term Survivors with SCLC (est.
  • For those among our pts who had no evidence of metastatic disease, but had not undergone thorough staging, we have arbitrarily created an intermediate group referred to as 'XD'.
  • From this group of 111 2 year-or-more survivors 45 (41%) died between 2 and 3 years.
  • We did not observe any failure of the primary tumor beyond a period of 5 years-both in our 'historic' and the analyzed group.
  • After 5 years development of a second primary tumor, mainly lung cancer, is one of the major causes of death in pts 'cured' of their primary tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: The shortest survival-time which allows predicting a significantly reduced risk of recurrence of SCLC is 3 years.
  • The same landmark was achieved with the estimation of hazard function and allowed to find a remarkably decreased risk of death at the point of 3 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Survivors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction / methods. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12711123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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15. Di Maio M, Lama N, Morabito A, Smit EF, Georgoulias V, Takeda K, Quoix E, Hatzidaki D, Wachters FM, Gebbia V, Tsai CM, Camps C, Schuette W, Chiodini P, Piccirillo MC, Perrone F, Gallo C, Gridelli C: Clinical assessment of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer eligible for second-line chemotherapy: a prognostic score from individual data of nine randomised trials. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Mar;46(4):735-43
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  • [Title] Clinical assessment of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer eligible for second-line chemotherapy: a prognostic score from individual data of nine randomised trials.
  • PURPOSE: Knowledge of prognostic factors for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients eligible for second-line treatment is scarce.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic role of a number of routinely collected clinical variables and to provide a summary index to discriminate patients according to probability of survival.
  • METHODS: Individual data from nine randomised trials of second-line treatment in advanced NSCLC were analysed.
  • Primary end-point was overall survival (OS).
  • Cox model, stratified by trial, was used for multivariate analyses, and a prognostic index was provided and validated according to an internal/external procedure.
  • At multivariate analysis, prognosis was significantly influenced by gender (worse in males), performance status (PS), tumour histology (worse in squamous and other histology versus adenocarcinoma), stage (worse in IV versus IIIB), type of previous treatment (worse for patients pretreated with platinum) and response to first-line (worse for patients not obtaining objective response).
  • When three categories were derived, median overall survival values were equal to 11.6, 7.5 and 3.0months for best (<5), intermediate (5-9) and worst (>9) categories, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Prognosis of patients eligible for second-line treatment of advanced NSCLC is significantly conditioned by gender, PS, histology, stage, previous use of platinum and response to first-line.
  • A prognostic score was derived that discriminates well subjects with a relatively more favourable prognosis and those with very short life expectancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20045311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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16. Oudard S, Eisen T, Szczylik C, Siebels M, Negrier S, Chevreau C, Cihon F, Bukowski RM, Escudier B: Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with advanced clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with diabetes: Results from the phase III TARGET study. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16099

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  • [Title] Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with advanced clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with diabetes: Results from the phase III TARGET study.
  • : e16099 Background: Results of the phase III TARGET trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of sorafenib (SOR) treatment in pts with clear-cell RCC in whom 1 prior systemic therapy had failed, indicated that SOR is effective and safe for pts with advanced RCC, leading to the approval of SOR for the treatment of advanced RCC.
  • Diabetes can be associated with increased morbidity during treatment in a variety of malignancies.
  • Therefore, an exploratory subset analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SOR in pts enrolled in TARGET with or without diabetes at baseline.
  • METHODS: Pts (N=903) with advanced clear-cell RCC, ECOG PS 0-2, and low- or intermediate-risk MSKCC score were randomized 1:1 to SOR 400 mg BID or placebo (PBO).
  • A planned independently-assessed formal analysis of PFS showed significant benefit for SOR over PBO; consequently, pts assigned to PBO were able to cross over to SOR.
  • The incidence of drug-related adverse events (AEs) across subgroups was consistent with that for the overall population.
  • In pts with vs without diabetes, treatment with SOR was not associated with increased hyperglycemia (1 pt/arm in the without diabetes subgroups only) or hypertension.
  • Trends in improved PFS were observed for SOR regardless of baseline diabetes status; however, the small diabetic subset limits interpretation of a SOR OS benefit in this subpopulation.

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  • (PMID = 27963086.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Tibaldi C, Vasile E, Bernardini I, Orlandini C, Andreuccetti M, Falcone A: Baseline elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood is associated with poor survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prognostic model. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct;134(10):1143-9
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  • [Title] Baseline elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood is associated with poor survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prognostic model.
  • PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of several baseline variables in stage IIIB-IV non-small cell lung cancer to create a model based on independent prognostic factors.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: A total of 320 patients were treated with last generation chemotherapy regimens.
  • The majority of patients received treatment with cisplatin + gemcitabine or gemcitabine alone if older than 70 years or with an ECOG performance status (PS) = 2.
  • Performance status of 2, squamous histology, number of metastatic sites >2, presence of bone, brain, liver and contralateral lung metastases and elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood were all statistically significant prognostic factors in univariate analyses whereas the other tested variables (sex, stage, age, presence of adrenal gland and skin metastases) were not.
  • Subsequently, a multivariate Cox's regression analysis identified PS 2 (P < 0.001, hazard ratio 2.57), elevated leukocyte count (P < 0.001, hazard ratio 1.79), squamous histology (P = 0.005, hazard ratio 1.45) and presence of brain metastases (P = 0.035, hazard ratio 1.5) as independent prognostic factors for poor survival.
  • Patients were assigned to one of three risk groups according to the cumulative risk defined as the sum of simplified risk scores of the four independent prognostic factors.
  • Low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients achieved a median survival of 10.2 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9-11.6), 5.1 months (95% CI 4.0-6.2) and 2.8 months (95% CI 0.5-5.2), respectively.
  • The high-risk group encompassed PS 2 patients with two or three adjunctive unfavourable independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Performance status, white blood cells count, histology and brain metastases resulted in our series prognostic factors of survival in NSCLC patients treated with chemotherapy at a multivariate analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / immunology. Leukocyte Count. Lung Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18347812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Acebo E, Vidaurrazaga N, Varas C, Burgos-Bretones JJ, Díaz-Pérez JL: Merkel cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological study of 11 cases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2005 Sep;19(5):546-51
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  • [Title] Merkel cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological study of 11 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report our 12-year experience with Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs) from a clinical and pathological point of view.
  • Age, gender, location, size, stage, treatment and follow-up data were collected.
  • Histopathological pattern and immunohistochemical study with CAM 5.2, cytokeratin 20 (CK20), CK7, Ber EP4, neurofilaments, synaptophysin, chromogranin, S100 protein, p53 protein, CD117, leucocyte common antigen (LCA) and Ki-67 were accomplished.
  • RESULTS: Six females and five males with a mean age of 82 years were identified.
  • At diagnosis, one patient was in stage Ia, six in stage Ib, three in stage II and one in stage III.
  • All but one patient experienced wide surgical excision of the tumour.
  • Additional treatment consisted of lymph node dissection in two patients, radiotherapy in four patients and systemic chemotherapy in one patient.
  • Local recurrence developed in five patients.
  • Intermediate-size round cell proliferation was found in all cases.
  • Additional small-size cell pattern and trabecular pattern were observed in seven and six cases, respectively.
  • Eccrine and squamous cell differentiation were found in three cases.
  • Ki-67 was found in 75% of tumoral cells on average.
  • Fifty per cent of MCCs reacted with CK7 and showed eccrine differentiation areas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCC is an aggressive neuroendocrine tumour of the elderly.
  • Wide surgical excision is the recommended treatment.
  • Lymph node dissection, adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy decrease regional recurrences but have not been demonstrated to increase survival.
  • Immunohistochemically, MCC is an epithelial tumour with neuroendocrine features.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Spain. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16164706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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19. Van de Putte G, Lie AK, Vach W, Baekelandt M, Kristensen GB: Risk grouping in stage IB squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Oct;99(1):106-12
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  • [Title] Risk grouping in stage IB squamous cell cervical carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To test the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) prognostic criteria (based on stromal invasion, tumor size and vascular invasion) for early squamous cervical carcinoma (SCC) in an independent population and to evaluate the prognostic value of a simpler model.
  • METHODS: We studied 221 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and bilateral lymphadenectomy for stage IB SCC between 1987 and 1993.
  • Adjuvant treatment consisting of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy was given in case of large tumor size, positive lymph nodes or invasion into the parametria.
  • Histological slides from all patients were reviewed by one pathologist.
  • RESULTS: The GOG criteria divided the patients from our population in a small low risk group (3-year relapse-free rate (RFR) of 100%), a small high risk group (RFR of 57%) and a bigger intermediate risk group (RFR of 80-90%).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Models, Statistical. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


20. Hussein MR, Al-Assiri M, Eid RA, Musalam AO: Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural evaluation. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(4):232-5
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  • [Title] Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural evaluation.
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC) of the urinary bladder is a rare but aggressive neoplasm that usually exhibits neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Here, the authors report a case of SCNEC in an 80-year-old man.
  • The tumor consisted of small, uniform, round, and spindled-shaped cells with chromatin dark nuclei and numerous mitotic figures.
  • Ultrastructural studies revealed neurosecretory granules and intermediate filaments.
  • No metastasis was found at the time of diagnosis and the patient refused further chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chromogranins. Cystectomy. Cytoplasmic Granules / ultrastructure. Humans. Intermediate Filaments / ultrastructure. Keratins. Male. Neurosecretory Systems / ultrastructure. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase

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  • (PMID = 20594044.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrastructural pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrastruct Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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21. Kim ST, Lee J, Sun JM, Park YH, Ahn JS, Park K, Ahn MJ: Prognostic model to predict outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer patients with erlotinib as salvage treatment. Oncology; 2010;79(1-2):78-84
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  • [Title] Prognostic model to predict outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer patients with erlotinib as salvage treatment.
  • PURPOSE: To devise a prognostic model based on clinical parameters for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with erlotinib as a salvage therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 2006 and September 2008, two hundred fifty-seven metastatic/relapsed NSCLC patients who had been treated with erlotinib as a salvage therapy were analyzed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: For the 257 patients, the median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with erlotinib treatment were 12.4 and 2.8 months.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that an ECOG performance status of 2 or more, an elevated serum LDH level, and the absence of skin rash were independent adverse prognostic factors for OS and that the presence of intra-abdominal metastasis, 2 or more prior chemotherapy regimens, and the absence of skin rash were prognostic factors for PFS.
  • Patients were categorized into the following 4 prognosis groups on the basis of each adverse prognostic factor: good, intermediate, poor, and very poor prognosis.
  • The median OS times for the good, intermediate, poor, and very poor prognosis groups were 22.0, 9.3, 5.4, and 2.7 months (p < 0.001) and the median PFS times were 6.5, 3.0, 1.2, and 0.9 months (p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: This prognostic model based on clinical parameters would be useful to identify patients who might be most likely to benefit from erlotinib therapy in clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Models, Statistical. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Analysis of Variance. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Erlotinib Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21071994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride
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22. Bartolucci R, Wei J, Sanchez JJ, Perez-Roca L, Chaib I, Puma F, Farabi R, Mendez P, Roila F, Okamoto T, Taron M, Rosell R: XPG mRNA expression levels modulate prognosis in resected non-small-cell lung cancer in conjunction with BRCA1 and ERCC1 expression. Clin Lung Cancer; 2009 Jan;10(1):47-52
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  • [Title] XPG mRNA expression levels modulate prognosis in resected non-small-cell lung cancer in conjunction with BRCA1 and ERCC1 expression.
  • BACKGROUND: Molecular markers can help identify patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a high risk of relapse.
  • Excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG), and breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) are involved in DNA damage repair, whereas ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) is implicated in DNA synthesis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined ERCC1, RRM1, XPG, and BRCA1 mRNA levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 54 patients with stage IB-IIB resected NSCLC.
  • RESULTS: For patients with low BRCA1, regardless of XPG mRNA expression levels, disease-free survival (DFS) was not reached.
  • For patients with intermediate/high BRCA1 and high XPG, DFS was 50.7 months.
  • However, for patients with intermediate/high BRCA1 and low/intermediate XPG, DFS decreased to 16.3 months (P = .002).
  • Similar differences were observed in overall survival, with median survival not reached for patients with low BRCA1, regardless of XPG levels, or for patients with intermediate/high BRCA1 and high XPG.
  • Conversely, for patients with intermediate/high BRCA1 levels and low/intermediate XPG levels, median survival dropped to 25.5 months (P = .007).
  • These findings can help optimize the customization of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] BRCA1 Protein / metabolism. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Endonucleases / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19289372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-7304
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA1 Protein; 0 / DNA excision repair protein ERCC-5; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 3.1.- / ERCC1 protein, human; EC 3.1.- / Endonucleases
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23. Kanat O, Evrensel T, Adim SB, Yavascaoglu I, Kurt E, Demiray M, Gonullu G, Manavoglu O: Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A clinicopathologic study of five cases. Tumori; 2003 May-Jun;89(3):328-30
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A clinicopathologic study of five cases.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) is a rare entity characterized clinically by an aggressive behavior with a high incidence of systemic metastases.
  • In each case the following clinical data were recorded: age, sex, presenting symptoms, endoscopically determined location of the tumor, clinical staging, node involvement (if any), site of metastases (if any), treatment, follow-up and outcome.
  • RESULTS: There were four male and one female patients, age range 42 to 68 years, mean 57.6 years.
  • The clinical presentation was not different from conventional transitional cell carcinoma, with hematuria being the most frequent complaint (four cases).
  • Microscopic examination revealed oat cells in three cases and an intermediate variant in one.
  • At the time of diagnosis the tumors were staged as T3bN2M0, T2N2M0, T4N0M0, T3aN0M0, and T2N0M0.
  • Primary therapy consisted of radical cystectomy alone (one case), transurethral resection (TUR) alone (one case), TUR with chemotherapy (two cases), or TUR with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (one case).
  • Four patients died of progressive disease, with survival from the time of diagnosis ranging from 7 to 16 months (mean, 12.2 months).
  • One patient died of myocardial infarction (unrelated to the primary disease) one month after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is as aggressive as its pulmonary counterpart and the overall prognosis of this tumor is very poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cystectomy. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 12908793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Uno T, Sumi M, Sawa Y, Teshima T, Hara R, Ikeda H, Inoue T, Japanese PCS Working Subgroup of Lung Cancer: Process of care and preliminary outcome in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: results of the 1995-1997 patterns of care study in Japan. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Mar 1;55(3):626-32
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  • [Title] Process of care and preliminary outcome in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: results of the 1995-1997 patterns of care study in Japan.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the practice process using the national average (NA); to compare differences in the process of care by age group; and to provide a preliminary outcome data for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer in Japan.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: The Patterns of Care Study conducted a nationwide survey of the care process for Stage I-III small-cell lung cancer in Japan.
  • Patients were divided into three age groups: <65 years (younger group, n = 73); between 65 and 74 years (intermediate group, n = 81); and >or=75 years (elderly group, n = 20).
  • RESULTS: The NA for the total dose was 49.0 Gy, and for use of photon energy >or=6 MV, chemotherapy, and prophylactic cranial irradiation was 77.3%, 93.2%, and 1.69%, respectively.
  • Only 37% of patients received chemotherapy and thoracic RT concurrently.
  • The proportion of patients who received chemotherapy and RT concurrently was 44%, 27%, and 25% of the younger, intermediate, and elderly groups, respectively (p = 0.029).
  • Etoposide and cisplatin were less frequently used in the elderly group (>or=75 years old).
  • Overall survival at 3 years for the entire group was 26%.
  • The 3-year survival rate was 30% in the younger group, 28% in the intermediate group, and 9% in the elderly group.
  • Variables found to have a significant impact on survival by multivariate analysis were the use of chemotherapy (p = 0.030), age (p = 0.032), and T stage (p = 0.042).
  • The results demonstrated that patient age significantly influenced the process of chemotherapy such as the use of etoposide and cisplatin for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer in Japan.
  • More concurrent chemotherapy and thoracic RT and the application of prophylactic cranial irradiation for complete responders need to be investigated in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Benchmarking. Carcinoma, Small Cell / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Health Care Surveys. Humans. Japan. Karnofsky Performance Status. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 12573749.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Stoll L, Mudali S, Ali SZ: Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: Aspiration findings and differential diagnosis. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Oct;38(10):754-7
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  • [Title] Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: Aspiration findings and differential diagnosis.
  • Clinically diagnosed metastasis to the thyroid gland is exceptionally rare and may present diagnostic issues on fine needle aspiration.
  • The most common primary sites of metastases to the thyroid are cancers of the lung, breast, skin (especially melanoma), colon, and kidney.
  • Herein, we report a case of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma to the thyroid presenting as a 2.1-cm solid nodule in a 50-year-old male with a previous history of Merkel cell carcinoma of the upper extremity.
  • The aspirates were moderately to highly cellular featuring small to intermediate sized cells with scant to no cytoplasm, round-to-oval nuclei with finely dispersed chromatin, and predominantly arranged as scattered single cells.
  • The differential diagnosis centered on the "small round blue cell" tumor group such as medullary thyroid carcinoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • However, in light of our patient's previous history, the FNA findings were most consistent with a metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma.
  • In patients with a known history of a primary neoplasm, the differential diagnosis of a thyroid nodule should always include potential metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Crohn Disease / complications. Crohn Disease / drug therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fibrosis / complications. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20082438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine
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26. d'Amato TA, Pettiford BL, Schuchert MJ, Parker R, Ricketts WA, Luketich JD, Landreneau RJ: Survival among patients with platinum resistant, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with platinum-based systemic therapy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Oct;16(10):2848-55
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  • [Title] Survival among patients with platinum resistant, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with platinum-based systemic therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent adjuvant chemotherapy trials after resection of stage II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have identified important survival differences among patients with immunohistochemical evidence suggesting platinum resistance.
  • We evaluated the utility of the extreme drug resistance (EDR) assay to predict mortality among a consecutive group of stage II through IV NSCLC patients receiving adjuvant or definitive platinum-based chemotherapy after resection or surgical biopsy.
  • METHODS: The Extreme Drug Resistance (EDR) Assay is a clinically validated cellular proliferation assay used to test tumors for chemotherapy drug resistance.
  • Based on response in the EDR assay, tumor specimens from stage II through IV NSCLC patients were segregated into three groups: extreme drug resistant (EDR), intermediate drug resistant (IDR), and low drug resistant (LDR).
  • Patient survival was evaluated after platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • Median survival was 16.6 months for patients with IDR/EDR to platinum and any other second agent of doublet therapy compared with patients with LDR to any platinum-based doublet where median survival was not achieved (P = 0.0268).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate the utility of the EDR assay to predict poor clinical outcome when platinum-based therapy is used to treat patients with biological evidence of tumor resistance to platinum.
  • These data corroborate the finding of recent studies evaluating possible molecular correlates to poor response to specific chemotherapeutic agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Proliferation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19609620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds
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27. Hu L, Miao W, Loignon M, Kandouz M, Batist G: Putative chemopreventive molecules can increase Nrf2-regulated cell defense in some human cancer cell lines, resulting in resistance to common cytotoxic therapies. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2010 Aug;66(3):467-74
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  • [Title] Putative chemopreventive molecules can increase Nrf2-regulated cell defense in some human cancer cell lines, resulting in resistance to common cytotoxic therapies.
  • High levels of Nrf2, resulting from a loss of function mutation in Keap1, were reported in chemoresistant non-small cell lung cancer.
  • We here show that basal Nrf2 levels in different cell lines correlate with their respective sensitivity to a common cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Nrf2 and its regulated genes and proteins are the targets of a major strategy in cancer prevention.
  • Here, we determine the impact of these putative chemopreventive agents on the sensitivity of established cancer cell lines to chemotherapy.
  • We confirmed that these molecules do increase Nrf2 and detoxification enzyme levels in breast cancer cell lines with very low basal Nrf2 levels, and this is associated with significant chemoresistance to cytotoxic drugs.
  • Both effects are less in another breast cancer cell line with intermediate Nrf2, and in lung cancer cells with high Nrf2, these same molecules have no effect on Nrf2 but do actually enhance chemoresistance.
  • While the details of dose and schedule of these agents require further study in in vivo models, these data sound a cautionary note for the use of these agents in patients with established cancers who are undergoing chemotherapy treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cullin Proteins / genetics. Cullin Proteins / metabolism. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Paclitaxel / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19940992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CUL3 protein, human; 0 / Cullin Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / KEAP1 protein, human; 0 / NF-E2-Related Factor 2; 0 / NFE2L2 protein, human; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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28. McDermott DF, Atkins MB: Immunotherapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer J; 2008 Sep-Oct;14(5):320-4
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  • [Title] Immunotherapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • In 1992, high-dose bolus interleukin (IL)-2 was granted Food and Drug Administration approval based on its ability to produce durable complete responses in a small number of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • However, the substantial toxicity and limited efficacy that is associated with IL-2 has narrowed its application to highly selected patients treated at specialized centers.
  • Taken together, these studies suggest that high-dose IV bolus IL-2 is superior in terms of response rate and possibly response quality to regimens that involve either low-dose IL-2 and interferon-alpha, intermediate- or low-dose IL-2 alone, or low-dose interferon-alpha alone.
  • More significantly, investigations associated with these trials suggest that the potential exists for identifying predictors of response (or resistance) and limiting IL-2 therapy to those most likely to benefit.
  • The Cytokine Working Group has launched the high-dose IL-2 "select" trial to determine, in a prospective fashion, if the predictive model proposed by Atkins et al. can identify a group of patients with advanced RCC who are significantly more likely to respond to high dose IL-2-based therapy ("good" risk) than a historical, unselected patient population.
  • For patients unlikely to benefit from IL-2, are unable to receive it or who progress after IL-2, the emergence of molecularly targeted therapies offers hope for improved clinical outcome.
  • As the list of effective therapies for metastatic RCC grows, improvements in patient selection and more "targeted" approaches will be required to optimize the benefits of cytokine therapy in metastatic RCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / therapy. Immunotherapy. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Biomarkers / analysis. Cytokines / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Patient Selection. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 18836337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA101942-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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29. Hansen LT, Lundin C, Helleday T, Poulsen HS, Sørensen CS, Petersen LN, Spang-Thomsen M: DNA repair rate and etoposide (VP16) resistance of tumor cell subpopulations derived from a single human small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2003 May;40(2):157-64
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  • [Title] DNA repair rate and etoposide (VP16) resistance of tumor cell subpopulations derived from a single human small cell lung cancer.
  • Two human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) subpopulations, CPH 54A, and CPH 54B, established from the same patient tumor by in vitro cloning, were investigated.
  • The tumor was classified as intermediate-type SCLC.
  • The cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR) was previously determined in the two sublines both in vivo and in vitro.
  • Here we measured the etoposide (VP16) sensitivity together with the induction and repair of VP16- and IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs).
  • The two subpopulations were found to differ significantly in sensitivity to VP16, with the radioresistant 54B subline also being VP16 resistant.
  • In contrast, a significant difference in repair of both VP16- and IR-induced DSBs, together with a difference in the levels of the DSB repair proteins DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK(cs)) and RAD51 was observed.
  • We suggest, that different DSB repair rates among tumor cell subpopulations of individual SCLC tumors may be a major determinant for the variation in clinical treatment effect observed in human SCLC tumors of identical histological subtype.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. DNA Repair / drug effects. DNA, Neoplasm / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / pharmacology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Damage / drug effects. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / genetics. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Activated Protein Kinase. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Endodeoxyribonucleases / genetics. Endodeoxyribonucleases / metabolism. Exodeoxyribonucleases / genetics. Exodeoxyribonucleases / metabolism. Humans. Nuclear Proteins. P-Glycoprotein / genetics. P-Glycoprotein / metabolism. P-Glycoproteins / genetics. P-Glycoproteins / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Rad51 Recombinase. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12711116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / P-Glycoproteins; 0 / Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; EC 2.7.11.1 / DNA-Activated Protein Kinase; EC 2.7.11.1 / PRKDC protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.7.- / RAD51 protein, human; EC 2.7.7.- / Rad51 Recombinase; EC 3.1.- / Endodeoxyribonucleases; EC 3.1.- / Exodeoxyribonucleases; EC 3.1.- / MRE11 protein, S cerevisiae; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II
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30. Porcaro AB, D'Amico A, Novella G, Curti P, Ficarra V, Antoniolli SZ, Martignoni G, Matteo B, Malossini G: Primary lymphoma of the kidney. Report of a case and update of the literature. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2002 Mar;74(1):44-7
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  • [Title] Primary lymphoma of the kidney. Report of a case and update of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report on a case of primary renal lymphoma (PRL) and update the literature concerning this topic.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 48-year-old woman underwent surgery for the presumed diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with bilateral adrenal metastases.
  • RESULTS: The neoplasm was assessed as primary renal non-Hodgkin high grade lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell type.
  • Unfortunately, 5 weeks later the patient was lost since missing chemotherapy and follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PRL is a distinct pathological and clinical entity which is extremely rare and highly aggressive since disseminating rapidly from its origin.
  • The disease usually affects adults with an average age of 60 years and slight male preponderance; however it has also been reported in childhood.
  • Several histogenetic theories of the disease have been postulated since the kidney does not normally contain lymphoid tissue.
  • Investigators reported many classes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma which include large, small, intermediate and mixed cell types with high, intermediate or low grade histologies.
  • The neoplastic lymphoid cells may express both B and T immunoblastic phenotypes, primary renal Hodgkin lymphoma has also been reported.
  • The disease may present with progressive renal failure of either oliguric or non oliguric type.
  • Imaging studies in diagnosing and staging primary renal lymphomas include ultrasound examination (US) and computed tomography (CT); there are also some reports of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Total body bone scan and bone marrow biopsy will complete disease clinical staging.
  • Up to now, there are no standard treatment modalities for this entity since the small number of cases reported.
  • Multidrug chemotherapy is mandatory for high grade lymphoma and when the disease is diagnosed preoperatively.
  • High dose chemotherapy in the future may offer a curative approach in primary bilateral renal disease and without end-stage renal disease.
  • Prognosis may be improved by early detection of disease and by performing systemic chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 12053451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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31. Salamanca J, Nevado M, Martínez-González MA, Pérez-Espejo G, Pinedo F: Undifferentiated carcinoma of the jejunum with extensive rhabdoid features. Case report and review of the literature. APMIS; 2008 Oct;116(10):941-6
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  • [Title] Undifferentiated carcinoma of the jejunum with extensive rhabdoid features. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Malignant rhabdoid tumor, first described in the kidney of young infants, is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm of controversial histogenesis that has been reported at many other sites, including the gastrointestinal tract.
  • However, malignant rhabdoid tumor of the small intestine is very rare, with only seven cases published to date.
  • We report a 70-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain and weight loss, and showed a perforated jejunal mass with disseminated metastases by imaging.
  • The patient underwent partial jejunectomy and biopsy of a liver metastasis.
  • Microscopically, the tumor was characterized by neoplastic cells with vesicular nuclei, large nucleoli and abundant eccentric cytoplasm with hyaline globular intracytoplasmic inclusions.
  • Immunohistochemically, the neoplasm coexpressed vimentin and epithelial antigens (AE1/AE3, Cam 5.2, CK34betaE12, CK19 and EMA), most of them showing a peculiar immunostaining pattern in relation to the globular inclusions.
  • Ultrastructurally, the inclusions corresponded to paranuclear whorls of intermediate filaments.
  • The patient received postoperative chemotherapy but died 9 months after surgery.
  • In summary, we report the exceptional case of an undifferentiated carcinoma of the jejunum with rhabdoid phenotype.
  • As with tumors at other sites, recognition of rhabdoid morphology in small intestine neoplasms is of significance because the prognosis is extremely poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Jejunal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte / analysis. Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte / metabolism. Biomarkers / analysis. Biomarkers / metabolism. Biopsy. Cell Nucleolus / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Hyalin / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Inclusion Bodies / metabolism. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Jejunum / metabolism. Jejunum / pathology. Keratins / analysis. Keratins / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Vimentin / analysis. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19132990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0463
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CAM 5.2 antigen; 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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32. Florescu M, Hasan B, Seymour L, Ding K, Shepherd FA, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group: A clinical prognostic index for patients treated with erlotinib in National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group study BR.21. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Jun;3(6):590-8
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  • [Title] A clinical prognostic index for patients treated with erlotinib in National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group study BR.21.
  • INTRODUCTION: BR.21 demonstrated significant survival benefit for non-small cell lung cancer patients receiving erlotinib compared with placebo.
  • We undertook to characterize, by exploratory subset analysis, patients less likely to benefit from erlotinib.
  • The hypothesis was that characteristics of treated patients in the highest risk group would be predictive of lack of benefit from erlotinib when comparing erlotinib to placebo patients in the same risk group.
  • RESULTS: Ten factors (smoking history, performance status, weight loss, anemia, lactic dehydrogenase, response to prior chemotherapy, time from diagnosis, number of prior regimens, epidermal growth factor receptor copy, and ethnicity) were predictive of overall survival for erlotinib-treated patients and were used in the final model.
  • Four risk groups were derived from the index score of the Prognostic Model: Low Risk (HR = 0.34, p < 0.001), Intermediate Low and Intermediate High Risk (HR 0.76, p = 0.05; HR 0.92; p = 0.51) and High Risk (HR 1.07; p = 0.78).
  • Median survivals for erlotinib (placebo) patients in each group were 20.6 (8.9), 10.4 (7.6), 4.0 (4.1), 1.9 (2.3) months.
  • The trend test showed that higher risk was associated with shorter survival (p < 0.001) and less treatment effect (p = 0.03).
  • CONCLUSIONS: By establishing a prognostic model, we identified a small group of patients who did not seem to benefit from erlotinib in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Quinazolines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Erlotinib Hydrochloride. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ontario / epidemiology. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18520796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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33. Fichtner-Feigl S, Terabe M, Kitani A, Young CA, Fuss I, Geissler EK, Schlitt HJ, Berzofsky JA, Strober W: Restoration of tumor immunosurveillance via targeting of interleukin-13 receptor-alpha 2. Cancer Res; 2008 May 1;68(9):3467-75
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  • [Title] Restoration of tumor immunosurveillance via targeting of interleukin-13 receptor-alpha 2.
  • In previous studies, we described a "counter-immunosurveillance" mechanism initiated by tumor-activated, interleukin-13 (IL-13)-producing natural killer T cells that signal Gr-1(+) cells to produce transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)), a cytokine that suppresses the activity of tumor-inhibiting cytolytic CD8(+) T cells.
  • Here, we show that in two tumor models (the CT-26 metastatic colon cancer and the 15-12RM fibrosarcoma regressor models), this counter-surveillance mechanism requires the expression of a novel IL-13 receptor, IL-13R alpha(2), on Gr-1(intermediate) cells, because down-regulation of IL-13R alpha(2) expression or the activator protein-1 signal generated by the receptor via in vivo administration of specific small interfering RNA or decoy oligonucleotides leads to loss of TGF-beta(1) production.
  • Furthermore, acting on prior studies showing that IL-13R alpha(2) expression is induced (in part) by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), we show that receptor expression and TGF-beta(1) production is inhibited by administration of a TNF-alpha-neutralizing substance, TNF-alpha R-Fc (etanercept).
  • Taking advantage of this latter fact, we then show in the CT-26 model that counter-immunosurveillance can be inhibited, anti-CT-26-specific CD8(+) cytolytic activity can be restored, and CT-26 metastatic tumor nodules can be greatly decreased by administration of TNF-alpha R-Fc.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / drug therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fibrosarcoma / drug therapy. Immunologic Surveillance / drug effects. Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit / antagonists & inhibitors. RNA, Small Interfering / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Down-Regulation. Drug Delivery Systems. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Female. Interleukin-13 / metabolism. Interleukin-13 / pharmacology. Lung Neoplasms / prevention & control. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasm Transplantation. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Survival Analysis. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18451175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 AI000432-23
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-13; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS119905; NLM/ PMC2746996
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34. Vassilakos A, Lee Y, Viau S, Feng N, Jin H, Chai V, Wang M, Avolio T, Wright J, Young A: GTI-2040 displays cooperative anti-tumor activity when combined with interferon alpha against human renal carcinoma xenografts. Int J Oncol; 2009 Jan;34(1):33-42
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  • [Title] GTI-2040 displays cooperative anti-tumor activity when combined with interferon alpha against human renal carcinoma xenografts.
  • GTI-2040, an antisense oligonucleotide targeting the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, acts as an anti-tumor agent in animal models of human cancer.
  • In the present study, the anti-tumor activity of GTI-2040, in combination with interferon alpha (IFNalpha) was investigated against human renal cell carcinoma tumors xenografted into mice.
  • The human renal cell carcinoma cell lines, Caki-1 and A498 were sensitive to IFNalpha both in vitro and when implanted into mice.
  • In combination with GTI-2040 there were cooperative effects at intermediate doses of the two agents and complete tumor regression at higher combination doses.
  • A control oligonucleotide was not effective as a monotherapy and did not improve the efficacy of IFNalpha.
  • The effect of combination treatment on apoptosis and proliferation of tumor cells, isolated from xenografted tumors, was examined by histochemistry.
  • GTI-2040 increased the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis with a concomitant decrease in proliferation.
  • Taken together these results expand the potential clinical applications of GTI-2040 to include combination therapy with IFNalpha.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Therapy, Combination. Genetic Therapy. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Mice. Mice, SCID. Ribonucleotide Reductases / antagonists & inhibitors. Ribonucleotide Reductases / genetics. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19082475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides; 236391-66-5 / GTI2040; EC 1.17.4.- / Ribonucleotide Reductases
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35. Park MJ, Lee J, Hong JY, Choi MK, Yi JH, Lee SJ, Oh SJ, Ahn JS, Park K, Ahn MJ: Prognostic model to predict outcomes in nonsmall cell lung cancer patients treated with gefitinib as a salvage treatment. Cancer; 2009 Apr 1;115(7):1518-30
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  • [Title] Prognostic model to predict outcomes in nonsmall cell lung cancer patients treated with gefitinib as a salvage treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: A prognostic model based on clinical parameters for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with gefitinib (250 mg/day) as a salvage therapy was devised.
  • RESULTS: Poor prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) by multivariate analysis were an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2 to 3 (hazards ratio [HR] of 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57-2.73 [P < .001]), the presence of intra-abdominal metastasis (HR of 1.76; 95% CI, 1.33-2.34 [P < .001]), elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (HR of 1.50; 95% CI, 1.13-2.00 [P = .005]), time interval from diagnosis to gefitinib therapy of < or =12 months (HR of 1.48; 95% CI, 1.12-1.95 [P = .005]), low serum albumin (HR of 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09-1.92 [P = .009]), progression-free interval for previous chemotherapy of < or =12 weeks (HR of 1.40; 95% CI, 1.0-1.84 [P = .015]), white blood cell > 10,000/microL (HR of 1.38; 95% CI, 1.02-1.85 [P = .032]), and ever-smoker (HR of 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02-1.75 [P = .033]).
  • Of the 272 patients applicable to this prognostic model, 41 patients (15%) were categorized as a good prognosis group (0-1 risk factors), 100 patients (37%) as an intermediate prognosis group (2-3 risk factors), 81 patients (30%) as a poor prognosis group (4-5 risk factors), and 50 patients (16%) as a very poor prognosis group (> or = 6 risk factors).
  • The median OS from the time of gefitinib treatment for the good, intermediate, poor, and very poor prognosis groups were 18.0 months, 11.2 months, 4.0 months, and 1.3 months, respectively (P < .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This prognostic model based on easily available clinical variables would be useful to identify patients who might derive more benefit from gefitinib treatment and to make decisions in clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Quinazolines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 American Cancer Society
  • [ErratumIn] Cancer. 2009 May 1;115(9):2023. Jae Park, Min [corrected to Park, Min Jae]
  • (PMID = 19177485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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36. Gangloff A, Hsueh WA, Kesner AL, Kiesewetter DO, Pio BS, Pegram MD, Beryt M, Townsend A, Czernin J, Phelps ME, Silverman DH: Estimation of paclitaxel biodistribution and uptake in human-derived xenografts in vivo with (18)F-fluoropaclitaxel. J Nucl Med; 2005 Nov;46(11):1866-71
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  • [Title] Estimation of paclitaxel biodistribution and uptake in human-derived xenografts in vivo with (18)F-fluoropaclitaxel.
  • Paclitaxel (PAC) is widely used as a chemotherapy drug in the treatment of various malignancies, including breast, ovarian, and lung cancers.
  • We examined the biodistribution of (18)F-fluoropaclitaxel ((18)F-FPAC) in mice with and without human breast cancer tumor xenografts by use of small-animal-dedicated PET (microPET) and clinically practical semiquantitative methods.
  • We compared the PET data to data derived from direct harvesting and analysis of blood, organs, and breast carcinoma xenografts.
  • Tracer biodistribution in reconstructed images was quantified by region-of-interest analysis.
  • Biodistribution also was assessed by harvesting and analysis of dissected organs, tumors, and blood after coadministration of (18)F-FPAC and (3)H-PAC. (18)F content in each tissue was assessed with a gamma-well counter, and (3)H content was quantified by scintillation counting of solubilized tissue after (18)F radioactive decay.
  • RESULTS: The distributions of (18)F-FPAC and (3)H-PAC were very similar, with the highest concentrations in the small intestine, the lowest concentrations in the brain, and intermediate concentrations in tumor.
  • Uptake in these and other tissues was not inhibited by the presence of more pharmacologic doses of unlabeled PAC.
  • Administration of the P-glycoprotein modulator cyclosporine doubled the uptake of both (18)F-FPAC and (3)H-PAC into tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Paclitaxel / pharmacokinetics. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Line, Tumor. Fluorine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Humans. Metabolic Clearance Rate. Mice. Mice, Nude. Organ Specificity. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 16269601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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37. Muley T, Fetz TH, Dienemann H, Hoffmann H, Herth FJ, Meister M, Ebert W: Tumor volume and tumor marker index based on CYFRA 21-1 and CEA are strong prognostic factors in operated early stage NSCLC. Lung Cancer; 2008 Jun;60(3):408-15
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  • [Title] Tumor volume and tumor marker index based on CYFRA 21-1 and CEA are strong prognostic factors in operated early stage NSCLC.
  • The aim of the study was to analyze the relation between tumor volume (V(path)), tumor marker index (TMI) and prognosis in 261 completely resected (R0) stages I and II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients by univariate and multivariate analyses.
  • V(path) was calculated as an ellipsoid body.
  • Patients with a V(path)< or =13.7cm(3) had a significantly better 5-year-survival rate than patients with a V(path)>13.7cm(3) (78.1% vs. 47.9%; p<0.001).
  • Patients with a TMI< or=0.54 had a 5-year-survival rate of 79.1% compared to only 47.2% in patients with a TMI>0.54 (p<0.001).
  • Besides age (>70 years), performance status and gender, both V(path) (>13.7 cm(3)) and TMI (>0.54) bore significance in the multivariate Cox model with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.3, p=0.016) and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.3-4.2, p=0.006), respectively.
  • Based on a combination of V(path) and TMI, a low risk group (17% of the patients) with both parameters in the normal range could be identified.
  • Patients with elevated V(path) or TMI (31%) had an intermediate HR of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.3-9.2).
  • The elevation of V(path) and TMI was found in 46.2% of stage I and in 59.1% of stage II.
  • In conclusion, elevated levels of TMI and V(path) have a strong negative prognostic impact on survival in operated early stage of NSCLC.
  • These patients might be considered for adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Keratins / blood. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tumor Burden
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Keratin-19. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18083270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / antigen CYFRA21.1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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38. Allan RW, Algood CB, Shih IeM: Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a male patient with mixed germ-cell tumor of the testis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Dec;33(12):1902-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a male patient with mixed germ-cell tumor of the testis.
  • This report describes a rare case of a concurrent epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) and a teratoma in a para-aortic lymph node from a 39-year-old male patient with the initial diagnosis of testicular malignant mixed germ-cell tumor.
  • The metastatic lesion was excised 2 years after orchiectomy and chemotherapy.
  • Microscopically, the metastatic lesion contained a teratoma component and dispersed small nests of cohesive chorionic-type intermediate trophoblastic cells, closely resembling gestational ETT in female patients.
  • The diagnosis of ETT in this case was confirmed by stepwise immunohistochemistry.
  • Demonstration of ETT as one of the histologic manifestations of recurrent testicular germ-cell tumors should encourage pathologists to recognize this unique feature in assessing posttreatment mixed germ-cell neoplasm.
  • Furthermore, this case represents a unique opportunity to understand the pathobiology of trophoblastic neoplasms arising from germ-cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / secondary. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Teratoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Orchiectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19898219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Sawai A, Chandarlapaty S, Greulich H, Gonen M, Ye Q, Arteaga CL, Sellers W, Rosen N, Solit DB: Inhibition of Hsp90 down-regulates mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and sensitizes EGFR mutant tumors to paclitaxel. Cancer Res; 2008 Jan 15;68(2):589-96
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  • Resistance to these agents invariably develops, and current treatment strategies have limited efficacy in this setting.
  • Although the expression of wild-type EGFR was also down-regulated by 17-AAG, its degradation required higher concentrations of drug and a longer duration of drug exposure.
  • 17-AAG treatment, at its maximal tolerated dose, caused a significant delay in H3255 (L858R EGFR) xenograft growth but was less effective than the EGFR TKI gefitinib.
  • 17-AAG alone delayed, but did not completely inhibit, the growth of H1650 and H1975 xenografts, two EGFR mutant models which show intermediate and high levels of gefitinib resistance.
  • 17-AAG could be safely coadministered with paclitaxel, and the combination was significantly more effective than either drug alone.
  • These data suggest that Hsp90 inhibition in combination with chemotherapy may represent an effective treatment strategy for patients whose tumors express EGFR kinase domain mutations, including those with de novo and acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs.

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  • (PMID = 18199556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA094060; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA092629; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA94060; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50-CA92629
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Benzoquinones; 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Lactams, Macrocyclic; 0 / Mutant Proteins; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 4GY0AVT3L4 / tanespimycin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS472317; NLM/ PMC4011195
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40. Noro R, Gemma A, Kosaihira S, Kokubo Y, Chen M, Seike M, Kataoka K, Matsuda K, Okano T, Minegishi Y, Yoshimura A, Kudoh S: Gefitinib (IRESSA) sensitive lung cancer cell lines show phosphorylation of Akt without ligand stimulation. BMC Cancer; 2006;6:277
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  • [Title] Gefitinib (IRESSA) sensitive lung cancer cell lines show phosphorylation of Akt without ligand stimulation.
  • BACKGROUND: Phase III trials evaluating the efficacy of gefitinib (IRESSA) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lend support to the need for improved patient selection in terms of gefitinib use.
  • Mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is reported to be associated with clinical responsiveness to gefitinib.
  • However, gefitinib-sensitive and prolonged stable-disease-defined tumors without EGFR gene mutation have also been reported.
  • METHODS: To identify other key factors involved in gefitinib sensitivity, we analyzed the protein expression of molecules within the EGFR family, PI3K-Akt and Ras/MEK/Erk pathways and examined the sensitivity to gefitinib using the MTT cell proliferation assay in 23 lung cancer cell lines.
  • RESULTS: We identified one highly sensitive cell line (PC9), eight cell lines displaying intermediate-sensitivity, and 14 resistant cell lines.
  • Only PC9 and PC14 (intermediate-sensitivity) displayed an EGFR gene mutation including amplification.
  • Eight out of the nine cell lines showing sensitivity had Akt phosphorylation without ligand stimulation, while only three out of the 14 resistant lines displayed this characteristic (P = 0.0059).
  • Akt phosphorylation was partially inhibited by gefitinib in all sensitive cell lines.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Akt phosphorylation without ligand stimulation may play a key signaling role in gefitinib sensitivity, especially intermediate-sensitivity.
  • In addition, expression analyses of the EGFR family, EGFR gene mutation, and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) analyses showed that the phosphorylated state of EGFR and Akt might be a useful clinical marker of Akt activation without ligand stimulation, in addition to EGFR gene mutation and amplification, particularly in adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Quinazolines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. DNA Mutational Analysis. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Enzyme Activation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, ras. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Ligands. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Phosphorylation. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-3 / metabolism. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17150102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-3; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1698934
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41. Beasley MB, Thunnissen FB, Brambilla E, Hasleton P, Steele R, Hammar SP, Colby TV, Sheppard M, Shimosato Y, Koss MN, Falk R, Travis WD: Pulmonary atypical carcinoid: predictors of survival in 106 cases. Hum Pathol; 2000 Oct;31(10):1255-65
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  • Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NE) include a spectrum of tumors from typical carcinoid (TC) to atypical carcinoid (AC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small cell carcinoma (SCLC).
  • Survival analysis was performed on 106 ACs with clinical follow-up from the AFIP and the Pathology Panel of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC).
  • The tumors fulfilled the 1999 WHO/IASLC criteria for AC of a NE tumor with a mitotic rate of 2 to 10 per 2 mm(2) of viable tumor or coagulative necrosis.
  • Multiple clinical and histologic features were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis.
  • Of the clinical features, higher stage (P = .003) and a tumor size of 3.5 cm or greater (P = .003) were associated with a worse prognosis.
  • Features that were histologically unfavorable by univariate analysis were mitotic rate (P =.002), pleomorphism (P = .018), and aerogenous spread (P =.007).
  • Histologically favorable features by univariate analysis were the presence of palisading (P = .008), papillary (P = .039), pseudoglandular (P =.026), and rosette (P = .022) patterns.
  • Female gender showed a trend toward a poorer prognosis (P =.085) and was included in the multivariate model.
  • Multivariate analysis stratified for stage showed mitoses (P<.001), a tumor size of 3.5 cm or greater (P =.017), and female gender (P =.012) to be the only negative independent predictors of prognosis and the presence of rosettes (P = .016) to be the only independent positive predictor.
  • We further divided the AC into subgroups of low (2 to 5 mitoses/2 mm(2)) and high (6 to 10 mitoses/2 mm(2)) mitotic rate and compared the survival with TC and with LCNEC.
  • Within the category of AC, the patients with a higher mitotic rate had a significantly worse survival than those with a lower mitotic rate (P<.001) stratified for stage.
  • Five- and 10-year survival rates for AC (61% and 35%, respectively) stratified for stage were significantly worse than for TC and better than that for LCNEC and SCLC.
  • Chemotherapy or radiation therapy was given in 12 of 52 and 14 of 52 cases, respectively, but the data were insufficient to evaluate tumor response.
  • We conclude that AC is an aggressive neuroendocrine neoplasm with survival intermediate between TC and LCNEC and SCLC.
  • Higher mitotic rate, tumor size of 3.5 cm or greater, female gender, and presence of rosettes are the only independent predictors of survival.
  • Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice, and the role of chemotherapy and radiation therapy remains to be proven.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11070119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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