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1. Said Hassane F, Saleh AF, Abes R, Gait MJ, Lebleu B: Cell penetrating peptides: overview and applications to the delivery of oligonucleotides. Cell Mol Life Sci; 2010 Mar;67(5):715-26
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  • Cell penetrating peptides (CPP), also named protein transduction domains, comprise short and usually basic amino acids-rich peptides originating from proteins able to cross biological barriers, such as the viral Tat protein, or are rationally designed.
  • They have emerged as a new class of non-viral vectors allowing the delivery of various biomolecules across biological barriers from low molecular weight drugs to nanosized particles.
  • Encouraging data with CPP-conjugated oligonucleotides have been obtained both in vitro and in vivo in animal models of diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
  • Whether CPP-cargo conjugates enter cells by direct translocation across the plasma membrane or by endocytosis remains controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Cells / metabolism. Drug Delivery Systems. Oligonucleotides / administration & dosage. Peptides / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Membrane Permeability / drug effects. Gene Transfer Techniques. Humans. Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19898741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1420-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105178803
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Peptides
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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2. Herrold AA, Shen F, Graham MP, Harper LK, Specio SE, Tedford CE, Napier TC: Mirtazapine treatment after conditioning with methamphetamine alters subsequent expression of place preference. Drug Alcohol Depend; 2009 Jan 1;99(1-3):231-9
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  • [Title] Mirtazapine treatment after conditioning with methamphetamine alters subsequent expression of place preference.
  • There are currently no FDA approved pharmacotherapies for the MP addict.
  • This study evaluated the potential of Mirt as a therapeutic agent for MP addiction and described associated changes in neuronal signaling.
  • A single pairing conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was utilized as a behavioral measure of MP-induced effects.
  • ) MP (day 1) or saline (day 2).
  • Mirt (5.0 mg/kg i.p.) was given in the home cage on day 3 and CPP was assessed on day 4.
  • To evaluate signaling events that correlate with this behavior, brain tissue of these rats were dissected for immunoblot assays of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and a transcriptional regulator, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) after the CPP test.
  • During the CPP test, rats conditioned with MP spent more time in the environment associated with MP.
  • Importantly, rats given Mirt did not express CPP.
  • MP-induced CPP was associated with a decrease in phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) in the ventral tegmental area, and decreased phosphorylated ERK and pCREB in the nucleus accumbens and treatment with Mirt did not reverse these changes.
  • Overall, a post-conditioning treatment with Mirt can nullify MP-induced associative learning.
  • However, additional studies are needed to ascertain the molecular events underlying this effect of Mirt.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / pharmacology. Central Nervous System Stimulants / pharmacology. Conditioning, Operant / drug effects. Methamphetamine / pharmacology. Mianserin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Cues. Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Male. Memory / drug effects. Phosphorylation. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Receptors, Serotonin / drug effects. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Taste / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18945553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug and alcohol dependence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Alcohol Depend
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA015760; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA016496; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA019763; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA023306
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0 / Central Nervous System Stimulants; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / Receptors, Serotonin; 250PJI13LM / Mianserin; 44RAL3456C / Methamphetamine; A051Q2099Q / mirtazapine; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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3. Schulz D, Buddenberg T, Huston JP: Extinction-induced "despair" in the water maze, exploratory behavior and fear: effects of chronic antidepressant treatment. Neurobiol Learn Mem; 2007 May;87(4):624-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extinction-induced "despair" in the water maze, exploratory behavior and fear: effects of chronic antidepressant treatment.
  • Specifically, the removal of a hidden platform in the water maze induced extinction of previously reinforced escape behavior and behavioral immobility, indicative of "despair", which also correlated with indices of fear.
  • Here, we tested the effects of antidepressants on extinction in the water maze, and expected that such drugs would attenuate the rate of extinction of a conditioned place preference (CPP) and also any emotionally relevant behavior that is induced by the loss of reinforcement, such as immobility.
  • Adult male Wistar rats were trained to escape onto a hidden platform for 10 days.
  • Daily treatment with desipramine hydrochloride (DMI, 10mg/kg) or fluoxetine (FLX, 10 mg/kg) commenced 1 day before the first of 11 extinction trials without the platform, administered 48 h apart, and continued thereafter, as the rats were tested in an open field and elevated-plus maze.
  • As compared to controls, DMI increased the resistance-to-extinction of CPP, attenuated immobility, and increased wall climbing behavior.
  • In the open field, DMI reduced activity levels, but was without effect on traditional fear parameters in the elevated-plus maze.
  • [MeSH-major] Antidepressive Agents / pharmacology. Exploratory Behavior / drug effects. Extinction, Psychological / physiology. Fear / drug effects. Maze Learning / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Affect. Animals. Conditioning, Classical / drug effects. Conditioning, Classical / physiology. Depressive Disorder / drug therapy. Desipramine / pharmacology. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Administration Schedule. Escape Reaction. Fluoxetine / pharmacology. Immobility Response, Tonic / drug effects. Immobility Response, Tonic / physiology. Male. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 17223365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1074-7427
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurobiology of learning and memory
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurobiol Learn Mem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 01K63SUP8D / Fluoxetine; TG537D343B / Desipramine
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4. Salluh JI, Martins GA, Santino MS, Araújo LV, Freitas GG, Verdeal JC: Early use of terlipressin in catecholamine-resistant shock improves cerebral perfusion pressure in severe traumatic brain injury. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand; 2007 Apr;51(4):505-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Early use of terlipressin in catecholamine-resistant shock improves cerebral perfusion pressure in severe traumatic brain injury.
  • BACKGROUND: Maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion pressure is an essential aspect in the treatment of severe acute brain injury.
  • To accomplish this therapeutic goal vasopressors are usually required.
  • CASE REPORT: A 14-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room after a motorcycle accident.
  • The patient had suffered severe traumatic brain injury, the Glasgow coma score (GCS) was four and there were signs of aspiration of gastric contents.
  • A terlipressin infusion, as a bolus dose of 1 mg, is associated with the ability to improve cerebral perfusion pressure with concomitant reduction of 80% of norepinephrine doses.
  • DISCUSSION: The present report illustrates the potential benefits of terlipressin in refractory shock in a patient with severe traumatic brain injury.
  • An increase in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and a huge decrease in the dose of norepinephrine were observed.
  • In the setting of severe brain injury associated with refractory hypotension, terlipressin may improve mean arterial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure.
  • CONCLUSION: In the setting of severe brain injury associated with refractory hypotension, terlipressin may have a role as a rescue therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / complications. Catecholamines / administration & dosage. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Drug Resistance. Lypressin / analogs & derivatives. Shock / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Accidents, Traffic. Adolescent. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Motorcycles. Multiple Organ Failure / etiology. Norepinephrine / administration & dosage. Oxygen / blood. Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult / etiology. Severity of Illness Index. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / complications. Time Factors. Vasoconstrictor Agents / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007 Aug;51(7):957 [17635407.001]
  • (PMID = 17378791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5172
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Anaesthesiol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 50-57-7 / Lypressin; 7Z5X49W53P / terlipressin; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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5. Levy ML, Goldfarb A, Hyder DJ, Gonzales-Gomez I, Nelson M, Gilles FH, McComb JG: Choroid plexus tumors in children: significance of stromal invasion. Neurosurgery; 2001 Feb;48(2):303-9
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  • [Title] Choroid plexus tumors in children: significance of stromal invasion.
  • OBJECTIVE: A group of choroid plexus tumors fit the cellular criteria for choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) except for invasion into the adjacent parenchyma, with associated loss of the normal villus architecture at the site of invasion.
  • These tumors retain a benign cellular appearance.
  • In the existing literature, it is unclear whether these tumors are classified as choroid plexus carcinomas or as CPPs.
  • In our experience, although evidence of invasion is present, these tumors tend to exhibit benign behavior.
  • We suggest that stromal invasion of this type remains consistent with a benign clinical course, although surgical results may demonstrate higher morbidity rates, given the invasive nature of the tumors.
  • Only cases with pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging data were included in the series.
  • RESULTS: A total of 12 patients with CPPs were identified, with 4 tumors being notable for stromal invasion.
  • After gross total tumor removal, none of the eight children with CPPs received adjuvant therapy at our institution; all are alive without evidence of tumor recurrence after surgical excision (mean, 108 mo).
  • The one patient who underwent subtotal resection received chemotherapy at another facility.
  • CONCLUSION: It is recommended that CPPs with a benign cellular appearance but with evidence of local parenchymal invasion and loss of the normal villus architecture at the site of invasion be classified as CPPs.
  • Patients with these tumors respond to surgical therapy alone, without the need for adjuvant treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / pathology. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / surgery. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11220372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-396X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Lampit M, Golander A, Guttmann H, Hochberg Z: Estrogen mini-dose replacement during GnRH agonist therapy in central precocious puberty: a pilot study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2002 Feb;87(2):687-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Estrogen mini-dose replacement during GnRH agonist therapy in central precocious puberty: a pilot study.
  • During GnRH agonist therapy of patients with central precocious puberty (CPP), growth is sometimes suppressed to subnormal velocity.
  • The working hypotheses were that estrogen levels are suppressed by GnRH agonist therapy below normal prepubertal levels, that such suppression is responsible for the slow growth of girls with CPP during GnRH agonist therapy, and that a mini-dose of estrogen replacement will normalize growth.
  • The present pilot study examined growth and bone maturation over 2 yr in 13 patients with CPP and compared therapy with a combination of GnRH agonist and 8 microg conjugated equine estrogen (group 1) to therapy with GnRH agonist alone (group 2).
  • Both groups had adequate suppression of gonadotropins, and E2 levels were below detection levels of our assay throughout the study period.
  • Group 2 patients decreased their growth velocity from 2.0 +/- 1.4 to -1.6 +/- 1.2 SD score compared with group 1, who maintained their growth velocity of 1.3 +/- 1.5 SD score and their height SD score for 2 yr (P < 0.01).
  • In group 1 patients the ratio of the change in bone age/change in chronological age decreased from 1.2 +/- 0.7 to 0.75 +/- 0.3, and in group 2 patients it decreased to 0.6 +/- 0.3 and 0.4 +/- 0.2 (P < 0.05) during the first and second years of therapy, respectively.
  • It is concluded on a pilot basis that estrogen suppression is responsible for the slow growth of girls with CPP during GnRH agonist therapy and that a mini-dose of estrogen replacement is safe and effective for at least 24 months in maintaining normal prepubertal growth without acceleration of bone maturation or pubertal development.
  • The current pilot results do not suggest an indication or provide a justification for such therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) / administration & dosage. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Determination by Skeleton. Aging / physiology. Animals. Body Height / drug effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Growth. Horses. Humans. Pilot Projects

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  • (PMID = 11836305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens, Conjugated (USP); 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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7. Read SP, Cashman SM, Kumar-Singh R: POD nanoparticles expressing GDNF provide structural and functional rescue of light-induced retinal degeneration in an adult mouse. Mol Ther; 2010 Nov;18(11):1917-26
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  • Peptide for ocular delivery (POD) is a novel cationic cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) which, when conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG-POD), can deliver plasmid DNA to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of adult murine retina.
  • The thickness of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of the superior retina of PEG-POD~GDNF-injected eyes was significantly greater (23.6-39.3%) than control-injected retina 14 days post-light treatment.
  • PEG-POD~GDNF-injected eyes showed a 27-39% greater functional response relative to controls, as measured by electroretinogram (ERG) 7 days post-light treatment.
  • This is one of only two studies demonstrating histological and functional rescue of a mouse model of retinal degeneration following nonviral administration of a transgene into adult retina.
  • Although rescue is short lived for clinical application, this study represents an important step in the development of nonviral gene therapy for retinal diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Therapy. Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor / genetics. Nanoparticles. Radiation Injuries, Experimental / therapy. Retina / radiation effects. Retinal Degeneration / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Caspases / metabolism. Drug Delivery Systems. Electroretinography. Light / adverse effects. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Peptide Fragments / therapeutic use. Polyethylene Glycols. Rats

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  • (PMID = 20700110.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-0024
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY013887; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY014991; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY013837; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY021805; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY014991
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gdnf protein, rat; 0 / Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2990513
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8. Valencak J, Dietrich W, Raderer M, Dieckmann K, Prayer D, Hainfellner JA, Marosi C: Evidence of therapeutic efficacy of CCNU in recurrent choroid plexus papilloma. J Neurooncol; 2000 Sep;49(3):263-8
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  • [Title] Evidence of therapeutic efficacy of CCNU in recurrent choroid plexus papilloma.
  • A pregnant 33-year old woman developed nystagmus and cerebellar ataxia.
  • A tumor in the roof of the fourth ventricle was diagnosed.
  • The tumor was subtotally removed using microneurosurgical techniques.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was choroid plexus papilloma (CPP).
  • Twenty-one months later, the tumor recurred and was reoperated.
  • Histologically the tumor displayed now increased mitotic activity and pleomorphism.
  • Radiation therapy of the neuroaxis was performed.
  • Within 59 months, the CPP recurred 3 more times with neuroradiological evidence of extensive spinal seeding.
  • After several palliative irradiations, including 2 gamma-knife boosts, the patient was referred to chemotherapy.
  • The course of disease in our patient provides evidence for therapeutic efficacy of CCNU in recurrent CPP.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lomustine / therapeutic use. Papilloma / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Seeding. Pregnancy. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 11212906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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9. Cavus E, Meybohm P, Doerges V, Hugo HH, Steinfath M, Nordstroem J, Scholz J, Bein B: Cerebral effects of three resuscitation protocols in uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock: a randomised controlled experimental study. Resuscitation; 2009 May;80(5):567-72
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  • BACKGROUND: To compare haemodynamic and cerebral variables during aggressive fluid resuscitation vs. administration of a hypertonic starch solution (HS) combined with either noradrenaline [norepinephrine] or arginine vasopressin in an animal model of uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock.
  • At haemodynamic decompensation, animals were randomly assigned to receive fluid resuscitation (6% HES 130/0.4, 20 mL/kg, and Ringer, 40 mL/kg; FR group, n=8), or noradrenaline (bolus 20 microg/kg, continuously 1 microg/kg/min) combined with HS (7.2% NaCl/6% HES 200/0.5; 4 mL/kg) (n=8; NA/HS group), or vasopressin (bolus 0.2U/kg, continuously 0.04 U/kg/min) combined with HS (4 mL/kg) (n=8; AVP/HS group), respectively.
  • Thirty minutes after drug administration, bleeding was controlled manually.
  • RESULTS: Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and brain tissue oxygen pressure (P(bt)O(2)) decreased significantly with haemorrhage in all groups (p<0.05).
  • AVP/HS resulted in a faster and higher increase of MAP and CPP compared to both NA/HS and FR (p<0.001 vs. FR; p<0.01 vs. NA/HS).
  • Compared to FR, P(bt)O(2) increased faster with AVP/HS and NA/HS (p<0.05) after therapy, and ICP was lower at the end of the study period (p<0.05).
  • All animals (8/8) of the AVP/HS group survived, compared to 4/8 and 4/8 in the NA/HS and FR group, respectively (p=0.07).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Following uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock in this animal model, combination of HS with arginine vasopressin increased CPP and cerebral oxygenation faster than aggressive fluid resuscitation, without re-increasing ICP.
  • [MeSH-major] Clinical Protocols. Resuscitation / methods. Shock, Hemorrhagic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Arginine Vasopressin / administration & dosage. Brain / blood supply. Brain / drug effects. Brain / physiopathology. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Fluid Therapy / methods. Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives / administration & dosage. Hypertonic Solutions / administration & dosage. Male. Norepinephrine / administration & dosage. Oxygen Consumption / drug effects. Plasma Substitutes / administration & dosage. Prospective Studies. Random Allocation. Swine. Treatment Outcome. Vasoconstrictor Agents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19217706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9572
  • [Journal-full-title] Resuscitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Resuscitation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives; 0 / Hypertonic Solutions; 0 / Plasma Substitutes; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 113-79-1 / Arginine Vasopressin; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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10. Baviera M, Invernizzi RW, Carli M: Haloperidol and clozapine have dissociable effects in a model of attentional performance deficits induced by blockade of NMDA receptors in the mPFC. Psychopharmacology (Berl); 2008 Feb;196(2):269-80
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  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of conventional and atypical antipsychotics in a model of attentional performance deficit of schizophrenia induced by blockade of N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Attentional performance was assessed using the five-choice serial reaction time task.
  • The task provides indices of attentional functioning (% correct responses), executive control (measured by anticipatory and perseverative responding), decision time (measured by correct response latency), and omissions.
  • Haloperidol and clozapine were given intraperitoneally (IP) to animals that had received vehicle or a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, 3-(R)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), directly into the medial prefrontal cortex.
  • RESULTS: Fifty nanograms/side of CPP reduced accuracy (% correct responses) and increased anticipatory and perseverative responding.
  • Haloperidol (0.03 mg/kg IP) reduced the CPP-induced anticipatory and perseverative overresponding but not the impairment in accuracy.
  • In contrast, clozapine (2.5 mg/kg IP) reversed the decrease in accuracy and impulsivity (anticipatory responding) but not perseverative overresponding.
  • CPP increased decision time and omissions, but these effects were not affected by either haloperidol or clozapine.
  • Antagonistic activity at 5-HT(2A) receptors may best explain the facilitatory effects of clozapine on cognition.
  • [MeSH-major] Attention / drug effects. Clozapine / pharmacology. Haloperidol / pharmacology. Prefrontal Cortex / drug effects. Schizophrenia / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Antipsychotic Agents / administration & dosage. Antipsychotic Agents / pharmacology. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Dopamine Antagonists / administration & dosage. Dopamine Antagonists / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Injections, Intraperitoneal. Male. Microinjections. Piperazines / administration & dosage. Piperazines / toxicity. Rats. Reaction Time / drug effects. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors. Serial Learning / drug effects. Serotonin Antagonists / administration & dosage. Serotonin Antagonists / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17940750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-3158
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 0 / Serotonin Antagonists; 98Y1I8ZD4M / 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid; J60AR2IKIC / Clozapine; J6292F8L3D / Haloperidol
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11. Bidwell GL 3rd, Davis AN, Raucher D: Targeting a c-Myc inhibitory polypeptide to specific intracellular compartments using cell penetrating peptides. J Control Release; 2009 Apr 2;135(1):2-10
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  • [Title] Targeting a c-Myc inhibitory polypeptide to specific intracellular compartments using cell penetrating peptides.
  • The therapeutic index of current anti-cancer chemotherapeutics can be improved by two major mechanisms:.
  • 1) developing drugs which are specifically toxic to the cancer cells and 2) developing methods to deliver drugs to the tumor site.
  • In an attempt to combine these approaches, we developed a thermally responsive polypeptide inhibitor of c-Myc.
  • This polypeptide is based on the thermally responsive Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP).
  • When injected systemically, ELP-fused drugs will aggregate and accumulate at the tumor site where local hyperthermia is applied.
  • In this study, the cellular uptake, intracellular distribution, and potency of the Pen, Tat and Bac cell penetrating peptides fused to ELP-H1 were evaluated.
  • This data demonstrates that ELP can be targeted to the desired cellular compartment simply by choice of the CPP used, resulting in a more potent nuclear targeted c-Myc inhibitory polypeptide which may be beneficial in cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Peptide Fragments / chemistry. Peptides / chemistry. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / antagonists & inhibitors. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / drug effects. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cytoplasm / drug effects. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Hyperthermia, Induced. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / metabolism. Phase Transition. Temperature. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19095020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA 113813-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / MYC protein, human; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 81857-53-6 / elastin polypentapeptide
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12. Stubbe HD, Greiner C, Westphal M, Rickert CH, Aken HV, Eichel V, Wassmann H, Daudel F, Hinder F: Cerebral response to norepinephrine compared with fluid resuscitation in ovine traumatic brain injury and systemic inflammation. Crit Care Med; 2006 Oct;34(10):2651-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cerebral response to norepinephrine compared with fluid resuscitation in ovine traumatic brain injury and systemic inflammation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury is frequently accompanied by a systemic inflammatory response.
  • Systemic inflammation was associated with cerebral hyperperfusion uncoupled to global oxygen metabolism in ovine head trauma.
  • The present study investigated the cerebral effects of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) management performed by either fluid resuscitation or vasopressor treatment of low CPP induced by systemic inflammation.
  • At hour 10, one group (n = 6) was infused with hydroxyethyl starch until CPP reached 60-70 mm Hg.
  • A second group (n = 6) received norepinephrine for CPP elevation.
  • In the norepinephrine group, blood was isovolemically exchanged by hydroxyethyl starch to achieve comparable hematocrit levels.
  • Head trauma increased intracranial pressure and decreased brain tissue oxygen tension.
  • Endotoxemia induced a hyperdynamic cardiovascular response with increased internal carotid blood flow in the presence of systemic hypotension and decreased CPP.
  • Hydroxyethyl starch infusion further increased internal carotid blood flow from (mean +/- sd) 247 +/- 26 (hour 10) to 342 +/- 42 mL/min (hour 13) and intracranial pressure from 20 +/- 4 (hour 10) to a maximum of 25 +/- 3 mm Hg (hour 12) but did not significantly affect brain tissue oxygen tension, sinus venous oxygen saturation and oxygen extraction fraction.
  • Norepinephrine increased internal carotid blood flow from 268 +/- 19 to 342 +/- 58 mL/min and intracranial pressure from 22 +/- 11 to 24 +/- 11 mm Hg (hour 10 vs. hour 13) but significantly increased sinus venous oxygen saturation from 49 +/- 4 (hour 10) to a maximum of 59 +/- 6 mm Hg (hour 12) and decreased oxygen extraction fraction.
  • The increase in brain tissue oxygen tension during norepinephrine treatment was not significant.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that despite identical carotid blood flows, only CPP management with norepinephrine reduced the cerebral oxygen deficit in this model.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / therapy. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Fluid Therapy. Norepinephrine / therapeutic use. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / therapy. Vasoconstrictor Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Hemodynamics / drug effects. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Sheep

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  • [CommentIn] Crit Care Med. 2006 Oct;34(10):2697-8 [16983278.001]
  • (PMID = 16932232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3493
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical care medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Care Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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13. Dalpiaz O, Kerschbaumer A, Mitterberger M, Pinggera G, Bartsch G, Strasser H: Chronic pelvic pain in women: still a challenge. BJU Int; 2008 Nov;102(9):1061-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Chronic pelvic pain (CPP), a common condition particularly in reproductive-aged women, causes disability and distress, and significantly compromises quality of life and affects healthcare costs.
  • The pathogenesis of CPP is still poorly understood and consequently poorly managed.
  • Furthermore, the lack of a consensus on the definition of CPP greatly hinders epidemiological studies.
  • Patients present with various associated problems, including bladder or bowel dysfunction, gynaecological pathologies or sexual dysfunction, and other systemic or constitutional symptoms.
  • Other conditions, e.g. depression, anxiety and drug addiction, can also coexist.
  • The key to treating CPP is to treat it as the complex disease it is.
  • Treatment options range from conservative medical therapy to surgical intervention, and are primarily directed towards symptom relief.
  • Unsatisfactory results of treatment render this condition a frustrating problem for both patients and physicians.
  • [MeSH-major] Pelvic Pain / therapy. Quality of Life
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chronic Disease. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18540938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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14. Patel MB, Feinstein AJ, Saenz AD, Majetschak M, Proctor KG: Prehospital HBOC-201 after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock in swine. J Trauma; 2006 Jul;61(1):46-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prehospital HBOC-201 after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock in swine.
  • BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the actions of hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) after traumatic brain injury (TBI).
  • This study evaluates neurotoxicity, vasoactivity, cardiac toxicity, and inflammatory activity of HBOC-201 (Biopure, Cambridge, Mass.) resuscitation in a TBI model.
  • After 30 minutes, resuscitation was initiated with 10 mL/kg normal saline (NS), followed by either HBOC-201 (6 mL/kg, n = 10) or NS control (n = 10).
  • Supplemental NS was administered to both groups to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) >60 mm Hg until 60 minutes, and to maintain cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) >70 mm Hg from 60 to 300 minutes.
  • The control group received mannitol (1 g/kg) and blood (10 mL/kg) at 90 minutes and half (n = 5) received CPP directed phenylephrine (PE) therapy after 120 minutes.
  • RESULTS: With HBOC administration, MAP, CPP, and brain tissue PO2 were restored within 30 minutes and maintained until 300 minutes.
  • Clot strength and fibrin formation were maintained and 9/10 successfully extubated.
  • In contrast, with control, MAP and brain tissue PO2 did not correct until 120 minutes, after mannitol, transfusion and 40% more crystalloid.
  • Furthermore, without PE, CPP did not reach target and 0/5 could be extubated.
  • Lactate, heart rate, cardiac output, mixed venous oxygenation, muscle oxygenation, serum cytokines, and histology did not differ between groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After TBI, a single HBOC-201 bolus with minimal supplements provided rapid resuscitation, while maintaining CPP and improving brain oxygenation, without causing cardiac dysfunction, coagulopathy, cytokine release, or brain structural changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Substitutes / toxicity. Brain Injuries / therapy. Fluid Therapy / methods. Hemoglobins / toxicity. Shock, Hemorrhagic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Blood Coagulation / drug effects. Brain / drug effects. Brain / pathology. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Cytokines / blood. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Female. Hemodynamics / drug effects. Male. Swine

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  • (PMID = 16832248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5282
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of trauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM08749-01
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Substitutes; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / HBOC 201; 0 / Hemoglobins
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15. El-Gaidi MA, Eissa EM: Infantile intracranial neoplasms: characteristics and surgical outcomes of a contemporary series of 21 cases in an Egyptian referral center. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2010;46(4):272-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infantile intracranial neoplasms: characteristics and surgical outcomes of a contemporary series of 21 cases in an Egyptian referral center.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the demographic, clinical, radiological, pathological and surgical features and outcomes of infantile intracranial neoplasms, the second most common neoplasm in infants.
  • RESULTS: Out of 451 patients with primary intracranial neoplasms (age 0-14 years), 21 infants (<1 year) underwent surgery, representing 4.7% of total cases.
  • The most common tumor was choroid plexus papilloma (23.8%), followed by teratoma (19%) then astrocytoma and ependymoma (14.3% each).
  • Of the 21 surgical cases, 90% were intra-axial, 80% were in the supratentorial region, and 57% were intraventricular.
  • There was only 1 case of intraoperative mortality (4.8%).
  • Three patients received chemotherapy, but none received radiotherapy.
  • The statistically significant predictors of prognosis were the extent of resection and tumor grade.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the prognosis for infantile intracranial neoplasms is worse than for older children, an overall promising outcome with low operative morbidity and mortality was achieved using gross total excision and appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy as part of a multidisciplinary approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / mortality. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Egypt / epidemiology. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Morbidity. Neurilemmoma / drug therapy. Neurilemmoma / mortality. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Referral and Consultation / statistics & numerical data. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / mortality. Teratoma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21160236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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16. Maffeis C, Franceschi R, Moghetti P, Camilot M, Lauriola S, Tatò L: Circulating ghrelin levels in girls with central precocious puberty are reduced during treatment with LHRH analog. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Jan;156(1):99-103
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  • [Title] Circulating ghrelin levels in girls with central precocious puberty are reduced during treatment with LHRH analog.
  • No data are available for girls with central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • AIMS: To explore ghrelin changes before, during, and after GnRH analog treatment in girls with CPP.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A sample of 20 Caucasian girls (8.08 +/- 0.65 years of age) with CPP was recruited.
  • Height and weight, bone age, LH, FSH, 17beta estradiol (E(2)), and ghrelin were measured before starting treatment with GnRH analog, 18 months after therapy began and again 6 months after therapy discontinuation.
  • RESULTS: LH and E(2) serum levels decreased significantly during treatment (2.45 +/- 2.03 vs 0.67 +/- 0.49 UI/l, P < 0.01 and 28.17 +/- 9.7 vs 15 pmol/l, P < 0.01 respectively), returning to baseline levels after the discontinuation of therapy (4.75 +/- 1.66 UI/l and 29.23 +/- 6.99 pmol/l respectively).
  • LH peaked following LHRH stimulation significantly (P < 0.01) decreased during treatment (24.45 +/- 14.17 vs 1.3 +/- 0.18 UI/l) and then increased after therapy discontinuation (12.58 +/- 6.09, P < 0.01).
  • Ghrelin decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during treatment (1849 +/- 322 vs 1207 +/- 637 pg/ml), and increased, though not significantly (P = 0.09) after therapy withdrawal (1567 +/- 629 pg/ml).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to what is expected in physiologic puberty, where ghrelin is progressively reduced, the prepubertal hormone milieau induced by GnRHa treatment in patients suffering from central precocious puberty (CPP) did not promote an increase in ghrelin circulating levels.
  • Therefore, in CPP, ghrelin secretion seems to be independent from pubertal development per se.
  • Concomitant estrogen suppression during treatment may play a potential role in the regulation of ghrelin secretion in these girls.

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  • (PMID = 17218731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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17. Heger S, Müller M, Ranke M, Schwarz HP, Waldhauser F, Partsch CJ, Sippell WG: Long-term GnRH agonist treatment for female central precocious puberty does not impair reproductive function. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2006 Jul 25;254-255:217-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term GnRH agonist treatment for female central precocious puberty does not impair reproductive function.
  • Depot gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (GnRHa) therapy is the treatment of choice for patients with central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • It is still unclear whether long-term exposure to GnRHa is associated with impaired reproductive function in adulthood.
  • The present study was performed on 46 women, former CPP patients, 12.5+/-3.7 years after the discontinuation of treatment with depot GnRHa.
  • In a structured interview, we assessed general health status, clinical signs possibly associated with hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle, gynaecological diseases and reproductive function.
  • It appears that long-term treatment with depot GnRHa is safe and does not impair reproductive function.
  • The risk of former CPP patients to develop hirsutism and/or polycystic ovary syndrome does not seem to be increased compared to the normal population but this issue needs to be addressed in further long-term follow-up studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Reproduction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Androgens / adverse effects. Body Height / drug effects. Body Mass Index. Body Weight / drug effects. Delayed-Action Preparations / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Routes. Female. Fertility / drug effects. Follow-Up Studies. Genital Diseases, Female / etiology. Health Status. Humans. Hyperandrogenism / diagnosis. Interviews as Topic. Long-Term Care. Menstrual Cycle / drug effects. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16757104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate
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18. Meybohm P, Renner J, Boening A, Cavus E, Gräsner JT, Grünewald M, Scholz J, Bein B: Impact of norepinephrine and fluid on cerebral oxygenation in experimental hemorrhagic shock. Pediatr Res; 2007 Oct;62(4):440-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Few data exist regarding resuscitation of hypovolemic shock in infants, and alternative strategies such as vasopressor therapy merit further evaluation.
  • Eight anesthetized piglets were subjected to hypotension by blood withdrawal of 25 mL/kg.
  • Norepinephrine was titrated to achieve baseline mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and cerebral oxygenation was determined by brain tissue Po2 (Ptio2) and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived tissue oxygen index (TOI).
  • Then, norepinephrine was stopped, MAP was allowed to decrease again below 30 mm Hg, and shed blood was retransfused.
  • Following norepinephrine, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) could be restored immediately, whereas TOI and Ptio2 did not increase significantly.
  • In conclusion, while norepinephrine increased CPP immediately, cerebral oxygenation as reflected by TOI and Ptio2 could not be improved by norepinephrine, but only by retransfusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / pharmacology. Blood Transfusion, Autologous. Brain / drug effects. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Hypovolemia / complications. Norepinephrine / pharmacology. Oxygen / metabolism. Shock, Hemorrhagic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Heart Rate / drug effects. Partial Pressure. Resuscitation. Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared. Swine. Vascular Resistance / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17667840.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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19. Bordman R, Jackson B: Below the belt: approach to chronic pelvic pain. Can Fam Physician; 2006 Dec;52(12):1556-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach to the symptom complex called chronic pelvic pain (CPP).
  • Chronic pelvic pain is defined as nonmenstrual pain lasting 6 months or more that is severe enough to cause functional disability or require medical or surgical treatment.
  • MAIN MESSAGE: While the source of pain in CPP can be gynecologic, urologic, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, or psychoneurologic, 4 conditions account for most CPP: endometriosis, adhesions, interstitial cystitis, and irritable bowel syndrome.
  • More than one source of pain can be found in the same patient.
  • Nonnarcotic analgesics are first-line therapy for pain relief; hormonal therapies are beneficial if the pain has a cyclical component.
  • CONCLUSION: Although caring for patients with CPP can be challenging and frustrating, family physicians are in an ideal position to manage and coordinate their care.
  • [MeSH-major] Pelvic Pain / diagnosis. Pelvic Pain / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adult. Chronic Disease. Cystitis, Interstitial / complications. Cystitis, Interstitial / diagnosis. Cystitis, Interstitial / drug therapy. Endometriosis / complications. Endometriosis / diagnosis. Endometriosis / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Irritable Bowel Syndrome / complications. Irritable Bowel Syndrome / diagnosis. Irritable Bowel Syndrome / therapy. Physical Examination

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  • (PMID = 17279236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1715-5258
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian family physician Médecin de famille canadien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1783755
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20. Hu L, Chu NN, Sun LL, Zhang R, Han JS, Cui CL: Electroacupuncture treatment reverses morphine-induced physiological changes in dopaminergic neurons within the ventral tegmental area. Addict Biol; 2009 Sep;14(4):431-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Electroacupuncture treatment reverses morphine-induced physiological changes in dopaminergic neurons within the ventral tegmental area.
  • Chronic morphine administration decreases the size of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA).
  • These transient morphological changes are accompanied by a reduced sensitivity of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) after chronic exposure to the drug.
  • In this study we examined alterations in the firing rate of DAergic neurons by means of extracellular recording following chronic morphine exposure and applied 100 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) treatment to reverse the reduced firing rate of these neurons.
  • In the first set of experiments we show that in rats, which received chronic morphine treatment for 14 days, a small dose of morphine was not able to induce a CPP response anymore.
  • However, the sensitivity to morphine was reinstated by consecutive EA treatment for 10 days.
  • A substantial recovery of the reactivity of VTA DA neurons to morphine was observed in rats that received 100 Hz EA for 10 days.
  • Our findings suggest that 100 Hz EA is a potential therapy for the treatment of opiate addiction by normalizing the activity of VTA DA neurons.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Opioid / pharmacology. Dopamine / metabolism. Electroacupuncture / methods. Morphine / pharmacology. Neurons / drug effects. Neurons / metabolism. Ventral Tegmental Area / drug effects. Ventral Tegmental Area / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Choice Behavior. Drug Administration Schedule. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Substantia Nigra / drug effects. Substantia Nigra / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19489751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1369-1600
  • [Journal-full-title] Addiction biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Addict Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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21. Di Gennaro JL, Mack CD, Malakouti A, Zimmerman JJ, Armstead W, Vavilala MS: Use and effect of vasopressors after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Dev Neurosci; 2010;32(5-6):420-30
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  • [Title] Use and effect of vasopressors after pediatric traumatic brain injury.
  • BACKGROUND: Vasopressors are commonly used to increase mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but there are few data comparing vasopressor effectiveness after pediatric TBI.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine which vasopressor is most effective at increasing MAP and CPP in children with moderate-to-severe TBI.
  • METHODS: After institutional review board approval, we performed a retrospective cohort study of children 0-17 years old admitted to a level 1 trauma center (Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Wash., USA) between 2002 and 2007 with moderate-to-severe TBI who received a vasopressor to increase blood pressure.
  • Baseline demographic and physiologic characteristics and hourly physiologic monitoring for 3 h after having started a vasopressor were abstracted.
  • We evaluated differences in MAP and CPP at 3 h after initiation of therapy between phenylephrine, dopamine and norepinephrine among patients who did not require a second vasopressor during this time.
  • Multivariate linear regression was used to adjust for age, gender, injury severity score and baseline MAP or CPP and to cluster by subject.
  • The most common initial medication was phenylephrine for 47 (57%).
  • Thirteen (16%) of the patients received a second vasopressor during the first 3 h of treatment and were thus not included in the regression analyses; these patients received more fluid resuscitation and exhibited higher in-hospital mortality (77 vs. 32%; p = 0.004) compared to patients receiving a single vasopressor.
  • The norepinephrine group exhibited a 5 mm Hg higher MAP (95% CI: -4 to 13; p = 0.31) and a 12 mm Hg higher CPP (95% CI: -2 to 26; p = 0.10) than the phenylephrine group, and a 5 mm Hg higher MAP (95% CI: -4 to 15; p = 0.27) and a 10 mm Hg higher CPP (95% CI: -5 to 25; p = 0.18) than the dopamine group.
  • However, in post hoc analysis, after adjusting for time to start of vasopressor, hypertonic saline and pentobarbital, the effect on MAP was lost, but the CPP was 8 mm Hg higher (95% CI: -10 to 25; p = 0.39) than in the phenylephrine group, and 5 mm Hg higher (95% CI: -14 to 24; p = 0.59) than in the dopamine group.
  • While there was no statistically significant difference in MAP or CPP between vasopressor groups, norepinephrine was associated with a clinically relevant higher CPP and lower intracranial pressure at 3 h after start of vasopressor therapy compared to the other vasopressors examined.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / drug effects. Brain Injuries / drug therapy. Vasoconstrictor Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Dopamine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Norepinephrine / therapeutic use. Phenylephrine / therapeutic use. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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  • (PMID = 21124016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9859
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 1WS297W6MV / Phenylephrine; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3073759
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22. Yang H, Liu S, Cai H, Wan L, Li S, Li Y, Cheng J, Lu X: Chondroitin sulfate as a molecular portal that preferentially mediates the apoptotic killing of tumor cells by penetratin-directed mitochondria-disrupting peptides. J Biol Chem; 2010 Aug 13;285(33):25666-76
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  • [Title] Chondroitin sulfate as a molecular portal that preferentially mediates the apoptotic killing of tumor cells by penetratin-directed mitochondria-disrupting peptides.
  • The use of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) as drug carriers for targeted therapy is limited by the unrestricted cellular translocation of CPPs.
  • The preferential induction of tumor cell death by penetratin (Antp)-directed peptides (PNC27 and PNC28), however, suggests that the CPP Antp may contribute to the preferential cytotoxicity of these peptides.
  • Using PNC27 as a molecular model, we constructed three novel peptides (PT, PR9, and PD3) by replacing the leader peptide Antp with one of three distinct CPPs (TAT, R9, or DPV3), respectively.
  • The IC(50) values of PNC27 in tumor cells were 2-3 times lower than in normal cells.
  • However, all three engineered peptides demonstrated similar cytotoxic effects in tumor and normal cells.
  • Another three chimeric peptides containing the leader peptide Antp with different mitochondria-disrupting peptides (KLA-Antp (KGA), B27-Antp (BA27), and B28-Antp (BA28)), preferentially induced apoptosis in tumor cells.
  • The IC(50) values of these peptides (3-10 microM) were 3-6 times lower in tumor cells than in normal cells.
  • In contrast, TAT-directed peptides (TAT-KLA (TK), TAT-B27 (TB27), and TAT-B28 (TB28)), were cytotoxic to both tumor and normal cells.
  • Furthermore, Antp-directed peptides bind chondroitin sulfate (CS), and the removal of endogenous CS reduces the cytotoxic effects of Antp-directed peptides in tumor cells.
  • The overexpression of CS in tumor cells is positively correlated to the cell entry and cytotoxicity of Antp- directed peptides.
  • These results suggest that CS overexpression in tumor cells is an important molecular portal that mediates the preferential cytotoxicity of Antp-directed peptides.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Carrier Proteins / pharmacology. Chondroitin Sulfates / pharmacology. Mitochondria / drug effects. Mitochondria / metabolism. Peptides / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biological Transport / drug effects. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Female. Glycosaminoglycans / metabolism. Glycosaminoglycans / pharmacology. HeLa Cells. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / therapeutic use. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 20484051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycosaminoglycans; 0 / PNC-27; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / penetratin; 9007-28-7 / Chondroitin Sulfates
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2919130
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23. Braun K, Ehemann V, Wiessler M, Pipkorn R, Didinger B, Mueller G, Waldeck W: High-resolution flow cytometry: a suitable tool for monitoring aneuploid prostate cancer cells after TMZ and TMZ-BioShuttle treatment. Int J Med Sci; 2009;6(6):338-47
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  • [Title] High-resolution flow cytometry: a suitable tool for monitoring aneuploid prostate cancer cells after TMZ and TMZ-BioShuttle treatment.
  • If metastatic prostate cancer gets resistant to antiandrogen therapy, there are few treatment options, because prostate cancer is not very sensitive to cytostatic agents.
  • Temozolomide (TMZ) as an orally applicable chemotherapeutic substance has been proven to be effective and well tolerated with occasional moderate toxicity especially for brain tumors and an application to prostate cancer cells seemed to be promising.
  • Unfortunately, TMZ was inefficient in the treatment of symptomatic progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC).
  • The reasons could be a low sensitivity against TMZ the short plasma half-life of TMZ, non-adapted application regimens and additionally, the aneuploid DNA content of prostate cancer cells suggesting different sensitivity against therapeutical interventions e.g. radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
  • Considerations to improve this unsatisfying situation resulted in the realization of higher local TMZ concentrations, sufficient to kill cells regardless of intrinsic cellular sensitivity and cell DNA-index.
  • The modular-composed carrier consists of a transmembrane transporter (CPP), connected to a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) cleavably-bound, which in turn was coupled with TMZ.
  • The NLS-sequence allows an active delivery of the TMZ into the cell nucleus after transmembrane passage of the TMZ-BioShuttle and intra-cytoplasm enzymatic cleavage and separation from the CPP.
  • This TMZ-BioShuttle could contribute to improve therapeutic options exemplified by the hormone refractory prostate cancer.
  • The next step was to syllogize a qualified method monitoring cell toxic effects in a high sensitivity under consideration of the ploidy status.
  • The high-resolution flow cytometric analysis showed to be an appropriate system for a better detection and distinction of several cell populations dependent on their different DNA-indices as well as changes in proliferation of cell populations after chemotherapeutical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Aneuploidy. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Monitoring / methods. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Flow Cytometry / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19946604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1449-1907
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2781174
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Flow Cytometry / Prostate Cancer Cells / TMZ-BioShuttle
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24. Tan M, Lan KH, Yao J, Lu CH, Sun M, Neal CL, Lu J, Yu D: Selective inhibition of ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer in vivo by a novel TAT-based ErbB2-targeting signal transducers and activators of transcription 3-blocking peptide. Cancer Res; 2006 Apr 1;66(7):3764-72
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  • ErbB2 is an excellent target for cancer therapies.
  • Unfortunately, the outcome of current therapies for ErbB2-positive breast cancers remains unsatisfying due to resistance and side effects.
  • New therapies for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers continue to be in great need.
  • Peptide therapy using cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) as peptide carriers is promising because the internalization is highly efficient, and the cargoes delivered can be bioactive.
  • However, the major obstacle in using these powerful CPPs for therapy is their lack of specificity.
  • Here, we sought to develop a peptide carrier that could introduce therapeutics specifically to ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.
  • By modifying the HIV TAT-derived CPP and conjugating anti-HER-2/neu peptide mimetic (AHNP), we developed the peptide carrier (P3-AHNP) that specifically targeted ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
  • P3-AHNP-STAT3BP inhibited cell growth in vitro, with ErbB2-overexpressing 435.eB breast cancer cells being more sensitive to the treatment than the ErbB2 low-expressing MDA-MB-435 cells.
  • Compared with ErbB2 low-expressing MDA-MB-435 xenografts, i.p. injected P3-AHNP-STAT3BP preferentially accumulated in 435.eB xenografts, which led to more reduction of proliferation and increased apoptosis and targeted inhibition of tumor growth.
  • This novel peptide delivery system provided a sound basis for the future development of safe and effective new-generation therapeutics to cancer-specific molecular targets.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Products, tat / pharmacology. Peptide Fragments / pharmacology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. STAT3 Transcription Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacokinetics. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Humans. Immunoconjugates / pharmacokinetics. Immunoconjugates / pharmacology. Mice. Mice, SCID. Molecular Sequence Data. NIH 3T3 Cells. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 16585203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01 CA 109570; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01 CA 119127-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 099031; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / Immunoconjugates; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; 0 / anti-HER2-neu peptide mimic, 1.5 kDa; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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25. Fenton BW, Palmieri PA, Durner C, Fanning J: Quantification of abdominal wall pain using pain pressure threshold algometry in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Clin J Pain; 2009 Jul-Aug;25(6):500-5
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  • OBJECTIVE: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a syndrome involving 1 or more pain generating organs in the pelvis, which includes pain from the lower anterior abdominal wall.
  • This entity has been termed myofascial pain syndrome (MFPS), but its characteristics, definition, and quantification have not been well described.
  • In this study, pain pressure threshold (PPT) testing of the lower anterior abdominal wall in CPP patients was performed to determine the range and distribution of values at each site, and the clinical utility of using PPT in a definition of MFPS.
  • METHODS: Fifty-six patients evaluated in a CPP specialty clinic underwent PPT algometry of 14 sites on the lower anterior abdominal wall.
  • These values were described and evaluated before and after treatment.
  • PPT values were also evaluated in patients found to be drug seeking.
  • RESULTS: Twenty percent of the PPT tests reached the threshold of 3 kgf/cm2.
  • The abnormal tests usually formed a normal distribution.
  • After trigger point injection there was a 75% improvement in PPT, and response to medical therapy resulted in a 60% improvement.
  • A composite measure was able to distinguish drug-seeking patients with statistical accuracy.
  • DISCUSSION: PPT testing can be used to evaluate MFPS in CPP patients.
  • One suggested definition would exclude patients with low scores in the upper abdomen while including patients with low scores in the lower abdomen.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Pain / diagnosis. Abdominal Pain / etiology. Abdominal Wall / physiopathology. Pain Threshold / physiology. Pelvic Pain / complications. Pressure
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Chronic Disease. Humans. Pain Measurement / methods. ROC Curve. Sensation

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  • (PMID = 19542798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5409
  • [Journal-full-title] The Clinical journal of pain
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Pain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Eriksson C, Zou LP, Ahlenius S, Winblad B, Schultzberg M: Inhibition of kainic acid induced expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist mRNA in the rat brain by NMDA receptor antagonists. Brain Res Mol Brain Res; 2000 Dec 28;85(1-2):103-13
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  • [Title] Inhibition of kainic acid induced expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist mRNA in the rat brain by NMDA receptor antagonists.
  • The cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) are rapidly induced in response to excitotoxic and ischemic brain damage.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of a non-competitive (dizocilpine maleate, MK-801) and a competitive ((R)-CPP) NMDA receptor antagonist on the transient cytokine expression in the rat brain induced by systemic kainic acid administration.
  • Peripheral administration of kainic acid (10 mg/kg, i.p.) results in a transient expression of IL-1 beta and IL-1ra mRNA, mainly in microglia, in regions showing neurodegeneration such as the hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, and certain cortical regions.
  • In addition, a few neurons expressing IL-1ra mRNA were observed in the piriform cortex and amygdala following kainic acid injection.
  • ) 1 h prior to kainic acid injection reduced cytokine expression in all of these regions.
  • MK-801 at 3.0 mg/kg decreased the IL-1 beta mRNA expression, blocked or decreased the IL-1ra mRNA expression, depending on the brain region.
  • MK-801 at 5.0 mg/kg abolished IL-1ra mRNA expression in all of the regions, whereas the IL-1 beta mRNA expression was decreased or blocked, depending on the brain region, or the time point investigated.
  • Peripheral administration of (R)-CPP (15 mg/kg, i.p.
  • ) 15 min prior to the kainic acid injection abolished the IL-1 beta mRNA expression.
  • The IL-1ra mRNA expression was abolished in all regions except for a few neurons in the piriform cortex.
  • The finding that NMDA receptor antagonists inhibit the IL-1 beta and IL-1ra mRNA synthesis induced by kainic acid suggests that NMDA receptor activation may be involved in triggering cytokine synthesis following excitotoxic brain damage.
  • [MeSH-major] Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists / pharmacology. Interleukin-1 / genetics. Kainic Acid / pharmacology. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors. Sialoglycoproteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Dizocilpine Maleate / pharmacology. Epilepsies, Myoclonic / chemically induced. Epilepsies, Myoclonic / drug therapy. Epilepsies, Myoclonic / physiopathology. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology. Gene Expression / drug effects. In Situ Hybridization. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein. Male. Microglia / drug effects. Microglia / physiology. Nerve Degeneration / chemically induced. Nerve Degeneration / drug therapy. Nerve Degeneration / physiopathology. Piperazines / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 11146112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-328X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research. Molecular brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 100828-16-8 / 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid; 6LR8C1B66Q / Dizocilpine Maleate; SIV03811UC / Kainic Acid
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27. Follis F, Blisard K, Varvitsiotis PS, Pett SB Jr, Temes T, Wernly JA: Competitive NMDA receptor antagonists and spinal-cord ischemia. J Invest Surg; 2000 Mar-Apr;13(2):117-21; discussion 123-4
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  • Ischemic neuronal death is associated with excitatory amino acid (EAA) release.
  • Their action is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors.
  • Accordingly, we investigated the protective effect during spinal cord ischemia of two competitive antagonists, 4-(3-phosphonopropyl)-2-piperazine-carboxylic acid (CPP) and cis-4-(phosphonomethyl)-2-piperidine-carboxylic acid (CGS).
  • Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent intrathecal administration of 10 microL saline, CGS, and CPP 10 mM solutions, in a randomized blinded fashion, and were subjected to balloon occlusion of the thoracic aorta.
  • In the acute protocol, 21 rats divided in 3 groups of 7 (saline, CPP, and CGS) were used to calculate the aortic occlusion time (AOT) resulting in paraplegia in 50% of animals (P50).
  • In the chronic study, 24 rats divided in 4 groups of 6 (saline, CPP, CGS, sham) underwent 12-min occlusion.
  • In the acute study, the P50 of CGS (10 min 48 s) and CPP (11 min 11 s) was longer than saline (10 min 27 s).
  • In the chronic groups, analysis of variance of neurologic (p = .66) and histologic (p = .66) scores did not disclose differences between CGS, CPP, and saline.
  • In conclusion, blockade of NMDA receptors with CPP or CGS may afford some protection for durations of occlusion around the P50, but it is not beneficial when ischemic injury is more protracted.
  • [MeSH-major] Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology. Pipecolic Acids / pharmacology. Piperazines / pharmacology. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors. Spinal Cord Ischemia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Animals. Arterial Occlusive Diseases / drug therapy. Chronic Disease. Disease Models, Animal. Male. Paraplegia / drug therapy. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Spinal Cord / blood supply. Spinal Cord / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 10801049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-1939
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Invest Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Pipecolic Acids; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 100828-16-8 / 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid; 4VGJ4A41L2 / selfotel
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28. Tseng MY, Al-Rawi PG, Czosnyka M, Hutchinson PJ, Richards H, Pickard JD, Kirkpatrick PJ: Enhancement of cerebral blood flow using systemic hypertonic saline therapy improves outcome in patients with poor-grade spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg; 2007 Aug;107(2):274-82
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  • [Title] Enhancement of cerebral blood flow using systemic hypertonic saline therapy improves outcome in patients with poor-grade spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.
  • OBJECT: Systemic administration of 23.5% hypertonic saline enhances cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with poor-grade spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
  • METHODS: Thirty-five patients with poor-grade spontaneous SAH received 2 ml/kg 23.5% hypertonic saline intravenously, and they underwent bedside transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring.
  • Seventeen of them underwent Xe-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scanning for measuring CBF.
  • The data were analyzed using repeated-measurement analysis of variance and Dunnett correction.
  • RESULTS: The authors observed a maximum increase in blood pressure by 10.3% (p < 0.05) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) by 21.2% (p < 0.01) at 30 minutes, followed by a maximum decrease in ICP by 93.1% (p < 0.01) at 60 minutes.
  • Changes in ICP and CPP persisted for longer than 180 and 90 minutes, respectively.
  • The results of TCD ultrasonography showed that the baseline autoregulation was impaired on the ipsilateral side of ruptured aneurysm, and increments in flow velocities were higher and lasted longer on the contralateral side (48.75% compared with 31.96% [p = 0.045] and 180 minutes compared with 90 minutes [p < 0.05], respectively).
  • A dose-dependent effect of CBF increments on favorable outcome was seen on Xe-CT scans (mRS Score 1-3, odds ratio 1.27 per 1 ml/100 g tissue x min, p = 0.045).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bolus systemic hypertonic saline therapy may be used for reversal of cerebral ischemia to normal perfusion in patients with poor-grade SAH.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Homeostasis / drug effects. Saline Solution, Hypertonic / administration & dosage. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / physiopathology. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blood Flow Velocity / drug effects. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg. 2008 Mar;108(3):632; author reply 632-3 [18312116.001]
  • (PMID = 17695380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0001237; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0600986; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9439390
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Saline Solution, Hypertonic
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29. Koos B, Paulsson J, Jarvius M, Sanchez BC, Wrede B, Mertsch S, Jeibmann A, Kruse A, Peters O, Wolff JE, Galla HJ, Söderberg O, Paulus W, Ostman A, Hasselblatt M: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor expression and activation in choroid plexus tumors. Am J Pathol; 2009 Oct;175(4):1631-7
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  • [Title] Platelet-derived growth factor receptor expression and activation in choroid plexus tumors.
  • Choroid plexus tumors are intraventricular neoplasms predominantly affecting young children.
  • In contrast to choroid plexus papillomas, choroid plexus carcinomas progress frequently, necessitating the development of adjuvant treatment concepts.
  • The finding of PDGF receptor expression in choroid plexus tumors prompted us to elucidate PDGF receptor activation state using a novel method, in situ proximity ligation assay, on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, archival samples of 19 choroid plexus tumors.
  • As assessed by in situ proximity ligation assay, the proportion of phosphorylated PDGF receptor alpha was low in choroid plexus papillomas and choroid plexus carcinomas, whereas phosphorylated PDGF receptor beta was found to be significantly higher in choroid plexus carcinomas.
  • In the immortalized choroid plexus epithelial cell line Z310 expressing PDGF receptor beta, PDGF-BB exhibited a time- and dose-dependent proliferative response, which was significantly attenuated by imatinib (gleevec).
  • In conclusion, our findings suggest that PDGF receptor beta is functionally involved in the biology of choroid plexus tumors and may represent a molecular target for therapy.
  • In addition, this study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of in situ proximity ligation assay for monitoring receptor tyrosine kinase activation in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, archival tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / metabolism. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Cell Line, Transformed. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Papilloma / metabolism. Papilloma / pathology. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / pharmacology. Rats

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  • [Cites] Nat Genet. 2001 Oct;29(2):143-52 [11544480.001]
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  • (PMID = 19717644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2751559
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30. Stoilova TB, Kovalchuk SI, Egorova NS, Surovoy AY, Ivanov VT: Gramicidin A-based peptide vector for intracellular protein delivery. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2008 Oct;1778(10):2026-31
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  • The development of the peptide-based vectors for the intracellular delivery of biologically active macromolecules has opened new prospects of their application in research and therapy.
  • Earlier the amphipathic cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) Pep-1 was reported to mediate cellular uptake of proteins without covalent binding to them.
  • In this work we studied the ability of a series of membrane-active amphipathic peptides, based on the gramicidin A sequence, to transport a model protein across the eukaryotic cell membrane.
  • Besides, this peptide was shown to form noncovalent associates with beta-galactosidase as judged from electrophoresis and enzymatic activity assays.
  • In addition, a series of new gramicidin analogues were prepared and the effect of N-terminus modification of gramicidin on the protein transduction efficiency was studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / metabolism. Cell Membrane Permeability. Drug Delivery Systems. Genetic Vectors / metabolism. Gramicidin / metabolism. Peptides / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Cell Line. Humans. Mice. Molecular Sequence Data. beta-Galactosidase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18339303.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Peptides; 1405-97-6 / Gramicidin; EC 3.2.1.23 / beta-Galactosidase
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31. Antoniazzi F, Arrigo T, Cisternino M, Galluzzi F, Bertelloni S, Pasquino AM, Borrelli P, Osio D, Mengarda F, De Luca F, Tatò L: End results in central precocious puberty with GnRH analog treatment: the data of the Italian Study Group for Physiopathology of Puberty. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2000 Jul;13 Suppl 1:773-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] End results in central precocious puberty with GnRH analog treatment: the data of the Italian Study Group for Physiopathology of Puberty.
  • We report some end results with GnRH agonist (GnRHa) treatment in central precocious puberty (CPP), in terms of final height (FH), ovarian function, peak bone mass, body composition and psychological problems.
  • The two studies reported (Study I and II) are part of the activity of the Italian Study Group for Physiopathology of Puberty.
  • Study L Growth data were analyzed of three groups of patients: treated with i.n. spray buserelin, i.m. triptorelin and untreated.
  • Both GnRHa administration modes were effective in arresting pubertal development and all girls had complete recovery of the reproductive axis after therapy.
  • Treated patients showed an improvement in final height in comparison with untreated patients and compared to predicted height at the start of treatment with both agonist treatments.
  • However, patients treated with the long-acting slow release preparation had a better improvement in adult height and reached or exceeded the genetic height potential. Study II.
  • In a retrospective evaluation of the outcome in 71 girls with idiopathic CPP treated with triptorelin, we found that FH fell within the population norm and the target range in 87.3% and 90% of the patients respectively.
  • The tallest FH was recorded in the patients who started therapy at less than 6 years of age and in those who discontinued treatment at a bone age of 12.0-12.5 yr.
  • Finally, we and other groups have recently found normal values of bone mineral density in girls at the end of GnRHa treatment in the great majority of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / complications. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aerosols. Body Height / drug effects. Bone Density. Bone Development. Buserelin / administration & dosage. Buserelin / therapeutic use. Child. Delayed-Action Preparations. Female. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10969920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aerosols; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; PXW8U3YXDV / Buserelin
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32. Turk DC, Swanson KS, Gatchel RJ: Predicting opioid misuse by chronic pain patients: a systematic review and literature synthesis. Clin J Pain; 2008 Jul-Aug;24(6):497-508
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  • However, a minority may develop aberrant drug behaviors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the evidence of published strategies for identifying at-risk patients to guide clinicians' decisions and practices for prescribing opioid treatment for chronic pain patients (CPP).
  • Studies were limited to human studies in the English language related to screening for predictors of aberrant drug behaviors in CPP who were prescribed long-term opioids.
  • We included studies reviewing, developing measures, or investigating outcomes related to screening for aberrant opioid behaviors in CPP.
  • RESULTS: We identified 6 published articles addressing clinician-based predictors of substance misuse of opioids and 9 published studies evaluating the predictive ability of clinical interviews and self-report measures for aberrant opioid behaviors in CPP.
  • Several attempts have been made to develop procedures to identify at-risk patients including urine toxicology screening, structured interviews, observation, and self-report questionnaires.
  • CONCLUSION: Review of the published studies reveals that no one procedure or set of predictor variables is sufficient to identify CPP at-risk for opioid misuse or abuse.
  • Strong predictors include a personal history of illicit drug and alcohol abuse.
  • Demographic factors have also been reported, but the results are not consistent.
  • Prospective studies, especially ones with CPP who have not already been started on chronic opioid therapy, are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Opioid / adverse effects. Opioid-Related Disorders / etiology. Pain / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chronic Disease. Humans. MEDLINE / statistics & numerical data. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18574359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5409
  • [Journal-full-title] The Clinical journal of pain
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Pain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / 5K23GM071400-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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33. Splith K, Neundorf I, Hu W, Peindy N'Dongo HW, Vasylyeva V, Merz K, Schatzschneider U: Influence of the metal complex-to-peptide linker on the synthesis and properties of bioactive CpMn(CO)3 peptide conjugates. Dalton Trans; 2010 Mar 14;39(10):2536-45
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  • Especially, attachment to cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) that act as efficient cell delivery vehicles has come to the fore.
  • In this work, we report on the preparation of six new cymantrene-sC18 peptide bioconjugates that were prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) techniques.
  • The cymantrene complexes were chosen for their different linker to the peptide, to study the influence of the linker group on cellular uptake and cell viability of the conjugates.
  • Interestingly, the attachment of the metal complex leads to a non-standard cleavage of the Rink amide linker used in the SPPS protocol under trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) treatment, resulting in peptide amides that are N-alkylated at the C-terminus.
  • Furthermore, we found that depending on the type of cymantrene moiety attached, the formation of reactive carbocations which result from decomposition of the resin linker is facilitated and can alkylate the metal complex moiety.
  • Moreover, initial biological testing of the cytotoxicity of one of the bioconjugates gave promising results.
  • Concentration-dependent cell viability studies of Cym1-sC18 on human MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells gave an IC(50) value of 59.8 (+/- 6.7) microM and demonstrate their potential in anticancer chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Organometallic Compounds / chemistry. Peptides / chemical synthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Crystallography, X-Ray. Humans. Models, Molecular. Molecular Structure

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  • (PMID = 20179846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-9234
  • [Journal-full-title] Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dalton Trans
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Peptides; 12079-65-1 / manganese cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl
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34. Biala G, Staniak N, Budzynska B: Effects of varenicline and mecamylamine on the acquisition, expression, and reinstatement of nicotine-conditioned place preference by drug priming in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol; 2010 Apr;381(4):361-70
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  • [Title] Effects of varenicline and mecamylamine on the acquisition, expression, and reinstatement of nicotine-conditioned place preference by drug priming in rats.
  • In the present study, we used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to investigate the establishment, extinction, reinstatement, and cross-reinstatement of nicotine-induced place conditioning in rats.
  • Once established, nicotine CPP was extinguished by repeated testing.
  • Following this extinction phase, nicotine-experienced rats were challenged with nicotine (0.175 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.).
  • These priming injections of both drugs induced a marked preference for the compartment previously paired with nicotine.
  • Furthermore, given the important role of alpha4beta2 (a4b2) nicotinic receptor subtype in the acquisition and maintenance of nicotine dependence, we evaluated and compared the efficacy of varenicline, a partial a4b2 nicotinic receptor agonist (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.
  • ), a non-selective nicotinic receptor antagonist, in blocking nicotine-induced CPP as well as reinstatement of nicotine CPP provoked by nicotine and morphine.
  • It was shown that both nicotinic receptor ligands attenuated the acquisition and expression of nicotine CPP as well as the expression of reinstatement of nicotine CPP provoked by both drugs.
  • Our results indicate similar cholinergic mechanisms, probably through the a4b2 receptors involved in the rewarding effects of nicotine and morphine in rats and may suggest that nicotinic receptors could be a potential target for developing pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat and prevent nicotine and/or opioid addiction and relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Nicotine / administration & dosage. Nicotinic Agonists / pharmacology. Nicotinic Antagonists / pharmacology. Receptors, Nicotinic / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Benzazepines / administration & dosage. Benzazepines / pharmacology. Conditioning, Classical / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Male. Mecamylamine / administration & dosage. Mecamylamine / pharmacology. Morphine / administration & dosage. Morphine / pharmacology. Quinoxalines / administration & dosage. Quinoxalines / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Reward. Tobacco Use Disorder / physiopathology. Varenicline

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  • (PMID = 20217050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1912
  • [Journal-full-title] Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzazepines; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 0 / Nicotinic Antagonists; 0 / Quinoxalines; 0 / Receptors, Nicotinic; 0 / nicotinic receptor alpha4beta2; 6EE945D3OK / Mecamylamine; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; W6HS99O8ZO / Varenicline
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35. Nejat F, Kazmi SS, Ardakani SB: Congenital brain tumors in a series of seven patients. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2008;44(1):1-8
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  • [Title] Congenital brain tumors in a series of seven patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Congenital brain tumors are very rare.
  • METHODS: Seven congenital brain tumors were diagnosed during 5 years.
  • RESULTS: The study included 5 female and two male infants.
  • All patients presented with intracranial hypertension.
  • All neuroimaging studies revealed nonhomogenous tumors with cystic and solid components, except for the case with choroid plexus papilloma (CPP).
  • There were three teratomas, one primitive neuroectodermal tumor, one ependymoblastoma and one CPP.
  • Six patients were operated on, with one intraoperative death.
  • One patient died due to complications of chemotherapy and another one due to tumor recurrence 1 year after surgery.
  • Only the patient with CPP is alive after 2 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Today, the availability of noninvasive imaging procedures such as computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging has improved the diagnosis of congenital brain tumors.
  • In spite of development in prenatal diagnosis, appropriate pre- and postoperative management, the mortality associated with these tumors still remains high.
  • CPP is accompanied by the best prognosis, whereas teratoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors have the worst prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fetal Diseases / diagnosis. Prenatal Diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18097184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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36. Johnston AJ, Steiner LA, O'Connell M, Chatfield DA, Gupta AK, Menon DK: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dopamine and norepinephrine in critically ill head-injured patients. Intensive Care Med; 2004 Jan;30(1):45-50
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  • SETTING: Neurosciences critical care unit.
  • PATIENTS: Eight patients with a head injury, requiring dopamine or norepinephrine infusions to support cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP).
  • INTERVENTION: Patients received in randomised order, either dopamine or norepinephrine to achieve and maintain a CPP of 70 mmHg, and then, following a 30-min period of stable haemodynamics, a CPP of 90 mmHg.
  • Haemodynamic measurements were made during each period and a blood sample was obtained at the end of each study period for analysis of plasma catecholamine concentrations MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Plasma levels of norepinephrine and dopamine were significantly related to infusion rates but did not have a simple linear relationship to haemodynamic parameters.
  • However, there was a significant quadratic relationship between the infusion rate of dopamine and cardiac index (r2=0.431), and systemic vascular resistance index (r2=0.605), with a breakpoint (at which cardiac index reduced and SVRI increased) at a dopamine plasma level of approximately 50 nM/l (corresponding to an infusion rate of approximately 15 microg.kg(-1).min(-1)).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Norepinephrine and dopamine have predictable pharmacokinetics; however, those of dopamine do not fit a simple first-order kinetic model.
  • The pharmacodynamic effects of dopamine and norepinephrine show much inter-individual variability and unpredictability.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniocerebral Trauma / drug therapy. Dopamine. Norepinephrine. Vasoconstrictor Agents
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cardiotonic Agents / metabolism. Cardiotonic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Cardiotonic Agents / pharmacology. Catecholamines / blood. Critical Illness / therapy. Cross-Over Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Monitoring. Female. Heart Rate / drug effects. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Linear Models. Male. Metabolic Clearance Rate. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Vascular Resistance / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 14586494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0342-4642
  • [Journal-full-title] Intensive care medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intensive Care Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiotonic Agents; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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37. Velázquez-Sánchez C, Ferragud A, Hernández-Rabaza V, Nácher A, Merino V, Cardá M, Murga J, Canales JJ: The dopamine uptake inhibitor 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane reduces cocaine-induced early-gene expression, locomotor activity, and conditioned reward. Neuropsychopharmacology; 2009 Nov;34(12):2497-507
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  • [Title] The dopamine uptake inhibitor 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane reduces cocaine-induced early-gene expression, locomotor activity, and conditioned reward.
  • Benztropine (BZT) analogs, a family of high-affinity dopamine transporter ligands, are molecules that exhibit pharmacological and behavioral characteristics predictive of significant therapeutic potential in cocaine addiction.
  • Here, we examined in mice the effects of 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane (AHN-1055) on motor activity, conditioned place preference (CPP) and c-Fos expression in the striatum.
  • AHN-1055 produced mild attenuation of spontaneous locomotor activity at a low dose (1 mg/kg) and weak stimulation at a higher dose (10 mg/kg).
  • Interaction assays showed that cocaine's ability to stimulate locomotor activity was decreased by AHN-1055 treatment, but not by treatment with D-amphetamine.
  • Such reduced ability did not result from an increase in stereotyped behavior.
  • Another dopamine uptake inhibitor, nomifensine, decreased cocaine-induced locomotor activity but evoked by itself intense motor stereotypies.
  • Remarkably, the BZT analog dose-dependently blocked cocaine-induced CPP without producing CPP when given alone, and blocked in conditioned mice cocaine-stimulated early-gene activation in the nucleus accumbens and dorsomedial striatum.
  • These observations provide evidence that AHN-1055 does not behave as a classical psychomotor stimulant and that some of its properties, including attenuation of cocaine-induced striatal c-Fos expression, locomotor stimulation, and CPP, support its candidacy, and that of structurally related molecules, as possible pharmacotherapies in cocaine addiction.
  • [MeSH-major] Benztropine / analogs & derivatives. Cocaine-Related Disorders / drug therapy. Conditioning, Classical / drug effects. Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gene Expression / drug effects. Motor Activity / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / drug effects. Brain / metabolism. Cocaine / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Male. Mice. Nomifensine / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism. Reward. Space Perception / drug effects. Stereotyped Behavior / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19606084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1740-634X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / N-methyl-3-(bis(4'-fluorophenyl)methoxy)tropane; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 1LGS5JRP31 / Nomifensine; 1NHL2J4X8K / Benztropine; I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine
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38. Biala G, Budzynska B, Staniak N: Effects of rimonabant on the reinstatement of nicotine-conditioned place preference by drug priming in rats. Behav Brain Res; 2009 Sep 14;202(2):260-5
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  • [Title] Effects of rimonabant on the reinstatement of nicotine-conditioned place preference by drug priming in rats.
  • Drug addiction is a chronic disorder characterized by a relatively high rate of relapse even after long period of abstinence.
  • In the present study, we used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to investigate the establishment, extinction, reinstatement and cross-reinstatement of nicotine-induced place conditioning in rats.
  • Nicotine produced a place preference to the initially less-preferred compartment paired with its injections during conditioning (0.5mg/kg, i.p., three drug sessions).
  • Once established, nicotine CPP was extinguished by repeated testing.
  • Following this extinction phase, the reinstatement of CPP was investigated.
  • These priming injections of both drugs induced a marked preference for the compartment previously paired with nicotine.
  • Furthermore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant (0.5, 1 and 2mg/kg, i.p.) in blocking the reinstatement of nicotine-induced CPP provoked by nicotine and morphine.
  • It was shown that rimonabant attenuated the reinstatement of nicotine-conditioned response induced by both drugs.
  • The outcome of our studies may suggest that CB1 receptor antagonists may become a promising target for effective pharmacotherapy of tobacco addiction and polydrug abuse.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Agents / administration & dosage. Conditioning, Classical / drug effects. Morphine / administration & dosage. Nicotine / administration & dosage. Nicotinic Agonists / administration & dosage. Piperidines / administration & dosage. Pyrazoles / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Extinction, Psychological. Male. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Spatial Behavior / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19463710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7549
  • [Journal-full-title] Behavioural brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Behav. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Agents; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1; 158681-13-1 / rimonabant; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine
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39. Pak AC, Ashby CR Jr, Heidbreder CA, Pilla M, Gilbert J, Xi ZX, Gardner EL: The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist SB-277011A reduces nicotine-enhanced brain reward and nicotine-paired environmental cue functions. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol; 2006 Oct;9(5):585-602
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  • [Title] The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist SB-277011A reduces nicotine-enhanced brain reward and nicotine-paired environmental cue functions.
  • Increasing evidence suggests that enhanced dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) may play a role in mediating the reward and reinforcement produced by addictive drugs and in the attentional processing of drug-associated environmental cues.
  • The meso-accumbens DA system is selectively enriched with DA D3 receptors, a DA receptor subtype increasingly implicated in reward-related brain and behavioural processes.
  • From a variety of evidence, it has been suggested that selective DA D3 receptor antagonism may be a useful pharmacotherapeutic approach for treating addiction.
  • The present experiments tested the efficacy of SB-277011A, a selective DA D3 receptor antagonist, in rat models of nicotine-enhanced electrical brain-stimulation reward (BSR), nicotine-induced conditioned locomotor activity (LMA), and nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP).
  • SB-277011A, given intraperitoneally within the dose range of 1-12 mg/kg, dose-dependently reduced nicotine-enhanced BSR, nicotine-induced conditioned LMA, and nicotine-induced CPP.
  • The results suggest that selective D3 receptor antagonism constitutes a new and promising pharmacotherapeutic approach to the treatment of nicotine dependence.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / drug effects. Conditioning, Operant / drug effects. Dopamine Antagonists / pharmacology. Nicotine / pharmacology. Nicotinic Agonists / pharmacology. Nitriles / pharmacology. Reward. Tetrahydroisoquinolines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Area Under Curve. Association Learning / drug effects. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Cues. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Interactions. Male. Motor Activity / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Long-Evans

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  • (PMID = 16942635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1461-1457
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 DA999999
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / SB 277011; 0 / Tetrahydroisoquinolines; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS493706; NLM/ PMC3732043
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40. Udy A, Boots R, Senthuran S, Stuart J, Deans R, Lassig-Smith M, Lipman J: Augmented creatinine clearance in traumatic brain injury. Anesth Analg; 2010 Dec;111(6):1505-10
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  • [Title] Augmented creatinine clearance in traumatic brain injury.
  • BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline and/or norepinephrine infusion are routinely used to achieve a desired cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
  • METHODS: This was an observational cohort study in TBI patients older than 16 years with normal serum creatinine concentrations, requiring maintenance of CPP.
  • Demographic data, use of vasoactive medications, fluid balance, feeding regimen, and hemodynamic variables were recorded throughout the study period.
  • Augmented CrCl was defined as >150 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in women and >160 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in men.
  • The mean maximum CrCl was 179 mL/min/1.73 m(2) while receiving CPP therapy (95% confidence interval [CI], 159-198), returning to a mean of 111 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI, 91-131; P < 0.001) when measured after discharge from the intensive care unit.
  • The mean CrCl in the intensive care unit while not receiving CPP therapy was 150 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI, 134-167; P = 0.03).
  • The mean time to reach peak CrCl while receiving active treatment was 4.7 days (95% CI, 3.0-6.4).
  • In a multivariate analysis, norepinephrine use, saline loading, mean arterial blood pressure, and central venous pressure were associated with augmented CrCl on the day of measurement.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Augmented CrCls are common in TBI patients receiving active management of CPP and persist even after discontinuation of such therapy.
  • Further work is needed to clarify the impact of such clearances on renally excreted drugs in this setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / administration & dosage. Brain Injuries / therapy. Creatinine / urine. Fluid Therapy. Norepinephrine / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / urine. Female. Humans. Intensive Care Units. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Male. Queensland. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Up-Regulation. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21048095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-7598
  • [Journal-full-title] Anesthesia and analgesia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anesth. Analg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Biomarkers; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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41. Pelissier T, Infante C, Constandil L, Espinosa J, Lapeyra CD, Hernández A: Antinociceptive effect and interaction of uncompetitive and competitive NMDA receptor antagonists upon capsaicin and paw pressure testing in normal and monoarthritic rats. Pain; 2008 Jan;134(1-2):113-27
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  • We assessed whether intrathecal administration of the uncompetitive and competitive NMDA receptor antagonists ketamine and (+/-)CPP, respectively, could produce differential modulation on chemical and mechanical nociception in normal and monoarthritic rats.
  • In addition, the antinociceptive interaction of ketamine and (+/-)CPP on monoarthritic pain was also studied using isobolographic analysis.
  • Monoarthritis was produced by intra-articular injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the tibio-tarsal joint.
  • Four weeks later, the antinociceptive effect of intrathecal administration of the drugs alone or combined was evaluated by using the intraplantar capsaicin and the paw pressure tests.
  • Ketamine (0.1, 1, 10, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 microg i.t.) and (+/-)CPP (0.125, 2.5, 7.5, 12.5, 25 and 50 microg i.t.) produced significantly greater dose-dependent antinociception in the capsaicin than in the paw pressure test.
  • Irrespective of the nociceptive test employed, both antagonists showed greater antinociceptive activity in monoarthritic than in healthy rats.
  • Combinations produced synergy of a supra-additive nature in the capsaicin test, but only additive antinociception in paw pressure testing.
  • The efficacy of the drugs, alone or combined, is likely to depend on the differential sensitivity of tonic versus phasic pain and/or chemical versus mechanical pain to NMDA antagonists.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics / therapeutic use. Arthritis, Experimental / drug therapy. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / therapeutic use. Pain / drug therapy. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Binding, Competitive. Capsaicin / toxicity. Drug Interactions / physiology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Injections, Spinal. Pain Measurement / drug effects. Pain Measurement / methods. Physical Stimulation / methods. Pressure. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Vocalization, Animal / drug effects. Vocalization, Animal / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17517475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6623
  • [Journal-full-title] Pain
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; S07O44R1ZM / Capsaicin
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42. Vercellini P, Viganò P, Somigliana E, Abbiati A, Barbara G, Fedele L: Medical, surgical and alternative treatments for chronic pelvic pain in women: a descriptive review. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2009 Apr;25(4):208-21
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  • [Title] Medical, surgical and alternative treatments for chronic pelvic pain in women: a descriptive review.
  • Several causes of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) are recognised, but in many women a definite diagnosis cannot be made.
  • Few randomised controlled trials on treatment of CPP have been conducted.
  • The aim of this descriptive review is to describe the management of CPP, which can focus on treating the pain itself, the underlying cause, or both.
  • Combination drug therapy with medications with different mechanisms of action may improve therapeutic results.
  • Several alternative non-invasive treatments have been proposed including exercise programmes, cognitive and behavioural medicine, physical therapy, dietary modification, massage and acupuncture.
  • Treatment of CPP, generally, requires acceptance of the concept of managing rather than curing symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Complementary Therapies. Pelvic Pain / drug therapy. Pelvic Pain / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chronic Disease. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19296329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0766
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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43. Takahashi M, Yamamoto J, Aoyama Y, Soejima Y, Akiba D, Nishizawa S: Efficacy of multi-staged surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for successful treatment of atypical choroid plexus papilloma in an infant: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2009 Oct;49(10):484-7
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  • [Title] Efficacy of multi-staged surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for successful treatment of atypical choroid plexus papilloma in an infant: case report.
  • A 12-month-old girl presented with a rare atypical choroid plexus papilloma manifesting as conscious disturbance and vomiting.
  • Only partial removal of the tumor was performed because of excessive intraoperative hemorrhage at the first surgery.
  • The histological diagnosis was atypical choroid plexus papilloma.
  • To control the intraoperative hemorrhage, embolization of the feeding artery was performed before the second surgery, and the tumor was macroscopically totally removed.
  • MR imaging disclosed a small residual tumor which showed relatively rapid growth.
  • Two months later, MR imaging showed a cystic lesion with a small nodule adjacent to the midbrain, indicating dissemination of the tumor.
  • The lesion was successfully treated with chemotherapy.
  • Atypical choroid plexus papilloma was recently defined in the classification of the World Health Organization, so clinical data based on these criteria are lacking to establish the therapeutic strategy.
  • Total resection of atypical choroid plexus papilloma is the most reliable treatment at present.
  • However, postoperative chemotherapy should be considered for recurrence or dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / surgery. Lateral Ventricles / surgery. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / drug therapy. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebral Arteries / pathology. Cerebral Arteries / physiopathology. Craniotomy. Embolization, Therapeutic. Female. Humans. Infant. Intraoperative Complications / etiology. Intraoperative Complications / physiopathology. Intraoperative Complications / therapy. Lethargy / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neurosurgical Procedures. Postoperative Hemorrhage / etiology. Postoperative Hemorrhage / physiopathology. Postoperative Hemorrhage / therapy. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Ventriculostomy. Vomiting / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19855149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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44. Pucarelli I, Segni M, Ortore M, Moretti A, Iannaccone R, Pasquino AM: Combined therapy with GnRH analog plus growth hormone in central precocious puberty. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2000 Jul;13 Suppl 1:811-20
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  • [Title] Combined therapy with GnRH analog plus growth hormone in central precocious puberty.
  • GnRH analogues (GnRHa) arrest pubertal development, and slow growth velocity (GV) and bone maturation, thus improving adult height in central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • Of 20 patients with idiopathic CPP (treated with GnRHa [depot-triptorelin] at a dose of 100 microg/kg every 21 days i.m. for at least 2-3 yr) whose GV fell below the 25th percentile for chronological age (CA), ten received, in addition to the GnRHa, GH at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg/wk, s.c.
  • 6 days weekly, for 2-4 yr.
  • Ten patients matched for BA, CA, and duration of GnRHa treatment who showed the same growth pattern but refused GH treatment, served to evaluate the efficacy of the addition of GH.
  • Both groups discontinued treatment at a comparable BA (mean +/- SEM): 13.2 +/- 0.2 yr in GnRHa + GH vs 13.0 +/- 0.1 yr in the control group.
  • Adult height was considered to be attained when the growth during the preceding year was less than 1 cm, with a BA of over 15 yr.
  • Patients of the group treated with GH + GnRHa showed an adult height significantly higher (p<0.001) than pretreatment PAH (160.6 +/- 1.3 vs 152.7 +/- 1.7 cm).
  • The GnRH alone treated group reached an adult height not significantly higher than pretreatment PAH (157.1 +/- 2.5 vs 155.5 +/- 1.9 cm).
  • Height SDS for BA did not change (from -1.0 +/- 0.3 at start of GnRHa to -0.7 +/- 0.4 at adult height).
  • Target height was just reached but not significantly exceeded.
  • In conclusion, a gain of 7.9 cm in adult height represents a significant improvement which justifies the addition of GH for 2-3 yr to conventional treatment with GnRH analogues in patients with central precocious puberty, and with a decrease in growth velocity so marked as to impair predicted adult height to below the third percentile.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / complications. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / etiology. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Height / drug effects. Bone Development. Child. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Growth / drug effects. Humans

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  • (PMID = 10969926.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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45. Fricks-Gleason AN, Marshall JF: Post-retrieval beta-adrenergic receptor blockade: effects on extinction and reconsolidation of cocaine-cue memories. Learn Mem; 2008 Sep;15(9):643-8
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  • Contexts and discrete cues associated with drug-taking are often responsible for relapse among addicts.
  • Animal models have shown that interference with the reconsolidation of drug-cue memories can reduce seeking of drugs or drug-paired stimuli.
  • One such model is conditioned place preference (CPP) in which an animal is trained to associate a particular environment with the rewarding effects of a drug.
  • Previous work from this laboratory has shown that intra-nucleus accumbens core infusions of a MEK inhibitor can interfere with reconsolidation of these drug-cue memories.
  • A question that remains is whether post-retrieval drug effects on subsequent memories represent an interference with reconsolidation processes or rather a facilitation of extinction.
  • In this experiment, we explore the effect of post-retrieval injections of propranolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on reconsolidation and extinction of cocaine CPP.
  • After acquisition of cocaine CPP, animals were given post-retrieval propranolol injections once or each day during a protocol of unreinforced preference tests, until the animals showed no preference for the previously cocaine-paired environment.
  • Following a cocaine priming injection, the animals that received daily post-test propranolol injections did not reinstate their preference for the drug-paired side.
  • In contrast, a single post-retrieval propranolol injection followed by multiple days of unreinforced preference tests failed to blunt subsequent cocaine reinstatement of the memory.
  • These data suggest that daily post-retrieval systemic injections of propranolol decrease the conditioned preference by interfering with reconsolidation of the memory for the association between the drug-paired side and the reinforcing effects of the drug, rather than facilitating new extinction learning.

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  • (PMID = 18772251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-5485
  • [Journal-full-title] Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Learn. Mem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA021807; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA 021807
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors; I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2632789
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46. Fishbain DA, Lewis JE, Gao J, Cole B, Rosomoff RS: Alleged medical abandonment in chronic opioid analgesic therapy: case report. Pain Med; 2009 May-Jun;10(4):722-9
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  • [Title] Alleged medical abandonment in chronic opioid analgesic therapy: case report.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this medicolegal case report were the following:.
  • 1) present details of a chronic pain patient (CPP) on chronic opioid analgesic therapy (COAT), who diverted her opioids and was terminated from treatment, and subsequently committed suicide;.
  • METHODS: This is a case report of a CPP treated by a pain physician who demonstrated aberrant drug-related behaviors and required large doses of controlled-release oxycodone.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Opioid / adverse effects. Malpractice / legislation & jurisprudence. Pain, Intractable / drug therapy. Physician-Patient Relations. Refusal to Treat / legislation & jurisprudence. Suicide / legislation & jurisprudence
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / drug therapy. Abdominal Pain / etiology. Abdominal Pain / physiopathology. Adult. Alcoholism / complications. Alprazolam / administration & dosage. Crime. Drug Administration Schedule. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hypnotics and Sedatives / administration & dosage. Opioid-Related Disorders / etiology. Opioid-Related Disorders / psychology. Oxycodone / administration & dosage. Oxycodone / adverse effects. Pancreatitis, Chronic / complications. Pancreatitis, Chronic / physiopathology. Patient Compliance. Self Medication / psychology


47. Lewis KA, Eugster EA: Experience with the once-yearly histrelin (GnRHa) subcutaneous implant in the treatment of central precocious puberty. Drug Des Devel Ther; 2009;3:1-5
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  • [Title] Experience with the once-yearly histrelin (GnRHa) subcutaneous implant in the treatment of central precocious puberty.
  • In 2007, a hydrogel histrelin implant was approved for the treatment of children with central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • Children with CPP commonly have reduced height potential due to premature closure of the epiphyseal growth plates from exposure to sex steroids.
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) treatment halts puberty and allows for improvement of adult height.
  • A hydrogel implant delivery system utilizing the potent GnRHa, histrelin, was first developed for use in men with prostate cancer.
  • A once yearly histrelin subcutaneous implant was subsequently developed for the treatment of children with CPP.
  • Studies to date have demonstrated safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of this treatment option in patients treated up to 2 years.
  • Cost of this treatment seems comparable to somewhat higher than the commonly used GnRHa treatment option, depot leuprolide.
  • While long term studies are needed to establish continued efficacy and safety beyond 2 years of treatment, the histrelin implant appears to be an attractive option for GnRHa treatment in patients with CPP.

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  • (PMID = 19920916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-8881
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug design, development and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Des Devel Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769233
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; central precocious puberty / gonadotropin-releasing-hormone analogs / histrelin / implant
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48. Wolff JE, Sajedi M, Brant R, Coppes MJ, Egeler RM: Choroid plexus tumours. Br J Cancer; 2002 Nov 4;87(10):1086-91
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  • [Title] Choroid plexus tumours.
  • Choroid plexus tumours are rare epithelial brain tumours and limited information is available regarding their biology and the best treatment.
  • A meta-analysis was done to determine prognostic factors and the influence of various treatment modalities.
  • A thorough review of the medical literature (1966-1998) revealed 566 well-documented choroid plexus tumours.
  • These were entered into a database, which was analysed to determine prognostic factors and treatment modalities.
  • Most patients with a supratentorial tumour were children, while the most common sites in adults were the fourth ventricle and the cerebellar pontine angle.
  • Cerebellar pontine angle tumours were more frequently benign.
  • Histology was the most important prognostic factor, as one, five, and 10-year projected survival rates were 90, 81, and 77% in choroid plexus-papilloma (n=353) compared to only 71, 41, and 35% in choroid plexus-carcinoma respectively (P<0.0005).
  • Surgery was prognostically relevant for both choroid plexus-papilloma (P=0.0005) and choroid plexus-carcinoma (P=0.0001).
  • Radiotherapy was associated with significantly better survival in choroid plexus-carcinomas.
  • Eight of 22 documented choroid plexus-carcinomas responded to chemotherapy.
  • Relapse after primary treatment was a poor prognostic factor in choroid plexus-carcinoma patients but not in choroid plexus-papilloma patients.
  • Treatment of choroid plexus tumours should start with radical surgical resection.
  • This should be followed by adjuvant treatment in case of choroid plexus-carcinoma, and a "wait and see" approach in choroid plexus-papilloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Cancer Research UK
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  • (PMID = 12402146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2376189
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49. Theochari E, Xanthos T, Papadimitriou D, Demestiha T, Condilis N, Tsirikos-Karapanos N, Tsiftsi K, Papadimitriou L: Selective beta blockade improves the outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a swine model of cardiac arrest. Ann Ital Chir; 2008 Nov-Dec;79(6):409-14
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  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epinephrine has been the mainstay drug of choice for cardiac resuscitation for more than 30 years.
  • Its vasopressor effects favoring initial resuscitation point to its beta-adrenergic action.
  • The aim of the present experimental study was to evaluate the efficiency of coadministration of Esmolol, an ultra-short-acting beta-blocker, and of epinephrine in a swine model of cardiac arrest.
  • After induction of VF, the animals were left untreated for 5 minutes.
  • Animals were randomized into two groups, control and study group.
  • Six animals were used in the control group, and 8 in the study group.
  • The control group received 10 ml of normal saline via a peripheral vein, while the study group received 0.4 mg/kg Esmolol in 10 ml dilution.
  • RESULTS: Seven animals (87.5%) restored cardiac rhythm compatible with a pulse in the Esmolol group, compared to 2 animals (33.3%) in the control group (p = 0.018).
  • The average time until restoration of circulation was 16 +/- 3.2 minutes in our control group and 12.8 +/- 1.4 minutes in Esmolol group (p = 0.059).
  • Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was significantly higher in the Esmolol group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Esmolol improves significantly the outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the average time of restoration of circulation, while in the proposed dosage does not alter the CPP at the beginning of CPR.
  • However, it augments CPP from the sixth minute of CPR and afterwards.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic Agonists / administration & dosage. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / administration & dosage. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / methods. Epinephrine / administration & dosage. Propanolamines / administration & dosage. Ventricular Fibrillation / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / methods. Drug Therapy, Combination. Heart Rate / drug effects. Random Allocation. Survival Analysis. Swine

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  • (PMID = 19354034.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Agonists; 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Propanolamines; MDY902UXSR / esmolol; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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50. Iwasaki K, Mishima K, Egashira N, Al-Khatib IH, Ishibashi D, Irie K, Kobayashi H, Egawa T, Fujiwara M: Effect of nilvadipine on the cerebral ischemia-induced impairment of spatial memory and hippocampal apoptosis in rats. J Pharmacol Sci; 2003 Oct;93(2):188-96
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  • On the other hand, repeated cerebral ischemia (10 min ischemia x 2, 1 h interval) impaired spatial memory and induced hippocampal apoptosis 7 days after the final occlusion/reperfusion.
  • However, mRNA expression of the apoptosis-related early oncogene bax and CPP 32 (caspase-3) was observed after 24 h.
  • In these rats, nilvadipine, but not amlodipine, significantly improved memory, concomitantly decreased hippocampal apoptosis, and suppressed both bax and CPP 32 expression.
  • These results suggest that nilvadipine improved the memory impairment in repeated ischemia by reducing bax and CPP 32 expression and suppressing the induction of apoptosis in the hippocampus.
  • Nilvadipine may have a neuroprotective effect and could be a useful pharmacotherapeutic agent for cerebrovascular dementia.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Ischemia / psychology. Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology. Hippocampus / cytology. Memory Disorders / drug therapy. Memory Disorders / psychology. Nifedipine / pharmacology. Space Perception / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Calibration. Genes, bcl-2 / genetics. Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases / genetics. Male. Maze Learning / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 14578587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-8613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmacological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pharmacol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0214FUT37J / nilvadipine; EC 1.2.1.- / Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases; I9ZF7L6G2L / Nifedipine
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51. da Silva JC, de Lima Fde M, Valença MM, de Azevedo Filho HR: Hypertonic saline more efficacious than mannitol in lethal intracranial hypertension model. Neurol Res; 2010 Mar;32(2):139-43
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  • [Title] Hypertonic saline more efficacious than mannitol in lethal intracranial hypertension model.
  • BACKGROUND: Medical management of brain edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is a crucial challenge in neurosurgical practice.
  • Depending on the cause, the treatments for brain edema fall into three categories: stabilization of the blood-brain barrier, depletion of brain water and surgical decompression.
  • Although mannitol is the mainstay of hyperosmolar therapy, hypertonic saline (HS) is emerging as an effective alternative to traditional osmotic agents.
  • METHODS: Experimental elevated ICP (50 mmHg) was induced in rabbits using an intracranial balloon.
  • The effects of mannitol and HS (10% NaCl) were compared in this specific physiopathological model.
  • Twelve animals were divided into three groups (control, HS and mannitol) according to intravenous administration of 0.9% NaCl, 10% NaCl or 20% mannitol 5 minutes after the elevation of ICP.
  • The doses of 10% NaCl and 20% mannitol were iso-osmolar.
  • During 90 minutes, continuous recording of ICP, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was realized.
  • RESULTS: The control group had a median survival of only 53 minutes, significantly lower than the treated groups (p=0.0002).
  • There was statistical difference between mannitol and HS; the 10% NaCl group had lower values of ICP (p=0.0116) and higher values of MAP (p<0.0001) and CPP (p<0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate higher efficacy of the 10% NaCl treatment in this comparison with 20% mannitol.
  • Further efforts should be directed toward development of clinical studies using iso-osmotic doses of mannitol and HS in specific etiologies of intracranial hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Disease Models, Animal. Intracranial Hypertension / drug therapy. Mannitol / therapeutic use. Saline Solution, Hypertonic / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Intracranial Pressure / physiology. Male. Rabbits. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19309542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Saline Solution, Hypertonic; 3OWL53L36A / Mannitol
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52. Gupte SA, Tateyama M, Okada T, Oka M, Ochi R: Epiandrosterone, a metabolite of testosterone precursor, blocks L-type calcium channels of ventricular myocytes and inhibits myocardial contractility. J Mol Cell Cardiol; 2002 Jun;34(6):679-88
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  • [Title] Epiandrosterone, a metabolite of testosterone precursor, blocks L-type calcium channels of ventricular myocytes and inhibits myocardial contractility.
  • The dehydroepiandrosterone metabolite epiandrosterone (EPI) inhibits the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and dilates isolated blood vessels pre-contracted by partial depolarization.
  • We found that EPI (10-100 microM) also dose-dependently decreases left-ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), the rate of myocardial contraction (+d p /d t), and the pressure rate product (PRP); at 100 microM EPI, LVDP (131+/-9 vs 34+/-7 mmHg), +d p /dt (1515+/-94 vs 542+/-185 mmHg/s), and PRP (37870+/-2471 vs 9498+/-2375 HR x mmHg/min) were all significantly (P<0.05) reduced.
  • EPI also elevated CPP in isolated hearts, decreased levels of myocardial NADPH and nitrite, and dose-dependently relaxed rat aortic rings pre-contracted with KCl.
  • Electrophysiological analysis of single ventricular myocytes using whole cell clamp showed EPI to dose-dependently (100 n M-100 microM) and reversibly inhibit L-type channel currents carried by Ba2+ (IBa) (IC50=42+/-6 microM) by as much as 50%.
  • These results suggest that EPI may act as a L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist with properties similar to those of 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) Ca2+ channel blockers.
  • [MeSH-major] Androsterone / physiology. Calcium / metabolism. Calcium Channel Blockers. Calcium Channels, L-Type / metabolism. Myocytes, Cardiac / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anoxia. Dehydroepiandrosterone / metabolism. Male. Myocardial Contraction. Myocardium / metabolism. NADP / metabolism. Nitrites / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Recovery of Function. Testosterone / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 12054855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2828
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Calcium Channels, L-Type; 0 / Nitrites; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 53-59-8 / NADP; C24W7J5D5R / Androsterone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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53. Miller BS, Shukla AR: Sterile abscess formation in response to two separate branded long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. Clin Ther; 2010 Sep;32(10):1749-51
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  • [Title] Sterile abscess formation in response to two separate branded long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists.
  • BACKGROUND: Long-acting forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonists are commonly used for the treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • Sterile abscess formation has been reported as a complication of leuprolide acetate, but not histrelin acetate.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report an adverse drug reaction in a child with sterile abscess formation following treatment with 2 different branded long-acting forms of GnRH agonists.
  • CASE SUMMARY: An otherwise healthy 8-year-old white female (weight, 40.7 kg; height, 140.1 cm) with documented CPP and no known drug allergies developed a sterile abscess at the site of the monthly intramuscular injection of 15 mg of leuprolide acetate.
  • Because of this site reaction, a 50-mg histrelin acetate insert was placed in the patient's left arm.
  • At the time of the removal of the second insert, Gram stain and swab culture of the purulent wound discharge were negative.
  • The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Causality Score was 10 (definite, ≥9).
  • CONCLUSION: This report describes a case of sterile abscess formation definitely associated with 2 different forms of long-acting GnRH agonist treatment in a child.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Implants. Female. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Nafarelin / administration & dosage. Nafarelin / therapeutic use. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Excerpta Medica Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21194598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-114X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 1X0094V6JV / Nafarelin; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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54. Oddo M, Levine JM, Frangos S, Carrera E, Maloney-Wilensky E, Pascual JL, Kofke WA, Mayer SA, LeRoux PD: Effect of mannitol and hypertonic saline on cerebral oxygenation in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and refractory intracranial hypertension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2009 Aug;80(8):916-20
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  • [Title] Effect of mannitol and hypertonic saline on cerebral oxygenation in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and refractory intracranial hypertension.
  • BACKGROUND: The impact of osmotic therapies on brain oxygen has not been extensively studied in humans.
  • We examined the effects on brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO(2)) of mannitol and hypertonic saline (HTS) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and refractory intracranial hypertension.
  • METHODS: 12 consecutive patients with severe TBI who underwent intracranial pressure (ICP) and PbtO(2) monitoring were studied.
  • Patients were treated with mannitol (25%, 0.75 g/kg) for episodes of elevated ICP (>20 mm Hg) or HTS (7.5%, 250 ml) if ICP was not controlled with mannitol.
  • PbtO(2), ICP, mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), central venous pressure and cardiac output were monitored continuously.
  • RESULTS: 42 episodes of intracranial hypertension, treated with mannitol (n = 28 boluses) or HTS (n = 14 boluses), were analysed.
  • HTS treatment was associated with an increase in PbtO(2) (from baseline 28.3 (13.8) mm Hg to 34.9 (18.2) mm Hg at 30 min, 37.0 (17.6) mm Hg at 60 min and 41.4 (17.7) mm Hg at 120 min; all p<0.01) while mannitol did not affect PbtO(2) (baseline 30.4 (11.4) vs 28.7 (13.5) vs 28.4 (10.6) vs 27.5 (9.9) mm Hg; all p>0.1).
  • Compared with mannitol, HTS was associated with lower ICP and higher CPP and cardiac output.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe TBI and elevated ICP refractory to previous mannitol treatment, 7.5% hypertonic saline administered as second tier therapy is associated with a significant increase in brain oxygenation, and improved cerebral and systemic haemodynamics.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Chemistry / drug effects. Brain Injuries / drug therapy. Diuretics / pharmacology. Intracranial Hypertension / drug therapy. Mannitol / pharmacology. Oxygen Consumption / drug effects. Saline Solution, Hypertonic / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Glasgow Coma Scale. Hemodynamics / drug effects. Humans. Intracranial Pressure / physiology. Male. Recurrence


55. Saar K, Saar H, Hansen M, Langel Ü, Pooga M: Distribution of CPP-Protein Complexes in Freshly Resected Human Tissue Material. Pharmaceuticals (Basel); 2010 Mar 12;3(3):621-635
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  • [Title] Distribution of CPP-Protein Complexes in Freshly Resected Human Tissue Material.
  • However, only a few studies have been devoted to the behaviour of CPPs in human tissues.
  • Therefore, we performed ex vivo tissue-dipping experiments where we studied the distribution of CPP-protein complexes in samples of freshly harvested human tissue material.
  • Our aim was to evaluate the tissue of preference (epithelial versus muscular/connective tissue, carcinoma versus adjacent histologically normal tissue) for two well-studied CPPs, the transportan and the TAT-peptide.
  • We complexed biotinylated CPPs with avidin--galactosidase (ABG), which enabled us to apply whole-mount X-gal staining as a robust detection method.
  • Our results demonstrate that both peptides enhanced the tissue distribution of ABG.
  • The enhancing effect of the tested CPPs was more obvious in the normal tissue and in some specimens we detected a striking selectivity of CPP-ABG complexes for the normal tissue.
  • This unexpected finding encourages the evaluation of CPPs as local delivery agents in non-malignant situations, for example in the intrauterine gene therapy of benign gynaecological diseases.

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  • (PMID = 27713271.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmaceuticals (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; carcinoma / cell-penetrating peptides / ex vivo / tissue selectivity
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56. Chen HI, Malhotra NR, Oddo M, Heuer GG, Levine JM, LeRoux PD: Barbiturate infusion for intractable intracranial hypertension and its effect on brain oxygenation. Neurosurgery; 2008 Nov;63(5):880-6; discussion 886-7
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  • [Title] Barbiturate infusion for intractable intracranial hypertension and its effect on brain oxygenation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Barbiturate-induced coma can be used in patients to treat intractable intracranial hypertension when other therapies, such as osmotic therapy and sedation, have failed.
  • Despite control of intracranial pressure, cerebral infarction may still occur in some patients, and the effect of barbiturates on outcome remains uncertain.
  • In this study, we examined the relationship between barbiturate infusion and brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2).
  • METHODS: Ten volume-resuscitated brain-injured patients who were treated with pentobarbital infusion for intracranial hypertension and underwent PbtO2 monitoring were studied in a neurosurgical intensive care unit at a university-based Level I trauma center.
  • PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and brain temperature were continuously monitored and compared in settings in which barbiturates were or were not administered.
  • When pentobarbital administration began, the mean ICP, CPP, and PbtO2 were 18 +/- 10, 72 +/- 18, and 28 +/- 12 mm Hg, respectively.
  • During the 3 hours before barbiturate infusion, the maximum ICP was 24 +/- 13 mm Hg and the minimum CPP was 65 +/- 20 mm Hg.
  • In the majority of patients (70%), we observed an increase in PbtO2 associated with pentobarbital infusion.
  • Within this group, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a higher likelihood of compromised brain oxygen (PbtO2 < 20 mm Hg) was associated with a decrease in pentobarbital dose after controlling for ICP and other physiological parameters (P < 0.001).
  • In the remaining 3 patients, pentobarbital was associated with lower PbtO2 levels.
  • These patients had higher ICP, lower CPP, and later initiation of barbiturates compared with patients whose PbtO2 increased.
  • CONCLUSION: Our preliminary findings suggest that pentobarbital administered for intractable intracranial hypertension is associated with a significant and independent increase in PbtO2 in the majority of patients.
  • However, in some patients with more compromised brain physiology, pentobarbital may have a negative effect on PbtO2, particularly if administered late.
  • Larger studies are needed to examine the relationship between barbiturates and cerebral oxygenation in brain-injured patients with refractory intracranial hypertension and to determine whether PbtO2 responses can help guide therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Barbiturates / administration & dosage. Brain / drug effects. Brain / metabolism. Brain Injuries / physiopathology. Intracranial Hypertension / drug therapy. Oxygen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Critical Care / methods. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Physiologic. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


57. Glantz L, Godovic G, Lekar M, Kramer M, Eidelman LA: Efficacy of transdermal nitroglycerin combined with etodolac for the treatment of chronic post-thoracotomy pain: an open-label prospective clinical trial. J Pain Symptom Manage; 2004 Mar;27(3):277-81
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  • [Title] Efficacy of transdermal nitroglycerin combined with etodolac for the treatment of chronic post-thoracotomy pain: an open-label prospective clinical trial.
  • Chronic post-thoracotomy pain (CPP) is associated with surgical intercostal nerve injury.
  • Like other forms of neuropathic pain, there is no ideal treatment.
  • Nitroglycerin (NTG) has been found efficacious in acute pain, but has not been tested for chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics.
  • The present study investigated the efficacy of NTG combined with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug etodolac for the treatment of CPP.
  • Thirty of 129 patients who underwent thoracotomy within an 18-month period had moderate to severe pain that did not respond to etodolac.
  • NTG, 5 mg/day, was added to the treatment.
  • A significant reduction in VAS was observed on day 14 of treatment (from 66.7 +/- 11 to 42.1 +/- 5, P< 0.05).
  • We conclude that NTG added to etodolac appears to be effective for the treatment of CPP, with minimal side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage. Etodolac / administration & dosage. Nitroglycerin / administration & dosage. Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy. Thoracotomy / adverse effects. Vasodilator Agents / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Aged. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15038339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0885-3924
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pain and symptom management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pain Symptom Manage
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Vasodilator Agents; 2M36281008 / Etodolac; G59M7S0WS3 / Nitroglycerin
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58. Bertelloni S, Mul D: Treatment of central precocious puberty by GnRH analogs: long-term outcome in men. Asian J Androl; 2008 Jul;10(4):525-34
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  • [Title] Treatment of central precocious puberty by GnRH analogs: long-term outcome in men.
  • In boys, central precocious puberty (CPP) is the appearance of secondary sex characteristics driven by pituitary gonadotropin secretion before the age of 9 years.
  • In the last years, relevant improvements in the treatment of CPP have been achieved.
  • Because CPP is rare in boys, the majority of papers on this issue focus on girls and do not address specific features of male patients regarding end results and safety.
  • In the present paper, recent advances of CPP management with GnRH analogs in men are summarized.
  • End results in untreated and treated patients are also reviewed by an analysis of the recently published literature on treatment of CPP in men.
  • The available data indicate that therapy with GnRH analogs can improve final height into the range of target height without significant adverse short-term and long-term effects, but longer follow-up of larger series of patients is still required to draw definitive conclusions.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Body Height / drug effects. Body Height / physiology. Child. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Male. Sex Characteristics. Treatment Outcome


59. Meybohm P, Cavus E, Dörges V, Weber B, Stadlbauer KH, Wenzel V, Scholz J, Steffen M, Bein B: Release of protein S100B in haemorrhagic shock: effects of small volume resuscitation combined with arginine vasopressin. Resuscitation; 2008 Mar;76(3):449-56
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  • BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of conventional fluid resuscitation and small volume resuscitation alone and combined with arginine vasopressin (AVP) on cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and protein S100B during experimental haemorrhagic shock.
  • Following haemodynamic decompensation, pigs received either (1) a combination of crystalloid (40 mL kg(-1)) and colloid (20 mL kg(-1)) solutions (fluid, n=10), (2) hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution (HHS; 4 mL kg(-1)) combined with normal saline (HHS+NS; n=10) or (3) HHS combined with AVP (0.2 U kg(-1) followed by an infusion of 2 U kg(-1)h(-1); HHS+AVP; n=10).
  • RESULTS: Compared to baseline, CPP decreased and S100B levels increased significantly at haemodynamic decompensation (S100B: fluid, 0.52+/-0.23 microg L(-1) vs. 0.85+/-0.37 microg L(-1), p<0.05; HHS+NS, 0.47+/-0.18 microg L(-1) vs. 0.90+/-0.33 microg L(-1), p<0.05; HHS+AVP, 0.53+/-0.18 microg L(-1) vs. 0.90+/-0.39 microg L(-1), p<0.01).
  • During the initial 10 min of therapy, CPP of HHS+NS was significantly higher compared to the fluid group, increased more rapidly in the HHS+AVP group, but was not significantly different thereafter.
  • S100B levels decreased close to baseline values (p<0.001), and did not differ between groups.
  • CONCLUSION: HHS+AVP resulted in higher CPP compared to fluid and HHS+NS in the initial phase of therapy, but did not differ thereafter.
  • [MeSH-major] Arginine Vasopressin / administration & dosage. Hemostatics / administration & dosage. Nerve Growth Factors / blood. Resuscitation / methods. S100 Proteins / blood. Shock, Hemorrhagic / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Colloids. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Isotonic Solutions. Liver / injuries. Male. Prospective Studies. Rehydration Solutions / administration & dosage. S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit. Saline Solution, Hypertonic. Swine

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  • (PMID = 17976887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9572
  • [Journal-full-title] Resuscitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Resuscitation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Colloids; 0 / Hemostatics; 0 / Isotonic Solutions; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Rehydration Solutions; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Saline Solution, Hypertonic; 0 / crystalloid solutions; 113-79-1 / Arginine Vasopressin
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60. Berrada M, Yang Z, Lehnert S: Tumor treatment by sustained intratumoral release of 5-fluorouracil: effects of drug alone and in combined treatments. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Dec 1;54(5):1550-7
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  • [Title] Tumor treatment by sustained intratumoral release of 5-fluorouracil: effects of drug alone and in combined treatments.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate an intratumoral polymer implant for sustained delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in a mouse tumor model.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: 5-FU was incorporated into a polyanhydride-based polymer, bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)propane sebacic acid (CPP:SA) and implanted in RIF-1 mouse fibrosarcoma growing s.c.
  • The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated by tumor growth delay.
  • A second drug, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cis-DDP), was administered by intraperitoneal injection or by osmotic pump.
  • RESULTS: For drug/polymer implant alone, the tumor growth delay was proportional to the amount of drug in the implant.
  • The 5-FU polymer implant was most effective when combined with cis-DDP or with acute or fractionated radiation, and in some cases, the effects of combined treatments were greater than additive.
  • CONCLUSION: Results indicate that 5-FU can be effectively delivered by polymer implant and that this mode of delivery is particularly appropriate for combined treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Cobalt Radioisotopes. Combined Modality Therapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Mice. Neoplasm Transplantation. Organoplatinum Compounds. Polymers / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Radiometry. Time Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 12459384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cobalt Radioisotopes; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 78022-86-3 / diammine platinum(II) dilactate; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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61. Concolino D, Muzzi G, Pisaturo L, Piccirillo A, Di Natale P, Strisciuglio P: Precocious puberty in Sanfilippo IIIA disease: diagnosis and follow-up of two new cases. Eur J Med Genet; 2008 Sep-Oct;51(5):466-71
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  • [Title] Precocious puberty in Sanfilippo IIIA disease: diagnosis and follow-up of two new cases.
  • To date the association between mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIA and precocious puberty has been found in only three polish patients.
  • We observed two children affected by MPS IIIA with central precocious puberty (CPP) both treated with GnRH agonists.
  • The occurrence of CPP in both patients with MPS IIIA suggests that it is necessary to look for an association between the two conditions.
  • The follow-up of our two patients leads us to believe also that GnRH agonist treatment can have a beneficial effect on final height and probably on the improvement of behavioural problems.
  • [MeSH-major] Mucopolysaccharidosis III / complications. Mucopolysaccharidosis III / diagnosis. Mutation. Puberty, Precocious / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Body Height / drug effects. Brain / pathology. Child. Child Behavior Disorders / complications. Child Behavior Disorders / drug therapy. DNA Mutational Analysis. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Humans. Luteolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18586597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-7212
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Med Genet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Luteolytic Agents; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate
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62. Baudy RB, Fletcher H 3rd, Yardley JP, Zaleska MM, Bramlett DR, Tasse RP, Kowal DM, Katz AH, Moyer JA, Abou-Gharbia M: Design, synthesis, SAR, and biological evaluation of highly potent benzimidazole-spaced phosphono-alpha-amino acid competitive NMDA antagonists of the AP-6 type. J Med Chem; 2001 May 10;44(10):1516-29
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  • [Title] Design, synthesis, SAR, and biological evaluation of highly potent benzimidazole-spaced phosphono-alpha-amino acid competitive NMDA antagonists of the AP-6 type.
  • A series of 2-amino-(phosphonoalkyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2-alkanoic acids was synthesized and evaluated for NMDA receptor affinity using a [3H]CPP binding assay.
  • Several compounds of the AP-6 type demonstrated potent and selective NMDA antagonistic activity both in vitro and in vivo.
  • In particular, [R(-)]-2-amino-3-(5-chloro-1-phosphonomethyl-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propionic acid (1) displayed an IC(50) value of 7.1 nM in the [3H]CPP binding assay and an ED(50) value of 0.13 mg/kg (ip) in the NMDA lethality model.
  • Compound 1, when administered intravenously as a single bolus dose of 3 mg/kg following permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat, reduced the volume of infarcted brain tissue by 45%.
  • These results support a promising therapeutic potential for compound 1 as a neuroprotective agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzimidazoles / chemical synthesis. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / chemical synthesis. Neuroprotective Agents / chemical synthesis. Propionates / chemical synthesis. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Arterial Occlusive Diseases / complications. Binding, Competitive. Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Carotid Artery Diseases / complications. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. In Vitro Techniques. Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / drug therapy. Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / etiology. Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / pathology. Male. Mice. Models, Molecular. Organophosphonates. Radioligand Assay. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Stereoisomerism

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  • (PMID = 11334562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-amino-3-(5-chloro-1-phosphonomethyl-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)propionic acid; 0 / Benzimidazoles; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; 0 / Organophosphonates; 0 / Propionates; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
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63. Infante C, Díaz M, Hernández A, Constandil L, Pelissier T: Expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in the dorsal horn of monoarthritic rats: effects of competitive and uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists. Arthritis Res Ther; 2007;9(3):R53
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  • [Title] Expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in the dorsal horn of monoarthritic rats: effects of competitive and uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists.
  • Chronic pain is associated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation and downstream production of nitric oxide, which has a pivotal role in multisynaptic local circuit nociceptive processing in the spinal cord.
  • The formation of nitric oxide is catalyzed by three major nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms (neuronal, nNOS; inducible, iNOS; endothelial, eNOS), which are increased in the spinal cord of rodents subjected to some tonic and chronic forms of experimental pain.
  • Despite the important role of NOS in spinal cord nociceptive transmission, there have been no studies exploring the effect of NMDA receptor blockade on NOS expression in the dorsal horn during chronic pain.
  • Furthermore, NOS isoforms have not been fully characterized in the dorsal horn of animals subjected to arthritic pain.
  • The aim of this work was therefore to study the expression of nNOS, iNOS and eNOS in the dorsal horns of monoarthritic rats, and the modifications in NOS expression induced by pharmacological blockade of spinal cord NMDA receptors.
  • Monoarthritis was produced by intra-articular injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the right tibio-tarsal joint.
  • At week 4, monoarthritic rats were given either the competitive NMDA antagonist (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) or the uncompetitive NMDA antagonist ketamine.
  • Sample tissues were homogenized and subjected to immunoblotting with anti-nNOS, anti-iNOS or anti-eNOS monoclonal antibodies.
  • The nNOS isoform, but not the iNOS and eNOS isoforms, were detected in the dorsal horns of control rats.
  • Intrathecal administration of CPP and ketamine reduced nNOS expression in monoarthritic rats but increased the expression of iNOS and eNOS.
  • Results suggest that blockade of spinal cord NMDA receptors produces complex regulatory changes in the expression of NOS isoforms in monoarthritic rats that may be relevant for nitridergic neuronal/glial mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of monoarthritis and in the pharmacological response to drugs interacting with NMDA receptors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / toxicity. Animals. Blotting, Western. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / administration & dosage. Freund's Adjuvant / toxicity. Functional Laterality. Injections, Spinal. Isoenzymes / biosynthesis. Isoenzymes / drug effects. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 17521446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-6362
  • [Journal-full-title] Arthritis research & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arthritis Res. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 9007-81-2 / Freund's Adjuvant; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2206346
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64. Krueger GG, Gottlieb AB, Sterry W, Korman N, Van De Kerkhof P: A multicenter, open-label study of repeat courses of intramuscular alefacept in combination with other psoriasis therapies in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. J Dermatolog Treat; 2008;19(3):146-55
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  • [Title] A multicenter, open-label study of repeat courses of intramuscular alefacept in combination with other psoriasis therapies in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of multiple courses of alefacept in combination with traditional psoriasis therapy for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis (CPP).
  • METHODS: Patients with CPP requiring systemic therapy were eligible for this study.
  • One concomitant psoriasis therapy (topical agents, methotrexate, cyclosporine, systemic retinoids, or ultraviolet B [UVB]) per course was allowed.
  • The extent of disease was determined using the 7-point Physician Global Assessment (PGA; scale ranging from 0 = clear to 6 = severe).
  • RESULTS: More than 73% of patients improved by > or = one PGA category and > or = 44% of patients improved by > or = two PGA categories across all concomitant treatments.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple courses of alefacept appear to be well tolerated and demonstrate efficacy in patients with CPP when administered with other psoriasis therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatologic Agents / administration & dosage. Immunologic Factors / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Psoriasis / drug therapy. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / administration & dosage. Ultraviolet Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cyclosporine / administration & dosage. Cyclosporine / adverse effects. Drug Administration Routes. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Humans. Infection / chemically induced. Lymphopenia / chemically induced. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / chemically induced. Retinoids / administration & dosage. Retinoids / adverse effects. Retreatment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18569270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-1753
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Retinoids; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; ELK3V90G6C / alefacept; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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65. Anpalagan A, Condous G: Is there a role for use of levonorgestrel intrauterine system in women with chronic pelvic pain? J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2008 Nov-Dec;15(6):663-6
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  • This review focuses on the available evidence for the use of levonorgestrel (LNG) intrauterine system (IUS) in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP).
  • Case reports were not included in the analysis.
  • Laparoscopic surgery was shown to be useful in clarifying the underlying cause in women with CPP, with 70% having abnormal findings at laparoscopy.
  • Laparoscopic excision of endometriosis was shown to be associated with improvement of symptoms in 70% to 80% of women.
  • Up to 36% need repeated surgery during a 5-year period after the primary procedure.
  • The absolute reduction in recurrence of dysmenorrhea in women who also had the LNG IUS inserted at the time of surgery was 35% (95% CI 9%-61%).
  • The LNG IUS was shown also to reduce the blood flow in the uterine artery and the subendometrial spiral arteries.
  • This may explain the reduction in primary dysmenorrhea in women who have the LNG IUS inserted.
  • Insertion of the LNG IUS at the time of primary laparoscopic surgery in women with CPP caused by endometriosis has the potential to reduce postoperative pain scores.
  • This nonsurgical option could potentially reduce the rate of repeated laparoscopies in women with CPP and, in turn, reduce overall intervention rates.
  • Although growing evidence exists that the LNG IUS can be useful in this group of women, large randomized controlled studies are needed to validate its benefits in day-to-day practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Contraceptive Agents, Female / therapeutic use. Levonorgestrel / therapeutic use. Pelvic Pain / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Dysmenorrhea / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Menstruation Disturbances / complications. Menstruation Disturbances / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18774757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4650
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptive Agents, Female; 5W7SIA7YZW / Levonorgestrel
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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66. Soustiel JF, Mahamid E, Chistyakov A, Shik V, Benenson R, Zaaroor M: Comparison of moderate hyperventilation and mannitol for control of intracranial pressure control in patients with severe traumatic brain injury--a study of cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Aug;148(8):845-51; discussion 851
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  • [Title] Comparison of moderate hyperventilation and mannitol for control of intracranial pressure control in patients with severe traumatic brain injury--a study of cerebral blood flow and metabolism.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the respective effects of established measures used for management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen (CMRO2), glucose (CMRGlc) and lactate (CMRLct).
  • METHODS: Thirty-six patients suffering from severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were prospectively evaluated.
  • Intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure (ICP, CPP), CBF and arterial jugular differences in oxygen, glucose and lactate contents were measured for calculation of CMRO2, CMRGlc and CMRLct.
  • CBF remained most often above the ischemic range although values less than 30 ml x 100 gr(-1) x min(-1) were found in 27.8% of patients.
  • CBF reduction was associated with concurrent decrease in CMRO2, anaerobic hyperglycolysis and subsequent lactate production.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Moderate hyperventilation may exacerbate pre-existing impairment of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in TBI patients and should be therefore carefully used under appropriate monitoring.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Edema / therapy. Brain Injuries / complications. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Hyperventilation / metabolism. Intracranial Hypertension / therapy. Mannitol / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Brain Ischemia / etiology. Brain Ischemia / physiopathology. Brain Ischemia / therapy. Cerebral Cortex / drug effects. Cerebral Cortex / metabolism. Cerebral Cortex / physiopathology. Diuretics, Osmotic / therapeutic use. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Glycolysis / drug effects. Glycolysis / physiology. Humans. Lactic Acid / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Oxygen Consumption / drug effects. Prospective Studies. Respiration, Artificial / adverse effects. Respiration, Artificial / standards. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16763735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics, Osmotic; 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid; 3OWL53L36A / Mannitol; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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67. Bortolato M, Campolongo P, Mangieri RA, Scattoni ML, Frau R, Trezza V, La Rana G, Russo R, Calignano A, Gessa GL, Cuomo V, Piomelli D: Anxiolytic-like properties of the anandamide transport inhibitor AM404. Neuropsychopharmacology; 2006 Dec;31(12):2652-9
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  • The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoyglycerol (2-AG) may contribute to the regulation of mood and emotion.
  • These behavioral effects were associated with increased levels of anandamide, but not 2-AG, in the prefrontal cortex and were prevented by the CB(1) cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (SR141716A), suggesting that they were dependent on anandamide-mediated activation of CB(1) cannabinoid receptors.
  • We also evaluated whether AM404 might influence motivation (in the conditioned place preference (CPP) test), sensory reactivity (acoustic startle reflex) and sensorimotor gating (prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex).
  • In the CPP test, AM404 (1.25-10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) elicited rewarding effects in rats housed under enriched conditions, but not in rats kept in standard cages.
  • Moreover, AM404 did not alter reactivity to sensory stimuli or cause overt perceptual distortion, as suggested by its lack of effect on startle or PPI of startle.
  • These results support a role of anandamide in the regulation of emotion and point to the anandamide transport system as a potential target for anxiolytic drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Anxiety Disorders / drug therapy. Arachidonic Acids / metabolism. Arachidonic Acids / pharmacology. Brain / drug effects. Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / drug effects. Polyunsaturated Alkamides / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Anti-Anxiety Agents / pharmacology. Anxiety, Separation / drug therapy. Anxiety, Separation / metabolism. Anxiety, Separation / physiopathology. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Behavior, Animal / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Endocannabinoids. Male. Maze Learning / drug effects. Maze Learning / physiology. Neural Inhibition / drug effects. Neural Inhibition / physiology. Piperidines / pharmacology. Pyrazoles / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Rats, Wistar. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / agonists. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / metabolism. Reflex, Startle / drug effects. Reflex, Startle / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16541083.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-133X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA-12447; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA-3412
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Anxiety Agents; 0 / Arachidonic Acids; 0 / Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Endocannabinoids; 0 / N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)arachidonylamide; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Polyunsaturated Alkamides; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1; 158681-13-1 / rimonabant; 94421-68-8 / anandamide
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68. Tonini G, Lazzerini M: Side effects of GnRH analogue treatment in childhood. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2000 Jul;13 Suppl 1:795-803
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  • [Title] Side effects of GnRH analogue treatment in childhood.
  • There are a few reports of side-effects of LHRHa treatment in childhood, the mechanisms of which remain little understood.
  • Such effects can be local reactions: erythema, induration, wheal and sterile abscess formation, which can be possible causes of therapy failure.
  • There are negative effects on growth velocity and final height requiring rhGH therapy or a suppressive treatment when bone age >13 years.
  • Excessive weight gain can occur by various mechanisms: menopausal-like phenomena, or LHRHa influence on hypothalamic and/or leptin-mediated control of body weight.
  • The latter appears related to CPP onset with pre-existing hyperandrogenism, although lengthier follow-up is necessary to confirm this.
  • Bone density decreases during therapy, but final peak bone mass is in the normal range.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / complications. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Height / drug effects. Body Weight / drug effects. Female. Fertility / drug effects. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / adverse effects. Growth. Humans. Menstrual Cycle / drug effects. Mental Disorders / chemically induced. Ovary / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 10969924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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69. Głab E, Barg E, Wikiera B, Grabowski M, Noczyńska A: Influence of GnRH analog therapy on body mass in central precocious puberty. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab; 2009;15(1):7-11
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  • [Title] Influence of GnRH analog therapy on body mass in central precocious puberty.
  • THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Was to evaluate the body mass index (BMI) changes in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) treated with a GnRH analog (GnRHa) and to analyse the factors affecting BMI.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 43 girls with puberty onset aged (mean, +/-SD) 6.1+/-1.9, treated with 3.75 mg Decapeptyl Depot i.m. every 28 days.
  • The treatment was initiated at the age of 7.5+/-2.1 year and continued for 3.3+/-2.2 year until the age of 11.4+/-0.9 year.
  • RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between BMI SD score before initiation of therapy and at the end of therapy (p=0.49).
  • 9.8% of the cohort were overweight and 22.0% were obese before treatment.
  • At the end of the therapy 18.6% children were overweight and 14.0% obese.
  • These differences were not statistically significant.
  • There was no significant correlation between overweight and obesity at the end of treatment and the duration of the therapy (r=-0.17) and with the duration of CPP before introduction of GnRH therapy (r= -0.11).
  • CONCLUSIONS: 1.Overweight and obesity are not related to long term pituitary-gonadal suppression due to GnRH analogue treatment.
  • 2. The rate of overweight and obesity among children with CPP is higher than in the general population.
  • Thus detailed evaluation of metabolic status of overweight children with CPP should be performed in order to prevent complications of the metabolic syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Mass Index. Overweight / epidemiology. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / epidemiology. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Height / drug effects. Child. Cohort Studies. Comorbidity. Female. Humans. Obesity / epidemiology. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 19454183.001).
  • [ISSN] 2081-237X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate
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70. Adan Y, Goldman Y, Haimovitz R, Mammon K, Eilon T, Tal S, Tene A, Karmel Y, Shinitzky M: Phenotypic differentiation of human breast cancer cells by 1,3 cyclic propanediol phosphate. Cancer Lett; 2003 May 8;194(1):67-79
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  • [Title] Phenotypic differentiation of human breast cancer cells by 1,3 cyclic propanediol phosphate.
  • We have recently shown that 1,3 cyclic propanediol phosphate (1,3 cPP), an analog of 1,3 cyclic glycerophosphate (1,3 cGP), can promote morphological, neuronal-like differentiation in pheochromocytoma-12 cells in vitro.
  • In view of this observation, we tested the potential of 1,3 cPP to elevate the state of cellular differentiation of the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (ER(+)) and HCC1954 (ER(-)), as characterized by the expression of steroid receptors, casein kinase, lipid droplet histology and signal-transduction gene profiles.
  • In the range of 5-100 microM 1,3 cPP the in vitro expression of ER-alpha, PR and casein kinase increased by approximately 2-fold while the mRNA transcription increased by 2-6-fold.
  • Moreover, following 9-12 days of incubation with 1,3 cPP, HCC1954 cells exhibited a significant increase in the production of lipid droplets as observed by Oil Red O staining.
  • After 4 biweekly i.p. injections of 0.5 mg 1,3 cPP per mouse, tumors in the 1,3 cPP treated virtually did not grow at all while the tumors in the control group grew rapidly.
  • Based on these findings, we propose that this novel differentiating compound has the potential to transform the malignant tumor phenotype into a near-normal phenotype, as well as to sensitize the tumor cells to anti-estrogen therapy via upgrading the status of steroid hormone receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Propylene Glycols / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Azo Compounds / pharmacology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Blotting, Western. Casein Kinases. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Division. Coloring Agents / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Estrogen Receptor alpha. Exons. Female. Humans. Lipid Metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Phenotype. Protein Kinases / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction. Time Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 12706860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 1,3-cyclic propanediol phosphate; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Azo Compounds; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Propylene Glycols; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 1320-06-5 / oil red O; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Casein Kinases
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71. Li SX, Wang ZR, Li J, Peng ZG, Zhou W, Zhou M, Lu L: Inhibition of Period1 gene attenuates the morphine-induced ERK-CREB activation in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum in mice. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse; 2008;34(6):673-82
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  • OBJECTIVE: Recent studies demonstrated that the Period1 gene (Per1) is involved in behavioral alterations induced by addictive drugs.
  • We explored the effects of inhibiting expression in brain of Per1 on morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) and morphine-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in mice.
  • METHODS: During the first three sessions of conditioning, the male mice were intracerebroventricularlly (i.c.v.) injected with vehicle or deoxyribozyme 164 (DRz164) which cleaves per1 mRNA before subcutaneous (s.c.) injection morphine.
  • The control group was given i.c.v. injection vehicle and s.c. injection saline instead of morphine.
  • After testing CPP, mice were sacrificed and phosphorylated ERK and CREB in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were examined by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Mice pretreated with DRz164 did not acquire morphine CPP.
  • We suggested that per1 gene may be a potential treatment target for drug addition.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins / drug effects. Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / drug effects. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / drug effects. Morphine / pharmacology. Nuclear Proteins / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Conditioning, Operant / drug effects. Corpus Striatum / metabolism. DNA, Catalytic / pharmacology. Drug Delivery Systems. Frontal Lobe / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Hippocampus / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Morphine Dependence / drug therapy. Morphine Dependence / physiopathology. Period Circadian Proteins. Phosphorylation / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reward

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  • (PMID = 18850497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-9891
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / DNA, Catalytic; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Per1 protein, mouse; 0 / Period Circadian Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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72. Celik T, Kayir H, Ceyhan M, Demirtaş S, Coşar A, Uzbay IT: CPP and amlodipine alter the decrease in basal acetylcholine and choline release by audiogenic stimulus in hippocampus of ethanol-withdrawn rats in vivo. Brain Res Bull; 2004 Sep 30;64(3):243-9
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  • [Title] CPP and amlodipine alter the decrease in basal acetylcholine and choline release by audiogenic stimulus in hippocampus of ethanol-withdrawn rats in vivo.
  • Effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and Ca2+ channel antagonists on extracellular acetylcholine and choline release in the hippocampus of ethanol-withdrawn rats were investigated by in vivo microdialysis.
  • Either an NMDA receptor antagonist (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) or a calcium channel antagonist amlodipine was administered, and 15 min later, an audiogenic stimulus (100 dB, 1 min) was applied to rats.
  • CPP (15 mg/kg) and amlodipine (20 mg/kg) reversed the decrement in acetylcholine and increment in choline release in EW rats.
  • Their effects on acetylcholine and choline release were not different from saline in control rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylcholine / metabolism. Amlodipine / pharmacology. Ethanol / adverse effects. Hippocampus / drug effects. Piperazines / pharmacology. Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acoustic Stimulation / adverse effects. Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / drug therapy. Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / metabolism. Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / physiopathology. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology. Choline / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Down-Regulation / physiology. Drug Interactions / physiology. Epilepsy, Reflex / chemically induced. Epilepsy, Reflex / drug therapy. Epilepsy, Reflex / physiopathology. Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists / pharmacology. Glutamic Acid / metabolism. Male. Microdialysis. Neural Pathways / drug effects. Neural Pathways / metabolism. Neural Pathways / physiopathology. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Seizures / chemically induced. Seizures / drug therapy. Seizures / physiopathology. Synaptic Transmission / drug effects. Synaptic Transmission / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15464861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-9230
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists; 0 / Piperazines; 100828-16-8 / 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid; 1J444QC288 / Amlodipine; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; N91BDP6H0X / Choline; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine
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73. Powers MS, Barrenha GD, Mlinac NS, Barker EL, Chester JA: Effects of the novel endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, LY2183240, on fear-potentiated startle and alcohol-seeking behaviors in mice selectively bred for high alcohol preference. Psychopharmacology (Berl); 2010 Dec;212(4):571-83
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  • Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of individuals with anxiety and/or alcohol-use disorders.
  • OBJECTIVES: The present study assessed the effects of a novel endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, LY2183240, on anxiety- and alcohol-seeking behaviors in a unique animal model that may represent increased genetic risk to develop co-morbid anxiety and alcohol-use disorders in humans.
  • We examined the effects of LY2183240 on the expression of FPS in HAP and LAP mice and on alcohol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and limited-access alcohol drinking behavior in HAP mice.
  • RESULTS: Repeated administration of LY2183240 (30 mg/kg) reduced the expression of FPS in HAP but not LAP mice when given prior to a second FPS test 48 h after fear conditioning.
  • Both the 10 and 30 mg/kg doses of LY2183240 enhanced the expression of alcohol-induced CPP and this effect persisted in the absence of the drug.
  • LY2183240 did not alter limited-access alcohol drinking behavior, unconditioned startle responding, or locomotor activity.
  • LY2183240 may be an effective pharmacotherapy for individuals with anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, but may not be appropriate for individuals with co-morbid anxiety and alcohol-use disorders.

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  • (PMID = 20838777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2072
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA016843; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA016843-04; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA019529-02; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R21 AA019529; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA016843; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R21 AA019529-02; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA016843-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Anxiety Agents; 0 / Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators; 0 / Endocannabinoids; 0 / Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring; 0 / LY2183240; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 8W8T17847W / Urea
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS233448; NLM/ PMC2982902
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74. Narotam PK, Puri V, Roberts JM, Taylon C, Vora Y, Nathoo N: Management of hypertensive emergencies in acute brain disease: evaluation of the treatment effects of intravenous nicardipine on cerebral oxygenation. J Neurosurg; 2008 Dec;109(6):1065-74
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  • [Title] Management of hypertensive emergencies in acute brain disease: evaluation of the treatment effects of intravenous nicardipine on cerebral oxygenation.
  • OBJECT: Inappropriate sudden blood pressure (BP) reductions may adversely affect cerebral perfusion.
  • This study explores the effect of nicardipine on regional brain tissue O(2) (PbtO(2)) during treatment of acute hypertensive emergencies.
  • METHODS: A prospective case-control study was performed in 30 patients with neurological conditions and clinically elevated BP.
  • All patients had a parenchymal PbtO(2) and intracranial pressure bolt inserted following resuscitation.
  • Intravenous nicardipine (5-15 mg/hour) was titrated to systolic BP < 160 mm Hg, diastolic BP < 90 mm Hg, mean arterial BP (MABP) 90-110 mm Hg, and PbtO(2) > 20 mm Hg.
  • Physiological parameters-intracranial pressure, PbtO(2), central venous pressure, systolic BP, diastolic BP, MABP, fraction of inspired O(2), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)-were compared before infusion, at 4 hours, and at 8 hours using a t-test.
  • RESULTS: Sixty episodes of hypertension were reported in 30 patients (traumatic brain injury in 13 patients; aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in 11; intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage in 3 and 1, respectively; arteriovenous malformation in 1; and hypoxic brain injury in 1).
  • Nicardipine was effective in 87% of the patients (with intravenous beta blockers in 4 patients), with a 19.7% reduction in mean 4-hour MABP (115.3 +/- 13.1 mm Hg preinfusion vs 92.9 +/- 11.40 mm Hg after 4 hours of therapy, p < 0.001).
  • No deleterious effect on mean PbtO(2) was recorded (26.74 +/- 15.42 mm Hg preinfusion vs 27.68 +/- 12.51 mm Hg after 4 hours of therapy, p = 0.883) despite significant reduction in CPP.
  • Less dependence on normobaric hyperoxia was achieved at 8 hours (0.72 +/- 0.289 mm Hg preinfusion vs 0.626 +/- 0.286 mm Hg after 8 hours of therapy, p < 0.01).
  • Subgroup analysis revealed that 12 patients had low pretreatment PbtO(2) (10.30 +/- 6.49 mm Hg), with higher CPP (p < 0.001) requiring hyperoxia (p = 0.02).
  • In this group, intravenous nicardipine resulted in an 83% improvement in 4- and 8-hour PbtO(2) levels (18.1 +/- 11.33 and 19.59 +/- 23.68 mm Hg, respectively; p < 0.01) despite significant reductions in both mean MABP (120.6 +/- 16.65 vs 95.8 +/- 8.3 mm Hg, p < 0.001) and CPP (105.00 +/- 20.7 vs 81.2 +/- 15.4 mm Hg, p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous nicardipine is effective for the treatment of hypertensive neurological emergencies and has no adverse effect on PbtO(2).
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Injuries / physiopathology. Cerebral Hemorrhage / physiopathology. Hypertension / drug therapy. Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / physiopathology. Nicardipine / therapeutic use. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Blood Pressure / physiology. Brain / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hypoxia, Brain / physiopathology. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Oxygen / metabolism. Prospective Studies


75. Ostrowski RP, Colohan AR, Zhang JH: Mechanisms of hyperbaric oxygen-induced neuroprotection in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab; 2005 May;25(5):554-71
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  • Acute cerebral ischemia occurs after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) because of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and decreased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP).
  • Eighty-five male SD rats (300 to 350 g) were randomly assigned to sham, SAH, and SAH+HBO groups.
  • Cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF), ICP, brain water content, brain swelling, neurologic function, and mortality were assessed.
  • HBO (100% O2, 2.8 ATA for 2 h) was initiated at 1 h after SAH.
  • Rats were sacrificed at 24 h to harvest tissues for Western blot or for histology.
  • HBO reduced early brain injury after SAH, probably by inhibition of HIF-1alpha and its target genes, which led to the decrease of apoptosis and preservation of the blood-brain barrier function.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperbaric Oxygenation. Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / physiology. Blood-Brain Barrier / physiology. Blotting, Western. Brain / blood supply. Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Intracranial Hypertension / therapy. Male. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Transcription Factors / drug effects. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15703702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-678X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BNIP3 protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / vascular endothelial growth factor A, rat
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76. Ramond A, Sartorius E, Mousseau M, Ribuot C, Joyeux-Faure M: Erythropoietin pretreatment protects against acute chemotherapy toxicity in isolated rat hearts. Exp Biol Med (Maywood); 2008 Jan;233(1):76-83
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  • [Title] Erythropoietin pretreatment protects against acute chemotherapy toxicity in isolated rat hearts.
  • The use of chemotherapeutic agents, such as anthracycline or trastuzumab, in oncology is limited by their cardiac toxicity.
  • Recent experimental studies suggest that recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) can be considered as a protective agent because its administration protects against cardiac ischemic injury, improving functional recovery, and reducing cell death.
  • One hour later, hearts were isolated and retrogradely perfused at constant flow.
  • Following 20 mins of stabilization, hearts were perfused for 60 mins with modified-Krebs solution containing 6 mg/l doxorubicin or 10 mg/l trastuzumab.
  • Doxorubicin exposure decreased left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP; approximately -40% of baseline) and increased end diastolic pressure (EDP; approximately +390% of baseline) and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP; approximately +70% of baseline).
  • Incidence of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF) was also significantly enhanced (86% vs. 0% in control group).
  • Trastuzumab exposure increased CPP and EDP (approximately +70% of baseline for the both) without affecting LVDP.
  • Prior rhEPO treatment significantly prevented doxorubicin-induced deleterious effects on LVDP, EDP, and VT/VF incidence. rhEPO administration also prevented trastuzumab-induced deleterious effects on CPP and EDP.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / toxicity. Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Doxorubicin / toxicity. Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Heart / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Blood Pressure / drug effects. In Vitro Techniques. Protective Agents / therapeutic use. Rats. Recombinant Proteins. Trastuzumab. Ventricular Fibrillation / chemically induced. Ventricular Fibrillation / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 18156309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3702
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protective Agents; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
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77. Russo SJ, Festa ED, Fabian SJ, Gazi FM, Kraish M, Jenab S, Quiñones-Jenab V: Gonadal hormones differentially modulate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in male and female rats. Neuroscience; 2003;120(2):523-33
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  • [Title] Gonadal hormones differentially modulate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in male and female rats.
  • There is accumulating evidence that suggests there are sex differences in behavioral and subjective responses to cocaine.
  • However, it is not known whether differences in cocaine reward contribute to sex differences in these responses or whether gonadal hormones affect the rewarding properties of cocaine.
  • In the present study, conditioned place preference (CPP), a measure of non-contingent reward, was used to determine the effects of endogenous gonadal hormones and of estrogen and progesterone replacement on cocaine reward.
  • Although both intact and gonadectomized male and female rats showed a significant CPP for cocaine, ovariectomy attenuated the magnitude of CPP.
  • These alterations coincided with a decrease in serum levels of corticosterone.
  • In ovariectomized rats, pretreatment with progesterone inhibited cocaine CPP while estrogen plus progesterone potentiated the magnitude of CPP.
  • Additionally, gonadectomy and ovarian hormone replacement in female rats affected serotonin/dopamine levels and turnover ratios in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens shell.
  • While no effects of castration were observed, ovariectomy decreased levels of dopamine and serotonin in the ventral tegmental area.
  • In females, progesterone replacement increased levels of serotonin and dopamine in the ventral tegmental area, while estrogen plus progesterone replacement increased dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens.
  • Collectively, these results indicate that ovarian hormones may influence cocaine reward by altering monoaminergic systems, which, in turn, may contribute to the current sex disparities in overall cocaine use.
  • [MeSH-major] Cocaine / pharmacology. Conditioning (Psychology) / drug effects. Estrogens / pharmacology. Progesterone / pharmacology. Sex Characteristics
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Anesthetics, Local / pharmacology. Animals. Behavior, Animal. Biogenic Monoamines / metabolism. Cesarean Section / methods. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / instrumentation. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods. Corticosterone / blood. Drug Interactions. Exploratory Behavior / drug effects. Exploratory Behavior / physiology. Female. Hormone Replacement Therapy / methods. Male. Motor Activity / drug effects. Motor Activity / physiology. Nucleus Accumbens / drug effects. Nucleus Accumbens / metabolism. Radioimmunoassay / methods. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Reaction Time. Reward. Time Factors. Ventral Tegmental Area / drug effects. Ventral Tegmental Area / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12890521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-4522
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA12136; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM60654; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS-41073; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR-03037
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 0 / Biogenic Monoamines; 0 / Estrogens; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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78. Vottero A, Pedori S, Verna M, Pagano B, Cappa M, Loche S, Bernasconi S, Ghizzoni L: Final height in girls with central idiopathic precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog and oxandrolone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;91(4):1284-7
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  • CONTEXT: GnRH analogs (GnRHa) are considered the treatment of choice for central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • However, in some patients, the growth deceleration is so marked that the expected improvement in predicted adult height is not achieved.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess whether the addition of oxandrolone (Ox) may affect the height outcome of patients with CPP and growth deceleration during GnRHa treatment.
  • PATIENTS: Twenty patients with CPP and marked growth deceleration during GnRHa treatment were studied.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Treatment consisted of GnRHa (Leuprorelina, 3.75 mg im every 28 d) alone (10 patients) or in combination with Ox (0.06 mg/kg.d by mouth) (10 patients).
  • Patients treated with GnRHa alone reached an adult height similar to the pretreatment predicted adult height (151.9 +/- 1.2 vs. 155.4 +/- 2.1 cm) but significantly lower than target height (151.9 +/- 1.2 vs. 156.6 +/- 1.4 cm; P < 0.005).
  • No side effects were recorded in either group of patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combined GnRHa and Ox therapy is a viable treatment option for children with CPP and marked growth deceleration during treatment with GnRHa alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Anabolic Agents / therapeutic use. Body Height / drug effects. Oxandrolone / therapeutic use. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Development / physiology. Child. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Growth / drug effects. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Luteinizing Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 16449342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anabolic Agents; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 7H6TM3CT4L / Oxandrolone; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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79. Wira C, Martin G, Stoner J, Margolis K, Donnino M: Application of normothermic cardiac arrest algorithms to hypothermic cardiac arrest in a canine model. Resuscitation; 2006 Jun;69(3):509-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Application of normothermic cardiac arrest algorithms to hypothermic cardiac arrest in a canine model.
  • BACKGROUND: International guidelines (2000) do not recommend vasopressor and antiarrhythmic medications during ventricular fibrillation (VF) with a core temperature below 30 degrees C.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of EPI followed by the combination of EPI/AMIO in the treatment of VF in a canine model of severe hypothermia.
  • Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), temperature, and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored.
  • Animals were cooled to 22 degrees C or the onset of spontaneous VF.
  • Animals in the treatment group received EPI (0.01 mg/kg IV) and defibrillation.
  • This was followed by EPI (0.01 mg/kg IV), AMIO (10 mg/kg IV) and defibrillation if there was no sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) for 15 min.
  • RESULTS: Mean CPP in the treatment group increased after the administration of EPI/AMIO (24.7+/-13.3 mmHg to 46.6+/-7.7 mmHg, p<0.004).
  • Cumulatively, the administration of EPI followed by EPI/AMIO achieved ROSC after defibrillation in 10 of 11 animals compared to 3 of 10 in the control group (91% versus 30%, n=21, p=0.0075).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this model of severe hypothermia, the use of standard 2000 protocols for VF resulted in a significant increase of CPP, and, a higher ROSC rate compared to placebo controls.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Heart Arrest / therapy. Hypothermia, Induced / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / administration & dosage. Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / therapeutic use. Amiodarone / administration & dosage. Amiodarone / therapeutic use. Animals. Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / therapeutic use. Disease Models, Animal. Dogs. Drug Therapy, Combination. Epinephrine / administration & dosage. Epinephrine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16597482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9572
  • [Journal-full-title] Resuscitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Resuscitation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Anti-Arrhythmia Agents; N3RQ532IUT / Amiodarone; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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80. Nomura Y, Yasumoto S, Yanai F, Akiyoshi H, Inoue T, Nibu K, Tsugu H, Fukushima T, Hirose S: Survival and late effects on development of patients with infantile brain tumor. Pediatr Int; 2009 Jun;51(3):337-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival and late effects on development of patients with infantile brain tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Most infants with brain tumor may have a poor prognosis.
  • The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the survival and outcome with regard to mental and physical development in 11 subjects with brain tumor; these tumors were diagnosed when the patients were under 1 year of age.
  • METHODS: The histological diagnoses of these tumors were astrocytoma, n = 3; pineocytoma, n = 2; teratoma, n = 1; ependymoma, n = 1; atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, n = 1; glioblastoma, n = 1; medulloblastoma, n = 1; and choroid plexus papilloma, n = 1.
  • Surgical resection was performed in eight patients, and adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to all except one patient with choroid plexus papilloma.
  • Radiotherapy was additionally performed for four of the 10 chemotherapy patients.
  • Among the surviving patients, five were under no treatment for 50-167 months after the diagnosis (median duration, 89 months), while one received chemotherapy for 20 months.
  • Five patients exhibited mental retardation, and one patient experienced normal development after surgical removal of his choroid plexus papilloma.
  • Diencephalic syndrome developed in one patient with pilomyxoid astrocytoma that necessitated hormone replacement therapy, and bodyweight over +2 SD was observed in two patients.
  • The remaining five patients died 11-111 months after diagnosis (median duration, 24 months).
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of infantile brain tumor with regard to mortality and developmental outcome remains poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Child Development. Pinealoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant


81. Houchi H, Warnault V, Barbier E, Dubois C, Pierrefiche O, Ledent C, Daoust M, Naassila M: Involvement of A2A receptors in anxiolytic, locomotor and motivational properties of ethanol in mice. Genes Brain Behav; 2008 Nov;7(8):887-98
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  • We aimed to investigate if the increased propensity of A2A(-/-) mice to consume ethanol is associated with an altered sensitivity in the motivational properties of ethanol in the conditioned place preference (CPP) and conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigms and with an altered development of sensitization to the locomotor effects of ethanol.
  • We also tested their sensitivity to the anxiolytic effects of ethanol.
  • Our results show that A2A(-/-) mice produced on a CD1 background displayed a reduced ethanol-induced CPP and an increased sensitivity to the anxiolytic and locomotorstimulant effects of ethanol, but they did not show alteration in ethanol-induced CTA and locomotor sensitization.
  • Ethanol-induced CPP, ethanol consumption and the locomotor effects of ethanol were also tested in A2A(-/-) mice produced on a C57BL/6J background.
  • Our results emphasized the importance of the genetic background because alteration in ethanol consumption and preference, ethanol-induced CPP and locomotor-stimulant effects were not found in knockout mice produced on the alcohol-preferring C57BL/6J genetic background.
  • In conclusion, A2AR deficiency in mice generated on a CD1 background leads to high ethanol consumption that is associated with an increased sensitivity to the locomotor-stimulant/anxiolytic effects of ethanol and a decrease in ethanol-induced CPP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosine / metabolism. Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / genetics. Brain / drug effects. Ethanol / pharmacology. Receptor, Adenosine A2A / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-Anxiety Agents / pharmacology. Anxiety / drug therapy. Anxiety / genetics. Anxiety / metabolism. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Behavior, Animal / physiology. Central Nervous System Depressants / pharmacology. Conditioning (Psychology) / drug effects. Conditioning (Psychology) / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Resistance / drug effects. Drug Resistance / genetics. Genotype. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C5