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1. Choi CW, Hwang JH, Chang YS, Park WS, Kim BI, Choi JH, Lee M: Effects of hypertonic (7%) saline on brain injury in experimental Escherichia coli meningitis. J Korean Med Sci; 2005 Oct;20(5):870-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of hypertonic (7%) saline on brain injury in experimental Escherichia coli meningitis.
  • We sought to know whether hypertonic (7%) saline (HTS) attenuates brain injury by improving cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and down-modulating acute inflammatory responses in experimental bacterial meningitis in the newborn piglet.
  • Twenty-five newborn piglets were assorted into three groups: 6 in the control group (C), 10 in the meningitis group (M), and 9 in the meningitis with HTS infusion group (H).
  • Meningitis was induced by intracisternal injection of 10(8) colony forming units of Escherichia coli in 100 microL of saline.
  • 10 mL/kg of HTS was given intravenously as a bolus 6 hr after induction of meningitis, thereafter the infusion rate was adjusted to maintain the serum sodium level between 150 and 160 mEq/L.
  • HTS significantly attenuated meningitis-induced brain cell membrane disintegration and dysfunction, as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation products and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the cerebral cortex in M.
  • HTS significantly attenuated acute inflammatory markers such as increased intracranial pressure, elevated lactate level and pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid observed in M.
  • Reduced CPP observed in M was also significantly improved with HTS infusion.
  • These findings implicate some attenuation of the meningitis-induced alterations in cerebral cortical cell membrane structure and function with HTS, possibly by improving CPP and attenuating acute inflammatory responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / drug therapy. Brain Diseases / pathology. Cerebral Cortex / drug effects. Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Meningitis, Escherichia coli / drug therapy. Meningitis, Escherichia coli / pathology. Saline Solution, Hypertonic / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Disease Models, Animal. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Swine. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16224165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Saline Solution, Hypertonic
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2779288
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2. Stoner J, Martin G, O'Mara K, Ehlers J, Tomlanovich M: Amiodarone and bretylium in the treatment of hypothermic ventricular fibrillation in a canine model. Acad Emerg Med; 2003 Mar;10(3):187-91
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  • [Title] Amiodarone and bretylium in the treatment of hypothermic ventricular fibrillation in a canine model.
  • Despite mixed experimental data, some authors view bretylium as the drug of choice in hypothermic VF.
  • OBJECTIVES: To compare defibrillation rates from hypothermic VF after drug therapy with amiodarone, bretylium, and placebo.
  • Thirty anesthetized dogs were mechanically ventilated and instrumented to monitor coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), rectal core temperature, and electrocardiogram (ECG).
  • Animals were cooled to 22 degrees C or the onset of spontaneous VF.
  • Ventricular fibrillation was induced as needed with a transthoracic AC current.
  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was initiated and animals were randomized (n = 10 each group) to receive amiodarone 10 mg/kg (A), bretylium 5 mg/kg (B), or placebo (P) intravenously.
  • CPR was continued while monitoring for chemical defibrillation.
  • After 10 minutes, up to three escalating defibrillatory shocks were administered.
  • Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was defined as a sustainable ECG rhythm generating a corresponding arterial pressure tracing lasting a minimum of 15 minutes.
  • RESULTS: CPR was adequate based on CPP > 15 mm Hg in all animals.
  • Mean (+/-SD) CPP was 35.3 +/- 18.8 mm Hg with an overall lower trend in the amiodarone group (p = 0.06).
  • No instance of chemical defibrillation was noted.
  • Resuscitation rates were: amiodarone = 1/10, bretylium = 4/10, and placebo = 3/10 (p = 0.45).
  • [MeSH-major] Amiodarone / therapeutic use. Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / therapeutic use. Bretylium Compounds / therapeutic use. Ventricular Fibrillation / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Dogs. Hypothermia, Induced. Random Allocation

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  • (PMID = 12615580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1069-6563
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Emerg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Arrhythmia Agents; 0 / Bretylium Compounds; N3RQ532IUT / Amiodarone; RZR75EQ2KJ / bretylium
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3. Carel JC, Blumberg J, Seymour C, Adamsbaum C, Lahlou N, Triptorelin 3-month CPP Study Group: Three-month sustained-release triptorelin (11.25 mg) in the treatment of central precocious puberty. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Jan;154(1):119-24
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  • [Title] Three-month sustained-release triptorelin (11.25 mg) in the treatment of central precocious puberty.
  • OBJECTIVE: Depot GnRH agonists are commonly used in the treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • The triptorelin 11.25 mg 3-month depot, currently used in adult indications, had not previously been evaluated in CPP.
  • DESIGN: This was a multicenter, open-label, 12 month trial conducted in 64 CPP children (54 girls and 10 boys), treated quarterly.
  • METHODS: Children with a clinical onset of pubertal development before the age of 8 years (girls) or 9 years (boys), pubertal response of LH to GnRH > or = 7 IU/l, advanced bone age > 1 year, enlarged uterus (> or = 36 mm) and testosterone level > or = 0.5 ng/ml (boys), were included.
  • RESULTS: GnRH-stimulated peak LH < or = 3 IU/l, the main efficacy criterion, was met in 53 out of 62 (85%), 60 out of 62 (97%) and 56 out of 59 (95%) of the children at Months 3, 6 and 12 respectively.
  • Serum FSH and sex steroids were also significantly reduced, while pubertal development regressed in most patients.
  • Mean residual triptorelin levels were stable from Month 3 through to Month 12.
  • The triptorelin 3-month depot was well tolerated.
  • Severe injection pain was experienced in only one instance.
  • Five girls experienced mild-to-moderate or severe (one girl) withdrawal bleeding.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The triptorelin 3-month depot efficiently suppresses the pituitary-gonadal axis and pubertal development in children with CPP.
  • This formulation allows a 3-fold reduction, over the once-a-month depot, in the number of i.m. injections required each year.

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  • (PMID = 16382000.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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4. Yang H, Liu S, Cai H, Wan L, Li S, Li Y, Cheng J, Lu X: Chondroitin sulfate as a molecular portal that preferentially mediates the apoptotic killing of tumor cells by penetratin-directed mitochondria-disrupting peptides. J Biol Chem; 2010 Aug 13;285(33):25666-76

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chondroitin sulfate as a molecular portal that preferentially mediates the apoptotic killing of tumor cells by penetratin-directed mitochondria-disrupting peptides.
  • The use of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) as drug carriers for targeted therapy is limited by the unrestricted cellular translocation of CPPs.
  • The preferential induction of tumor cell death by penetratin (Antp)-directed peptides (PNC27 and PNC28), however, suggests that the CPP Antp may contribute to the preferential cytotoxicity of these peptides.
  • Using PNC27 as a molecular model, we constructed three novel peptides (PT, PR9, and PD3) by replacing the leader peptide Antp with one of three distinct CPPs (TAT, R9, or DPV3), respectively.
  • The IC(50) values of PNC27 in tumor cells were 2-3 times lower than in normal cells.
  • However, all three engineered peptides demonstrated similar cytotoxic effects in tumor and normal cells.
  • Another three chimeric peptides containing the leader peptide Antp with different mitochondria-disrupting peptides (KLA-Antp (KGA), B27-Antp (BA27), and B28-Antp (BA28)), preferentially induced apoptosis in tumor cells.
  • The IC(50) values of these peptides (3-10 microM) were 3-6 times lower in tumor cells than in normal cells.
  • In contrast, TAT-directed peptides (TAT-KLA (TK), TAT-B27 (TB27), and TAT-B28 (TB28)), were cytotoxic to both tumor and normal cells.
  • Furthermore, Antp-directed peptides bind chondroitin sulfate (CS), and the removal of endogenous CS reduces the cytotoxic effects of Antp-directed peptides in tumor cells.
  • The overexpression of CS in tumor cells is positively correlated to the cell entry and cytotoxicity of Antp- directed peptides.
  • These results suggest that CS overexpression in tumor cells is an important molecular portal that mediates the preferential cytotoxicity of Antp-directed peptides.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Carrier Proteins / pharmacology. Chondroitin Sulfates / pharmacology. Mitochondria / drug effects. Mitochondria / metabolism. Peptides / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biological Transport / drug effects. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Female. Glycosaminoglycans / metabolism. Glycosaminoglycans / pharmacology. HeLa Cells. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / therapeutic use. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 20484051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycosaminoglycans; 0 / PNC-27; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / penetratin; 9007-28-7 / Chondroitin Sulfates
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2919130
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5. Sun Y, Perry GN, Yu J, Chen B, Tian Z: Effect of nourishing "Yin"-removing "Fire" Chinese herbal mixture on hypothalamic kisspeptin expression in female precocious rats. J Ethnopharmacol; 2010 Feb 3;127(2):274-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into intact normal (N), central precocious puberty (CPP) model (M), vehicle without CPP (V), CPP model exposed to herbal mixture (HM) and CPP model exposed to saline (S) groups.
  • At postnatal day 5, a single subcutaneous injection of 300 microg of danazol was administered to induce CPP model rats.
  • From P15, rats in the HM group were continuously gavaged with the 1 ml/50 g body weight mixture, until two consecutive regular estrous cycles were established.
  • RESULTS: The day of vaginal opening and establishment of two regular estrous cycles were delayed in the HM group compared with M and S groups (P<0.05, respectively).
  • The level of hypothalamic Kiss-1 mRNA and the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive (kisspeptin-ir) cells in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), preoptic area (POA) and periventricular nucleus (PeN), were decreased significantly in the HM group compared with the M and S groups (P<0.01, respectively) on the day of onset-puberty.
  • CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the kisspeptin signaling pathway might be involved in the effect of herbal mixture treatment on CPP.
  • [MeSH-major] Disease Models, Animal. Drugs, Chinese Herbal / therapeutic use. Hypothalamus / drug effects. Hypothalamus / metabolism. Proteins / metabolism. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Down-Regulation / physiology. Female. Kisspeptins. Ovary / drug effects. Ovary / physiology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Up-Regulation / drug effects. Up-Regulation / physiology. Uterus / drug effects. Uterus / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19931369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7573
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ethnopharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Kiss1 protein, rat; 0 / Kisspeptins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / nourishing Yin-removing Fire
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6. Mihara K, Yasui-Furukori N, Kondo T, Ishida M, Ono S, Ohkubo T, Osanai T, Sugawara K, Otani K, Kaneko S: Relationship between plasma concentrations of trazodone and its active metabolite, m-chlorophenylpiperazine, and its clinical effect in depressed patients. Ther Drug Monit; 2002 Aug;24(4):563-6
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  • Relationships between plasma concentrations of trazodone and m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) and the clinical effects were studied in 26 patients (12 males and 14 females) with major depression during three weeks' treatment of 150 mg/d trazodone using an open-study design.
  • Depressive symptoms were evaluated by Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and subjective side effects were assessed by UKU side effects rating scale (UKU) before treatment and at weekly intervals.
  • Plasma concentrations of trazodone and m-CPP were measured by HPLC.
  • Moreover, the proportion of responders (a final MADRS score of 10 or less) was significantly higher in the group with a trazodone concentration greater than 714 ng/mL (6/8 vs 3/18, P = 0.008).
  • No significant correlation was found between UKU score and the Css for either compound nor between the UKU score and the ratio of m-CPP/trazodone.
  • The current study suggests that a therapeutic response is dependent on the plasma concentration of trazodone but not m-CPP and that a plasma trazodone concentration of about 700 ng/mL may be a threshold for a good therapeutic response.
  • [MeSH-major] Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / blood. Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / therapeutic use. Depressive Disorder / drug therapy. Piperazines / blood. Trazodone / blood. Trazodone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 12142643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-4356
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic drug monitoring
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Drug Monit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation; 0 / Piperazines; REY0CNO998 / 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine; YBK48BXK30 / Trazodone
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7. Udy A, Boots R, Senthuran S, Stuart J, Deans R, Lassig-Smith M, Lipman J: Augmented creatinine clearance in traumatic brain injury. Anesth Analg; 2010 Dec;111(6):1505-10
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  • [Title] Augmented creatinine clearance in traumatic brain injury.
  • BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline and/or norepinephrine infusion are routinely used to achieve a desired cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
  • METHODS: This was an observational cohort study in TBI patients older than 16 years with normal serum creatinine concentrations, requiring maintenance of CPP.
  • Demographic data, use of vasoactive medications, fluid balance, feeding regimen, and hemodynamic variables were recorded throughout the study period.
  • Augmented CrCl was defined as >150 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in women and >160 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in men.
  • The mean maximum CrCl was 179 mL/min/1.73 m(2) while receiving CPP therapy (95% confidence interval [CI], 159-198), returning to a mean of 111 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI, 91-131; P < 0.001) when measured after discharge from the intensive care unit.
  • The mean CrCl in the intensive care unit while not receiving CPP therapy was 150 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI, 134-167; P = 0.03).
  • The mean time to reach peak CrCl while receiving active treatment was 4.7 days (95% CI, 3.0-6.4).
  • In a multivariate analysis, norepinephrine use, saline loading, mean arterial blood pressure, and central venous pressure were associated with augmented CrCl on the day of measurement.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Augmented CrCls are common in TBI patients receiving active management of CPP and persist even after discontinuation of such therapy.
  • Further work is needed to clarify the impact of such clearances on renally excreted drugs in this setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / administration & dosage. Brain Injuries / therapy. Creatinine / urine. Fluid Therapy. Norepinephrine / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / urine. Female. Humans. Intensive Care Units. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Male. Queensland. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Up-Regulation. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21048095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-7598
  • [Journal-full-title] Anesthesia and analgesia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anesth. Analg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Biomarkers; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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8. Armstead WM, Kiessling JW, Kofke WA, Vavilala MS: SNP improves cerebral hemodynamics during normotension but fails to prevent sex dependent impaired cerebral autoregulation during hypotension after brain injury. Brain Res; 2010 May 12;1330:142-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] SNP improves cerebral hemodynamics during normotension but fails to prevent sex dependent impaired cerebral autoregulation during hypotension after brain injury.
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity in children and boys are disproportionately represented.
  • Previous studies show that adrenomedullin, a cerebrovasodilator, prevented sex dependent impairment of autoregulation during hypotension after piglet fluid percussion brain injury (FPI).
  • We hypothesized that this concept was generalizable and that administration of another vasodilator, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), may equally improve CBF and cerebral autoregulation in a sex dependent manner after FPI.
  • SNP produced equivalent percent cerebrovasodilation in male and female piglets.
  • Reductions in pial artery diameter, cortical CBF, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) concomitant with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) after FPI were greater in male compared to female piglets during normotension which was blunted by SNP.
  • During hypotension, pial artery dilation (PAD) was impaired more in the male than the female after FPI.
  • However, SNP did not improve hypotensive PAD after FPI in females and paradoxically caused vasoconstriction in males.
  • SNP did not prevent reductions in CBF, CPP or autoregulatory index during combined hypotension and FPI in either sex.
  • These data indicate that despite prevention of reductions in CBF after FPI, SNP does not prevent impairment of autoregulation during hypotension after FPI.
  • These data suggest that therapies directed at a purely hemodynamic increase in CPP will fail to improve outcome during combined TBI and hypotension.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [Cites] Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Oct 26;96(22):12866-9 [10536014.001]
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  • (PMID = 20298682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6240
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD057355-03; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD057355; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD57355; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD057355-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiovascular Agents; 169D1260KM / Nitroprusside; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS189580; NLM/ PMC2860054
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9. Vercellini P, Viganò P, Somigliana E, Abbiati A, Barbara G, Fedele L: Medical, surgical and alternative treatments for chronic pelvic pain in women: a descriptive review. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2009 Apr;25(4):208-21
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  • [Title] Medical, surgical and alternative treatments for chronic pelvic pain in women: a descriptive review.
  • Several causes of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) are recognised, but in many women a definite diagnosis cannot be made.
  • Few randomised controlled trials on treatment of CPP have been conducted.
  • The aim of this descriptive review is to describe the management of CPP, which can focus on treating the pain itself, the underlying cause, or both.
  • Combination drug therapy with medications with different mechanisms of action may improve therapeutic results.
  • Several alternative non-invasive treatments have been proposed including exercise programmes, cognitive and behavioural medicine, physical therapy, dietary modification, massage and acupuncture.
  • Treatment of CPP, generally, requires acceptance of the concept of managing rather than curing symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Complementary Therapies. Pelvic Pain / drug therapy. Pelvic Pain / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chronic Disease. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19296329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0766
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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10. Crinò A, Di Giorgio G, Schiaffini R, Fierabracci A, Spera S, Maggioni A, Gattinara GC: Central precocious puberty and growth hormone deficiency in a boy with Prader-Willi syndrome. Eur J Pediatr; 2008 Dec;167(12):1455-8
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  • Only a few cases of central precocious puberty (CPP) have been reported.
  • We describe an 8.8-year-old PWS boy, with microdeletion of chromosome 15q, who developed CPP.
  • We found increased growth velocity (7 cm/year), high testosterone levels, pubertal response to GnRH test, and advanced bone age (10.6 years).
  • LHRH analogue therapy (Leuproreline 3.75 mg/28 days i.m.) was started at 8.9 years and discontinued at 11.3 years, when the patient had bone age of 13 years.
  • During therapy, growth velocity, testosterone, FSH, and LH peak decreased significantly, with no pubertal progression.
  • Growth hormone therapy (0.24 mg/kg/week) was started at 9.5 years and discontinued at 15.3 years because the patient had bone age of 17 years.
  • After interrupting LHRH therapy the patient demonstrated spontaneous pubertal progression with pubertal gonadotropin and testosterone.
  • At 16.3 years, height was 170 cm (-0.48 SDS), BMI 36.3 kg/m(2), Ph 4, testis volume 10 ml and there was a combined hypothalamic and peripheral hypogonadism hormonal pattern (normal LH even with low testosterone and undetectable inhibin B with high FSH).
  • To our knowledge this is the fourth male patient with genetically-confirmed PWS demonstrating CPP and GHD and the first with a long follow-up to young adulthood.
  • [MeSH-major] Human Growth Hormone / deficiency. Hypogonadism / etiology. Hypothalamic Diseases / complications. Prader-Willi Syndrome / complications. Puberty, Precocious / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Drug Therapy, Combination. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome


11. Gupte SA, Tateyama M, Okada T, Oka M, Ochi R: Epiandrosterone, a metabolite of testosterone precursor, blocks L-type calcium channels of ventricular myocytes and inhibits myocardial contractility. J Mol Cell Cardiol; 2002 Jun;34(6):679-88
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  • [Title] Epiandrosterone, a metabolite of testosterone precursor, blocks L-type calcium channels of ventricular myocytes and inhibits myocardial contractility.
  • The dehydroepiandrosterone metabolite epiandrosterone (EPI) inhibits the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and dilates isolated blood vessels pre-contracted by partial depolarization.
  • We found that EPI (10-100 microM) also dose-dependently decreases left-ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), the rate of myocardial contraction (+d p /d t), and the pressure rate product (PRP); at 100 microM EPI, LVDP (131+/-9 vs 34+/-7 mmHg), +d p /dt (1515+/-94 vs 542+/-185 mmHg/s), and PRP (37870+/-2471 vs 9498+/-2375 HR x mmHg/min) were all significantly (P<0.05) reduced.
  • EPI also elevated CPP in isolated hearts, decreased levels of myocardial NADPH and nitrite, and dose-dependently relaxed rat aortic rings pre-contracted with KCl.
  • Electrophysiological analysis of single ventricular myocytes using whole cell clamp showed EPI to dose-dependently (100 n M-100 microM) and reversibly inhibit L-type channel currents carried by Ba2+ (IBa) (IC50=42+/-6 microM) by as much as 50%.
  • These results suggest that EPI may act as a L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist with properties similar to those of 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) Ca2+ channel blockers.
  • [MeSH-major] Androsterone / physiology. Calcium / metabolism. Calcium Channel Blockers. Calcium Channels, L-Type / metabolism. Myocytes, Cardiac / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anoxia. Dehydroepiandrosterone / metabolism. Male. Myocardial Contraction. Myocardium / metabolism. NADP / metabolism. Nitrites / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Recovery of Function. Testosterone / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 12054855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2828
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Calcium Channels, L-Type; 0 / Nitrites; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 53-59-8 / NADP; C24W7J5D5R / Androsterone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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12. Głab E, Barg E, Wikiera B, Grabowski M, Noczyńska A: Influence of GnRH analog therapy on body mass in central precocious puberty. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab; 2009;15(1):7-11
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  • [Title] Influence of GnRH analog therapy on body mass in central precocious puberty.
  • THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Was to evaluate the body mass index (BMI) changes in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) treated with a GnRH analog (GnRHa) and to analyse the factors affecting BMI.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 43 girls with puberty onset aged (mean, +/-SD) 6.1+/-1.9, treated with 3.75 mg Decapeptyl Depot i.m. every 28 days.
  • The treatment was initiated at the age of 7.5+/-2.1 year and continued for 3.3+/-2.2 year until the age of 11.4+/-0.9 year.
  • RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between BMI SD score before initiation of therapy and at the end of therapy (p=0.49).
  • 9.8% of the cohort were overweight and 22.0% were obese before treatment.
  • At the end of the therapy 18.6% children were overweight and 14.0% obese.
  • These differences were not statistically significant.
  • There was no significant correlation between overweight and obesity at the end of treatment and the duration of the therapy (r=-0.17) and with the duration of CPP before introduction of GnRH therapy (r= -0.11).
  • CONCLUSIONS: 1.Overweight and obesity are not related to long term pituitary-gonadal suppression due to GnRH analogue treatment.
  • 2. The rate of overweight and obesity among children with CPP is higher than in the general population.
  • Thus detailed evaluation of metabolic status of overweight children with CPP should be performed in order to prevent complications of the metabolic syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Mass Index. Overweight / epidemiology. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / epidemiology. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Height / drug effects. Child. Cohort Studies. Comorbidity. Female. Humans. Obesity / epidemiology. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 19454183.001).
  • [ISSN] 2081-237X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate
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13. Antoniazzi F, Arrigo T, Cisternino M, Galluzzi F, Bertelloni S, Pasquino AM, Borrelli P, Osio D, Mengarda F, De Luca F, Tatò L: End results in central precocious puberty with GnRH analog treatment: the data of the Italian Study Group for Physiopathology of Puberty. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2000 Jul;13 Suppl 1:773-80
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  • [Title] End results in central precocious puberty with GnRH analog treatment: the data of the Italian Study Group for Physiopathology of Puberty.
  • We report some end results with GnRH agonist (GnRHa) treatment in central precocious puberty (CPP), in terms of final height (FH), ovarian function, peak bone mass, body composition and psychological problems.
  • The two studies reported (Study I and II) are part of the activity of the Italian Study Group for Physiopathology of Puberty.
  • Study L Growth data were analyzed of three groups of patients: treated with i.n. spray buserelin, i.m. triptorelin and untreated.
  • Both GnRHa administration modes were effective in arresting pubertal development and all girls had complete recovery of the reproductive axis after therapy.
  • Treated patients showed an improvement in final height in comparison with untreated patients and compared to predicted height at the start of treatment with both agonist treatments.
  • However, patients treated with the long-acting slow release preparation had a better improvement in adult height and reached or exceeded the genetic height potential. Study II.
  • In a retrospective evaluation of the outcome in 71 girls with idiopathic CPP treated with triptorelin, we found that FH fell within the population norm and the target range in 87.3% and 90% of the patients respectively.
  • The tallest FH was recorded in the patients who started therapy at less than 6 years of age and in those who discontinued treatment at a bone age of 12.0-12.5 yr.
  • Finally, we and other groups have recently found normal values of bone mineral density in girls at the end of GnRHa treatment in the great majority of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / complications. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aerosols. Body Height / drug effects. Bone Density. Bone Development. Buserelin / administration & dosage. Buserelin / therapeutic use. Child. Delayed-Action Preparations. Female. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10969920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aerosols; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; PXW8U3YXDV / Buserelin
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14. Rizzo V, De Sanctis V, Corrias A, Fortini M, Galluzzi F, Bertelloni S, Guarneri MP, Pozzan G, Cisternino M, Pasquino AM: Factors influencing final/near-final height in 12 boys with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists. Italian Study Group of Physiopathology of Puberty. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2000 Jul;13 Suppl 1:781-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Factors influencing final/near-final height in 12 boys with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists. Italian Study Group of Physiopathology of Puberty.
  • Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) have been demonstrated as the therapy of choice for central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • Few studies have provided male patients' adult height data.
  • In our multicenter study we evaluated long-term effects of different GnRHa preparations and final/near-final height (FH) in 12 boys with CPP and analyzed the factors influencing FH.
  • Patients' mean chronological age at the time of diagnosis was 7.6 +/- 0.9 yr.
  • Three patients were treated only with triptorelin at a mean dose of 90 microg/kg i.m. every 28 days.
  • Nine patients initially received buserelin (at a mean initial dose of 53.4 microg/kg/day i.n. divided into 3-6 equal doses) or buserelin (at a mean dose of 36.7 microg/kg/day s.c.) and were subsequently switched to triptorelin.
  • The GnRHa therapy was continued for 4.1 +/- 0.6 yr (range 2.9-5.4).
  • The mean predicted adult height increased from 169.9 +/- 4.2 cm at diagnosis to 180.7 +/- 6.0 cm at the end of treatment.
  • Multiple regression analysis revealed that FH was mainly influenced by target height and height at discontinuation of GnRHa therapy.
  • The present data indicate that GnRHa therapy significantly improves growth prognosis in boys with CPP and fully restores genetic height potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Height / drug effects. Brain Diseases / complications. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Development. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 10969921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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15. Pucarelli I, Segni M, Ortore M, Arcadi E, Pasquino AM: Effects of combined gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and growth hormone therapy on adult height in precocious puberty: a further contribution. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2003 Sep;16(7):1005-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of combined gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and growth hormone therapy on adult height in precocious puberty: a further contribution.
  • Out of 35 girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (CPP) treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) (depot-triptorelin) at a dose of 100 microg/kg every 21 days i.m. for at least 2-3 years whose growth velocity fell below the 25th percentile for chronological age (CA), 17 received growth hormone (GH) in addition at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg/week, s.c., 6 days per week, for 2-4 years.
  • The other 18, matched for bone age (BA), CA and duration of GnRHa treatment, who showed the same growth pattern but refused GH treatment, remained on GnRHa alone, and were used as a control group to evaluate GH efficacy.
  • Both groups discontinued treatment at a comparable BA (mean +/- SD): BA 13.4 +/- 0.6 in GnRHa plus GH group vs 13.0 +/- 0.5 years in the GnRHa alone group.
  • The 35 patients have reached adult height (i.e. growth during the preceding year was less than 1 cm, with a BA of over 15 years).
  • Patients of the group treated with GH plus GnRHa showed an adult height (161.2 +/- 4.8 cm) significantly higher (p < 0.001) than pre-treatment predicted adult height (PAH) calculated according to tables either for accelerated girls (153.2 +/- 5.0 cm) or for average girls (148.6 +/- 4.3 cm).
  • The adult height of the GnRH alone treated group (156.6 +/- 5.7) was not significantly higher than pre-treatment PAH if calculated on Bayley and Pinneau tables for accelerated girls (153.9 +/- 3.8 cm), whilst it remained significantly higher if calculated on tables for average girls (149.6 +/- 4.0 cm) (p < 0.001).
  • The gain between pre-treatment PAH and final height was 8.2 +/- 4.8 cm according to tables for accelerated girls and 12.7 +/- 4.8 cm according to tables for average girls in patients treated with GH plus GnRHa; while in patients treated with GnRH alone the gain calculated between pre-treatment PAH for accelerated girls was just 2.3 +/- 2.9 cm and 7.1 +/- 2.7 cm greater than pre-treatment PAH for average girls.
  • The addition of GH to GnRHa in a larger cohort of patients with CPP with a longer follow-up confirms the safety of the combined treatment and the still significant but more variable gain in the group with the combined treatment, probably due to the larger number of patients analyzed.
  • Caution is advised in using such an invasive and expensive treatment, and there is need for further studies before widespread clinical use outside a research setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Height / drug effects. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Delayed-Action Preparations. Estradiol / blood. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / blood. Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 14513877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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16. Pucarelli I, Segni M, Ortore M, Moretti A, Iannaccone R, Pasquino AM: Combined therapy with GnRH analog plus growth hormone in central precocious puberty. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2000 Jul;13 Suppl 1:811-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined therapy with GnRH analog plus growth hormone in central precocious puberty.
  • GnRH analogues (GnRHa) arrest pubertal development, and slow growth velocity (GV) and bone maturation, thus improving adult height in central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • Of 20 patients with idiopathic CPP (treated with GnRHa [depot-triptorelin] at a dose of 100 microg/kg every 21 days i.m. for at least 2-3 yr) whose GV fell below the 25th percentile for chronological age (CA), ten received, in addition to the GnRHa, GH at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg/wk, s.c.
  • Ten patients matched for BA, CA, and duration of GnRHa treatment who showed the same growth pattern but refused GH treatment, served to evaluate the efficacy of the addition of GH.
  • Both groups discontinued treatment at a comparable BA (mean +/- SEM): 13.2 +/- 0.2 yr in GnRHa + GH vs 13.0 +/- 0.1 yr in the control group.
  • Adult height was considered to be attained when the growth during the preceding year was less than 1 cm, with a BA of over 15 yr.
  • Patients of the group treated with GH + GnRHa showed an adult height significantly higher (p<0.001) than pretreatment PAH (160.6 +/- 1.3 vs 152.7 +/- 1.7 cm).
  • The GnRH alone treated group reached an adult height not significantly higher than pretreatment PAH (157.1 +/- 2.5 vs 155.5 +/- 1.9 cm).
  • Height SDS for BA did not change (from -1.0 +/- 0.3 at start of GnRHa to -0.7 +/- 0.4 at adult height).
  • Target height was just reached but not significantly exceeded.
  • In conclusion, a gain of 7.9 cm in adult height represents a significant improvement which justifies the addition of GH for 2-3 yr to conventional treatment with GnRH analogues in patients with central precocious puberty, and with a decrease in growth velocity so marked as to impair predicted adult height to below the third percentile.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / complications. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / etiology. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Height / drug effects. Bone Development. Child. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Growth / drug effects. Humans

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  • (PMID = 10969926.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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17. Ortega-Martínez M, Cabezudo-Artero JM, Fernández-Portales I, Pimentel JJ, Gómez de Tejada R: Diffuse leptomeningeal seeding from benign choroid plexus papilloma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2007 Dec;149(12):1229-36; discussion 1236-7
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  • [Title] Diffuse leptomeningeal seeding from benign choroid plexus papilloma.
  • Choroid plexus papillomas (CPP) are rare intracranial tumours with a favourable long-term outcome after surgical excision.
  • Although they are histologically benign, local recurrences may occasionally occur, but leptomeningeal dissemination is exceptional.
  • We report an unusual example of a fourth ventricle choroid plexus papilloma with diffuse leptomeningeal seeding.
  • Neither the initial tumour nor the recurrence showed malignant histological features.
  • Treatment with systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy was ineffective in this patient.
  • We review the literature concerning leptomeningeal dissemination of benign choroid plexus papillomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Fourth Ventricle / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Seeding. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Laminectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Meninges / pathology. Reoperation. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17924056.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / S100 Proteins
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18. Houchi H, Warnault V, Barbier E, Dubois C, Pierrefiche O, Ledent C, Daoust M, Naassila M: Involvement of A2A receptors in anxiolytic, locomotor and motivational properties of ethanol in mice. Genes Brain Behav; 2008 Nov;7(8):887-98
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  • [Title] Involvement of A2A receptors in anxiolytic, locomotor and motivational properties of ethanol in mice.
  • We aimed to investigate if the increased propensity of A2A(-/-) mice to consume ethanol is associated with an altered sensitivity in the motivational properties of ethanol in the conditioned place preference (CPP) and conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigms and with an altered development of sensitization to the locomotor effects of ethanol.
  • We also tested their sensitivity to the anxiolytic effects of ethanol.
  • Our results show that A2A(-/-) mice produced on a CD1 background displayed a reduced ethanol-induced CPP and an increased sensitivity to the anxiolytic and locomotorstimulant effects of ethanol, but they did not show alteration in ethanol-induced CTA and locomotor sensitization.
  • Ethanol-induced CPP, ethanol consumption and the locomotor effects of ethanol were also tested in A2A(-/-) mice produced on a C57BL/6J background.
  • Our results emphasized the importance of the genetic background because alteration in ethanol consumption and preference, ethanol-induced CPP and locomotor-stimulant effects were not found in knockout mice produced on the alcohol-preferring C57BL/6J genetic background.
  • In conclusion, A2AR deficiency in mice generated on a CD1 background leads to high ethanol consumption that is associated with an increased sensitivity to the locomotor-stimulant/anxiolytic effects of ethanol and a decrease in ethanol-induced CPP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosine / metabolism. Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / genetics. Brain / drug effects. Ethanol / pharmacology. Receptor, Adenosine A2A / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-Anxiety Agents / pharmacology. Anxiety / drug therapy. Anxiety / genetics. Anxiety / metabolism. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Behavior, Animal / physiology. Central Nervous System Depressants / pharmacology. Conditioning (Psychology) / drug effects. Conditioning (Psychology) / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Resistance / drug effects. Drug Resistance / genetics. Genotype. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Knockout. Motivation. Motor Activity / drug effects. Motor Activity / physiology. Species Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19097273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1601-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, brain, and behavior
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Brain Behav.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Anxiety Agents; 0 / Central Nervous System Depressants; 0 / Receptor, Adenosine A2A; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; K72T3FS567 / Adenosine
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19. Elf K, Nilsson P, Ronne-Engström E, Howells T, Enblad P: Temperature disturbances in traumatic brain injury: relationship to secondary insults, barbiturate treatment and outcome. Neurol Res; 2008 Dec;30(10):1097-105

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Temperature disturbances in traumatic brain injury: relationship to secondary insults, barbiturate treatment and outcome.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence of spontaneous hyper- and hypothermia in patients with traumatic brain injury using a computerized data collecting system, to show how temperature correlates with other secondary insults, to describe how temperature affects outcome and to show how barbiturate treatment influences those analyses.
  • METHODS: Patients with > or = 54 hours of valid monitoring within the first 120 hours after trauma (one value/min) for temperature, intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure and heart rate were included.
  • Correlation analyses were performed between temperature and other secondary insult variables.
  • Hyperthermia correlated with occurrence of high blood pressure and high CPP.
  • When patients treated with barbiturates were excluded, 60% showed favorable outcome in the hypothermia group as well.
  • Barbiturate treatment also confounded analyses regarding temperature and other secondary insults.
  • DISCUSSION: Patients with hyperthermia, hypertension, high CPP and tachycardia may suffer from a hyperdynamic state.
  • Barbiturate treatment confounds several analyses which have not been shown before.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthetics, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Barbiturates / therapeutic use. Body Temperature / physiology. Brain Injuries / drug therapy. Brain Injuries / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Blood Pressure / physiology. Female. Glasgow Outcome Scale. Heart Rate / drug effects. Heart Rate / physiology. Humans. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Intracranial Pressure / physiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19079982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6412
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Intravenous; 0 / Barbiturates; WQ92Y2793G / barbituric acid
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20. Hashemi N, Mohammadirad A, Bayrami Z, Khorasani R, Vosough S, Aliahmadi A, Nikfar S, Sharifzadeh M, Kebriaeezadeh A, Abdollahi M: Restoration of morphine-induced alterations in rat submandibular gland function by N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist. Acta Biol Hung; 2006 Sep;57(3):283-94
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  • The effects of morphine, 1-aminocyclobutane-cis-1,3-dicarboxylic (ACBD; NMDA agonist) and 3-((R)2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-l-phosphoric acid (CPP; NMDA antagonist) and their concurrent therapy on rat submandibular secretory function were studied.
  • Administration of ACBD (10 mg/kg) and CPP (10 mg/kg) alone did not influence secretion of submandibular glands.
  • In combination therapy, coadministration of CPP with morphine did not influence morphine-induced changes in salivary function while ABCD could restore all morphine-induced changes.
  • In combination treatment, ACBD prevented morphine-induced reduction of flow rate, total protein, calcium, and TGF-beta1 and reached control levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Morphine / adverse effects. N-Methylaspartate / agonists. Submandibular Gland / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Analgesics, Opioid / pharmacology. Animals. Calcium / metabolism. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology. Glutamates / pharmacology. Male. Piperazines / pharmacology. Potassium / metabolism. Potassium / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Saliva / metabolism. Sodium / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17048692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0236-5383
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biologica Hungarica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta. Biol. Hung.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Glutamates; 0 / Piperazines; 100828-16-8 / 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid; 117488-23-0 / 2,4-methanoglutamate; 6384-92-5 / N-Methylaspartate; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium; RWP5GA015D / Potassium; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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21. Meybohm P, Cavus E, Bein B, Steinfath M, Brand PA, Scholz J, Dörges V: Cerebral metabolism assessed with microdialysis in uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock after penetrating liver trauma. Anesth Analg; 2006 Oct;103(4):948-54
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  • In a porcine model of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, we evaluated the effects of fluid resuscitation versus arginine vasopressin (AVP) combined with hypertonic-hyperoncotic hydroxyethyl starch solution (HHS) on cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and on cerebral metabolism using intracerebral microdialysis.
  • Thirty minutes after drug administration, bleeding was controlled by manual compression, and colloid and crystalloid solutions were administered in both groups.
  • All surviving animals were observed for one hour.
  • After hemodynamic decompensation, fluid resuscitation resulted in a smaller increase of CPP than did AVP/HHS (mean +/- sem; 24 +/- 5 vs 45 +/- 7 mm Hg; P < 0.01).
  • Mean (+/- sem) cerebral venous partial pressure of oxygen was significantly decreased (P < 0.01) 5 min after fluid compared with 5 min after AVP/HHS administration (36 +/- 3 vs 64 +/- 4 torr).
  • In conclusion, AVP/HHS proved to be superior to fluid in the initial phase of therapy with respect to CPP and cerebral oxygenation, but was comparable to fluid regarding cerebral metabolism and secondary cell damage in surviving animals.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Cortex / metabolism. Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology. Shock, Hemorrhagic / metabolism. Shock, Hemorrhagic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Arginine Vasopressin / pharmacology. Carbon Dioxide / blood. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Fluid Therapy / methods. Hemodynamics. Intracranial Pressure. Liver / injuries. Male. Microdialysis. Oxygen / blood. Partial Pressure. Swine. Wounds and Injuries / blood. Wounds and Injuries / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17000810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-7598
  • [Journal-full-title] Anesthesia and analgesia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anesth. Analg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 113-79-1 / Arginine Vasopressin; 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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22. McCall T, Binning M, Blumenthal DT, Jensen RL: Variations of disseminated choroid plexus papilloma: 2 case reports and a review of the literature. Surg Neurol; 2006 Jul;66(1):62-7; discussion 67-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Variations of disseminated choroid plexus papilloma: 2 case reports and a review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Choroid plexus papillomas are typically considered benign lesions, but histology is not always predictive of their behavior.
  • We present 2 cases that illustrate the wide diversity with which choroid plexus papillomas can disseminate.
  • CASE DESCRIPTIONS: The patient described in case 1 had a primary fourth ventricular choroid plexus papilloma that produced diffuse cystic subarachnoid and leptomeningeal lesions.
  • Patient 2 also had a primary fourth ventricular tumor but with subsequent suprasellar and spinal drop metastases.
  • Patient 2 has been treated with several modalities, including radiation therapy and chemotherapy, with slowing of symptom progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Variations of choroid plexus papilloma dissemination include intraventricular, subarachnoid, and leptomeningeal nodules or cystic lesions, and intraparenchymal locations.
  • There is no consensus on the most effective treatment for choroid plexus papilloma metastases; surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy may all yield benefits.
  • The prognosis for patients with disseminated choroid plexus papilloma can range from prolonged stable disease and symptoms to death within months.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Plexus / pathology. Choroid Plexus / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / therapy. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / diagnosis. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arachnoid / pathology. Arachnoid / physiopathology. Arachnoid / surgery. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Pia Mater / pathology. Pia Mater / physiopathology. Pia Mater / surgery. Subarachnoid Space / pathology. Subarachnoid Space / physiopathology. Subarachnoid Space / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16793445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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23. Karim A, Fowler M, McLaren B, Cardenas R, Patwardhan R, Nanda A: Concomitant choroid plexus papillomas involving the third and fourth ventricles: A case report and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2006 Sep;108(6):586-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Concomitant choroid plexus papillomas involving the third and fourth ventricles: A case report and review of the literature.
  • Choroid plexus papillomas (CPP) are histopathologically benign and rare central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms arising from the epithelium of the choroid plexus.
  • Third ventricular CPP are uncommon.
  • In this study, we present a case of a 66-year-old woman with complaints of progressive confusion, lethargy, and weakness who was found to have concomitant third and fourth ventricular masses on imaging studies.
  • Pathology from the biopsy and both resections was benign CPP.
  • Multifocal concomitant CPP is rare.
  • Concomitant CPPs may be secondary to mere coincidental tumor occurrence or to biologic seeding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a primary CPP despite otherwise benign histopathology.
  • The primary treatment for CPP is surgical resection.
  • Post-operative chemotherapy or radiation for CPP is of controversial benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Fourth Ventricle. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / pathology. Third Ventricle

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  • (PMID = 15963638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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24. Glantz L, Godovic G, Lekar M, Kramer M, Eidelman LA: Efficacy of transdermal nitroglycerin combined with etodolac for the treatment of chronic post-thoracotomy pain: an open-label prospective clinical trial. J Pain Symptom Manage; 2004 Mar;27(3):277-81
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  • [Title] Efficacy of transdermal nitroglycerin combined with etodolac for the treatment of chronic post-thoracotomy pain: an open-label prospective clinical trial.
  • Chronic post-thoracotomy pain (CPP) is associated with surgical intercostal nerve injury.
  • Like other forms of neuropathic pain, there is no ideal treatment.
  • Nitroglycerin (NTG) has been found efficacious in acute pain, but has not been tested for chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics.
  • The present study investigated the efficacy of NTG combined with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug etodolac for the treatment of CPP.
  • Thirty of 129 patients who underwent thoracotomy within an 18-month period had moderate to severe pain that did not respond to etodolac.
  • NTG, 5 mg/day, was added to the treatment.
  • A significant reduction in VAS was observed on day 14 of treatment (from 66.7 +/- 11 to 42.1 +/- 5, P< 0.05).
  • We conclude that NTG added to etodolac appears to be effective for the treatment of CPP, with minimal side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage. Etodolac / administration & dosage. Nitroglycerin / administration & dosage. Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy. Thoracotomy / adverse effects. Vasodilator Agents / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Aged. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15038339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0885-3924
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pain and symptom management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pain Symptom Manage
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Vasodilator Agents; 2M36281008 / Etodolac; G59M7S0WS3 / Nitroglycerin
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25. Arellanes-García L, Navarro-López L, Recillas-Gispert C: Pars planitis in the Mexican Mestizo population: ocular findings, treatment, and visual outcome. Ocul Immunol Inflamm; 2003 Mar;11(1):53-60
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  • [Title] Pars planitis in the Mexican Mestizo population: ocular findings, treatment, and visual outcome.
  • PURPOSE: To describe the clinical manifestations of classic pars planitis (CPP) in Mexican patients.
  • We report here the most frequent complications, medical and surgical treatment, and visual prognosis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive case series examined the clinical features, complications, and treatment (medical and surgical) of CPP patients seen at the Inflammatory Eye Disease Clinic from January 1990 to September 1999.
  • RESULTS: One hundred and sixty patients met inclusion criteria for the study.
  • Mean age at presentation was 10 years and males were more frequently affected.
  • Periocular corticosteroids were used in 97.5% of cases, systemic corticosteroids in 68.1%, and other immunosuppressive drugs in 21.3%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CPP in the Mexican population is more frequent in males and usually presents in patients less than 14 years of age.
  • Treatment comprises periocular and systemic corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Pars Planitis / complications. Pars Planitis / drug therapy. Visual Acuity
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adolescent. Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Cataract / etiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Eye Diseases / etiology. Female. Glucocorticoids. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Macular Edema / etiology. Male. Mexico / epidemiology. Retinal Vasculitis / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Vision Disorders / etiology. Vitreous Body / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12854027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3948
  • [Journal-full-title] Ocular immunology and inflammation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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26. Ciccocioppo R, Economidou D, Fedeli A, Massi M: The nociceptin/orphanin FQ/NOP receptor system as a target for treatment of alcohol abuse: a review of recent work in alcohol-preferring rats. Physiol Behav; 2003 Jun;79(1):121-8
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  • [Title] The nociceptin/orphanin FQ/NOP receptor system as a target for treatment of alcohol abuse: a review of recent work in alcohol-preferring rats.
  • The intracerebroventricular administration of the 17 amino acid peptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous ligand of the NOP receptor (previously referred to as ORL-1 or OP4 receptor), reduces voluntary 10% ethanol intake in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats.
  • Studies aimed at the pharmacological characterization of the receptor, which mediates the effect, have shown that the C-terminal 13 amino acid sequence is crucial for activity and that the selective NOP receptor antagonist [Nphe(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2) blocks the effect of N/OFQ on ethanol drinking.
  • In place conditioning studies, N/OFQ abolishes the conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by ethanol in msP rats, or by morphine in nonselected Wistar rats; these findings suggest that N/OFQ is able to abolish the rewarding properties of ethanol and morphine.
  • Together, these findings suggest that N/OFQ and its receptor may represent an interesting target for pharmacological treatment of alcohol abuse.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Association Learning / drug effects. Association Learning / physiology. Conditioning, Classical / drug effects. Conditioning, Classical / physiology. Ethanol / pharmacology. Humans. Injections, Intraventricular. Mice. Morphine / pharmacology. Morphine Dependence / physiopathology. Motivation. Rats. Social Environment. Stress, Psychological / complications. Ventral Tegmental Area / drug effects. Ventral Tegmental Area / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 12818717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-9384
  • [Journal-full-title] Physiology & behavior
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Physiol. Behav.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alcohol Deterrents; 0 / Opioid Peptides; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Receptors, Opioid; 0 / nociceptin orphanin FQ(1-17)OH; 0 / nociceptin receptor; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine
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27. Berrada M, Yang Z, Lehnert S: Tumor treatment by sustained intratumoral release of 5-fluorouracil: effects of drug alone and in combined treatments. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Dec 1;54(5):1550-7
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  • [Title] Tumor treatment by sustained intratumoral release of 5-fluorouracil: effects of drug alone and in combined treatments.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate an intratumoral polymer implant for sustained delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in a mouse tumor model.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: 5-FU was incorporated into a polyanhydride-based polymer, bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)propane sebacic acid (CPP:SA) and implanted in RIF-1 mouse fibrosarcoma growing s.c.
  • The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated by tumor growth delay.
  • A second drug, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cis-DDP), was administered by intraperitoneal injection or by osmotic pump.
  • RESULTS: For drug/polymer implant alone, the tumor growth delay was proportional to the amount of drug in the implant.
  • The 5-FU polymer implant was most effective when combined with cis-DDP or with acute or fractionated radiation, and in some cases, the effects of combined treatments were greater than additive.
  • CONCLUSION: Results indicate that 5-FU can be effectively delivered by polymer implant and that this mode of delivery is particularly appropriate for combined treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Cobalt Radioisotopes. Combined Modality Therapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Mice. Neoplasm Transplantation. Organoplatinum Compounds. Polymers / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Radiometry. Time Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 12459384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cobalt Radioisotopes; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 78022-86-3 / diammine platinum(II) dilactate; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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28. Stergiou GS, Efstathiou SP, Argyraki CK, Gantzarou AP, Roussias LG, Mountokalakis TD: Clinic, home and ambulatory pulse pressure: comparison and reproducibility. J Hypertens; 2002 Oct;20(10):1987-93
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Home Care Services.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The objective of this study was to compare mean values and reproducibility of PP obtained in the clinic (CPP), at home (HPP) and with ambulatory monitoring (APP) and to evaluate potential implications for trials aiming to assess drug effects on PP.
  • METHODS: A total of 393 hypertensive subjects [mean age 51.5 +/- 11.5 (SD) years, 59% men, 35% treated] measured CPP (two visits), HPP (6 days) and APP (24 h).
  • The reproducibility of PP was assessed using the SD of differences (SDD) between measurements in 133 untreated subjects who had repeated CPP (five visits), HPP (6 days) and APP measurements (two occasions).
  • RESULTS: There was no difference between mean CPP (51.0 +/- 13.3 mmHg) and HPP (50.2 +/- 11.0) whereas APP (48.8 +/- 8.4) was lower than both CPP [mean difference 2.3 +/- 10.3 mmHg; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2, 3.3; P < 0.01] and HPP (1.5 +/- 7.8; 95% CI, 0.7, 2.3; P < 0.01).
  • The SDD between repeated measurements was about 10 mmHg for CPP (one visit), 5.2 mmHg for HPP (2 days) and 4 mmHg for APP (24-h).
  • For a parallel comparative trial aiming to detect a difference of 3 mmHg PP in the effect of two drugs, 415 subjects would be required when using CPP, compared to 127 using HPP and 63 using APP.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that although differences among mean values of CPP, HPP and APP are small, differences in their reproducibility are important and should be taken into account in the design of trials assessing drug effects on PP.
  • [MeSH-major] Ambulatory Care Facilities. Blood Pressure / physiology. Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory. Home Care Services
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Circadian Rhythm / drug effects. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Female. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypertension / drug therapy. Hypertension / physiopathology. Male. Middle Aged. Pulse. Reproducibility of Results. Statistics as Topic. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12359977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0263-6352
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hypertens.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents
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29. Krstevska-Konstantinova M, Jancevska A, Gucev Z: Autoimmune thyroiditis and diabetes mellitus type 1 after long-term gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment for central precocious puberty: evolution or coincidence? J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Apr;23(4):403-6
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  • [Title] Autoimmune thyroiditis and diabetes mellitus type 1 after long-term gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment for central precocious puberty: evolution or coincidence?
  • Very few abnormalities in endocrine function have been reported during long term gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment in girls.
  • Most authors agree that this therapy is safe and effective.
  • We present an unusual outcome of long term GnRHa therapy in two girls with central precocious puberty(CPP) of idiopathic or organic origin.
  • They have received monthly depot injections of triptorelin acetate for a time period of 8 years.
  • One of the girls was at the age of 8.5 years, having elevated thyroid antibodies, mild goitier and an abnormal ultrasound of the thyroid gland, suggesting autoimmune thyroiditis.
  • Another girl with a hypothalamic hamartoma developed diabetes mellitus at the age of 9 years.
  • Both of these girls were early diagnosed for CPP, at 6 months and 8 months respectively, and given GnRHa treatment.
  • So far, it is not known whether these autoimmune diseases are related to the GnRHa treatment or are simply a coincidence.
  • However, we suggest a closer monitoring of girls with CPP who have had a long period of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / etiology. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / etiology. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Hamartoma / complications. Hamartoma / drug therapy. Humans. Luteolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Pituitary Diseases / complications. Pituitary Diseases / drug therapy


30. Velázquez-Sánchez C, Ferragud A, Hernández-Rabaza V, Nácher A, Merino V, Cardá M, Murga J, Canales JJ: The dopamine uptake inhibitor 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane reduces cocaine-induced early-gene expression, locomotor activity, and conditioned reward. Neuropsychopharmacology; 2009 Nov;34(12):2497-507
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  • [Title] The dopamine uptake inhibitor 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane reduces cocaine-induced early-gene expression, locomotor activity, and conditioned reward.
  • Benztropine (BZT) analogs, a family of high-affinity dopamine transporter ligands, are molecules that exhibit pharmacological and behavioral characteristics predictive of significant therapeutic potential in cocaine addiction.
  • Here, we examined in mice the effects of 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane (AHN-1055) on motor activity, conditioned place preference (CPP) and c-Fos expression in the striatum.
  • AHN-1055 produced mild attenuation of spontaneous locomotor activity at a low dose (1 mg/kg) and weak stimulation at a higher dose (10 mg/kg).
  • Interaction assays showed that cocaine's ability to stimulate locomotor activity was decreased by AHN-1055 treatment, but not by treatment with D-amphetamine.
  • Such reduced ability did not result from an increase in stereotyped behavior.
  • Another dopamine uptake inhibitor, nomifensine, decreased cocaine-induced locomotor activity but evoked by itself intense motor stereotypies.
  • Remarkably, the BZT analog dose-dependently blocked cocaine-induced CPP without producing CPP when given alone, and blocked in conditioned mice cocaine-stimulated early-gene activation in the nucleus accumbens and dorsomedial striatum.
  • These observations provide evidence that AHN-1055 does not behave as a classical psychomotor stimulant and that some of its properties, including attenuation of cocaine-induced striatal c-Fos expression, locomotor stimulation, and CPP, support its candidacy, and that of structurally related molecules, as possible pharmacotherapies in cocaine addiction.
  • [MeSH-major] Benztropine / analogs & derivatives. Cocaine-Related Disorders / drug therapy. Conditioning, Classical / drug effects. Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gene Expression / drug effects. Motor Activity / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / drug effects. Brain / metabolism. Cocaine / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Male. Mice. Nomifensine / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism. Reward. Space Perception / drug effects. Stereotyped Behavior / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19606084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1740-634X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / N-methyl-3-(bis(4'-fluorophenyl)methoxy)tropane; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 1LGS5JRP31 / Nomifensine; 1NHL2J4X8K / Benztropine; I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine
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31. Toussaint M, Delair B, Foulon C, Lempereur N, Vaccher C, Maurice T, Melnyk P: Tic hydantoin sigma-1 agonist: pharmacological characterization on cocaine-induced stimulant and appetitive effects. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol; 2009 Jul;19(7):504-15
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. COCAINE .

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  • [Title] Tic hydantoin sigma-1 agonist: pharmacological characterization on cocaine-induced stimulant and appetitive effects.
  • The most active enantiomer 4, facilitated CPP acquisition but failed to substitute for cocaine.
  • When CPP was acquired with cocaine and then extinguished, 4 provoked reactivation of CPP.
  • Preliminary ADME properties are in favour of an optimal therapeutic development.
  • Such Tic-hydantoin compound may serve as a new effective agonist therapy in cocaine addiction.
  • [MeSH-major] Appetitive Behavior / drug effects. Cocaine / pharmacology. Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology. Hydantoins / pharmacology. Hyperkinesis / chemically induced. Receptors, sigma / agonists
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Cellulose, Oxidized / pharmacology. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods. Conditioning, Operant / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Ethylenediamines / pharmacology. Extinction, Psychological / drug effects. Locomotion / drug effects. Male. Mice. Protein Binding / drug effects. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19249191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7862
  • [Journal-full-title] European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cellulose, Oxidized; 0 / Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Ethylenediamines; 0 / Hydantoins; 0 / INTERCEED; 0 / Receptors, sigma; 138356-20-4 / BD 1047; I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine
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32. Benturquia N, Le Marec T, Scherrmann JM, Noble F: Effects of nitrous oxide on dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and expectation of reward. Neuroscience; 2008 Aug 13;155(2):341-4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MORPHINE .

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  • Recently we have shown that nitrous oxide (N2O) was able to block the expression of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice.
  • Because dopamine (DA) has also been associated with the positive place conditioning we hypothesize that exposure to N2O would be significantly associated with a modification of extracellular level of DA.
  • Levels of DA, in the nucleus accumbens (Nac), in awake and freely moving rats during positive place conditioning after morphine chronic treatment has been measured by microdialysis.
  • Expression of morphine-induced CPP was totally abolished in mice and rats exposed to N2O.
  • In conclusion we showed the capacity of N2O to block the expression of morphine-induced CPP in mice and in rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine / metabolism. Morphine Dependence / drug therapy. Nitrous Oxide / pharmacology. Nucleus Accumbens / drug effects. Reward
  • [MeSH-minor] Analgesics, Opioid / pharmacology. Animals. Conditioning (Psychology) / drug effects. Conditioning (Psychology) / physiology. Drug Interactions. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Microdialysis. Morphine / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Spatial Behavior / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18571333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-4522
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; K50XQU1029 / Nitrous Oxide; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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33. Esmaeili B, Basseda Z, Dehpour AR: Antagonism of muscarinic M1 receptors by dicyclomine inhibits the consolidation of morphine-associated contextual memory. Brain Res Bull; 2008 Jul 1;76(4):380-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DICYCLOMINE .

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  • [Title] Antagonism of muscarinic M1 receptors by dicyclomine inhibits the consolidation of morphine-associated contextual memory.
  • M1 muscarinic receptor has been shown to be involved in cognitive functions of the brain.
  • Conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm involves memory for the association between environmental stimuli and the rewarding properties produced by a treatment.
  • Using a balanced CPP design, we studied the possible involvement of M1 muscarinic receptors on the acquisition, expression and consolidation of morphine place conditioning in male mice.
  • Subcutaneous administration of morphine sulphate-induced CPP in a dose-dependent manner.
  • Using a 6-day schedule of conditioning, it was found that dicyclomine, an M1 muscarinic antagonist, significantly reduced the time spent by mice in the morphine compartment when given immediately, but not 6h, after each conditioning session (consolidation).
  • It had no effect when administered 30 min before each conditioning session during CPP training period (acquisition) or 30 min before testing for place preference in the absence of morphine (expression).
  • It is concluded that M1 muscarinic receptors may play a time-dependent role in the consolidation of reward-related memory of morphine.
  • [MeSH-major] Dicyclomine / pharmacology. Learning / drug effects. Memory / drug effects. Morphine / pharmacology. Receptor, Muscarinic M1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / drug effects. Brain / metabolism. Conditioning (Psychology) / drug effects. Conditioning (Psychology) / physiology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Interactions / physiology. Male. Mice. Morphine Dependence / drug therapy. Morphine Dependence / metabolism. Muscarinic Antagonists / pharmacology. Narcotics / pharmacology. Reward. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18502314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2747
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Muscarinic Antagonists; 0 / Narcotics; 0 / Receptor, Muscarinic M1; 4KV4X8IF6V / Dicyclomine; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine
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34. Bertelloni S, Mul D: Treatment of central precocious puberty by GnRH analogs: long-term outcome in men. Asian J Androl; 2008 Jul;10(4):525-34
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  • [Title] Treatment of central precocious puberty by GnRH analogs: long-term outcome in men.
  • In boys, central precocious puberty (CPP) is the appearance of secondary sex characteristics driven by pituitary gonadotropin secretion before the age of 9 years.
  • In the last years, relevant improvements in the treatment of CPP have been achieved.
  • Because CPP is rare in boys, the majority of papers on this issue focus on girls and do not address specific features of male patients regarding end results and safety.
  • In the present paper, recent advances of CPP management with GnRH analogs in men are summarized.
  • End results in untreated and treated patients are also reviewed by an analysis of the recently published literature on treatment of CPP in men.
  • The available data indicate that therapy with GnRH analogs can improve final height into the range of target height without significant adverse short-term and long-term effects, but longer follow-up of larger series of patients is still required to draw definitive conclusions.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Body Height / drug effects. Body Height / physiology. Child. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Male. Sex Characteristics. Treatment Outcome


35. Zhang H, Zhao Q, Bhattacharya S, Waheed AA, Tong X, Hong A, Heck S, Curreli F, Goger M, Cowburn D, Freed EO, Debnath AK: A cell-penetrating helical peptide as a potential HIV-1 inhibitor. J Mol Biol; 2008 May 2;378(3):565-80
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • The capsid domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein is a critical determinant of virus assembly, and is therefore a potential target for developing drugs for AIDS therapy.
  • The same group reported the X-ray crystal structure of CAI in complex with the C-terminal domain of capsid (C-CA) at a resolution of 1.7 A.
  • Using this structural information, we have utilized a structure-based rational design approach to stabilize the alpha-helical structure of CAI and convert it to a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP).
  • NMR chemical shift perturbation analysis mapped the binding site of NYAD-1 to residues 169-191 of the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 capsid encompassing the hydrophobic cavity and the critical dimerization domain with an improved binding affinity over CAI.
  • Furthermore, experimental data indicate that NYAD-1 most likely targets capsid at a post-entry stage.
  • Most significantly, NYAD-1 inhibited a large panel of HIV-1 isolates in cell culture at low micromolar potency.
  • Our study demonstrates how a structure-based rational design strategy can be used to convert a cell-impermeable peptide to a cell-permeable peptide that displays activity in cell-based assays without compromising its mechanism of action.
  • This proof-of-concept cell-penetrating peptide may aid validation of capsid as an anti-HIV-1 drug target and may help in designing peptidomimetics and small molecule drugs targeted to this protein.

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  • (PMID = 18374356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-8638
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC010778-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P41 GM066354-05; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM-66354; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P41 GM066354; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P41 GM066354-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM066354-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Gene Products, gag; 0 / NYAD-1 peptide; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS76587; NLM/ PMC2695608
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36. Toumba M, Bacopoulou I, Savva SC, Skordis N: Efficacy of combined treatment with growth hormone and gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue in children with poor prognosis of adult height. Indian Pediatr; 2007 Jul;44(7):497-502
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Growth Disorders.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of combined treatment with growth hormone and gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue in children with poor prognosis of adult height.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to study the role of combination therapy of growth hormone and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (CPP) or idiopathic short stature (ISS).
  • METHODS: Five girls with CPP (median age 9.1 y, pubertal stage 2-3) (3 of them previously treated with GnRH analogue (GnRHa) for 16.2 +/- 0.3 months) and 8 girls with ISS (median age 11.4 y, pubertal stage 2-3) (previously treated with GH for 10.95 +/- 1.42 months), were treated with recombinant human GH (0.33 mg/kg/week) and GnRHa (3.75 mg/28 days) for 22 months.
  • RESULTS: Height of girls with CPP improved from - 1.3 to - 0.2 SDS and height for BA from - 2.1 to - 0.6 SDS (P = 0.042).
  • CONCLUSION: Combined treatment improves height and PAH in CPP.
  • Height in ISS is also improved however not significantly.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Height / drug effects. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Growth Disorders / drug therapy. Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Bone Development / drug effects. Child. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17684302.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-6061
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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37. Meybohm P, Cavus E, Bein B, Steinfath M, Weber B, Hamann C, Scholz J, Dörges V: Small volume resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial with either norepinephrine or vasopressin during severe hemorrhage. J Trauma; 2007 Mar;62(3):640-6
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  • BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of hypertonic-hyperoncotic hydroxyethyl starch solution (HHS) combined with either norepinephrine (NE) or arginine vasopressin (AVP) on cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and brain metabolism after hemorrhagic shock.
  • METHODS: Fourteen pigs were subjected to uncontrolled liver bleeding until hemodynamic decompensation followed by resuscitation using HHS (4 mL/kg) combined with either NE (bolus of 1000 microg; 60 microg/kg/hr; n = 7) or AVP (bolus of 10 U; 2 U/kg/hr; n = 7), respectively.
  • After 30 minutes of therapy, bleeding was controlled by manual compression and all surviving animals were observed for 1 hour.
  • RESULTS: After hemodynamic decompensation, AVP resulted in a significantly higher increase of CPP (mean +/- SD; 47 +/- 19 versus 28 +/- 9 mm Hg; p < 0.01) and cerebral venous partial pressure of oxygen (66 +/- 8 versus 49 +/- 9 mm Hg; p < 0.05) compared with NE after 10 minutes of therapy.
  • Hemodynamic data and blood gas variables were not different between groups during the remaining study period.
  • Brain metabolism was found comparable in both groups at any time.
  • CONCLUSIONS: AVP was comparable to NE with respect to hemodynamics and blood gases, as well as brain metabolism in surviving animals throughout the study period.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives / therapeutic use. Norepinephrine / therapeutic use. Plasma Substitutes / therapeutic use. Resuscitation / methods. Shock, Hemorrhagic / therapy. Vasoconstrictor Agents / therapeutic use. Vasopressins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Brain / metabolism. Cardiac Output / drug effects. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Microdialysis. Oxygen / blood. Sus scrofa

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  • (PMID = 17414341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5282
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of trauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives; 0 / Plasma Substitutes; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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38. Hummel M, Schroeder J, Liu-Chen LY, Cowan A, Unterwald EM: An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to the mu opioid receptor attenuates cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and reward in mice. Neuroscience; 2006 Oct 13;142(2):481-91
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  • [Title] An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to the mu opioid receptor attenuates cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and reward in mice.
  • Few of these studies, however, selectively delineate a role for the mu opioid receptor (MOR) in this regard.
  • Mice also received concomitant once daily i.p. injections of saline (4 ml/kg) or cocaine (15 mg/kg) for 10 days.
  • There was a 7-day withdrawal period, after which all mice were challenged with cocaine (15 mg/kg) to test for behavioral sensitization.
  • For the conditioned place preference (CPP) study, mice received five i.c.v. infusions of mismatch ODN or MOR AS ODN (days 1-5).
  • An unbiased counterbalanced conditioning procedure was used where mice were conditioned with saline (4 ml/kg, i.p.) and cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) on alternate days for four sessions (days 3-6).
  • Mice were tested on day 7 for CPP.
  • Immediately following testing, [3H]DAMGO (D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly-ol5-enkephalin) receptor binding to brain homogenates was conducted.
  • [MeSH-major] Cocaine-Related Disorders / drug therapy. Cocaine-Related Disorders / physiopathology. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / therapeutic use. Receptors, Opioid, mu / physiology. Reward
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Behavior, Animal. Conditioning, Operant / drug effects. Drug Administration Routes. Drug Interactions. Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)- / pharmacokinetics. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Morphine / pharmacology. Narcotics / pharmacology. Protein Binding / drug effects. Radiography / methods. Time Factors. Tritium / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 16893609.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-4522
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA 09580; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / P30 DA 13429; United States / PHS HHS / / T32 07237
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Narcotics; 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Receptors, Opioid, mu; 10028-17-8 / Tritium; 100929-53-1 / Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)-; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine
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39. Russo SJ, Festa ED, Fabian SJ, Gazi FM, Kraish M, Jenab S, Quiñones-Jenab V: Gonadal hormones differentially modulate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in male and female rats. Neuroscience; 2003;120(2):523-33
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  • [Title] Gonadal hormones differentially modulate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in male and female rats.
  • There is accumulating evidence that suggests there are sex differences in behavioral and subjective responses to cocaine.
  • However, it is not known whether differences in cocaine reward contribute to sex differences in these responses or whether gonadal hormones affect the rewarding properties of cocaine.
  • In the present study, conditioned place preference (CPP), a measure of non-contingent reward, was used to determine the effects of endogenous gonadal hormones and of estrogen and progesterone replacement on cocaine reward.
  • Although both intact and gonadectomized male and female rats showed a significant CPP for cocaine, ovariectomy attenuated the magnitude of CPP.
  • These alterations coincided with a decrease in serum levels of corticosterone.
  • In ovariectomized rats, pretreatment with progesterone inhibited cocaine CPP while estrogen plus progesterone potentiated the magnitude of CPP.
  • Additionally, gonadectomy and ovarian hormone replacement in female rats affected serotonin/dopamine levels and turnover ratios in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens shell.
  • While no effects of castration were observed, ovariectomy decreased levels of dopamine and serotonin in the ventral tegmental area.
  • In females, progesterone replacement increased levels of serotonin and dopamine in the ventral tegmental area, while estrogen plus progesterone replacement increased dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens.
  • Collectively, these results indicate that ovarian hormones may influence cocaine reward by altering monoaminergic systems, which, in turn, may contribute to the current sex disparities in overall cocaine use.
  • [MeSH-major] Cocaine / pharmacology. Conditioning (Psychology) / drug effects. Estrogens / pharmacology. Progesterone / pharmacology. Sex Characteristics
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Anesthetics, Local / pharmacology. Animals. Behavior, Animal. Biogenic Monoamines / metabolism. Cesarean Section / methods. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / instrumentation. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods. Corticosterone / blood. Drug Interactions. Exploratory Behavior / drug effects. Exploratory Behavior / physiology. Female. Hormone Replacement Therapy / methods. Male. Motor Activity / drug effects. Motor Activity / physiology. Nucleus Accumbens / drug effects. Nucleus Accumbens / metabolism. Radioimmunoassay / methods. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Reaction Time. Reward. Time Factors. Ventral Tegmental Area / drug effects. Ventral Tegmental Area / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12890521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-4522
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA12136; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM60654; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS-41073; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR-03037
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 0 / Biogenic Monoamines; 0 / Estrogens; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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40. Wang R, Zhang Y, Qing H, Liu M, Yang P: The extinction of morphine-induced conditioned place preference by histone deacetylase inhibition. Neurosci Lett; 2010 Oct 11;483(2):137-42
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  • In this study, we will examine the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on extinction of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP).
  • To exclude the effect of repeated NaBut injections themselves on morphine-CPP in the absence of extinction session, rats received injection of either NaBut or vehicle for 8 days.
  • We found that HDAC inhibition during nonconfined extinction or confined extinction consolidation can facilitate extinction of morphine-induced CPP.
  • We also showed that the extinction of drug seeking via HDAC inhibition modulates extinction learning such that reinstatement behavior is significantly attenuated.
  • There is no effect of repeated NaBut injections themselves on morphine-CPP in the absence of extinction session.
  • In conclusion, our results extend earlier reports on the ability of HDACi to modify the behavioral effects of drugs of abuse.
  • Our increasing understanding of these epigenetic mechanisms will provide key answers to basic processes in drug addiction and hopefully provide insight into designing improved treatments for drug addiction.
  • [MeSH-major] Conditioning (Psychology) / drug effects. Conditioning (Psychology) / physiology. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Extinction, Psychological / drug effects. Histone Deacetylase 1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Morphine Dependence / drug therapy. Protein Processing, Post-Translational / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Analgesics, Opioid / pharmacology. Animals. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Behavior, Animal / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Male. Morphine / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20691756.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7972
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; EC 3.5.1.98 / Hdac1 protein, rat; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylase 1
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41. Hirsch HJ, Lahlou N, Gillis D, Strich D, Rosenberg-Hagen B, Chertin B, Farkas A, Hartman H, Spitz IM: Free alpha-subunit is the most sensitive marker of gonadotropin recovery after treatment of central precocious puberty with the histrelin implant. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jun;95(6):2841-4
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  • [Title] Free alpha-subunit is the most sensitive marker of gonadotropin recovery after treatment of central precocious puberty with the histrelin implant.
  • BACKGROUND: Gonadotropin free alpha-subunit (FAS) levels paradoxically increase during GnRH agonist (GnRHa) treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • The histrelin implant suppresses gonadotropins and estradiol (E(2)) levels for 1 yr, but effects on FAS have not been described.
  • OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether FAS levels remain elevated during treatment with the implant, to assess the dynamics of FAS after removal, and to ascertain the reliability of FAS for monitoring gonadotropin secretion.
  • METHODS: Ten girls with CPP were studied.
  • Two naive girls did not receive prior GnRHa.
  • Duration of implant treatment ranged from 18-63 months with repeated implant removals and insertions of new implants.
  • LH, FSH, E(2), and FAS were measured before implant insertion in the two naive patients and during treatment, and in all girls before and after implant removal.
  • RESULTS: FAS levels were 0.2 and 0.4 ng/ml (normal, <0.6 ng/ml) in the two naive girls and increased to 2.4 and 5.1 ng/ml within 2-5 d of insertion.
  • FAS level (mean +/- SD) in all 10 girls during histrelin implant treatment was 1.19 +/- 0.49 ng/ml and rapidly decreased to 0.31 +/- 0.12 ng/ml within 1 wk of implant removal (P < 0.03).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Compared to LH, FSH, and E(2), FAS responds more rapidly to implant removal and represents the most sensitive indicator of gonadotropin recovery after histrelin implant treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit / metabolism. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Gonadotropins / metabolism. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Implants. Estradiol / blood. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone. Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human / blood. Humans. Hydrogels. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Recovery of Function

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  • (PMID = 20339028.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human; 0 / Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit; 0 / Gonadotropins; 0 / Hydrogels; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; H50H3S3W74 / histrelin
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42. Braun K, Ehemann V, Wiessler M, Pipkorn R, Didinger B, Mueller G, Waldeck W: High-resolution flow cytometry: a suitable tool for monitoring aneuploid prostate cancer cells after TMZ and TMZ-BioShuttle treatment. Int J Med Sci; 2009;6(6):338-47
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  • [Title] High-resolution flow cytometry: a suitable tool for monitoring aneuploid prostate cancer cells after TMZ and TMZ-BioShuttle treatment.
  • If metastatic prostate cancer gets resistant to antiandrogen therapy, there are few treatment options, because prostate cancer is not very sensitive to cytostatic agents.
  • Temozolomide (TMZ) as an orally applicable chemotherapeutic substance has been proven to be effective and well tolerated with occasional moderate toxicity especially for brain tumors and an application to prostate cancer cells seemed to be promising.
  • Unfortunately, TMZ was inefficient in the treatment of symptomatic progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC).
  • The reasons could be a low sensitivity against TMZ the short plasma half-life of TMZ, non-adapted application regimens and additionally, the aneuploid DNA content of prostate cancer cells suggesting different sensitivity against therapeutical interventions e.g. radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
  • Considerations to improve this unsatisfying situation resulted in the realization of higher local TMZ concentrations, sufficient to kill cells regardless of intrinsic cellular sensitivity and cell DNA-index.
  • The modular-composed carrier consists of a transmembrane transporter (CPP), connected to a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) cleavably-bound, which in turn was coupled with TMZ.
  • The NLS-sequence allows an active delivery of the TMZ into the cell nucleus after transmembrane passage of the TMZ-BioShuttle and intra-cytoplasm enzymatic cleavage and separation from the CPP.
  • This TMZ-BioShuttle could contribute to improve therapeutic options exemplified by the hormone refractory prostate cancer.
  • The next step was to syllogize a qualified method monitoring cell toxic effects in a high sensitivity under consideration of the ploidy status.
  • The high-resolution flow cytometric analysis showed to be an appropriate system for a better detection and distinction of several cell populations dependent on their different DNA-indices as well as changes in proliferation of cell populations after chemotherapeutical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Aneuploidy. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Monitoring / methods. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Flow Cytometry / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19946604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1449-1907
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2781174
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Flow Cytometry / Prostate Cancer Cells / TMZ-BioShuttle
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43. Serrano-Fabiá A, Albert-Marí A, Almenar-Cubells D, Jiménez-Torres NV: Multidisciplinary system for detecting medication errors in antineoplastic chemotherapy. J Oncol Pharm Pract; 2010 Jun;16(2):105-12
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  • [Title] Multidisciplinary system for detecting medication errors in antineoplastic chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze medication errors (MEs) in a multidisciplinary system with a Computerized Pharmacotherapy Process (CPP) in cancer patients.
  • DESIGN: A longitudinal, prospective 2-year (January 2003 -to December 2004) cohort study was made in adult patients administered antineoplastic treatment in Services of Oncology and Haematology.
  • MEs were identified by double cross-validation of each stage of the pharmacotherapeutic process (prescription, preparation, dispensing, administration, and follow-up) carried out by the multidisciplinary team (physician, pharmacist, nurse) with CPP assistance.
  • VARIABLES: Number of MEs per 1000 patient-days, percentage according to the stage of the pharmacotherapeutic process and the severity of intercepted ME (scored from 1 = no damage to the patient, to 5 = patient death).
  • RESULTS: A total of 1311 patients were receiving treatment, and MEs were identified in 225.
  • Out of a total of 13,158 patient-days, 276 MEs were detected, equivalent to 20.9 MEs per 1000 patient-days; of these, 16.8 MEs per 1000 patient-days (80%) were intercepted and did not affect any patient.
  • The detected ME distribution according to pharmacotherapeutic stage was: prescription 75.7%, preparation 21.0%, dispensing 1.8%, administration 1.1%, and follow-up 0.4%.
  • The system intercepted 98.9% of all MEs with severity >or=3 (MEs with a potential for causing patient damage).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The multidisciplinary system with a well-established CPP detects 20.9 MEs per 1000 patient-days and intercepts 98.8% of all MEs with a potential for causing patient damage.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Hospitals, University / standards. Interprofessional Relations. Medication Errors / prevention & control. Medication Systems, Hospital / standards

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  • (PMID = 19617304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-092X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Oncol Pharm Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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44. Fishbain DA, Lewis JE, Gao J, Cole B, Rosomoff RS: Alleged medical abandonment in chronic opioid analgesic therapy: case report. Pain Med; 2009 May-Jun;10(4):722-9
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  • [Title] Alleged medical abandonment in chronic opioid analgesic therapy: case report.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this medicolegal case report were the following:.
  • 1) present details of a chronic pain patient (CPP) on chronic opioid analgesic therapy (COAT), who diverted her opioids and was terminated from treatment, and subsequently committed suicide;.
  • METHODS: This is a case report of a CPP treated by a pain physician who demonstrated aberrant drug-related behaviors and required large doses of controlled-release oxycodone.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Opioid / adverse effects. Malpractice / legislation & jurisprudence. Pain, Intractable / drug therapy. Physician-Patient Relations. Refusal to Treat / legislation & jurisprudence. Suicide / legislation & jurisprudence
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / drug therapy. Abdominal Pain / etiology. Abdominal Pain / physiopathology. Adult. Alcoholism / complications. Alprazolam / administration & dosage. Crime. Drug Administration Schedule. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hypnotics and Sedatives / administration & dosage. Opioid-Related Disorders / etiology. Opioid-Related Disorders / psychology. Oxycodone / administration & dosage. Oxycodone / adverse effects. Pancreatitis, Chronic / complications. Pancreatitis, Chronic / physiopathology. Patient Compliance. Self Medication / psychology


45. Kang L, Wang D, Li B, Hu M, Zhang P, Li J: Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant, attenuates morphine dependence and withdrawal in Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse; 2008;34(5):541-52
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The effects of mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant, on morphine withdrawal and morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) were investigated in rats.
  • Our results showed that some morphine withdrawal signs, including teeth chattering, grooming, chewing, and escape attendance, were attenuated by single pretreatments with 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg mirtazapine.
  • Wet-dog shakes, rearing, and grooming were inhibited by daily pretreatment with 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg mirtazapine.
  • The expression of morphine-induced CPP was significantly blocked by mirtazapine (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.
  • ), while chronic treatment with mirtazapine (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p. once, daily, for six consecutive days) significantly attenuated the acquisition of morphine CPP.
  • Our results demonstrated that mirtazapine attenuates morphine withdrawal and morphine-induced CPP in rats and suggest that mirtazapine may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of opiate dependence.
  • [MeSH-major] Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic / pharmacology. Mianserin / analogs & derivatives. Morphine Dependence / drug therapy. Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Conditioning, Operant / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Male. Morphine / adverse effects. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Serotonin Receptor Agonists / administration & dosage. Serotonin Receptor Agonists / pharmacology

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MIANSERIN .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MORPHINE .
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  • (PMID = 18618337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-9891
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic; 0 / Serotonin Receptor Agonists; 250PJI13LM / Mianserin; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; A051Q2099Q / mirtazapine
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46. Bordman R, Jackson B: Below the belt: approach to chronic pelvic pain. Can Fam Physician; 2006 Dec;52(12):1556-62
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pelvic Pain.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach to the symptom complex called chronic pelvic pain (CPP).
  • Chronic pelvic pain is defined as nonmenstrual pain lasting 6 months or more that is severe enough to cause functional disability or require medical or surgical treatment.
  • MAIN MESSAGE: While the source of pain in CPP can be gynecologic, urologic, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, or psychoneurologic, 4 conditions account for most CPP: endometriosis, adhesions, interstitial cystitis, and irritable bowel syndrome.
  • More than one source of pain can be found in the same patient.
  • Nonnarcotic analgesics are first-line therapy for pain relief; hormonal therapies are beneficial if the pain has a cyclical component.
  • CONCLUSION: Although caring for patients with CPP can be challenging and frustrating, family physicians are in an ideal position to manage and coordinate their care.
  • [MeSH-major] Pelvic Pain / diagnosis. Pelvic Pain / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adult. Chronic Disease. Cystitis, Interstitial / complications. Cystitis, Interstitial / diagnosis. Cystitis, Interstitial / drug therapy. Endometriosis / complications. Endometriosis / diagnosis. Endometriosis / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Irritable Bowel Syndrome / complications. Irritable Bowel Syndrome / diagnosis. Irritable Bowel Syndrome / therapy. Physical Examination

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  • [Cites] Br Med Bull. 2004;72:15-29 [15767561.001]
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  • (PMID = 17279236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1715-5258
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian family physician Médecin de famille canadien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1783755
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47. Celik T, Kayir H, Ceyhan M, Demirtaş S, Coşar A, Uzbay IT: CPP and amlodipine alter the decrease in basal acetylcholine and choline release by audiogenic stimulus in hippocampus of ethanol-withdrawn rats in vivo. Brain Res Bull; 2004 Sep 30;64(3):243-9
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CPP and amlodipine alter the decrease in basal acetylcholine and choline release by audiogenic stimulus in hippocampus of ethanol-withdrawn rats in vivo.
  • Effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and Ca2+ channel antagonists on extracellular acetylcholine and choline release in the hippocampus of ethanol-withdrawn rats were investigated by in vivo microdialysis.
  • Either an NMDA receptor antagonist (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) or a calcium channel antagonist amlodipine was administered, and 15 min later, an audiogenic stimulus (100 dB, 1 min) was applied to rats.
  • CPP (15 mg/kg) and amlodipine (20 mg/kg) reversed the decrement in acetylcholine and increment in choline release in EW rats.
  • Their effects on acetylcholine and choline release were not different from saline in control rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylcholine / metabolism. Amlodipine / pharmacology. Ethanol / adverse effects. Hippocampus / drug effects. Piperazines / pharmacology. Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acoustic Stimulation / adverse effects. Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / drug therapy. Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / metabolism. Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / physiopathology. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology. Choline / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Down-Regulation / physiology. Drug Interactions / physiology. Epilepsy, Reflex / chemically induced. Epilepsy, Reflex / drug therapy. Epilepsy, Reflex / physiopathology. Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists / pharmacology. Glutamic Acid / metabolism. Male. Microdialysis. Neural Pathways / drug effects. Neural Pathways / metabolism. Neural Pathways / physiopathology. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Seizures / chemically induced. Seizures / drug therapy. Seizures / physiopathology. Synaptic Transmission / drug effects. Synaptic Transmission / physiology

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GLUTAMIC ACID HYDROCHLORIDE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ETHANOL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CHOLINE CHLORIDE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. AMLODIPINE .
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  • (PMID = 15464861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-9230
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists; 0 / Piperazines; 100828-16-8 / 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid; 1J444QC288 / Amlodipine; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; N91BDP6H0X / Choline; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine
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48. Wolff JE, Sajedi M, Brant R, Coppes MJ, Egeler RM: Choroid plexus tumours. Br J Cancer; 2002 Nov 4;87(10):1086-91

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Choroid plexus tumours.
  • Choroid plexus tumours are rare epithelial brain tumours and limited information is available regarding their biology and the best treatment.
  • A meta-analysis was done to determine prognostic factors and the influence of various treatment modalities.
  • A thorough review of the medical literature (1966-1998) revealed 566 well-documented choroid plexus tumours.
  • These were entered into a database, which was analysed to determine prognostic factors and treatment modalities.
  • Most patients with a supratentorial tumour were children, while the most common sites in adults were the fourth ventricle and the cerebellar pontine angle.
  • Cerebellar pontine angle tumours were more frequently benign.
  • Histology was the most important prognostic factor, as one, five, and 10-year projected survival rates were 90, 81, and 77% in choroid plexus-papilloma (n=353) compared to only 71, 41, and 35% in choroid plexus-carcinoma respectively (P<0.0005).
  • Surgery was prognostically relevant for both choroid plexus-papilloma (P=0.0005) and choroid plexus-carcinoma (P=0.0001).
  • Radiotherapy was associated with significantly better survival in choroid plexus-carcinomas.
  • Eight of 22 documented choroid plexus-carcinomas responded to chemotherapy.
  • Relapse after primary treatment was a poor prognostic factor in choroid plexus-carcinoma patients but not in choroid plexus-papilloma patients.
  • Treatment of choroid plexus tumours should start with radical surgical resection.
  • This should be followed by adjuvant treatment in case of choroid plexus-carcinoma, and a "wait and see" approach in choroid plexus-papilloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Cancer Research UK
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  • (PMID = 12402146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2376189
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49. Lampit M, Golander A, Guttmann H, Hochberg Z: Estrogen mini-dose replacement during GnRH agonist therapy in central precocious puberty: a pilot study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2002 Feb;87(2):687-90
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Central precocious puberty.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Estrogen mini-dose replacement during GnRH agonist therapy in central precocious puberty: a pilot study.
  • During GnRH agonist therapy of patients with central precocious puberty (CPP), growth is sometimes suppressed to subnormal velocity.
  • The working hypotheses were that estrogen levels are suppressed by GnRH agonist therapy below normal prepubertal levels, that such suppression is responsible for the slow growth of girls with CPP during GnRH agonist therapy, and that a mini-dose of estrogen replacement will normalize growth.
  • The present pilot study examined growth and bone maturation over 2 yr in 13 patients with CPP and compared therapy with a combination of GnRH agonist and 8 microg conjugated equine estrogen (group 1) to therapy with GnRH agonist alone (group 2).
  • Both groups had adequate suppression of gonadotropins, and E2 levels were below detection levels of our assay throughout the study period.
  • Group 2 patients decreased their growth velocity from 2.0 +/- 1.4 to -1.6 +/- 1.2 SD score compared with group 1, who maintained their growth velocity of 1.3 +/- 1.5 SD score and their height SD score for 2 yr (P < 0.01).
  • In group 1 patients the ratio of the change in bone age/change in chronological age decreased from 1.2 +/- 0.7 to 0.75 +/- 0.3, and in group 2 patients it decreased to 0.6 +/- 0.3 and 0.4 +/- 0.2 (P < 0.05) during the first and second years of therapy, respectively.
  • It is concluded on a pilot basis that estrogen suppression is responsible for the slow growth of girls with CPP during GnRH agonist therapy and that a mini-dose of estrogen replacement is safe and effective for at least 24 months in maintaining normal prepubertal growth without acceleration of bone maturation or pubertal development.
  • The current pilot results do not suggest an indication or provide a justification for such therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) / administration & dosage. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Determination by Skeleton. Aging / physiology. Animals. Body Height / drug effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Growth. Horses. Humans. Pilot Projects

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  • (PMID = 11836305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens, Conjugated (USP); 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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50. Valencak J, Dietrich W, Raderer M, Dieckmann K, Prayer D, Hainfellner JA, Marosi C: Evidence of therapeutic efficacy of CCNU in recurrent choroid plexus papilloma. J Neurooncol; 2000 Sep;49(3):263-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LOMUSTINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evidence of therapeutic efficacy of CCNU in recurrent choroid plexus papilloma.
  • A pregnant 33-year old woman developed nystagmus and cerebellar ataxia.
  • A tumor in the roof of the fourth ventricle was diagnosed.
  • The tumor was subtotally removed using microneurosurgical techniques.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was choroid plexus papilloma (CPP).
  • Twenty-one months later, the tumor recurred and was reoperated.
  • Histologically the tumor displayed now increased mitotic activity and pleomorphism.
  • Radiation therapy of the neuroaxis was performed.
  • Within 59 months, the CPP recurred 3 more times with neuroradiological evidence of extensive spinal seeding.
  • After several palliative irradiations, including 2 gamma-knife boosts, the patient was referred to chemotherapy.
  • The course of disease in our patient provides evidence for therapeutic efficacy of CCNU in recurrent CPP.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lomustine / therapeutic use. Papilloma / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Seeding. Pregnancy. Reoperation

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Choroid Plexus Papilloma.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Tumors and Pregnancy.
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  • (PMID = 11212906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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51. Brackett RL, Pouw B, Blyden JF, Nour M, Matsumoto RR: Prevention of cocaine-induced convulsions and lethality in mice: effectiveness of targeting different sites on the NMDA receptor complex. Neuropharmacology; 2000 Jan 28;39(3):407-18
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Therefore, different classes of NMDA receptor antagonists were compared for their ability to attenuate cocaine-induced convulsions and lethality in male, Swiss Webster mice.
  • The mice were pre-treated (i.p.) with vehicle or an antagonist from one of the following classes: NMDA/glycine site antagonist (7-chlorokynurenic acid, ACEA-1021, ACEA-1031, ACEA-1328, DCQX, R(+)-HA-966), competitive antagonist (CPP, D-AP7), channel blocker (MK-801, memantine), or allosteric modulator (ifenprodil, CP-101,606, Co 101022, haloperidol).
  • After a 15 min pre-treatment period, the mice were administered a convulsive (60 mg/kg, i.p.) or lethal (125 mg/kg, i.p.) dose of cocaine, equivalent to the calculated ED/LD97 values.
  • Pre-treatment with competitive or NMDA/glycine site antagonists dose-dependently attenuated cocaine-induced convulsions and lethality (P<0.05).
  • Pre-treatment with channel blockers or allosteric modulators of the NMDA receptor protected against cocaine-induced convulsions (P<0.05), but were ineffective or less effective than the competitive and glycine site antagonists in preventing death.
  • Significantly, post-treatment with NMDA/glycine site antagonists (ACEA-1021, ACEA-1031, ACEA-1328) after a cocaine overdose prevented death in a significant number of animals.
  • The data suggest that NMDA receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of a cocaine overdose.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use. Cocaine. Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / therapeutic use. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors. Seizures / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Lethal Dose 50. Male. Mice

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  • (PMID = 10698007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3908
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropharmacology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine
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52. Miller BS, Shukla AR: Sterile abscess formation in response to two separate branded long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. Clin Ther; 2010 Sep;32(10):1749-51
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LEUPROLIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sterile abscess formation in response to two separate branded long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists.
  • BACKGROUND: Long-acting forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonists are commonly used for the treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • Sterile abscess formation has been reported as a complication of leuprolide acetate, but not histrelin acetate.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report an adverse drug reaction in a child with sterile abscess formation following treatment with 2 different branded long-acting forms of GnRH agonists.
  • CASE SUMMARY: An otherwise healthy 8-year-old white female (weight, 40.7 kg; height, 140.1 cm) with documented CPP and no known drug allergies developed a sterile abscess at the site of the monthly intramuscular injection of 15 mg of leuprolide acetate.
  • Because of this site reaction, a 50-mg histrelin acetate insert was placed in the patient's left arm.
  • At the time of the removal of the second insert, Gram stain and swab culture of the purulent wound discharge were negative.
  • The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Causality Score was 10 (definite, ≥9).
  • CONCLUSION: This report describes a case of sterile abscess formation definitely associated with 2 different forms of long-acting GnRH agonist treatment in a child.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Implants. Female. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Nafarelin / administration & dosage. Nafarelin / therapeutic use. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Excerpta Medica Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21194598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-114X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 1X0094V6JV / Nafarelin; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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53. Bidwell GL 3rd, Raucher D: Cell penetrating elastin-like polypeptides for therapeutic peptide delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev; 2010 Dec 30;62(15):1486-96
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cell penetrating elastin-like polypeptides for therapeutic peptide delivery.
  • Current treatment of solid tumors is limited by side effects that result from the non-specific delivery of drugs to the tumor site.
  • Alternative targeted therapeutic approaches for localized tumors would significantly reduce systemic toxicity.
  • Peptide therapeutics are a promising new strategy for targeted cancer therapy because of the ease of peptide design and the specificity of peptides for their intracellular molecular targets.
  • However, the utility of peptides is limited by their poor pharmacokinetic parameters and poor tissue and cellular membrane permeability in vivo.
  • This review article summarizes the development of elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) as a potential carrier for thermally targeted delivery of therapeutic peptides (TP), and the use of cell penetrating peptides (CPP) to enhance the intracellular delivery of the ELP-fused TPs.
  • CPP-fused ELPs have been used to deliver a peptide inhibitor of c-Myc function and a peptide mimetic of p21 in several cancer models in vitro, and both polypeptides are currently yielding promising results in in vivo models of breast and brain cancer.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20478348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8294
  • [Journal-full-title] Advanced drug delivery reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113813; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R43 CA135799; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R43 CA135799-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113813-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell-Penetrating Peptides; 0 / Peptides; 9007-58-3 / Elastin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS206184; NLM/ PMC2964383
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54. Jackson KJ, Walters CL, Miles MF, Martin BR, Damaj MI: Characterization of pharmacological and behavioral differences to nicotine in C57Bl/6 and DBA/2 mice. Neuropharmacology; 2009 Sep;57(4):347-55
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. NICOTINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characterization of pharmacological and behavioral differences to nicotine in C57Bl/6 and DBA/2 mice.
  • Approximately 50-70% of the risk for developing nicotine dependence is attributed to genetics; therefore, it is of great significance to characterize the genetic mechanisms involved in nicotine reinforcement and dependence in hopes of generating better smoking cessation therapies.
  • The overall goal of these studies was to characterize behavioral and pharmacological responses to nicotine in C57Bl/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) mice, two inbred strains commonly used for genetic studies on behavioral traits.
  • B6 and D2 mice where subjected to a battery of behavioral tests to measure nicotine's acute effects, calcium-mediated antinociceptive responses, tolerance to chronic treatment with osmotic mini pumps, and following three days of nicotine withdrawal.
  • B6, but not D2 mice, developed tolerance to nicotine and nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP).
  • While B6 and D2 mice both expressed some physical withdrawal signs, affective withdrawal signs were not evident in D2 mice.
  • These results provide a thorough, simultaneous evaluation of the pharmacological and behavioral differences to experimenter-administered nicotine as measured in several behavioral tests of aspects that contribute to smoking behavior.

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  • (PMID = 19619563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7064
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropharmacology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA012610-02; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / U01 AA016662; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA012610; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA013678; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / U01 AA016667; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / #DA/ 12610; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA012610-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS133451; NLM/ PMC2753410
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55. Manoharan C, Singh J: Evaluation of polyanhydride microspheres for basal insulin delivery: Effect of copolymer composition and zinc salt on encapsulation, in vitro release, stability, in vivo absorption and bioactivity in diabetic rats. J Pharm Sci; 2009 Nov;98(11):4237-50
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

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  • The potential of poly 1,3-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane-co-sebacic acid (p(CPP:SA)) microspheres was investigated for controlled delivery of basal insulin.
  • CPP:SA copolymers with molar compositions of 20:80, 40:60, and 50:50 were synthesized, characterized, and used in the fabrication of microspheres by water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion solvent evaporation technique.
  • Insulin encapsulation efficiency (EE) and in vitro release kinetics were influenced by the molar ratios of CPP:SA copolymer.
  • Increasing CPP content and addition of zinc oxide increased EE, reduced burst release, and prolonged insulin in vitro release over a month.
  • Dimer aggregates were observed for insulin encapsulated in CPP:SA 50:50 microspheres and addition of zinc oxide prevented dimer formation.
  • Subcutaneous administration of CPP:SA 50:50 microspheres in diabetic rats controlled insulin release over a month, and the released insulin was bioactive as determined by lowering blood glucose levels.
  • The results indicate that CPP:SA microspheres controlled insulin release in vitro and in vivo over a month and the released insulin was conformationally and chemically stable, and bioactive.
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorption. Animals. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / drug therapy. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Drug Compounding. Drug Delivery Systems. Drug Stability. Insulin, Long-Acting. Kinetics. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Molecular Structure. Molecular Weight. Particle Size. Polymers / chemical synthesis. Polymers / chemistry. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Technology, Pharmaceutical / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association
  • (PMID = 19472196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6017
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Insulin, Long-Acting; 0 / Polyanhydrides; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Zinc Compounds
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56. Yu LL, Wang XY, Zhao M, Liu Y, Li YQ, Li FQ, Wang X, Xue YX, Lu L: Effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant in consolidation and reconsolidation of methamphetamine reward memory in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl); 2009 Jun;204(2):203-11
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. d-METHAMPHETAMINE .

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  • RATIONALE: Previous studies have shown that cannabinoid CB1 receptors play an important role in specific aspects of learning and memory, yet there has been no systematic study focusing on the involvement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in methamphetamine-related reward memory.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine whether rimonabant, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, would disrupt the consolidation and reconsolidation of methamphetamine-related reward memory, using conditioned place preference paradigm (CPP).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Separate groups of male Kunming mice were trained to acquire methamphetamine CPP.
  • Vehicle or rimonabant (1 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) was given at different time points: immediately after each CPP training session (consolidation), 30 min before the reactivation of CPP (retrieval), or immediately after the reactivation of CPP (reconsolidation).
  • Methamphetamine CPP was retested 24 h and 1 and 2 weeks after rimonabant administration.
  • RESULTS: Rimonabant at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg significantly inhibited the consolidation of methamphetamine CPP.
  • Only high-dose rimonabant (3 mg/kg) disrupted the retrieval and reconsolidation of methamphetamine CPP.
  • Rimonabant had no effect on methamphetamine CPP in the absence of methamphetamine CPP reactivation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that cannabinoid CB1 receptors play a major role in methamphetamine reward memory, and cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists may be a potential pharmacotherapy to manage relapse associated with drug-reward-related memory.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Stimulants / pharmacology. Memory / drug effects. Methamphetamine / pharmacology. Piperidines / pharmacology. Pyrazoles / pharmacology. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Male. Mice. Reward

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  • (PMID = 19148622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2072
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Stimulants; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1; 44RAL3456C / Methamphetamine; RML78EN3XE / rimonabant
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57. Bidwell GL 3rd, Davis AN, Raucher D: Targeting a c-Myc inhibitory polypeptide to specific intracellular compartments using cell penetrating peptides. J Control Release; 2009 Apr 2;135(1):2-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeting a c-Myc inhibitory polypeptide to specific intracellular compartments using cell penetrating peptides.
  • The therapeutic index of current anti-cancer chemotherapeutics can be improved by two major mechanisms:.
  • 1) developing drugs which are specifically toxic to the cancer cells and 2) developing methods to deliver drugs to the tumor site.
  • In an attempt to combine these approaches, we developed a thermally responsive polypeptide inhibitor of c-Myc.
  • This polypeptide is based on the thermally responsive Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP).
  • When injected systemically, ELP-fused drugs will aggregate and accumulate at the tumor site where local hyperthermia is applied.
  • In this study, the cellular uptake, intracellular distribution, and potency of the Pen, Tat and Bac cell penetrating peptides fused to ELP-H1 were evaluated.
  • This data demonstrates that ELP can be targeted to the desired cellular compartment simply by choice of the CPP used, resulting in a more potent nuclear targeted c-Myc inhibitory polypeptide which may be beneficial in cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Peptide Fragments / chemistry. Peptides / chemistry. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / antagonists & inhibitors. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / drug effects. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cytoplasm / drug effects. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Hyperthermia, Induced. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / metabolism. Phase Transition. Temperature. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19095020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA 113813-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / MYC protein, human; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 81857-53-6 / elastin polypentapeptide
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58. Pelissier T, Infante C, Constandil L, Espinosa J, Lapeyra CD, Hernández A: Antinociceptive effect and interaction of uncompetitive and competitive NMDA receptor antagonists upon capsaicin and paw pressure testing in normal and monoarthritic rats. Pain; 2008 Jan;134(1-2):113-27
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CAPSAICIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We assessed whether intrathecal administration of the uncompetitive and competitive NMDA receptor antagonists ketamine and (+/-)CPP, respectively, could produce differential modulation on chemical and mechanical nociception in normal and monoarthritic rats.
  • In addition, the antinociceptive interaction of ketamine and (+/-)CPP on monoarthritic pain was also studied using isobolographic analysis.
  • Monoarthritis was produced by intra-articular injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the tibio-tarsal joint.
  • Four weeks later, the antinociceptive effect of intrathecal administration of the drugs alone or combined was evaluated by using the intraplantar capsaicin and the paw pressure tests.
  • Ketamine (0.1, 1, 10, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 microg i.t.) and (+/-)CPP (0.125, 2.5, 7.5, 12.5, 25 and 50 microg i.t.) produced significantly greater dose-dependent antinociception in the capsaicin than in the paw pressure test.
  • Irrespective of the nociceptive test employed, both antagonists showed greater antinociceptive activity in monoarthritic than in healthy rats.
  • Combinations produced synergy of a supra-additive nature in the capsaicin test, but only additive antinociception in paw pressure testing.
  • The efficacy of the drugs, alone or combined, is likely to depend on the differential sensitivity of tonic versus phasic pain and/or chemical versus mechanical pain to NMDA antagonists.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics / therapeutic use. Arthritis, Experimental / drug therapy. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / therapeutic use. Pain / drug therapy. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Binding, Competitive. Capsaicin / toxicity. Drug Interactions / physiology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Injections, Spinal. Pain Measurement / drug effects. Pain Measurement / methods. Physical Stimulation / methods. Pressure. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Vocalization, Animal / drug effects. Vocalization, Animal / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17517475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6623
  • [Journal-full-title] Pain
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; S07O44R1ZM / Capsaicin
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59. Heger S, Müller M, Ranke M, Schwarz HP, Waldhauser F, Partsch CJ, Sippell WG: Long-term GnRH agonist treatment for female central precocious puberty does not impair reproductive function. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2006 Jul 25;254-255:217-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term GnRH agonist treatment for female central precocious puberty does not impair reproductive function.
  • Depot gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (GnRHa) therapy is the treatment of choice for patients with central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • It is still unclear whether long-term exposure to GnRHa is associated with impaired reproductive function in adulthood.
  • The present study was performed on 46 women, former CPP patients, 12.5+/-3.7 years after the discontinuation of treatment with depot GnRHa.
  • In a structured interview, we assessed general health status, clinical signs possibly associated with hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle, gynaecological diseases and reproductive function.
  • It appears that long-term treatment with depot GnRHa is safe and does not impair reproductive function.
  • The risk of former CPP patients to develop hirsutism and/or polycystic ovary syndrome does not seem to be increased compared to the normal population but this issue needs to be addressed in further long-term follow-up studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Reproduction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Androgens / adverse effects. Body Height / drug effects. Body Mass Index. Body Weight / drug effects. Delayed-Action Preparations / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Routes. Female. Fertility / drug effects. Follow-Up Studies. Genital Diseases, Female / etiology. Health Status. Humans. Hyperandrogenism / diagnosis. Interviews as Topic. Long-Term Care. Menstrual Cycle / drug effects. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16757104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate
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60. Tan M, Lan KH, Yao J, Lu CH, Sun M, Neal CL, Lu J, Yu D: Selective inhibition of ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer in vivo by a novel TAT-based ErbB2-targeting signal transducers and activators of transcription 3-blocking peptide. Cancer Res; 2006 Apr 1;66(7):3764-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • ErbB2 is an excellent target for cancer therapies.
  • Unfortunately, the outcome of current therapies for ErbB2-positive breast cancers remains unsatisfying due to resistance and side effects.
  • New therapies for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers continue to be in great need.
  • Peptide therapy using cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) as peptide carriers is promising because the internalization is highly efficient, and the cargoes delivered can be bioactive.
  • However, the major obstacle in using these powerful CPPs for therapy is their lack of specificity.
  • Here, we sought to develop a peptide carrier that could introduce therapeutics specifically to ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.
  • By modifying the HIV TAT-derived CPP and conjugating anti-HER-2/neu peptide mimetic (AHNP), we developed the peptide carrier (P3-AHNP) that specifically targeted ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
  • P3-AHNP-STAT3BP inhibited cell growth in vitro, with ErbB2-overexpressing 435.eB breast cancer cells being more sensitive to the treatment than the ErbB2 low-expressing MDA-MB-435 cells.
  • Compared with ErbB2 low-expressing MDA-MB-435 xenografts, i.p. injected P3-AHNP-STAT3BP preferentially accumulated in 435.eB xenografts, which led to more reduction of proliferation and increased apoptosis and targeted inhibition of tumor growth.
  • This novel peptide delivery system provided a sound basis for the future development of safe and effective new-generation therapeutics to cancer-specific molecular targets.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Products, tat / pharmacology. Peptide Fragments / pharmacology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. STAT3 Transcription Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacokinetics. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Humans. Immunoconjugates / pharmacokinetics. Immunoconjugates / pharmacology. Mice. Mice, SCID. Molecular Sequence Data. NIH 3T3 Cells. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 16585203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01 CA 109570; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01 CA 119127-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 099031; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / Immunoconjugates; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; 0 / anti-HER2-neu peptide mimic, 1.5 kDa; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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61. Liantonio A, Picollo A, Babini E, Carbonara G, Fracchiolla G, Loiodice F, Tortorella V, Pusch M, Camerino DC: Activation and inhibition of kidney CLC-K chloride channels by fenamates. Mol Pharmacol; 2006 Jan;69(1):165-73
Xenbase. Xenbase .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CLC-K Cl(-) channels are selectively expressed in kidney and ear, where they are pivotal for salt homeostasis, and loss-of-function mutations of CLC-Kb produce Bartter's syndrome type III.
  • The only ligand known for CLC-K channels is a derivative of the 2-p-chlorophenoxypropionic acid (CPP), 3-phenyl-CPP, which blocks CLC-Ka, but not CLC-Kb.
  • Using the voltage-clamp technique on channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, we found that niflumic acid (NFA) increases CLC-Ka and CLC-Kb currents in the 10 to 1000 microM range.
  • Flufenamic acid (FFA) derivatives or high doses of NFA produced instead an inhibitory effect on CLC-Ka, but not on CLC-Kb, and on blocker-insensitive CLC-Ka mutants, indicating that the activating binding site is distinct from the blocker site.
  • Evaluation of the sensitivity of CLC-Ka to derivatives of NFA and FFA together with a modeling study of these ligands allow us to conclude that one major characteristic of activating compounds is the coplanarity of the two rings of the molecules, whereas block requires a noncoplanar configuration.
  • These molecules provide a starting point for identification of diuretics or drugs useful in the treatment of Bartter's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Chloride Channel Agonists. Chloride Channels / antagonists & inhibitors. Kidney / drug effects. ortho-Aminobenzoates / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bartter Syndrome / drug therapy. Xenopus laevis

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  • (PMID = 16244177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-895X
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Italy / Telethon / / GGP04018
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLCNKA protein, human; 0 / Chloride Channel Agonists; 0 / Chloride Channels; 0 / ortho-Aminobenzoates; 952VN06WBB / fenamic acid
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62. Strojan P, Popović M, Surlan K, Jereb B: Choroid plexus tumors: a review of 28-year experience. Neoplasma; 2004;51(4):306-12

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Choroid plexus tumors: a review of 28-year experience.
  • The aims of the study were to review the patients with choroid plexus tumor (CPT) treated in Slovenia between 1972-1999, to calculate the incidence of CPTs, and to evaluate treatment results in respect to tumor histology and mode of therapy.
  • Twelve patients (7 females, 5 males), 0.8-43 years old (median 6.1 years; <15 years: 10/12,83%) with CPT, representing 0.36% of all intracranial tumors registered during the period under study, were identified.
  • There were eight papillomas (CPPs) and four carcinomas (CPCs) with no difference in age distribution between the groups.
  • Of seven patients with gross tumor resection in CPP group, one patient died of postoperative meningitis and one had local recurrence 1.6 years after surgery; the latter is disease-free 17.9 years after re-operation.
  • One patient with macroscopic residue after surgery is alive and asymptomatic after 16.5 years.
  • In the CPC-group, only the patient who received adjuvant BEP chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation following incomplete surgery is alive with no signs of disease after 6.5 years.
  • Ten-year disease-specific survival for all CPTs and for CPP subgroup was 73% and 100%, respectively.
  • In Slovenia, CPTs represent 0.36% of intracranial tumors.
  • In CPPs, the treatment of choice is surgery alone.
  • For CPCs, adjuvant multiagent chemotherapy and craniospinal radiotherapy following surgery should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / diagnosis. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / epidemiology. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / therapy. Recurrence. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15254663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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63. Berrada M, Yang Z, Lehnert SM: Sensitization to radiation from an implanted 125I source by sustained intratumoral release of chemotherapeutic drugs. Radiat Res; 2004 Jul;162(1):64-70
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sensitization to radiation from an implanted 125I source by sustained intratumoral release of chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • We have investigated tumor response to low-dose-rate irradiation from an implanted 125I source alone or in conjunction with intratumoral drug administration.
  • The drug (cis-DDP or 5-FU) was incorporated homogeneously into the co-polymer CPP-SA, 20:80, and the polymer/drug rods were implanted in the RIF-1 fibrosarcomas growing subcutaneously in C3H mice.
  • Twenty-four hours later, the tumor was implanted with an 125I seed.
  • Tumor growth time was the end point in these experiments.
  • For implanted 125I sources of different dose rates and implant times giving a range of total doses, a consistent dose-response relationship was shown between tumor growth time and total dose.
  • In other experiments, 125I sources of different specific activities were implanted for periods of time adjusted so that the total dose to the tumor was always the same.
  • When the 125I implant was combined with 5-FU, greater than additive responses were seen for both short (30 h) and long (96 h) 125I treatment times.
  • In contrast, a short-duration (30 h) 125I implant combined with cis-DDP was the least effective treatment, giving a combined response that was no better than additive, whereas 96 h exposure to 125I combined with cis-DDP was the most effective combined treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Implants. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Experimental / therapy. Radiation Tolerance / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. DNA Repair. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Mice. Mice, Inbred C3H. Polymers / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15222800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-7587
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Polymers; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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64. Eriksson C, Zou LP, Ahlenius S, Winblad B, Schultzberg M: Inhibition of kainic acid induced expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist mRNA in the rat brain by NMDA receptor antagonists. Brain Res Mol Brain Res; 2000 Dec 28;85(1-2):103-13
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DIZOCILPINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inhibition of kainic acid induced expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist mRNA in the rat brain by NMDA receptor antagonists.
  • The cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) are rapidly induced in response to excitotoxic and ischemic brain damage.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of a non-competitive (dizocilpine maleate, MK-801) and a competitive ((R)-CPP) NMDA receptor antagonist on the transient cytokine expression in the rat brain induced by systemic kainic acid administration.
  • Peripheral administration of kainic acid (10 mg/kg, i.p.) results in a transient expression of IL-1 beta and IL-1ra mRNA, mainly in microglia, in regions showing neurodegeneration such as the hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, and certain cortical regions.
  • MK-801 at 3.0 mg/kg decreased the IL-1 beta mRNA expression, blocked or decreased the IL-1ra mRNA expression, depending on the brain region.
  • MK-801 at 5.0 mg/kg abolished IL-1ra mRNA expression in all of the regions, whereas the IL-1 beta mRNA expression was decreased or blocked, depending on the brain region, or the time point investigated.
  • Peripheral administration of (R)-CPP (15 mg/kg, i.p.
  • ) 15 min prior to the kainic acid injection abolished the IL-1 beta mRNA expression.
  • The IL-1ra mRNA expression was abolished in all regions except for a few neurons in the piriform cortex.
  • The finding that NMDA receptor antagonists inhibit the IL-1 beta and IL-1ra mRNA synthesis induced by kainic acid suggests that NMDA receptor activation may be involved in triggering cytokine synthesis following excitotoxic brain damage.
  • [MeSH-major] Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists / pharmacology. Interleukin-1 / genetics. Kainic Acid / pharmacology. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors. Sialoglycoproteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Dizocilpine Maleate / pharmacology. Epilepsies, Myoclonic / chemically induced. Epilepsies, Myoclonic / drug therapy. Epilepsies, Myoclonic / physiopathology. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology. Gene Expression / drug effects. In Situ Hybridization. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein. Male. Microglia / drug effects. Microglia / physiology. Nerve Degeneration / chemically induced. Nerve Degeneration / drug therapy. Nerve Degeneration / physiopathology. Piperazines / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 11146112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-328X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research. Molecular brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 100828-16-8 / 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid; 6LR8C1B66Q / Dizocilpine Maleate; SIV03811UC / Kainic Acid
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65. Kitakaze M, Asanuma H, Takashima S, Minamino T, Ueda Y, Sakata Y, Asakura M, Sanada S, Kuzuya T, Hori M: Nifedipine-induced coronary vasodilation in ischemic hearts is attributable to bradykinin- and NO-dependent mechanisms in dogs. Circulation; 2000 Jan 25;101(3):311-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Nifedipine .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers protect endothelial cells against ischemia and reperfusion injury, suggesting that nifedipine may increase the in vivo cardiac NO level and thus coronary blood flow (CBF) in ischemic hearts.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: In open-chest dogs, coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was reduced in the left anterior descending coronary artery so that CBF decreased to one third of the control level, and thereafter CPP was maintained constant (103+/-8 to 43+/-3 mm Hg, n=9).
  • Both FS (26.4+/-2.1% to 6.7+/-2.0%, n=9, P<0.001) and LER (32+/-6% to -37+/-5%, n=9, P<0.001) showed a decrease when CPP was reduced.
  • min(-1)), CBF increased from 30+/-1 to 48+/-4 mL. 100 g(-1).
  • min(-1) (P<0.01) without a change of CPP (n=9).
  • Nifedipine increased the difference in the level of metabolites of NO (nitrate+nitrite; 9+/-3 to 25+/-5 nmol/mL, n=9, P<0.01) and bradykinin (22+/-5 to 58+/-4 pmol/mL, n=9, P<0.01) between coronary venous and arterial blood.
  • min(-1), n=5 each), FS (4.8+/-0.6% and 6.9+/-1.7%, n=5 each), LER (-47+/-8% and -35+/-9%, n=5 each), and nitrate+nitrite (3+/-2 and 8+/-4 nmol/mL, n=5 each) due to nifedipine infusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Bradykinin / physiology. Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology. Coronary Vessels / drug effects. Myocardial Ischemia / drug therapy. Nifedipine / pharmacology. Nitric Oxide / physiology. Vasodilation / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cyclic GMP / blood. Dogs. Heart Rate / drug effects. Systole / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 10645928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4539
  • [Journal-full-title] Circulation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Circulation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; H2D2X058MU / Cyclic GMP; I9ZF7L6G2L / Nifedipine; S8TIM42R2W / Bradykinin
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66. El-Gaidi MA, Eissa EM: Infantile intracranial neoplasms: characteristics and surgical outcomes of a contemporary series of 21 cases in an Egyptian referral center. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2010;46(4):272-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infantile intracranial neoplasms: characteristics and surgical outcomes of a contemporary series of 21 cases in an Egyptian referral center.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the demographic, clinical, radiological, pathological and surgical features and outcomes of infantile intracranial neoplasms, the second most common neoplasm in infants.
  • RESULTS: Out of 451 patients with primary intracranial neoplasms (age 0-14 years), 21 infants (<1 year) underwent surgery, representing 4.7% of total cases.
  • The most common tumor was choroid plexus papilloma (23.8%), followed by teratoma (19%) then astrocytoma and ependymoma (14.3% each).
  • Of the 21 surgical cases, 90% were intra-axial, 80% were in the supratentorial region, and 57% were intraventricular.
  • There was only 1 case of intraoperative mortality (4.8%).
  • Three patients received chemotherapy, but none received radiotherapy.
  • The statistically significant predictors of prognosis were the extent of resection and tumor grade.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the prognosis for infantile intracranial neoplasms is worse than for older children, an overall promising outcome with low operative morbidity and mortality was achieved using gross total excision and appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy as part of a multidisciplinary approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / mortality. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Egypt / epidemiology. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Morbidity. Neurilemmoma / drug therapy. Neurilemmoma / mortality. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Referral and Consultation / statistics & numerical data. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / mortality. Teratoma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21160236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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67. Shahrokhi N, Khaksari M, Soltani Z, Mahmoodi M, Nakhaee N: Effect of sex steroid hormones on brain edema, intracranial pressure, and neurologic outcomes after traumatic brain injury. Can J Physiol Pharmacol; 2010 Apr;88(4):414-21
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of sex steroid hormones on brain edema, intracranial pressure, and neurologic outcomes after traumatic brain injury.
  • Recent studies have reported that estrogen and progesterone have a neuroprotective effect after traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the mechanism(s) for this effect have not yet been elucidated.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sex steroid hormones on changes in brain edema, intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) after TBI in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.
  • 30 min after TBI.
  • ICP was measured in the spinal cord, and CPP was calculated by subtracting the mean arterial pressure (MAP) from ICP.
  • The results revealed that brain water content after TBI was lower (p < 0.001) in the estrogen and progesterone groups than in the vehicle group.
  • The CPP in the estrogen and progesterone groups increased after 24 h compared with vehicle (p < 0.001).
  • Also after TBI, the neurological score (veterinary coma scale) was significantly higher than vehicle at 1 h (p < 0.01) and 24 h (p < 0.001) in the group treated with estrogen.
  • In conclusion, pharmacological doses of estrogen and progesterone improved ICP, CPP, and neurological scores after TBI in OVX rats, which implies that these hormones play a neuroprotective role in TBI.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Edema / drug therapy. Brain Injuries / drug therapy. Estrogens / therapeutic use. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Progesterone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Female. Nervous System Diseases. Ovariectomy. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20555409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1205-7541
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone
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68. Lewis KA, Eugster EA: Experience with the once-yearly histrelin (GnRHa) subcutaneous implant in the treatment of central precocious puberty. Drug Des Devel Ther; 2009;3:1-5
SciCrunch. DrugBank: Data: Chemical .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Experience with the once-yearly histrelin (GnRHa) subcutaneous implant in the treatment of central precocious puberty.
  • In 2007, a hydrogel histrelin implant was approved for the treatment of children with central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • Children with CPP commonly have reduced height potential due to premature closure of the epiphyseal growth plates from exposure to sex steroids.
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) treatment halts puberty and allows for improvement of adult height.
  • A hydrogel implant delivery system utilizing the potent GnRHa, histrelin, was first developed for use in men with prostate cancer.
  • A once yearly histrelin subcutaneous implant was subsequently developed for the treatment of children with CPP.
  • Studies to date have demonstrated safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of this treatment option in patients treated up to 2 years.
  • Cost of this treatment seems comparable to somewhat higher than the commonly used GnRHa treatment option, depot leuprolide.
  • While long term studies are needed to establish continued efficacy and safety beyond 2 years of treatment, the histrelin implant appears to be an attractive option for GnRHa treatment in patients with CPP.

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  • [Cites] J Pediatr. 1986 Jan;108(1):47-54 [3080571.001]
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  • (PMID = 19920916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-8881
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug design, development and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Des Devel Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769233
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; central precocious puberty / gonadotropin-releasing-hormone analogs / histrelin / implant
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69. Cohen D, Janfaza M, Klein KO: Importance of leuprolide acetate variable dosing for precocious puberty: a range of acceptable suppression. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jul;22(7):629-34
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LEUPROLIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • AIM: The effect of the variation in hormonal suppression on bone maturation, growth velocity, and adult height prediction was examined during treatment with leuprolide acetate for central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • METHODS: Ten girls on variable doses of Lupron were studied for one year.
  • Height, weight, body mass index, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and growth velocity were measured every 3 months.
  • LH and estradiol did not correlate with the rate of bone maturation, growth velocity, predicted height, or with leuprolide dose.
  • CONCLUSION: Variable dosing of leuprolide acetate is needed to achieve similar amounts of hormonal suppression, yet small changes in dose did not significantly change LH or estradiol levels or predicted height.
  • [MeSH-major] Fertility Agents, Female / therapeutic use. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Height / drug effects. Body Height / physiology. Body Mass Index. Bone Development / drug effects. Bone Development / physiology. Bone and Bones / drug effects. Bone and Bones / physiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Estradiol / blood. Female. Growth / drug effects. Growth / physiology. Humans. Luteinizing Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 19774844.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fertility Agents, Female; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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70. Fenton BW, Palmieri PA, Durner C, Fanning J: Quantification of abdominal wall pain using pain pressure threshold algometry in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Clin J Pain; 2009 Jul-Aug;25(6):500-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a syndrome involving 1 or more pain generating organs in the pelvis, which includes pain from the lower anterior abdominal wall.
  • This entity has been termed myofascial pain syndrome (MFPS), but its characteristics, definition, and quantification have not been well described.
  • In this study, pain pressure threshold (PPT) testing of the lower anterior abdominal wall in CPP patients was performed to determine the range and distribution of values at each site, and the clinical utility of using PPT in a definition of MFPS.
  • METHODS: Fifty-six patients evaluated in a CPP specialty clinic underwent PPT algometry of 14 sites on the lower anterior abdominal wall.
  • These values were described and evaluated before and after treatment.
  • PPT values were also evaluated in patients found to be drug seeking.
  • RESULTS: Twenty percent of the PPT tests reached the threshold of 3 kgf/cm2.
  • After trigger point injection there was a 75% improvement in PPT, and response to medical therapy resulted in a 60% improvement.
  • A composite measure was able to distinguish drug-seeking patients with statistical accuracy.
  • DISCUSSION: PPT testing can be used to evaluate MFPS in CPP patients.
  • One suggested definition would exclude patients with low scores in the upper abdomen while including patients with low scores in the lower abdomen.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Pain / diagnosis. Abdominal Pain / etiology. Abdominal Wall / physiopathology. Pain Threshold / physiology. Pelvic Pain / complications. Pressure
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Chronic Disease. Humans. Pain Measurement / methods. ROC Curve. Sensation

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  • (PMID = 19542798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5409
  • [Journal-full-title] The Clinical journal of pain
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Pain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Biala G, Budzynska B, Staniak N: Effects of rimonabant on the reinstatement of nicotine-conditioned place preference by drug priming in rats. Behav Brain Res; 2009 Sep 14;202(2):260-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MORPHINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of rimonabant on the reinstatement of nicotine-conditioned place preference by drug priming in rats.
  • Drug addiction is a chronic disorder characterized by a relatively high rate of relapse even after long period of abstinence.
  • In the present study, we used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to investigate the establishment, extinction, reinstatement and cross-reinstatement of nicotine-induced place conditioning in rats.
  • Nicotine produced a place preference to the initially less-preferred compartment paired with its injections during conditioning (0.5mg/kg, i.p., three drug sessions).
  • Once established, nicotine CPP was extinguished by repeated testing.
  • Following this extinction phase, the reinstatement of CPP was investigated.
  • These priming injections of both drugs induced a marked preference for the compartment previously paired with nicotine.
  • Furthermore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant (0.5, 1 and 2mg/kg, i.p.) in blocking the reinstatement of nicotine-induced CPP provoked by nicotine and morphine.
  • It was shown that rimonabant attenuated the reinstatement of nicotine-conditioned response induced by both drugs.
  • The outcome of our studies may suggest that CB1 receptor antagonists may become a promising target for effective pharmacotherapy of tobacco addiction and polydrug abuse.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Agents / administration & dosage. Conditioning, Classical / drug effects. Morphine / administration & dosage. Nicotine / administration & dosage. Nicotinic Agonists / administration & dosage. Piperidines / administration & dosage. Pyrazoles / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Extinction, Psychological. Male. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Spatial Behavior / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19463710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7549
  • [Journal-full-title] Behavioural brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Behav. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Agents; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1; 158681-13-1 / rimonabant; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine
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72. Soustiel JF, Mahamid E, Chistyakov A, Shik V, Benenson R, Zaaroor M: Comparison of moderate hyperventilation and mannitol for control of intracranial pressure control in patients with severe traumatic brain injury--a study of cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Aug;148(8):845-51; discussion 851
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. D-MANNITOL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of moderate hyperventilation and mannitol for control of intracranial pressure control in patients with severe traumatic brain injury--a study of cerebral blood flow and metabolism.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the respective effects of established measures used for management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen (CMRO2), glucose (CMRGlc) and lactate (CMRLct).
  • METHODS: Thirty-six patients suffering from severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were prospectively evaluated.
  • Intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure (ICP, CPP), CBF and arterial jugular differences in oxygen, glucose and lactate contents were measured for calculation of CMRO2, CMRGlc and CMRLct.
  • CBF remained most often above the ischemic range although values less than 30 ml x 100 gr(-1) x min(-1) were found in 27.8% of patients.
  • CBF reduction was associated with concurrent decrease in CMRO2, anaerobic hyperglycolysis and subsequent lactate production.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Moderate hyperventilation may exacerbate pre-existing impairment of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in TBI patients and should be therefore carefully used under appropriate monitoring.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Edema / therapy. Brain Injuries / complications. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Hyperventilation / metabolism. Intracranial Hypertension / therapy. Mannitol / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Brain Ischemia / etiology. Brain Ischemia / physiopathology. Brain Ischemia / therapy. Cerebral Cortex / drug effects. Cerebral Cortex / metabolism. Cerebral Cortex / physiopathology. Diuretics, Osmotic / therapeutic use. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Glycolysis / drug effects. Glycolysis / physiology. Humans. Lactic Acid / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Oxygen Consumption / drug effects. Prospective Studies. Respiration, Artificial / adverse effects. Respiration, Artificial / standards. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16763735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics, Osmotic; 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid; 3OWL53L36A / Mannitol; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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73. Pillai A, Rajeev K, Chandi S, Unnikrishnan M: Intrinsic brainstem choroid plexus papilloma. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2004 Jun;100(6):1076-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LOMUSTINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrinsic brainstem choroid plexus papilloma. Case report.
  • The authors report an intrinsic brainstem lesion that was diagnosed initially as a pontine cavernoma, which finally proved to be a choroid plexus papilloma.
  • Choroid plexus papillomas are rare tumors of the central nervous system and are usually intraventricular in location.
  • The occurrence of this tumor in an intraparenchymal location is extremely rare, and its occurrence within the brainstem is previously unreported.
  • The authors also report a trial of chemotherapy with lomustine in the management of the residual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Lomustine / therapeutic use. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15200124.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine
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74. Ide S, Minami M, Satoh M, Uhl GR, Sora I, Ikeda K: Buprenorphine antinociception is abolished, but naloxone-sensitive reward is retained, in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. Neuropsychopharmacology; 2004 Sep;29(9):1656-63
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Buprenorphine antinociception is abolished, but naloxone-sensitive reward is retained, in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice.
  • To improve understanding of the opioid receptor subtypes important for buprenorphine effects, we now report the results of our investigation on the roles of mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors in antinociceptive responses and place preferences induced by buprenorphine.
  • Buprenorphine antinociception, assessed by hot-plate and tail-flick tests, was significantly reduced in heterozygous mu-opioid receptor knockout (MOR-KO) mice and abolished in homozygous MOR-KO mice.
  • In contrast, buprenorphine retained its ability to establish a conditioned place preference (CPP) in homozygous MOR-KO, although the magnitude of place preference was reduced as the number of copies of wild-type mu-opioid receptor genes was reduced.
  • The remaining CPP of buprenorphine was abolished by pretreatment with the nonselective opioid antagonist naloxone, but only partially blocked by pretreatment with either the delta-selective opioid antagonist naltrindole or the kappa-selective opioid antagonist norbinaltorphimine.
  • These data, and biochemical confirmation of buprenorphine actions as a partial delta-, mu-, and kappa-agonist, support the ideas that mu-opioid receptors mediate most of analgesic properties of buprenorphine, but that mu- and delta- and/or kappa-opioid receptors are each involved in the rewarding effects of this drug.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Opioid / antagonists & inhibitors. Analgesics, Opioid / pharmacology. Buprenorphine / antagonists & inhibitors. Buprenorphine / pharmacology. Conditioning, Operant / drug effects. Naloxone / pharmacology. Narcotic Antagonists / pharmacology. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / genetics. Receptors, Opioid, mu / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. CHO Cells. Cricetinae. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Hot Temperature. Humans. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Pain Measurement / drug effects. Radioligand Assay. Reaction Time / drug effects. Receptors, Opioid, delta / agonists. Receptors, Opioid, delta / genetics. Receptors, Opioid, kappa / agonists. Receptors, Opioid, kappa / genetics. Reward

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  • (PMID = 15100703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-133X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Narcotic Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Opioid, delta; 0 / Receptors, Opioid, kappa; 0 / Receptors, Opioid, mu; 36B82AMQ7N / Naloxone; 40D3SCR4GZ / Buprenorphine; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
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75. Micillo M, Salerno M, Officioso A, Perna E, Gasparini N, Pisaturo L, Di Maio S: Near final height after GnRH agonist treatment in central precocious puberty. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2000 Jul;13 Suppl 1:787-90
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  • [Title] Near final height after GnRH agonist treatment in central precocious puberty.
  • The impact of treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) on final height remains controversial.
  • We analyzed the long term results of 23 girls with CPP treated with triptorelin or leuprolide.
  • Their "near final height" (NFH) assessed at a bone age of at least 14 years and expressed as SDS, was compared either with predicted height before treatment (PAH) or with parental height (TH).
  • The NFH of the 23 girls (-0.9 +/- 1.0 SDS) was not different either from PAH (-0.85 +/- 1.5 SDS) or from TH (-0.5 +/0.6 SDS).
  • Earlier treated girls reached a NFH (-0.97 +/- 1.0 SDS) not different from later treated girls (-0.91 +/- 1.0 SDS; p = ns) and both groups reached parental height (NFH - TH = -0.44 +/- 1 and -0.09 +/- 0.83 SDS, respectively).
  • In conclusion, our patients, treated either earlier or later, reached a near final height comparable to predicted height and familial target; however, these results might still improve further because the girls have not yet reached their final adult height.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Height / drug effects. Brain Diseases / complications. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Development. Child. Female. Humans. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10969922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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76. Kitakaze M, Node K, Takashima S, Minamino T, Kuzuya T, Hori M: Cellular mechanisms of cardioprotection afforded by inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme in ischemic hearts: role of bradykinin and nitric oxide. Hypertens Res; 2000 May;23(3):253-9
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  • To test this idea, we administered imidaprilat and cilazaprilat, respectively to the canine ischemic myocardium.
  • In the open chest dogs with low constant coronary perfusion pressure (CPP, from 104 +/- 3 to 42 +/- 3 mmHg), coronary blood flow (CBF, 91 +/- 1 to 32 +/- 2 ml/100 g/min), fractional shortening (FS), and lactate extraction ratio (LER) decreased.
  • This infarct size-limitation was blunted by either L-NAME and IBTX (the antagonist of K(Ca) channels).
  • [MeSH-major] Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Bradykinin / physiology. Myocardial Ischemia / drug therapy. Nitric Oxide / physiology

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  • (PMID = 10821135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-9636
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertens. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; S8TIM42R2W / Bradykinin
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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77. Järver P, Mäger I, Langel Ü: In vivo biodistribution and efficacy of peptide mediated delivery. Trends Pharmacol Sci; 2010 Nov;31(11):528-35

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • To transverse the plasma membrane and gain access to the cellular interior is one of the major obstacles for many novel pharmaceutical molecules.
  • Since the late 1990s, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been utilized as transport vectors for a broad spectrum of 'biological cargoes', ranging from inert gold particles to multifaceted macromolecules such as proteins and plasmids.
  • However, even though CPPs are versatile transport vectors, this does not guarantee they can be developed into useful pharmaceutical molecules.
  • Nevertheless, recent progress in the field has shown CPPs to be effective for in vivo delivery with retained biological activity of a wide variety of bioactive cargoes into virtually any mammalian tissue.
  • This review will focus on recent developments and applications for CPP delivery and distribution in vivo.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cell Membrane Permeability. Drug Carriers. Humans. Inflammation / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Transport. Proteins / metabolism. Proteins / pharmacology. RNA Interference. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism. Tissue Distribution

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20828841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3735
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in pharmacological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Pharmacol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cell-Penetrating Peptides; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
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78. Bhutada P, Mundhada Y, Bansod K, Rathod S, Hiware R, Dixit P, Umathe S, Mundhada D: Inhibitory effect of berberine on the motivational effects of ethanol in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry; 2010 Dec 1;34(8):1472-9
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  • It is believed that drug-induced rewarding effects play an important role in the development of substance dependence.
  • Recently, berberine was reported to inhibit the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine, morphine, and nicotine.
  • Berberine is also demonstrated to modulate the activity of several neurotransmitter systems like, dopamine, nitric oxide, serotonin, and NMDA, which are implicated in rewarding effects of ethanol.
  • Therefore, we studied the effect of berberine on locomotor sensitization, conditioned place preference (CPP), and ethanol drinking preference in mice.
  • The results revealed that acute administration of berberine (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) dose dependently reduced locomotor stimulant effect of acute ethanol and expression of sensitization to locomotor stimulant effect of ethanol.
  • Further, pretreatment with berberine (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to each dose of ethanol, blocked the development as well as expression of sensitization to locomotor stimulant effect of ethanol.
  • In another set of experiment, treatment with berberine (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the induction and expression of ethanol-induced CPP in mice.
  • In addition, berberine in these doses also reduced preference to ethanol drinking over water, but did not alter the general reward.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Drinking / drug therapy. Berberine / pharmacology. Ethanol / antagonists & inhibitors. Ethanol / pharmacology. Motivation / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Conditioning (Psychology) / drug effects. Conditioning (Psychology) / physiology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Motor Activity / drug effects. Motor Activity / physiology. Random Allocation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20713115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-4216
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0I8Y3P32UF / Berberine; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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79. Narotam PK, Puri V, Roberts JM, Taylon C, Vora Y, Nathoo N: Management of hypertensive emergencies in acute brain disease: evaluation of the treatment effects of intravenous nicardipine on cerebral oxygenation. J Neurosurg; 2008 Dec;109(6):1065-74
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  • [Title] Management of hypertensive emergencies in acute brain disease: evaluation of the treatment effects of intravenous nicardipine on cerebral oxygenation.
  • OBJECT: Inappropriate sudden blood pressure (BP) reductions may adversely affect cerebral perfusion.
  • This study explores the effect of nicardipine on regional brain tissue O(2) (PbtO(2)) during treatment of acute hypertensive emergencies.
  • METHODS: A prospective case-control study was performed in 30 patients with neurological conditions and clinically elevated BP.
  • All patients had a parenchymal PbtO(2) and intracranial pressure bolt inserted following resuscitation.
  • Intravenous nicardipine (5-15 mg/hour) was titrated to systolic BP < 160 mm Hg, diastolic BP < 90 mm Hg, mean arterial BP (MABP) 90-110 mm Hg, and PbtO(2) > 20 mm Hg.
  • Physiological parameters-intracranial pressure, PbtO(2), central venous pressure, systolic BP, diastolic BP, MABP, fraction of inspired O(2), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)-were compared before infusion, at 4 hours, and at 8 hours using a t-test.
  • RESULTS: Sixty episodes of hypertension were reported in 30 patients (traumatic brain injury in 13 patients; aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in 11; intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage in 3 and 1, respectively; arteriovenous malformation in 1; and hypoxic brain injury in 1).
  • Nicardipine was effective in 87% of the patients (with intravenous beta blockers in 4 patients), with a 19.7% reduction in mean 4-hour MABP (115.3 +/- 13.1 mm Hg preinfusion vs 92.9 +/- 11.40 mm Hg after 4 hours of therapy, p < 0.001).
  • No deleterious effect on mean PbtO(2) was recorded (26.74 +/- 15.42 mm Hg preinfusion vs 27.68 +/- 12.51 mm Hg after 4 hours of therapy, p = 0.883) despite significant reduction in CPP.
  • Less dependence on normobaric hyperoxia was achieved at 8 hours (0.72 +/- 0.289 mm Hg preinfusion vs 0.626 +/- 0.286 mm Hg after 8 hours of therapy, p < 0.01).
  • Subgroup analysis revealed that 12 patients had low pretreatment PbtO(2) (10.30 +/- 6.49 mm Hg), with higher CPP (p < 0.001) requiring hyperoxia (p = 0.02).
  • In this group, intravenous nicardipine resulted in an 83% improvement in 4- and 8-hour PbtO(2) levels (18.1 +/- 11.33 and 19.59 +/- 23.68 mm Hg, respectively; p < 0.01) despite significant reductions in both mean MABP (120.6 +/- 16.65 vs 95.8 +/- 8.3 mm Hg, p < 0.001) and CPP (105.00 +/- 20.7 vs 81.2 +/- 15.4 mm Hg, p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous nicardipine is effective for the treatment of hypertensive neurological emergencies and has no adverse effect on PbtO(2).
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Injuries / physiopathology. Cerebral Hemorrhage / physiopathology. Hypertension / drug therapy. Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / physiopathology. Nicardipine / therapeutic use. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Blood Pressure / physiology. Brain / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hypoxia, Brain / physiopathology. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Oxygen / metabolism. Prospective Studies


80. Scherma M, Panlilio LV, Fadda P, Fattore L, Gamaleddin I, Le Foll B, Justinová Z, Mikics E, Haller J, Medalie J, Stroik J, Barnes C, Yasar S, Tanda G, Piomelli D, Fratta W, Goldberg SR: Inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis by cyclohexyl carbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-3-yl ester (URB597) reverses abuse-related behavioral and neurochemical effects of nicotine in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther; 2008 Nov;327(2):482-90
eScholarship, California Digital Library, University of California. Full text from University of California eScholarship .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Emerging evidence suggests that the rewarding, abuse-related effects of nicotine are modulated by the endocannabinoid system of the brain.
  • For example, pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors can reduce or eliminate many abuse-related behavioral and neurochemical effects of nicotine.
  • These previous studies have used systemically administered CB(1) receptor agonists and antagonists and gene deletion techniques, which affect cannabinoid CB(1) receptors throughout the brain.
  • A more functionally selective way to alter endocannabinoid activity is to inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), thereby magnifying and prolonging the effects of the endocannabinoid anandamide only when and where it is synthesized and released on demand.
  • We found that URB597, at a dose (0.3 mg/kg) that had no behavioral effects by itself, prevented development of nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and acquisition of nicotine self-administration.
  • URB597 also reduced nicotine-induced reinstatement in both CPP and self-administration models of relapse.
  • Furthermore, in vivo microdialysis showed that URB597 reduced nicotine-induced dopamine elevations in the nucleus accumbens shell, the terminal area of the brain's mesolimbic reward system.
  • These findings suggest that FAAH inhibition can counteract the addictive properties of nicotine and that FAAH may serve as a new target for development of medications for treatment of tobacco dependence.
  • [MeSH-major] Amidohydrolases / antagonists & inhibitors. Arachidonic Acids / metabolism. Benzamides / pharmacology. Carbamates / pharmacology. Conditioning (Psychology) / drug effects. Dopamine / analysis. Nicotine / pharmacology. Nucleus Accumbens / drug effects. Polyunsaturated Alkamides / metabolism. Tobacco Use Disorder / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Endocannabinoids. Hydrolysis. Male. Motor Activity / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Long-Evans. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Reward. Self Administration

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  • (PMID = 18725543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0103
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / N01 DA059909; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DA000003-22; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 DA999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arachidonic Acids; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Carbamates; 0 / Endocannabinoids; 0 / Polyunsaturated Alkamides; 0 / cyclohexyl carbamic acid 3'-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl ester; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; EC 3.5.- / Amidohydrolases; EC 3.5.1.- / fatty-acid amide hydrolase; UR5G69TJKH / anandamide; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS80206; NLM/ PMC2663803
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81. Turk DC, Swanson KS, Gatchel RJ: Predicting opioid misuse by chronic pain patients: a systematic review and literature synthesis. Clin J Pain; 2008 Jul-Aug;24(6):497-508
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • However, a minority may develop aberrant drug behaviors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the evidence of published strategies for identifying at-risk patients to guide clinicians' decisions and practices for prescribing opioid treatment for chronic pain patients (CPP).
  • Studies were limited to human studies in the English language related to screening for predictors of aberrant drug behaviors in CPP who were prescribed long-term opioids.
  • We included studies reviewing, developing measures, or investigating outcomes related to screening for aberrant opioid behaviors in CPP.
  • RESULTS: We identified 6 published articles addressing clinician-based predictors of substance misuse of opioids and 9 published studies evaluating the predictive ability of clinical interviews and self-report measures for aberrant opioid behaviors in CPP.
  • Several attempts have been made to develop procedures to identify at-risk patients including urine toxicology screening, structured interviews, observation, and self-report questionnaires.
  • CONCLUSION: Review of the published studies reveals that no one procedure or set of predictor variables is sufficient to identify CPP at-risk for opioid misuse or abuse.
  • Strong predictors include a personal history of illicit drug and alcohol abuse.
  • Demographic factors have also been reported, but the results are not consistent.
  • Prospective studies, especially ones with CPP who have not already been started on chronic opioid therapy, are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Opioid / adverse effects. Opioid-Related Disorders / etiology. Pain / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chronic Disease. Humans. MEDLINE / statistics & numerical data. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18574359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5409
  • [Journal-full-title] The Clinical journal of pain
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Pain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / 5K23GM071400-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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82. Wiréhn AB, Andersson A, Ostgren CJ, Carstensen J: Age-specific direct healthcare costs attributable to diabetes in a Swedish population: a register-based analysis. Diabet Med; 2008 Jun;25(6):732-7
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  • [Title] Age-specific direct healthcare costs attributable to diabetes in a Swedish population: a register-based analysis.
  • Cost data on the healthcare expenditure in primary healthcare, out-patient hospital care and in-patient care for the entire county population (n = approximately 415,000) in 2005 were extracted from a cost per patient (CPP) database, which includes information on all utilized healthcare resources in the county.
  • Data on drug sales were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register.
  • RESULTS: The cost per person was 1.8 times higher in patients with diabetes than in the non-diabetic population, 7.7 times higher in children and 1.3 times higher in subjects aged > 75 years.
  • The diabetes-related segment of the total healthcare cost was 6.6%, increasing from 2.0% in children to 10.3% in the age group 65-74 years, declining to 6.2% in the oldest age group.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Cost-Benefit Analysis / economics. Cost-Benefit Analysis / statistics & numerical data. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Primary Health Care / economics. Registries. Sweden / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18435778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-5491
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabet. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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83. Ramond A, Sartorius E, Mousseau M, Ribuot C, Joyeux-Faure M: Erythropoietin pretreatment protects against acute chemotherapy toxicity in isolated rat hearts. Exp Biol Med (Maywood); 2008 Jan;233(1):76-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Erythropoietin pretreatment protects against acute chemotherapy toxicity in isolated rat hearts.
  • The use of chemotherapeutic agents, such as anthracycline or trastuzumab, in oncology is limited by their cardiac toxicity.
  • Recent experimental studies suggest that recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) can be considered as a protective agent because its administration protects against cardiac ischemic injury, improving functional recovery, and reducing cell death.
  • One hour later, hearts were isolated and retrogradely perfused at constant flow.
  • Following 20 mins of stabilization, hearts were perfused for 60 mins with modified-Krebs solution containing 6 mg/l doxorubicin or 10 mg/l trastuzumab.
  • Doxorubicin exposure decreased left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP; approximately -40% of baseline) and increased end diastolic pressure (EDP; approximately +390% of baseline) and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP; approximately +70% of baseline).
  • Incidence of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF) was also significantly enhanced (86% vs. 0% in control group).
  • Trastuzumab exposure increased CPP and EDP (approximately +70% of baseline for the both) without affecting LVDP.
  • Prior rhEPO treatment significantly prevented doxorubicin-induced deleterious effects on LVDP, EDP, and VT/VF incidence. rhEPO administration also prevented trastuzumab-induced deleterious effects on CPP and EDP.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / toxicity. Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Doxorubicin / toxicity. Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Heart / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Blood Pressure / drug effects. In Vitro Techniques. Protective Agents / therapeutic use. Rats. Recombinant Proteins. Trastuzumab. Ventricular Fibrillation / chemically induced. Ventricular Fibrillation / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 18156309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3702
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protective Agents; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
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84. Petrone C, Hall G, Langman M, Filiaggi MJ: Compaction strategies for modifying the drug delivery capabilities of gelled calcium polyphosphate matrices. Acta Biomater; 2008 Mar;4(2):403-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Compaction strategies for modifying the drug delivery capabilities of gelled calcium polyphosphate matrices.
  • Calcium polyphosphates (CPPs) have shown potential as drug delivery matrices, particularly in treating bone-related chronic diseases such as osteomyelitis, where maintenance of sufficient bactericidal concentrations at the infected bone site is essential.
  • The objective of this study was to incorporate an additional compaction step as part of a gelling protocol to optimize CPP matrix properties while enhancing their drug delivery capabilities.
  • Vancomycin-loaded CPP powders were produced using a previously established gelling and drying protocol, G1, and then subsequently compacted at prescribed levels (30, 113 or 452MPa) before subjecting to an additional gelling and drying protocol (G2).
  • The resulting G2 disks were found to be more homogeneous and dense (p=0.0013) when compared with corresponding G1 disks, though increases in matrix density did not translate into subsequent increases in tensile strength.
  • The compaction regelling protocol did, however, eliminate the burst release phenomena observed with the G1 disks and further extended the release of vancomycin into a clinically acceptable therapeutic range of 3weeks.
  • These changes were associated with the increase in visual homogeneity, the increase in density and a more homogenous dispersion of vancomycin within the G2 disks.
  • The ability to modulate this release profile to a limited extent by altering compaction stress, particle size distribution and regelling time was also demonstrated.
  • Overall, the compaction regelling protocol described here, when used in conjunction with an initial gelling step to achieve matrix drug loading, enhances the flexibility and long-term drug delivery capability of this CPP matrix.
  • [MeSH-major] Biocompatible Materials. Calcium Phosphates. Drug Delivery Systems
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Compressive Strength. Gels. Humans. Materials Testing. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Osteomyelitis / drug therapy. Vancomycin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17997374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-7061
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biomaterialia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biomater
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Calcium Phosphates; 0 / Gels; 6Q205EH1VU / Vancomycin
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85. Peroni D, Negro A, Bähr M, Dietz GP: Intracellular delivery of Neuroglobin using HIV-1 TAT protein transduction domain fails to protect against oxygen and glucose deprivation. Neurosci Lett; 2007 Jun 27;421(2):110-4
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  • Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a heme protein that is primarily localised in the retina and the brain.
  • It has been reported that its overexpression protects neurons from hypoxia in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the rapid modulation of the Ngb level in the nerve cells may be a promising stroke treatment strategy.
  • We constructed a human recombinant Ngb fused to the cell penetrating peptide (CPP) derived from HIV-1 TAT.
  • The two neuronal cell lines RGC-5 and SH-SY5Y were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) after pre-treatment with TAT-Ngb.
  • In both cell types, however, the treatment with the TAT-Ngb fusion protein did not show any effect on cell viability.
  • Alternatively, intracellular delivery of Ngb by the TAT/CPP might not have beneficial effects in the treatment of ischemic pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / drug therapy. Gene Products, tat / physiology. Globins / therapeutic use. Glucose / deficiency. Nerve Tissue Proteins / therapeutic use. Transduction, Genetic / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Cell Survival / drug effects. HIV-1 / physiology. Humans. Neuroblastoma. Protein Structure, Tertiary / physiology. Rats. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / therapeutic use. tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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  • (PMID = 17566657.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / neuroglobin; 0 / tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus; 9004-22-2 / Globins; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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86. Pak AC, Ashby CR Jr, Heidbreder CA, Pilla M, Gilbert J, Xi ZX, Gardner EL: The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist SB-277011A reduces nicotine-enhanced brain reward and nicotine-paired environmental cue functions. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol; 2006 Oct;9(5):585-602
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist SB-277011A reduces nicotine-enhanced brain reward and nicotine-paired environmental cue functions.
  • Increasing evidence suggests that enhanced dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) may play a role in mediating the reward and reinforcement produced by addictive drugs and in the attentional processing of drug-associated environmental cues.
  • The meso-accumbens DA system is selectively enriched with DA D3 receptors, a DA receptor subtype increasingly implicated in reward-related brain and behavioural processes.
  • From a variety of evidence, it has been suggested that selective DA D3 receptor antagonism may be a useful pharmacotherapeutic approach for treating addiction.
  • The present experiments tested the efficacy of SB-277011A, a selective DA D3 receptor antagonist, in rat models of nicotine-enhanced electrical brain-stimulation reward (BSR), nicotine-induced conditioned locomotor activity (LMA), and nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP).
  • SB-277011A, given intraperitoneally within the dose range of 1-12 mg/kg, dose-dependently reduced nicotine-enhanced BSR, nicotine-induced conditioned LMA, and nicotine-induced CPP.
  • The results suggest that selective D3 receptor antagonism constitutes a new and promising pharmacotherapeutic approach to the treatment of nicotine dependence.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / drug effects. Conditioning, Operant / drug effects. Dopamine Antagonists / pharmacology. Nicotine / pharmacology. Nicotinic Agonists / pharmacology. Nitriles / pharmacology. Reward. Tetrahydroisoquinolines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Area Under Curve. Association Learning / drug effects. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Cues. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Interactions. Male. Motor Activity / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Long-Evans

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  • (PMID = 16942635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1461-1457
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 DA999999
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / SB 277011; 0 / Tetrahydroisoquinolines; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS493706; NLM/ PMC3732043
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87. Wira C, Martin G, Stoner J, Margolis K, Donnino M: Application of normothermic cardiac arrest algorithms to hypothermic cardiac arrest in a canine model. Resuscitation; 2006 Jun;69(3):509-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Application of normothermic cardiac arrest algorithms to hypothermic cardiac arrest in a canine model.
  • BACKGROUND: International guidelines (2000) do not recommend vasopressor and antiarrhythmic medications during ventricular fibrillation (VF) with a core temperature below 30 degrees C.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of EPI followed by the combination of EPI/AMIO in the treatment of VF in a canine model of severe hypothermia.
  • Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), temperature, and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored.
  • Animals were cooled to 22 degrees C or the onset of spontaneous VF.
  • Animals in the treatment group received EPI (0.01 mg/kg IV) and defibrillation.
  • This was followed by EPI (0.01 mg/kg IV), AMIO (10 mg/kg IV) and defibrillation if there was no sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) for 15 min.
  • RESULTS: Mean CPP in the treatment group increased after the administration of EPI/AMIO (24.7+/-13.3 mmHg to 46.6+/-7.7 mmHg, p<0.004).
  • Cumulatively, the administration of EPI followed by EPI/AMIO achieved ROSC after defibrillation in 10 of 11 animals compared to 3 of 10 in the control group (91% versus 30%, n=21, p=0.0075).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this model of severe hypothermia, the use of standard 2000 protocols for VF resulted in a significant increase of CPP, and, a higher ROSC rate compared to placebo controls.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Heart Arrest / therapy. Hypothermia, Induced / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / administration & dosage. Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / therapeutic use. Amiodarone / administration & dosage. Amiodarone / therapeutic use. Animals. Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / therapeutic use. Disease Models, Animal. Dogs. Drug Therapy, Combination. Epinephrine / administration & dosage. Epinephrine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16597482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9572
  • [Journal-full-title] Resuscitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Resuscitation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Anti-Arrhythmia Agents; N3RQ532IUT / Amiodarone; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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88. Arrigo T, De Luca F, Antoniazzi F, Galluzzi F, Segni M, Rosano M, Messina MF, Lombardo F: Reduction of baseline body mass index under gonadotropin-suppressive therapy in girls with idiopathic precocious puberty. Eur J Endocrinol; 2004 Apr;150(4):533-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reduction of baseline body mass index under gonadotropin-suppressive therapy in girls with idiopathic precocious puberty.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate longitudinally body mass index (BMI) evolution and obesity prevalence in a large and very homogeneous study population consisting only of girls with non-organic central precocious puberty (CPP) who were treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) for at least two years.
  • PATIENTS AND DESIGN: The 101 girls with idiopathic CPP who were selected for this study fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: (a) suppression of gonadotropin and gonadal sex steroid secretion during the overall GnRHa treatment period;.
  • (b) adequate compliance with the therapy regimen.
  • All the girls were treated for 44+/-14 months and were followed-up for 15.7+/-7.8 months after therapy withdrawal.
  • RESULTS: At the start of therapy, 23.8% of the girls had a BMI exceeding 2 standard deviation scores (SDS) and were therefore classified as obese; both average BMI-SDS and obesity prevalence significantly decreased during the treatment period (chi(2)=16.6, P<0.0005) and only 4% of the patients, all with pre-existing obesity, were still obese at the end of therapy; during the therapy period, BMI-SDS increased in none of the patients.
  • Both average BMI-SDS and obesity prevalence (from 4 to 0%; chi(2)=4.0, P<0.05) further decreased during the period that followed therapy withdrawal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: (a) girls with idiopathic CPP are frequently obese at the onset of GnRHa therapy (23.8%), probably due to the hormonal changes which accompany the start of puberty;.
  • (c) on the contrary, GnRHa therapy may have a favourable effect on BMI decrease, provided that treatment is performed for at least two years and is accompanied by a complete suppression of gonadotropin secretion;.
  • (d) this unexpected effect, which has never been reported hitherto, might represent a further indication for GnRHa administration in idiopathic CPP.

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Endocrinol. 2005 Sep;153(3):463-4 [16131610.001]
  • (PMID = 15080784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate
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89. García H, Youlton R, Burrows R, Catanni A, Rama de Endocrinologia Pediatrica de la Sociedad Chilena de Pediatria: [Consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of central early puberty]. Rev Med Chil; 2003 Jan;131(1):95-110
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  • [Title] [Consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of central early puberty].
  • [Transliterated title] Consenso sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la pubertad precoz central.
  • These occur at the age of 10.5 +/- 2.0 years in females and 11.5 +/- 2.0 years in males.
  • True or central precocious puberty (CPP) must be distinguished from peripheral or pseudoprecocious puberty (PPP), from premature telarche and from premature adrenarche.
  • We suggest that the workup of a patient with premature development should include an LHRH test to demonstrate if the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is activated, plasma levels of sex steroids, bone age and pelvic ultrasound in girls.
  • All children with CPP should have a CAT scan or MNR of the brain, since a lesion of the central nervous system is observed in 15% of the girls and 50% of the boys with CPP.
  • The aim of treating CPP is to avoid adult short stature that results from premature fusion of the epiphysis and to avoid eventual emotional and psychological stress.
  • Treatment consists of monthly intramuscular injections of a depot preparation of LHRH analogs.
  • Suppression of pituitary and gonadal activity produces regression of secondary sex characteristics and slowing down of growth velocity and bone maturation.
  • The opportunity, duration of treatment and their effect on final stature are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Puberty, Precocious / diagnosis. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Body Height. Child. Female. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Male

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  • (PMID = 12643227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Guideline; Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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90. Levy ML, Goldfarb A, Hyder DJ, Gonzales-Gomez I, Nelson M, Gilles FH, McComb JG: Choroid plexus tumors in children: significance of stromal invasion. Neurosurgery; 2001 Feb;48(2):303-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Choroid plexus tumors in children: significance of stromal invasion.
  • OBJECTIVE: A group of choroid plexus tumors fit the cellular criteria for choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) except for invasion into the adjacent parenchyma, with associated loss of the normal villus architecture at the site of invasion.
  • These tumors retain a benign cellular appearance.
  • In the existing literature, it is unclear whether these tumors are classified as choroid plexus carcinomas or as CPPs.
  • In our experience, although evidence of invasion is present, these tumors tend to exhibit benign behavior.
  • We suggest that stromal invasion of this type remains consistent with a benign clinical course, although surgical results may demonstrate higher morbidity rates, given the invasive nature of the tumors.
  • Only cases with pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging data were included in the series.
  • After gross total tumor removal, none of the eight children with CPPs received adjuvant therapy at our institution; all are alive without evidence of tumor recurrence after surgical excision (mean, 108 mo).
  • The one patient who underwent subtotal resection received chemotherapy at another facility.
  • CONCLUSION: It is recommended that CPPs with a benign cellular appearance but with evidence of local parenchymal invasion and loss of the normal villus architecture at the site of invasion be classified as CPPs.
  • Patients with these tumors respond to surgical therapy alone, without the need for adjuvant treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / pathology. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / surgery. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11220372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-396X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Endoh T, Ohtsuki T: Cellular siRNA delivery using cell-penetrating peptides modified for endosomal escape. Adv Drug Deliv Rev; 2009 Jul 25;61(9):704-9
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  • RNAi-mediated silencing of specific genes is a promising strategy for gene therapy.
  • To utilize RNAi for therapy, an efficient and safe method for delivery of RNA into the cell cytosol is necessary.
  • The plasma membrane is the primary, and most difficult, barrier for RNA to cross, because negatively charged RNA is strongly repulsed by the negatively charged membrane.
  • This review focuses on CPP-based RNA delivery strategies.
  • In using CPP-based RNA delivery, most of the RNA internalized by the cell is entrapped in endosomes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Drug Carriers. Fluorescent Dyes. Gene Silencing. Genetic Therapy. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Photosensitizing Agents / pharmacology. RNA Interference. RNA-Binding Proteins / chemistry. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19383521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8294
  • [Journal-full-title] Advanced drug delivery reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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92. Groblewski PA, Lattal KM, Cunningham CL: Effects of D-cycloserine on extinction and reconditioning of ethanol-seeking behavior in mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res; 2009 May;33(5):772-82
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYCLOSERINE .

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  • [Title] Effects of D-cycloserine on extinction and reconditioning of ethanol-seeking behavior in mice.
  • BACKGROUND: D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist, has been shown to enhance the extinction of both cocaine and amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP).
  • Thus, the current experiments examined the effects of DCS on the extinction and subsequent reconditioning of ethanol-induced CPP in mice.
  • METHODS: Male DBA/2J mice received either 2 or 4 pairings of ethanol (2 g/kg) with a conditioned stimulus (CS+) floor cue (and an equal number of saline pairings with a CS- floor cue on alternate days) resulting in either a weak or strong ethanol CPP, respectively.
  • Following conditioning of a strong ethanol CPP mice received saline or 30 mg/kg DCS prior to each of the twelve 30-minute choice extinction trials administered at 48-hour intervals.
  • Mice that had received conditioning of a weak ethanol CPP received saline, 30 or 60 mg/kg DCS immediately before each of the six 30-minute choice extinction trials.
  • Following successful ethanol CPP extinction, mice received reconditioning trials similar to the initial conditioning trials.
  • A final experiment examined the effects 12 DCS pre-exposures (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) on initial conditioning of ethanol CPP.
  • RESULTS: First, we showed that 2 doses of DCS (30 and 60 mg/kg) did not have aversive properties that could confound the effects on extinction of CPP (Experiment 1).
  • Second, we showed that DCS (30 and 60 mg/kg) had no effect on the rate of extinction of either strong (Experiment 2) or weak (Experiment 3) ethanol-induced CPP.
  • Interestingly, DCS administered during extinction interfered with reconditioning of ethanol-induced CPP--an effect specific to reconditioning, as DCS pre-exposure did not influence initial ethanol CPP conditioning (Experiment 4).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These experiments show that although DCS showed no effect on extinction behavior, when given during extinction it interfered with subsequent reconditioning of ethanol CPP.
  • The mechanisms of this effect were not, however, due to nonspecific interference with learning because repeated DCS pre-exposures did not impair initial conditioning of ethanol CPP.

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  • (PMID = 19298331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0277
  • [Journal-full-title] Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA007702-22; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA 007702; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA025922-02; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / T32 AA007468-20; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA025922-02; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH077111-04; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA007702-22; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA 025922; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / T32 AA007468; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA025922; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R37 AA007702; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH077111; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA007468-20; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA 007468; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH 077111; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA007702
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 95IK5KI84Z / Cycloserine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS187094; NLM/ PMC2883465
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93. Infante C, Díaz M, Hernández A, Constandil L, Pelissier T: Expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in the dorsal horn of monoarthritic rats: effects of competitive and uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists. Arthritis Res Ther; 2007;9(3):R53
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  • Chronic pain is associated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation and downstream production of nitric oxide, which has a pivotal role in multisynaptic local circuit nociceptive processing in the spinal cord.
  • The formation of nitric oxide is catalyzed by three major nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms (neuronal, nNOS; inducible, iNOS; endothelial, eNOS), which are increased in the spinal cord of rodents subjected to some tonic and chronic forms of experimental pain.
  • Despite the important role of NOS in spinal cord nociceptive transmission, there have been no studies exploring the effect of NMDA receptor blockade on NOS expression in the dorsal horn during chronic pain.
  • Furthermore, NOS isoforms have not been fully characterized in the dorsal horn of animals subjected to arthritic pain.
  • The aim of this work was therefore to study the expression of nNOS, iNOS and eNOS in the dorsal horns of monoarthritic rats, and the modifications in NOS expression induced by pharmacological blockade of spinal cord NMDA receptors.
  • Monoarthritis was produced by intra-articular injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the right tibio-tarsal joint.
  • At week 4, monoarthritic rats were given either the competitive NMDA antagonist (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) or the uncompetitive NMDA antagonist ketamine.
  • Sample tissues were homogenized and subjected to immunoblotting with anti-nNOS, anti-iNOS or anti-eNOS monoclonal antibodies.
  • The nNOS isoform, but not the iNOS and eNOS isoforms, were detected in the dorsal horns of control rats.
  • Intrathecal administration of CPP and ketamine reduced nNOS expression in monoarthritic rats but increased the expression of iNOS and eNOS.
  • Results suggest that blockade of spinal cord NMDA receptors produces complex regulatory changes in the expression of NOS isoforms in monoarthritic rats that may be relevant for nitridergic neuronal/glial mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of monoarthritis and in the pharmacological response to drugs interacting with NMDA receptors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / toxicity. Animals. Blotting, Western. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / administration & dosage. Freund's Adjuvant / toxicity. Functional Laterality. Injections, Spinal. Isoenzymes / biosynthesis. Isoenzymes / drug effects. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 17521446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-6362
  • [Journal-full-title] Arthritis research & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arthritis Res. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 9007-81-2 / Freund's Adjuvant; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2206346
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94. Maffeis C, Franceschi R, Moghetti P, Camilot M, Lauriola S, Tatò L: Circulating ghrelin levels in girls with central precocious puberty are reduced during treatment with LHRH analog. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Jan;156(1):99-103
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ESTRADIOL .

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  • [Title] Circulating ghrelin levels in girls with central precocious puberty are reduced during treatment with LHRH analog.
  • No data are available for girls with central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • AIMS: To explore ghrelin changes before, during, and after GnRH analog treatment in girls with CPP.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A sample of 20 Caucasian girls (8.08 +/- 0.65 years of age) with CPP was recruited.
  • Height and weight, bone age, LH, FSH, 17beta estradiol (E(2)), and ghrelin were measured before starting treatment with GnRH analog, 18 months after therapy began and again 6 months after therapy discontinuation.
  • RESULTS: LH and E(2) serum levels decreased significantly during treatment (2.45 +/- 2.03 vs 0.67 +/- 0.49 UI/l, P < 0.01 and 28.17 +/- 9.7 vs 15 pmol/l, P < 0.01 respectively), returning to baseline levels after the discontinuation of therapy (4.75 +/- 1.66 UI/l and 29.23 +/- 6.99 pmol/l respectively).
  • LH peaked following LHRH stimulation significantly (P < 0.01) decreased during treatment (24.45 +/- 14.17 vs 1.3 +/- 0.18 UI/l) and then increased after therapy discontinuation (12.58 +/- 6.09, P < 0.01).
  • Ghrelin decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during treatment (1849 +/- 322 vs 1207 +/- 637 pg/ml), and increased, though not significantly (P = 0.09) after therapy withdrawal (1567 +/- 629 pg/ml).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to what is expected in physiologic puberty, where ghrelin is progressively reduced, the prepubertal hormone milieau induced by GnRHa treatment in patients suffering from central precocious puberty (CPP) did not promote an increase in ghrelin circulating levels.
  • Therefore, in CPP, ghrelin secretion seems to be independent from pubertal development per se.
  • Concomitant estrogen suppression during treatment may play a potential role in the regulation of ghrelin secretion in these girls.

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  • (PMID = 17218731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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95. Crookes BA, Cohn SM, Bonet H, Burton EA, Nelson J, Majetschak M, Varon AJ, Linden JM, Proctor KG: Building a better fluid for emergency resuscitation of traumatic brain injury. J Trauma; 2004 Sep;57(3):547-54
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

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  • [Title] Building a better fluid for emergency resuscitation of traumatic brain injury.
  • Three series of experiments were designed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of HEX+/-ATL-146e for emergency resuscitation from traumatic brain injury (TBI) + hemorrhagic hypotension.
  • METHODS: In the first two studies in vivo, anesthetized, ventilated pigs (30-45 kg) received a fluid percussion TBI, 45% arterial hemorrhage, and 30 minutes shock period.
  • In Series 1, resuscitation consisted of unlimited crystalloid (n = 8) or HEX (n = 8) to correct systolic arterial pressure >100 mm Hg and heart rate <100 bpm for the first 60 minutes ("emergency phase"), and then maintain cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) > 70 mm Hg for 60-240 minutes.
  • In Series 2 (n = 31), resuscitation consisted of a 1 L bolus of HEX + ATL-146e (10 ng/kg/min, n = 10) or HEX +placebo (n = 10) followed by crystalloid to the same endpoints.
  • In Series 3 in vivo, the hemodynamic response evoked by 0, 10, 50, or 100 ng/kg/min ATL-146e was measured before or 60 minutes after HEX resuscitation from 45% hemorrhage.
  • RESULTS: Following TBI+hemorrhage, there were 4/22 deaths in series 1 and 11/31 deaths in series 2.
  • In those alive at 30 minutes, mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, mixed venous O2 saturation, and cerebral venous O2 saturation were all reduced by 40-60%, while heart rate and lactate were increased 2-5 fold.
  • Upon resuscitation, these values corrected but intracranial pressure progressively rose from <5 mm Hg to 15-20 mm Hg.
  • Series 1: With HEX (n = 8) versus crystalloid (n = 8), CPP was less labile, acid/base was maintained, and the fluid requirement was reduced by 60% (all p < 0.05) Series 2: With ATL-146e (n = 10) versus placebo (n = 10), stroke volume and cardiac output were improved by 40-60%, and the fluid requirement was reduced by 30% (all p < 0.05).
  • Series 3: ATL-146e caused a dose-related increase (p < 0.05) in stroke volume after, but not before, hemorrhage.
  • An adenosine A2A agonist combined with 1 L of HEX safely and effectively counteracted a decrease in cardiac performance noted after TBI+hemorrhage without causing hypotension or bradycardia.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / therapy. Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids / therapeutic use. Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives / therapeutic use. Plasma Substitutes / therapeutic use. Purines / therapeutic use. Resuscitation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Cardiac Output / drug effects. Female. Male. Shock, Hemorrhagic / therapy. Stroke Volume / drug effects. Swine

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  • (PMID = 15454801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5282
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of trauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATL 146e; 0 / Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids; 0 / Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives; 0 / Plasma Substitutes; 0 / Purines
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96. Macdonald GJ, Branch CL, Hadley MS, Johnson CN, Nash DJ, Smith AB, Stemp G, Thewlis KM, Vong AK, Austin NE, Jeffrey P, Winborn KY, Boyfield I, Hagan JJ, Middlemiss DN, Reavill C, Riley GJ, Watson JM, Wood M, Parker SG, Ashby Jr CR: Design and synthesis of trans-3-(2-(4-((3-(3-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazolyl))- phenyl)carboxamido)cyclohexyl)ethyl)-7-methylsulfonyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (SB-414796): a potent and selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist. J Med Chem; 2003 Nov 6;46(23):4952-64
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  • However, a major disadvantage of many current medications are the observed extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS), postulated to arise from D(2) receptor antagonism.
  • Consequently, a selective dopamine D(3) receptor antagonist could offer an attractive antipsychotic therapy, devoid of the unwanted EPS.
  • Using SAR information gained in two previously reported series of potent and selective D(3) receptor antagonists, as exemplified by the 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine 10 and the 2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindoline 11, a range of 7-sulfonyloxy- and 7-sulfonylbenzazepines has been prepared.
  • Compounds of this type combined a high level of D(3) affinity and selectivity vs D(2) with an excellent pharmacokinetic profile in the rat.
  • Subsequent optimization of this series to improve selectivity over a range of receptors and reduce cytochrome P450 inhibitory potential gave trans-3-(2-(4-((3-(3-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxidiazolyl))phenyl)carboxamido)cyclohexyl)ethyl)-7-methylsulfonyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (58, SB-414796).
  • Subsequent evaluation in the rat has shown that 58 preferentially reduces firing of dopaminergic cells in the ventral tegmental area (A10) compared to the substantia nigra (A9), an observation consistent with a prediction for atypical antipsychotic efficacy.
  • In a separate study, 58 has been shown to block expression of the conditioned place preference (CPP) response to cocaine in male rats, suggesting that it may also have a role in the treatment of cue-induced relapse in drug-free cocaine addicts.
  • [MeSH-major] Antipsychotic Agents / chemical synthesis. Benzazepines / chemical synthesis. Dopamine Antagonists / chemical synthesis. Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists. Sulfones / chemical synthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Action Potentials / drug effects. Administration, Oral. Animals. Biological Availability. CHO Cells. Catalepsy / chemically induced. Cocaine / pharmacology. Conditioning, Classical / drug effects. Cricetinae. Dopamine / metabolism. Drug Design. Humans. Male. Neurons / drug effects. Neurons / metabolism. Neurons / physiology. Prolactin / blood. Radioligand Assay. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Receptors, Dopamine D3. Structure-Activity Relationship. Substantia Nigra / cytology. Substantia Nigra / drug effects. Substantia Nigra / physiology. Ventral Tegmental Area / cytology. Ventral Tegmental Area / drug effects. Ventral Tegmental Area / physiology

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  • (PMID = 14584946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3-(2-(4-((3-(3-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazolyl))phenyl)carboxamido)cyclohexyl)ethyl)-7-methylsulfonyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzazepine; 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Benzazepines; 0 / DRD3 protein, human; 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Drd3 protein, rat; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D3; 0 / Sulfones; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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97. Unal O, Berberoğlu M, Evliyaoğlu O, Adiyaman P, Aycan Z, Ocal G: Effects on bone mineral density of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs used in the treatment of central precocious puberty. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2003 Mar;16(3):407-11
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  • [Title] Effects on bone mineral density of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs used in the treatment of central precocious puberty.
  • The aim of this study was to compare vertebral bone mass values of patients with central precocious puberty (CPP) with healthy age and puberty matched controls and to determine the effect of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs on bone mass in patients who had been treated at least for 1 year.
  • Girls with idiopathic CPP, 11 pretreatment, 14 post-treatment, and 19 pubertal girls as controls were enrolled in the study.
  • The mean ages of the controls and the patients with CPP pre- and post-treatment were 10.25 +/- 1.06, 8.23 +/- 1.11, and 10.36 +/- 1.82 years, respectively.
  • The post-treatment group's mean BMD value was 0.66 +/- 0.12; Z scores according to CA and BA were 0.32 +/- 10 and 0.30 +/- 1.1, respectively.
  • In the study group, BMD values compared to the control group were normal.
  • No significant change in BMD values was observed after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density / drug effects. Leuprolide / pharmacology. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorptiometry, Photon. Anthropometry. Child. Female. Humans. Matched-Pair Analysis. Reference Values. Spine / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 12705366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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98. Baudy RB, Fletcher H 3rd, Yardley JP, Zaleska MM, Bramlett DR, Tasse RP, Kowal DM, Katz AH, Moyer JA, Abou-Gharbia M: Design, synthesis, SAR, and biological evaluation of highly potent benzimidazole-spaced phosphono-alpha-amino acid competitive NMDA antagonists of the AP-6 type. J Med Chem; 2001 May 10;44(10):1516-29
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • [Title] Design, synthesis, SAR, and biological evaluation of highly potent benzimidazole-spaced phosphono-alpha-amino acid competitive NMDA antagonists of the AP-6 type.
  • A series of 2-amino-(phosphonoalkyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2-alkanoic acids was synthesized and evaluated for NMDA receptor affinity using a [3H]CPP binding assay.
  • Several compounds of the AP-6 type demonstrated potent and selective NMDA antagonistic activity both in vitro and in vivo.
  • In particular, [R(-)]-2-amino-3-(5-chloro-1-phosphonomethyl-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propionic acid (1) displayed an IC(50) value of 7.1 nM in the [3H]CPP binding assay and an ED(50) value of 0.13 mg/kg (ip) in the NMDA lethality model.
  • Compound 1, when administered intravenously as a single bolus dose of 3 mg/kg following permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat, reduced the volume of infarcted brain tissue by 45%.
  • These results support a promising therapeutic potential for compound 1 as a neuroprotective agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzimidazoles / chemical synthesis. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / chemical synthesis. Neuroprotective Agents / chemical synthesis. Propionates / chemical synthesis. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Arterial Occlusive Diseases / complications. Binding, Competitive. Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Carotid Artery Diseases / complications. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. In Vitro Techniques. Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / drug therapy. Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / etiology. Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / pathology. Male. Mice. Models, Molecular. Organophosphonates. Radioligand Assay. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Stereoisomerism

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  • (PMID = 11334562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-amino-3-(5-chloro-1-phosphonomethyl-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)propionic acid; 0 / Benzimidazoles; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; 0 / Organophosphonates; 0 / Propionates; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
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99. Di Gennaro JL, Mack CD, Malakouti A, Zimmerman JJ, Armstead W, Vavilala MS: Use and effect of vasopressors after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Dev Neurosci; 2010;32(5-6):420-30
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  • [Title] Use and effect of vasopressors after pediatric traumatic brain injury.
  • BACKGROUND: Vasopressors are commonly used to increase mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but there are few data comparing vasopressor effectiveness after pediatric TBI.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine which vasopressor is most effective at increasing MAP and CPP in children with moderate-to-severe TBI.
  • METHODS: After institutional review board approval, we performed a retrospective cohort study of children 0-17 years old admitted to a level 1 trauma center (Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Wash., USA) between 2002 and 2007 with moderate-to-severe TBI who received a vasopressor to increase blood pressure.
  • Baseline demographic and physiologic characteristics and hourly physiologic monitoring for 3 h after having started a vasopressor were abstracted.
  • We evaluated differences in MAP and CPP at 3 h after initiation of therapy between phenylephrine, dopamine and norepinephrine among patients who did not require a second vasopressor during this time.
  • Multivariate linear regression was used to adjust for age, gender, injury severity score and baseline MAP or CPP and to cluster by subject.
  • The most common initial medication was phenylephrine for 47 (57%).
  • Thirteen (16%) of the patients received a second vasopressor during the first 3 h of treatment and were thus not included in the regression analyses; these patients received more fluid resuscitation and exhibited higher in-hospital mortality (77 vs. 32%; p = 0.004) compared to patients receiving a single vasopressor.
  • The norepinephrine group exhibited a 5 mm Hg higher MAP (95% CI: -4 to 13; p = 0.31) and a 12 mm Hg higher CPP (95% CI: -2 to 26; p = 0.10) than the phenylephrine group, and a 5 mm Hg higher MAP (95% CI: -4 to 15; p = 0.27) and a 10 mm Hg higher CPP (95% CI: -5 to 25; p = 0.18) than the dopamine group.
  • However, in post hoc analysis, after adjusting for time to start of vasopressor, hypertonic saline and pentobarbital, the effect on MAP was lost, but the CPP was 8 mm Hg higher (95% CI: -10 to 25; p = 0.39) than in the phenylephrine group, and 5 mm Hg higher (95% CI: -14 to 24; p = 0.59) than in the dopamine group.
  • While there was no statistically significant difference in MAP or CPP between vasopressor groups, norepinephrine was associated with a clinically relevant higher CPP and lower intracranial pressure at 3 h after start of vasopressor therapy compared to the other vasopressors examined.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / drug effects. Brain Injuries / drug therapy. Vasoconstrictor Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Dopamine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Norepinephrine / therapeutic use. Phenylephrine / therapeutic use. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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  • (PMID = 21124016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9859
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 1WS297W6MV / Phenylephrine; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3073759
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100. Powers MS, Barrenha GD, Mlinac NS, Barker EL, Chester JA: Effects of the novel endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, LY2183240, on fear-potentiated startle and alcohol-seeking behaviors in mice selectively bred for high alcohol preference. Psychopharmacology (Berl); 2010 Dec;212(4):571-83
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  • Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of individuals with anxiety and/or alcohol-use disorders.
  • OBJECTIVES: The present study assessed the effects of a novel endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, LY2183240, on anxiety- and alcohol-seeking behaviors in a unique animal model that may represent increased genetic risk to develop co-morbid anxiety and alcohol-use disorders in humans.
  • We examined the effects of LY2183240 on the expression of FPS in HAP and LAP mice and on alcohol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and limited-access alcohol drinking behavior in HAP mice.
  • RESULTS: Repeated administration of LY2183240 (30 mg/kg) reduced the expression of FPS in HAP but not LAP mice when given prior to a second FPS test 48 h after fear conditioning.
  • Both the 10 and 30 mg/kg doses of LY2183240 enhanced the expression of alcohol-induced CPP and this effect persisted in the absence of the drug.
  • LY2183240 did not alter limited-access alcohol drinking behavior, unconditioned startle responding, or locomotor activity.
  • LY2183240 may be an effective pharmacotherapy for individuals with anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, but may not be appropriate for individuals with co-morbid anxiety and alcohol-use disorders.

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  • (PMID = 20838777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2072
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA016843; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA016843-04; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA019529-02; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R21 AA019529; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA016843; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R21 AA019529-02; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA016843-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Anxiety Agents; 0 / Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators; 0 / Endocannabinoids; 0 / Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring; 0 / LY2183240; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 8W8T17847W / Urea
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS233448; NLM/ PMC2982902
  •