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1. Lee JH, Kim KS, Chung CW, Park YN, Kim BR: Hepatic resection of metastatic tumor from serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary. J Korean Med Sci; 2002 Jun;17(3):415-8
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  • [Title] Hepatic resection of metastatic tumor from serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary.
  • Metastatic carcinomas are the largest group of malignant tumors of the liver.
  • But parenchymal liver metastasis from cystic ovarian adenocarcinoma is very rare.
  • We report a case in which the resection of metastatic liver neoplasm from ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma was done 7 yr after initial treatment.
  • A 48-yr-old oriental housewife complained of easy fatigability and right lower quadrant discomfort.
  • A tumor marker study showed alpha-fetoprotein 0.97 IU/mL, carcinoembryonic antigen 0.965 ng/mL, cancer antigen 125 1,267 ng/mL and CA 19-9 106.1 ng/mL.
  • On the 10th postoperative day, the patient received a single-regimen chemotherapy with paclitaxel (Taxol, 155 mg/m(2) BSA) and was discharged.
  • She has been carefully followed-up without any evidence of recurrence after completion of the remaining 5 cycles of chemo-therapy, at intervals of three weeks.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12068151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3054877
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2. McCluggage WG, Lyness RW, Atkinson RJ, Dobbs SP, Harley I, McClelland HR, Price JH: Morphological effects of chemotherapy on ovarian carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2002 Jan;55(1):27-31
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  • [Title] Morphological effects of chemotherapy on ovarian carcinoma.
  • AIMS: Traditionally, advanced stage ovarian carcinoma is treated by debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy.
  • However, in some circumstances preoperative chemotherapy may be given before optimal surgical debulking.
  • This study aims to describe the morphological features found in ovarian carcinoma after chemotherapy because these have not been detailed previously.
  • METHODS: Histological sections were examined from 18 cases of ovarian carcinoma that had been treated by preoperative chemotherapy.
  • The morphology was compared with any pre-chemotherapy biopsies that had been performed.
  • Tumours were classified as showing morphological features suggesting a good response to chemotherapy (n = 14) or as showing little or no response (n = 4).
  • Serum CA125 values before and after chemotherapy were compared.
  • In all cases, the mitotic activity index (MAI), volume percentage of epithelium (VPE), and mean nuclear area (MNA) of tumour cells were calculated.
  • RESULTS: The preoperative biopsies were all typical ovarian serous or endometrioid adenocarcinomas.
  • Morphological features present in the group responding to chemotherapy included the presence of small groups or single tumour cells in a densely fibrotic stroma.
  • Tumour cells were characterised by both nuclear and cytoplasmic alteration, making accurate tumour typing and grading impossible.
  • In all nine cases in which pre-chemotherapy and post-chemotherapy biopsies were available, the MNA increased post-chemotherapy (p = 0.007, paired Wilcoxon test) and in six of nine cases the MAI decreased (p = 0.093).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because preoperative chemotherapy is being used increasingly in the management of ovarian cancer, pathologists should be aware of the resultant morphological effects.
  • Accurate tumour typing and grading is impossible.
  • In some cases, it may be difficult to confirm the presence of residual tumour, making it imperative that pre-chemotherapy tissue biopsies are obtained.
  • Definite confirmation of residual tumour may require the examination of multiple histological sections from areas showing pronounced stromal changes, sometimes with multiple levels and immunohistochemistry.
  • In the absence of definite residual tumour, the report should state that the features are consistent with the prior presence of tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Mitotic Index. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11825920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1769574
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3. Zamagni C, Wirtz RM, De Iaco P, Rosati M, Veltrup E, Rosati F, Capizzi E, Cacciari N, Alboni C, Bernardi A, Massari F, Quercia S, D'Errico Grigioni A, Dietel M, Sehouli J, Denkert C, Martoni AA: Oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA is a prognostic factor in ovarian cancer patients treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy: determination by array and kinetic PCR in fresh tissue biopsies. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Dec;16(4):1241-9
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  • [Title] Oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA is a prognostic factor in ovarian cancer patients treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy: determination by array and kinetic PCR in fresh tissue biopsies.
  • Oestrogen receptors (ESRs) regulate the growth and differentiation of normal ovarian epithelia.
  • However, to date their role as biomarkers in the clinical setting of ovarian cancer remains unclear.
  • In view of potential endocrine treatment options, we tested the role of ESR1 mRNA expression in ovarian cancer in the context of a neo-adjuvant chemotherapy trial.
  • Study participants had epithelial ovarian or peritoneal carcinoma unsuitable for optimal upfront surgery and were treated with neo-adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy before surgery.
  • RNA was isolated from frozen tumour biopsies before treatment.
  • The prognostic value of ESR1 was tested using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, Kaplan-Meier survival statistics and the log-rank test.
  • ESR1 was a significant predictor of survival as a continuous variable in the univariate Cox regression analysis.
  • In multivariate analysis, elevated baseline ESR1 mRNA levels predicted prolonged progression-free survival (P=0.041) and overall survival (P=0.01) after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, independently of pathological grade and age.
  • We conclude that pretreatment ESR1 mRNA is associated with tumour growth and is a strong prognostic factor in ovarian cancer, independent of the strongest clinical parameters used in clinical routine.
  • We suggest that ESR1 mRNA status should be considered in order to minimize possible confounding effects in ovarian cancer clinical trials, and that early treatment with anti-hormonal agents based on reliable hormone receptor status determination is worth investigating.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Estrogen Receptor alpha / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / secondary. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / genetics. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19749010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / estrogen receptor alpha, human; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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4. Samaritani R, Corrado G, Vizza E, Sbiroli C: Cyclophosphamide "metronomic" chemotherapy for palliative treatment of a young patient with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:65
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  • [Title] Cyclophosphamide "metronomic" chemotherapy for palliative treatment of a young patient with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the clinical efficacy and tolerance of metronomic chemotherapy as salvage therapy in a young patient with advanced, platinum resistant, ovarian carcinoma and bad performance status.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We tried palliative chemotherapy with daily low dose oral cyclophosphamide with a patient suffering from stage IIIC ovarian cancer that responded to daily cyclophosphamide (CTX) after no response to chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin as first line and progression after second line with topotecan.
  • The progression-free survival time on daily low dose oral cyclophosphamide treatment was 65 months without side effects.
  • She was well during the chemotherapy and lived a normal working and social life.
  • CONCLUSION: We think that use of low dose of oral CTX should be investigated further as a strategy against tumour progression after standard chemotherapy in patients who are platinum resistant with poor performance status.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Palliative Care. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Colonic Neoplasms / complications. Colonic Neoplasms / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Colostomy. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Evaluation. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Epoetin Alfa. Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Intestinal Obstruction / etiology. Karnofsky Performance Status. Laparotomy. Ovariectomy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Recombinant Proteins. Topotecan / administration & dosage. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / complications. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary. Vitamins / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17433113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Vitamins; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin; 64FS3BFH5W / Epoetin Alfa; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1863429
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5. Nakayama N, Nakayama K, Yeasmin S, Ishibashi M, Katagiri A, Iida K, Fukumoto M, Miyazaki K: KRAS or BRAF mutation status is a useful predictor of sensitivity to MEK inhibition in ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer; 2008 Dec 16;99(12):2020-8
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  • [Title] KRAS or BRAF mutation status is a useful predictor of sensitivity to MEK inhibition in ovarian cancer.
  • This study examined the status of KRAS and BRAF mutations, in relation to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation in 58 ovarian carcinomas to clarify the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of KRAS/BRAF mutations.
  • Somatic mutations of either KRAS or BRAF were identified in 12 (20.6%) out of 58 ovarian carcinomas.
  • The frequency of KRAS/BRAF mutations in conventional serous high-grade carcinomas (4.0% : 1/25) was significantly lower than that in the other histological type (32.3% : 10/31).
  • Phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) expression was identified in 18 (38.2%) out of 45 ovarian carcinomas.
  • KRAS/BRAF mutation was significantly correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I, II (P<0.001), and p-ERK1/2 (P<0.001).
  • No significant correlations between KRAS/BRAF mutations or p-ERK1/2 expression and overall survival were found in patients with ovarian carcinoma treated with platinum and taxane chemotherapy (P=0.2460, P=0.9339, respectively).
  • Next, to clarify the roles of ERK1/2 activation in ovarian cancers harbouring KRAS or BRAF mutations, we inactivated ERK1/2 in ovarian cancer cells using CI-1040.
  • Profound growth inhibition and apoptosis were observed in CI-1040-treated cancer cells with mutations in either KRAS or BRAF in comparison with the ovarian cancer cells containing wild-type sequences.
  • The findings in this study indicate that an activated ERK1/2 pathway is critical to tumour growth and survival of ovarian cancers with KRAS or BRAF mutations.
  • Furthermore, they suggest that the CI-1040-induced phenotypes depend on the mutational status of KRAS and BRAF in ovarian cancers.
  • Therefore, ovarian cancer patients with KRAS or BRAF mutations may benefit from CI-1040 treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Ovarian Neoplasms / enzymology. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Base Sequence. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Enzyme Activation. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / antagonists & inhibitors. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism. Mutation / genetics. Phosphorylation. Prognosis. Substrate Specificity. Survival Rate. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19018267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2607229
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6. Trinh XB, Tjalma WA, Vermeulen PB, Van den Eynden G, Van der Auwera I, Van Laere SJ, Helleman J, Berns EM, Dirix LY, van Dam PA: The VEGF pathway and the AKT/mTOR/p70S6K1 signalling pathway in human epithelial ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer; 2009 Mar 24;100(6):971-8
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  • [Title] The VEGF pathway and the AKT/mTOR/p70S6K1 signalling pathway in human epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A inhibitors exhibit unseen high responses and toxicity in recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer suggesting an important role for the VEGF/VEGFR pathway.
  • Using a tissue microarray of clinical samples (N=86), tumour cell immunohistochemical staining of AKT/mTOR downstream targets, pS6 and p4E-BP1, together with tumour cell staining of VEGF-A and pVEGFR2 were semi-quantified.
  • Additional gene expression analysis in an independent cDNA microarray dataset (N=24) showed a negative correlation (R=-0.73, P<0.0001) between the RPS6 and the VEGFR2 gene, which is consistent as the gene expression and phosphorylation of S6 is inversely regulated.
  • An activated tumour cell VEGFR2/AKT/mTOR pathway was associated with increased incidence of ascites (chi(2), P=0.002) and reduced overall survival of cisplatin-taxane-based patients with serous histology (N=32, log-rank test, P=0.04).
  • These data propose that VEGF-A signalling acts on tumour cells as a stimulator of the AKT/mTOR pathway.
  • Although VEGF-A inhibitors are classified as anti-angiogenic drugs, these data suggest that the working mechanism has an important additional modality of targeting the tumour cells directly.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinases / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / physiology. Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases. Tissue Array Analysis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / analysis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19240722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2661789
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7. Santin AD, Zhan F, Bellone S, Palmieri M, Cane S, Gokden M, Roman JJ, O'Brien TJ, Tian E, Cannon MJ, Shaughnessy J Jr, Pecorelli S: Discrimination between uterine serous papillary carcinomas and ovarian serous papillary tumours by gene expression profiling. Br J Cancer; 2004 May 4;90(9):1814-24
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  • [Title] Discrimination between uterine serous papillary carcinomas and ovarian serous papillary tumours by gene expression profiling.
  • High-grade ovarian serous papillary cancer (OSPC) and uterine serous papillary carcinoma (USPC) represent two histologically similar malignancies characterised by markedly different biological behavior and response to chemotherapy.
  • Understanding the molecular basis of these differences may significantly refine differential diagnosis and management, and may lead to the development of novel, more specific and more effective treatment modalities for OSPC and USPC.
  • We used an oligonucleotide microarray with probe sets complementary to >10 000 human genes to determine whether patterns of gene expression may differentiate OSPC from USPC.
  • Hierarchical cluster analysis of gene expression in OSPC and USPC identified 116 genes that exhibited >two-fold differences (P<0.05) and that readily distinguished OSPC from USPC.
  • Overexpression of the c-erbB2 gene and its expression product (i.e., HER-2/neu receptor) was validated by quantitative RT-PCR as well as by flow cytometry on primary USPC and OSPC, respectively.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of serous tumour samples from which primary OSPC and USPC cultures were derived as well as from an independent set of 20 clinical tissue samples (i.e., 10 OSPC and 10 USPC) further confirmed HER-2/neu as a novel molecular diagnostic and therapeutic marker for USPC.
  • Gene expression fingerprints have the potential to predict the anatomical site of tumour origin and readily identify the biologically more aggressive USPC from OSPC.
  • A therapeutic strategy targeting HER-2/neu may be beneficial in patients harbouring chemotherapy-resistant USPC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Gene Expression Profiling. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15208622.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2409747
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8. Papoutsis D, Rodolakis A, Haidopoulos D, Sotiropoulou M, Antsaklis A: Peritoneal implantations of papillary serous ovarian cystadenocarcinoma 13 days after initial laparoscopic treatment for a presumed benign ovarian cyst. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(1):103-5
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  • [Title] Peritoneal implantations of papillary serous ovarian cystadenocarcinoma 13 days after initial laparoscopic treatment for a presumed benign ovarian cyst.
  • We report a case of a 24-year-old female who underwent laparoscopy for a presumed benign ovarian mass.
  • Frozen sections at laparoscopy initially revealed a borderline papillary serous ovarian tumour.
  • Final histology showed an invasive papillary serous ovarian tumor (grade 1).
  • Subsequent staging laparotomy conducted 13 days later revealed peritoneal implantations thus upgrading the initially thought Stage Ia papillary serous ovarian tumour at laparoscopy to Stage IIc.
  • The patient after laparotomy had an uneventful postoperative course and received six cycles of chemotherapy based on taxol and carboplatin.
  • A short review of the literature is also presented, concerning the factors which affect the patient's prognosis in cases of unexpected ovarian malignancy found during laparoscopy that are treated with subsequent staging laparotomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19317271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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9. Malpica A, Deavers MT, Gershenson D, Tortolero-Luna G, Silva EG: Serous tumors involving extra-abdominal/extra-pelvic sites after the diagnosis of an ovarian serous neoplasm of low malignant potential. Am J Surg Pathol; 2001 Aug;25(8):988-96
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  • [Title] Serous tumors involving extra-abdominal/extra-pelvic sites after the diagnosis of an ovarian serous neoplasm of low malignant potential.
  • The involvement of extra-abdominal/extra-pelvic sites by serous tumors after the diagnosis of an ovarian serous neoplasm of low malignant potential is extremely rare.
  • By FIGO staging the original ovarian tumors were distributed as follows: stage I, 4; stage II, 2; stage III, 5; unknown stage, 1.
  • Ten patients also received adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy, 2; chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 4; chemotherapy, 3; intraperitoneal 32P, 1).
  • The interval between the diagnosis of the ovarian neoplasm and the subsequent tumor involving an extra-abdominal/extra-pelvic site ranged from 4 to 240 months (mean 124 months).
  • Sites of extra-abdominal/extra-pelvic involvement and the number of cases were as follows: left neck lymph nodes (LNs), 4; left and right neck LNs, 1; pleura, 2; lung, 1; mediastinum, 1; chest wall, 1; axillary and chest LNs, 1; and vertebral body, 1.
  • Eight patients were treated with chemotherapy, 1 with radiotherapy, 2 with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and 1 with surgery alone.
  • Six patients died of disease and 5 patients were alive with no evidence of disease.
  • In this small series of cases, no definitive clinical or pathologic feature related to the occurrence of extra-abdominal/extra-pelvic serous tumors was found.
  • Based on the LN involvement and the endosalpingiosis seen in some cases, these tumors might develop from circulating neoplastic serous cells or from areas of endosalpingiosis involving extra-abdominal/extra-pelvic sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11474282.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Mitchell CL, O'Connor JP, Jackson A, Parker GJ, Roberts C, Watson Y, Cheung S, Davies K, Buonaccorsi GA, Clamp AR, Hasan J, Byrd L, Backen A, Dive C, Jayson GC: Identification of early predictive imaging biomarkers and their relationship to serological angiogenic markers in patients with ovarian cancer with residual disease following cytotoxic therapy. Ann Oncol; 2010 Oct;21(10):1982-9
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  • [Title] Identification of early predictive imaging biomarkers and their relationship to serological angiogenic markers in patients with ovarian cancer with residual disease following cytotoxic therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with recurrent ovarian cancer often achieve partial response following chemotherapy, resulting in persistent small volume disease.
  • After completion of treatment, the dilemma of when to initiate subsequent chemotherapy arises.
  • Identification of biomarkers that could be used to predict when subsequent treatment is needed would be of significant benefit.
  • DESIGN: Twenty-three patients with advanced ovarian cancer and residual asymptomatic disease following chemotherapy underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) at study entry, 4, 8, 12, 18 and 26 weeks or disease progression.
  • RESULTS: By 4 weeks, significant differences in whole tumour volume, enhancing fraction and Ca125 were observed between patients whose disease progressed by 26 weeks and those who remained stable.
  • Significant correlations between plasma soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and sVEGFR-2 concentrations, and blood volume and tumour endothelial permeability surface area product measured by DCE-MRI were observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Imaging markers have a potential role in early prediction of disease progression in patients with residual ovarian cancer and may supplement current measures of progression.
  • The correlation of DCE-MRI and serological biomarkers suggests that tumour angiogenesis affects these markers through common biological means and warrants further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Contrast Media. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Membrane Proteins / blood. Neoplasm Staging. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood

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  • (PMID = 20351070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601746; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0902173; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / MUC16 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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11. Sufliarsky J, Chovanec J, Svetlovska D, Minarik T, Packan T, Kroslakova D, Lalabova R, Helpianska L, Horvathova D, Sevcik L, Spacek J, Laluha A, Tkacova V, Malec V, Rakicka G, Magdin D, Jancokova I, Dorr A, Stresko M, Habetinek V, Koza I: Gemcitabine and carboplatin treatment in patients with relapsing ovarian cancer. Neoplasma; 2009;56(4):291-7
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  • [Title] Gemcitabine and carboplatin treatment in patients with relapsing ovarian cancer.
  • Despite progress in primary treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer, the majority develop recurrence of the disease.
  • A platinum salt treatment, either as monotherapy or in combination with another cytostatic agent, is indicated for patients who have relapsed 6 or more months after primary treatment and thus have platinum-sensitive relapse.
  • Because repeated use of paclitaxel treatment may lead to substantial neurotoxicity, the combination of gemcitabine with carboplatin represents a suitable treatment option, which is widely used in common clinical practice in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
  • This non-interventional, prospective study observed the effectiveness and tolerability of second-line treatment with gemcitabine and carboplatin in patients with platinum-sensitive relapse of ovarian cancer in routine clinical practice.
  • The primary endpoint was to evaluate the survival and secondary endpoints were to evaluate time to disease progression, objective tumor response rate, and treatment toxicity.
  • Patients were enrolled to planned second-line treatment with gemcitabine and carboplatin (gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC 5 on Day 1, and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on Day 8 of a 21-day cycle) for platinum-sensitive relapse of ovarian cancer as a part of routine clinical practice and followed for 12 months.
  • The events (death, tumor progression), tumor response, and maximal grades of toxicity were recorded according to common clinical practice.
  • Survival time (using Kaplan-Meier analysis) and objective tumor response rate were calculated using data forms, and a subgroup analysis was performed using log rank tests for time-to-event endpoints; p-values were also calculated.
  • The median age was 57 years and 96% of patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS) of 0 and 1 at baseline.
  • Approximately 91% of patients were originally diagnosed with stage III or IV; 60% of patients had disease free intervals (DFIs) of 12 or more months from previous therapy, and the additional 40% less than 12 months.
  • Median survival time was not determined within the 12-month period following the start of the treatment study due to the limited duration of follow-up.
  • Objective tumour response rate was 67.3%.
  • Most common reasons for discontinuation of therapy were "Planned treatment completed" (53%) and "Tumor progression" (11%).
  • Most common toxicities were leukopenia, anaemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia; grades 3 and 4 of these toxicity types did not exceed 30%.
  • Results on time to disease progression are not published due to inconsistent statistical analysis of reported data.
  • Based on this observation from routine clinical practice, which corresponds with previously published results from controlled clinical trials, the gemcitabine and carboplatin combination seems to be a suitable therapeutic option for patients with platinum-sensitive relapse of ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / secondary. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease Progression. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19473054.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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12. de Graeff P, Crijns AP, Ten Hoor KA, Klip HG, Hollema H, Oien K, Bartlett JM, Wisman GB, de Bock GH, de Vries EG, de Jong S, van der Zee AG: The ErbB signalling pathway: protein expression and prognostic value in epithelial ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer; 2008 Jul 22;99(2):341-9
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  • [Title] The ErbB signalling pathway: protein expression and prognostic value in epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of death from gynaecological cancer in the Western world.
  • Current prognostic factors do not allow reliable prediction of response to chemotherapy and survival for individual ovarian cancer patients.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-2/neu are frequently expressed in ovarian cancer but their prognostic value remains unclear.
  • In this study, we investigated the expression and prognostic value of EGFR, EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII), HER-2/neu and important downstream signalling components in a large series of epithelial ovarian cancer patients.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of EGFR, pEGFR, EGFRvIII, Her-2/neu, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10), total and phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) and phosphorylated ERK (pERK) was performed in 232 primary tumours using the tissue microarray platform and related to clinicopathological characteristics and survival.
  • Our results show that negative PTEN immunostaining was associated with stage I/II disease (P=0.006), non-serous tumour type (P=0.042) and in multivariate analysis with a longer progression-free survival (P=0.015).
  • Negative PTEN staining also predicted improved progression-free survival in patients with grade III or undifferentiated serous carcinomas (P=0.011).
  • Positive pAKT staining was associated with advanced-stage disease (P=0.006).
  • Other proteins were expressed only at low levels, and were not associated with any clinicopathological parameter or survival.
  • In conclusion, our results indicate that tumours showing negative PTEN staining could represent a subgroup of ovarian carcinomas with a relatively favourable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / enzymology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Oncogene Protein v-akt / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Prospective Studies. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction. Treatment Outcome


13. Suhonen KA, Anttila MA, Sillanpää SM, Hämäläinen KM, Saarikoski SV, Juhola M, Kosma VM: Quantification of angiogenesis by the Chalkley method and its prognostic significance in epithelial ovarian cancer. Eur J Cancer; 2007 May;43(8):1300-7
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  • [Title] Quantification of angiogenesis by the Chalkley method and its prognostic significance in epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • AIM: The aim of the present study was to clarify prognostic role of angiogenesis in epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • METHODS: Quantification of angiogenesis was performed by the Chalkley method after immunostaining of 175 epithelial ovarian cancer specimens with an antibody against CD34.
  • RESULTS: The Chalkley count was categorised into two groups according to the median value: low <8 or high > or =8.
  • The low Chalkley count correlated significantly with serous and clear cell histological subtype of the tumour (p<0.0005), whereas there existed no association with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage, histological grade, presence of primary residual tumour, age at diagnosis, or chemotherapy response.
  • In univariate analysis, the high Chalkley count predicted poor overall survival in the subgroup of patients with FIGO stages III-IV tumours (p=0.007) but not in the entire study cohort.
  • However, in multivariate analysis, the Chalkley count was found to be an independent predictor of death from ovarian cancer in the entire study cohort (p=0.044, RR=1.50, 95% CI 1.01-2.21) as well as in the subgroup of FIGO stages III-IV tumours (p=0.046, RR=1.58, 95% CI 1.01-2.46) together with the presence of primary residual tumour (p<0.0005, RR=5.10, 95% CI 3.02-8.62, and p=0.002, RR=4.28, 95% CI 1.34-13.73, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The Chalkley count seems to be suitable for evaluation of angiogenesis and to have prognostic significance in ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17448653.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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14. Kupryjańczyk J, Dansonka-Mieszkowska A, Szymańska T, Karpińska G, Rembiszewska A, Rusin M, Konopiński R, Kraszewska E, Timorek A, Yandell DW, Stelmachów J: Spontaneous apoptosis in ovarian carcinomas: a positive association with p53 gene mutation is dependent on growth fraction. Br J Cancer; 2000 Feb;82(3):579-83
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  • [Title] Spontaneous apoptosis in ovarian carcinomas: a positive association with p53 gene mutation is dependent on growth fraction.
  • Changes in cell survival contribute to tumour development, influence tumour biology and its response to chemotherapy. p53 gene alterations should negatively affect apoptosis by impaired p53-dependent apoptotic response.
  • We looked for associations between spontaneous apoptosis, p53 gene mutation, p53 protein accumulation, growth fraction, bcl-2 expression and histological parameters in 64 ovarian, four tubal and three peritoneal carcinomas.
  • The AI was positively associated with the presence of p53 gene mutation (P = 0.011).
  • However, the PI included into the analysis did positively influence the AI (P = 0.02) and diminished the association with p53 gene mutation (P = 0.082).
  • The AI was negatively associated with good histological differentiation (P = 0.0006), the serous tumour type (P = 0.002), and diffuse bcl-2 expression (P = 0.025).
  • Strong bcl-2 expression was associated with endometrioid tumour type (P = 0.002).
  • FIGO stage and p53 protein accumulation were the only parameters that influenced overall survival time.
  • Thus, our results suggest that histological tumour type and grade are major determinants of spontaneous apoptosis in ovarian carcinomas; p53 alterations do not adversely but rather positively affect spontaneous apoptosis by increasing growth fraction.
  • This, in turn, suggests p53-independency of spontaneous apoptosis in ovarian carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / genetics. Cell Division / genetics. Genes, p53. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Genes, bcl-2. Humans. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 10682669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] SCOTLAND
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2363315
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15. Maelandsmo GM, Flørenes VA, Nguyen MT, Flatmark K, Davidson B: Different expression and clinical role of S100A4 in serous ovarian carcinoma at different anatomic sites. Tumour Biol; 2009;30(1):15-25
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  • [Title] Different expression and clinical role of S100A4 in serous ovarian carcinoma at different anatomic sites.
  • The present study analyzed the site-specific expression and clinical role of S100A4 in advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma (OC).
  • S100A4 expression was analyzed in 161 effusions, 67 primary carcinomas and 127 solid metastases using immunohistochemistry.
  • Nuclear expression was higher in solid tumors than in effusions (p < 0.001), while stromal cell expression was higher in metastases than primary tumors (p = 0.001).
  • IFMA analysis detected S100A4 in all 20 supernatants.
  • Nuclear S100A4 expression in primary carcinomas (p = 0.049), FIGO stage IV (p = 0.019) and poor response to chemotherapy at diagnosis (p < 0.001) were associated with worse overall survival.
  • All three parameters were independent prognosticators in Cox analysis (S100A4: p = 0.048, FIGO stage: p = 0.015, response to chemotherapy: p < 0.001).
  • S100A4 is frequently expressed in tumor and host cells in OC, with upregulated stromal expression in solid metastases.
  • Tumor cell nuclear S100A4 expression is higher in solid tumors than in effusions, and is associated with more aggressive clinical disease in primary carcinoma, suggesting that the tumor-promoting role of this molecule is predominantly exerted at this anatomic site.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Ascitic Fluid / metabolism. Ascitic Fluid / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Pleural Effusion / metabolism. Pleural Effusion / pathology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A4

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19194111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A4; 0 / S100 Proteins; 142662-27-9 / S100A4 protein, human
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16. Cooke SL, Ng CK, Melnyk N, Garcia MJ, Hardcastle T, Temple J, Langdon S, Huntsman D, Brenton JD: Genomic analysis of genetic heterogeneity and evolution in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Oncogene; 2010 Sep 02;29(35):4905-13
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  • [Title] Genomic analysis of genetic heterogeneity and evolution in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.
  • Resistance to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer is poorly understood.
  • Evolutionary models of cancer predict that, following treatment, resistance emerges either because of outgrowth of an intrinsically resistant sub-clone or evolves in residual disease under the selective pressure of treatment.
  • To investigate genetic evolution in high-grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancers, we first analysed cell line series derived from three cases of HGS carcinoma before and after platinum resistance had developed (PEO1, PEO4 and PEO6; PEA1 and PEA2; and PEO14 and PEO23).
  • Analysis with 24-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) showed mutually exclusive endoreduplication and loss of heterozygosity events in clones present at different time points in the same individual.
  • This implies that platinum-sensitive and -resistant disease was not linearly related, but shared a common ancestor at an early stage of tumour development.
  • Array CGH analysis of six paired pre- and post-neoadjuvant treatment HGS samples from the CTCR-OV01 clinical study did not show extensive copy number differences, suggesting that one clone was strongly dominant at presentation.
  • These data show that cisplatin resistance in HGS carcinoma develops from pre-existing minor clones but that enrichment for these clones is not apparent during short-term chemotherapy treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Evolution, Molecular. Genetic Heterogeneity. Genomics / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / genetics. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Neoplasm Staging. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20581869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A10139; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2933510; NLM/ UKMS30900
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17. Iervolino P, Palmieri M, Rotondi M, D'Alessandro P, Iuliano R: [Borderline ovarian tumors. Retrospective analysis of 20 cases]. Minerva Ginecol; 2001 Feb;53(1 Suppl 1):97-9
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  • [Title] [Borderline ovarian tumors. Retrospective analysis of 20 cases].
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical features, the surgical management and outcome of 20 patients with stage-I borderline ovarian tumors.
  • METHODS: Twenty cases of FIGO stage-I ovarian tumors, aged from 31 to 58 years (mean 37 years) have been reviewed.
  • All informations of clinical stage, surgical intervention and prognosis were achieved by reviewing hospital records.
  • Minimal requirements for conservative management were adequate staging and complete information about the therapeutic options.
  • Factors important in the choice of the treatment were, age, wish to preserve fertility, histologic type and grade, and the stage of the tumour.
  • RESULTS: Eleven of the 20 patients (55%) were at stage IA, 6 cases (30%) were at stage IB, 3 cases (15%) were at stage IC.
  • Thirteen (65%) were with mucinous cystadenoma of borderline malignancy, 7 cases (35%) were of serous type.
  • One patient underwent enucleation of ovarian tumor and biopsy of contralateral ovary.
  • Any patient were treated with chemotherapy after operation.
  • With a median follow up of two years, we observed no recurrence of carcinoma in women treated conservatively or in those treated more radically.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Conservative surgery remains a therapeutic option in selected patients with borderline ovarian tumors.
  • Prolonged intensive follow-up is required for women treated conservatively for borderline malignant ovarian tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11526732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4784
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva ginecologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Ginecol
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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18. D'Angelo E, Prat J: Classification of ovarian carcinomas based on pathology and molecular genetics. Clin Transl Oncol; 2010 Dec;12(12):783-7
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  • [Title] Classification of ovarian carcinomas based on pathology and molecular genetics.
  • Malignant epithelial tumours (carcinomas) are the most common ovarian cancers and the most lethal gynaecological malignancies.
  • Based on light microscopy and molecular genetics, ovarian carcinomas are subdivided into at least five main subtypes that account for over 95% of cases and are inherently different diseases, as indicated by differences in epidemiological and genetic risk factors, precursor lesions, patterns of spread, molecular events during oncogenesis, response to chemotherapy and outcome.
  • For successful subtype-specific treatment, reproducible pathological diagnosis of tumour cell type is critical.
  • Recent investigations have also demonstrated that a significant number of cancers traditionally thought to be primary ovarian tumours (particularly serous, endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas) originate in the fallopian tube and the endometrium and involve the ovary secondarily.
  • In this review we summarise recent advances in the molecular pathology, which have greatly improved our understanding of the biology of ovarian carcinoma and are also relevant to patient management.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / classification. Ovary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / classification. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / genetics. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21156408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; Ovarian epithelial cancer
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19. Gungor T, Altinkaya SO, Akbay S, Bilge U, Mollamahmutoglu L: Malign mural nodules associated with serous ovarian tumor of borderline malignancy: a case report and literature review. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Mar;281(3):485-90
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  • [Title] Malign mural nodules associated with serous ovarian tumor of borderline malignancy: a case report and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Cystic tumors of ovary, whether benign, borderline, or malignant may be associated with mural nodule of various types, including sarcomas, sarcoma-like mural nodules (SLMN), and foci of anaplastic carcinoma.
  • Cases of serous borderline ovarian tumor with mural nodules of mixed type are very rare.
  • CASE: A 54-year-old woman referred with abdominal swelling.
  • Imaging studies revealed a huge mass localized in pelvis and lower abdomen and grade 1-2 left renal hydronephrosis.
  • Adhesiolysis and de-bulking surgery were performed including bilateral pelvic, para-aortic lymphadenectomy, appendectomy and omentectomy.
  • Left ureter was found to be dilated because of the infiltration of distal part by the tumor, so distal ureteral resection and neoureterocystostomy were performed.
  • Final pathology revealed borderline serous ovarian tumor with mural nodules which were consisted of SLMNs, multiple and sharply demarcated from the adjacent tumor, and sarcomatous nodules showing infiltrative appearance in metastatic regions.
  • Mural nodules showed a positive reaction for vimentin and SMA but were negative for cytokeratin and also necrosis, hemorrhage, and 10-15 mitoses in 10 high power fields were noted.
  • She had postoperative chemotherapy and follow-up is going on without metastases in her first year.
  • CONCLUSION: The existence of sarcomatous nodules combined with the SLMN necessitates a careful histologic analysis for treatment and the determination of prognosis.
  • However, too few cases of mixed type mural nodules have been published to warrant a conclusion regarding their prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19597831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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20. Shamshirsaz AA, Withiam-Leitch M, Odunsi K, Baker T, Frederick PJ, Lele S: Young patients with endometrial carcinoma selected for conservative treatment: a need for vigilance for synchronous ovarian carcinomas, case report and literature review. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Mar;104(3):757-60
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  • [Title] Young patients with endometrial carcinoma selected for conservative treatment: a need for vigilance for synchronous ovarian carcinomas, case report and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to report a case of synchronous ovarian malignancy in a very young patient with early endometrial cancer who desired fertility-sparing management.
  • CASE: Twenty one-year-old patient presented with an apparent early stage endometrial cancer and desiring conservative management.
  • An incidentally small papillary serous ovarian tumor of low malignant potential was found.
  • Those who desire ovarian preservation should be counseled regarding the high potential for coexisting ovarian malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17215032.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Hasan J, Ton N, Mullamitha S, Clamp A, McNeilly A, Marshall E, Jayson GC: Phase II trial of tamoxifen and goserelin in recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer; 2005 Sep 19;93(6):647-51
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of tamoxifen and goserelin in recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • Endocrine therapy is a recognised option in the treatment of chemo-resistant ovarian cancer.
  • We conducted a nonrandomised phase II evaluation of combination endocrine therapy with tamoxifen and goserelin in patients with advanced ovarian cancer that had recurred following chemotherapy.
  • In total, 26 patients entered the study, of which 17 had platinum-resistant disease.
  • The median age was 63 years and enrolled patients had received a median of three chemotherapy regimens prior to trial entry.
  • Patients were given oral tamoxifen 20 mg twice daily on a continuous basis and subcutaneous goserelin 3.6 mg once a month until disease progression.
  • Using the definition of endocrine response that included patients with stable disease (SD) of 6 months or greater, the overall response rate (clinical benefit rate) was 50%.
  • This included one complete response (CR) (3.8%), two partial responses (PR) (7.7%) and 10 patients with SD (38.5%).
  • Four patients received treatment for more than 2 years (range 1-31) and one of them is still on treatment.
  • In none of the four patients was there any evidence of recurrent or cumulative treatment related toxicity.
  • Treatment-limiting toxicity was not seen in any of the study population.
  • No consistent correlation could be established between LH/FSH suppression and tumour response.
  • Likewise no relationship was observed between Inhibin A/B and pro-alpha C levels and tumour response.
  • Inhibin is unlikely to be a useful surrogate marker for response in locally advanced or metastatic ovarian cancer.
  • Combination endocrine therapy with tamoxifen and goserelin is an active regimen in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients.
  • Hormonal therapy is advantageous in its relative lack of toxicity, ease of administration and tolerability, thus making it suitable for patients with heavily pretreated disease, compromised bone marrow function and other comorbid conditions that contraindicate cytotoxic therapy as well as in patients with indolent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Goserelin / administration & dosage. Humans. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16222310.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361624
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22. Mesquita B, Veiga I, Pereira D, Tavares A, Pinto IM, Pinto C, Teixeira MR, Castedo S: No significant role for beta tubulin mutations and mismatch repair defects in ovarian cancer resistance to paclitaxel/cisplatin. BMC Cancer; 2005;5:101
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  • [Title] No significant role for beta tubulin mutations and mismatch repair defects in ovarian cancer resistance to paclitaxel/cisplatin.
  • BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer patients remain largely to be elucidated.
  • Paclitaxel/cisplatin combination is the standard chemotherapeutic treatment for this disease, although some patients do not respond to therapy.
  • METHODS: Thirty-four patients with primary ovarian carcinomas (26 serous and eight clear cell carcinomas) treated with paclitaxel/cisplatin were analysed.
  • Microsatellite analysis was performed with the quasimonomorphic markers BAT 26 and BAT 34.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two of the 34 ovarian cancers (64.7%) presented residual tumour after surgery, seven of which (7/22; 31.8%) were shown to be chemoresistant (five serous and two clear cell tumours).
  • Sequence analysis did not find any mutation in TUBB exon 4.
  • Microsatellite instability was not detected in any of the ovarian carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that TUBB exon 4 mutations and mismatch repair defects do not play a significant role in paclitaxel/cisplatin resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Base Pair Mismatch. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. DNA Repair. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Mutation. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Tubulin / biosynthesis. Tubulin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Replication. Exons. Female. Humans. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • (PMID = 16095531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Tubulin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1199587
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23. Jarboe EA, Folkins AK, Drapkin R, Ince TA, Agoston ES, Crum CP: Tubal and ovarian pathways to pelvic epithelial cancer: a pathological perspective. Histopathology; 2008 Aug;53(2):127-38
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  • [Title] Tubal and ovarian pathways to pelvic epithelial cancer: a pathological perspective.
  • Prolongation of ovarian epithelial cancer survival depends on early detection or improved responses to chemotherapy.
  • Understanding the diverse pathogenesis of this disease is critical to early intervention or prevention.
  • The first initiates in ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), Mullerian inclusions or endometriosis in the ovary.
  • The second arises from the endosalpinx and encompasses a subset of serous carcinomas.
  • The serous carcinogenic sequence in the distal fallopian tube is described and contrasted with lower grade serous tumors based on tumour location, earliest genetic change and ability (or lack of) to undergo terminal (ciliated) differentiation.
  • Ultimately, a clear understanding of tumour origin and the mechanism(s) leading to the earliest phases of the serous and endometrioid carcinogenic sequences may hold the greatest promise for designing prevention strategies and/or developing new therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / etiology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / etiology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / etiology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Histopathology. 2009 Mar;54(4):494-5 [19309405.001]
  • (PMID = 18298580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 R21 CA124688; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50CA 105009; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA108748
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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24. Stadlmann S, Gueth U, Wight E, Kunz-Schughart LA, Hartmann A, Singer G: Expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma and cyclo-oxygenase 2 in primary and recurrent ovarian carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Mar;60(3):307-10
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  • [Title] Expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma and cyclo-oxygenase 2 in primary and recurrent ovarian carcinoma.
  • AIM: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in several types of cancer.
  • In ovarian carcinomas, limited and conflicting data on PPARgamma protein expression have been reported.
  • METHODS: The immunoexpression of PPARgamma and its putative target cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2) was investigated in tumour tissues from 80 patients with primary and corresponding recurrent ovarian serous carcinomas after conventional platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: PPARgamma expression was observed in 29% of primary and recurrent carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that PPARgamma may represent a potential target for second-line treatment in ovarian cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. PPAR gamma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Protein Array Analysis / methods. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 16698954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860580
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25. Yokoyama Y, Moriya T, Takano T, Shoji T, Takahashi O, Nakahara K, Yamada H, Yaegashi N, Okamura K, Izutsu T, Sugiyama T, Tanaka T, Kurachi H, Sato A, Tase T, Mizunuma H: Clinical outcome and risk factors for recurrence in borderline ovarian tumours. Br J Cancer; 2006 Jun 5;94(11):1586-91
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  • [Title] Clinical outcome and risk factors for recurrence in borderline ovarian tumours.
  • We investigated the long-term prognosis of borderline ovarian tumours and determined risk factors for recurrence.
  • One hundred and twenty-one borderline ovarian tumours treated between 1994 and 2003 at the participating institutions in the Tohoku Gynecologic Cancer Unit were retrospectively investigated for clinical stage, histopathological subtype, surgical technique, postoperative chemotherapy, the presence or absence of recurrence, and prognosis.
  • One hundred and nine cases (90.6%) were at clinical stage I.
  • The histopathological subtypes consisted of 91 cases of mucinous tumour (75.2%), 27 cases of serous tumour (22.3%), and three cases of endometrioid tumour.
  • Conservative surgery was used in 53 cases (43.8%), radical surgery in 68 cases (56.2%), a staging laparotomy in 43 cases (35.5%), and postoperative adjuvant therapy in 30 cases (24.8%).
  • Recurrence was found in eight cases, but no tumour-related deaths were reported.
  • Although no significant difference in disease-free survival rate was seen between different clinical stages, the difference in disease-free survival rate between serous and non-serous (mucinous and endometrioid) types was significant (P<0.05).
  • The 10-year disease-free survival rate was 89.1% for the radical surgery group and 57.4% for the conservative surgery group -- this difference was significant (P<0.05).
  • In the conservative surgery group, cystectomy and serous tumour were independent risk factors for recurrence.
  • Although recurrence was observed, the long-term prognosis of borderline ovarian tumour was favourable, without tumour-related deaths.
  • Considering the favourable prognosis, conservative surgery can be chosen as far as the patient has a non-serous tumour and receive adnexectomy.
  • However, in cases of serous type and/or receiving cystectomy special care should be given as relative risk rates of recurrence elevate by 2-4-folds.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16685277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361313
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26. Santin AD, Bellone S, Ravaggi A, Roman JJ, Pecorelli S, Parham GP, Cannon MJ: Induction of tumour-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes by tumour lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cells in patients with uterine serous papillary cancer. Br J Cancer; 2002 Jan 7;86(1):151-7
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  • [Title] Induction of tumour-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes by tumour lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cells in patients with uterine serous papillary cancer.
  • Uterine serous papillary carcinoma is a highly aggressive variant of endometrial cancer histologically similar to high grade ovarian cancer.
  • Unlike ovarian cancer, however, it is a chemoresistant disease from onset, with responses to combined cisplatinum-based chemotherapy in the order of 20% and an extremely poor prognosis.
  • In this study, we demonstrate that tumour lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cells can elicit a specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against autologous tumour target cells in three patients with uterine serous papillary cancer.
  • CTL from patients 1 and 2 expressed strong cytolytic activity against autologous tumour cells, did not lyse autologous lymphoblasts or autologous EBV-transformed cell lines, and were variably cytotoxic against the NK-sensitive cell line K-562.
  • Patient 3 CD8(+) T cells expressed a modest but reproducible cytotoxicity against autologous tumour cells only at the time of the first priming.
  • Further priming attempts with PBL collected from patient 3 after tumour progression in the lumboaortic lymph nodes were unsuccessful.
  • Cytotoxicity against autologous tumour cells could be significantly inhibited by anti-HLA class I (W6/32) and anti-LFA-1 MAbs.
  • Highly cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells from patients 1 and 2 showed a heterogeneous CD56 expression while CD56 was not expressed by non-cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells from patient 3.
  • Using two colour flow cytometric analysis of intracellular cytokine expression at the single cell level, a striking dominance of IFN-gamma expressors was detectable in CTL populations of patients 1 and 2 while in patient 3 a dominant population of CD8(+) T cells expressing IL-4 and IL-10 was consistently detected.
  • Taken together, these data demonstrate that tumour lysate-pulsed DC can be an effective tool in inducing uterine serous papillary cancer-specific CD8(+) CTL able to kill autologous tumour cells in vitro.
  • However, high levels of tumour specific tolerance in some patients may impose a significant barrier to therapeutic vaccination.
  • These results may have important implications for the treatment in the adjuvant setting of uterine serous papillary cancer patients with active or adoptive immunotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 11857027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63931
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2746546
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27. Behtash N, Modares M, Abolhasani M, Ghaemmaghami F, Mousavi M, Yarandi F, Hanjani P: Borderline ovarian tumours: clinical analysis of 38 cases. J Obstet Gynaecol; 2004 Feb;24(2):157-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Borderline ovarian tumours: clinical analysis of 38 cases.
  • Thirty-eight patients with ovarian tumours of low malignant potential (borderline) were diagnosed and treated in Tehran University Gynecology Oncology Department from 1991 to 2002, and have been reviewed.
  • In this study age, clinical behavior, symptoms, surgical stage, type of tumour, surgery, adjuvant treatment, survival and recurrences were evaluated.
  • Post surgical FIGO staging was: Stage I=93.75%, stage III 6.25%.
  • Histologic subtypes were: Serous 76.31% (29 patients), Mucinous 21.05% (8 patients), Mixed types 2.63% (1 patient).
  • Mean pre-operative CA125 value was 114.90 (SD: +/- 90.30).
  • Three patients with recurrence and invasive implants received chemotherapy and secondary surgery was performed.
  • Survival rate was 100% at 3 years for all stages and 89% at 5 years.
  • One patient died of recurrent disease at 48 months after initial diagnosis.
  • Our data suggest that LMP tumours are most frequently diagnosed in stage I.
  • Most common histological type was serous, and 5 of the recurrences of (6 patients) were initially diagnosed at stage I, and had been treated with conservative surgery with no adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / epidemiology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iran / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Ovariectomy / methods. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 14766453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0144-3615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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