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1. Douglas A, Morris J: It was not just a heatwave! Neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome in a patient with Parkinson's disease. Age Ageing; 2006 Nov;35(6):640-1
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  • [Title] It was not just a heatwave! Neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome in a patient with Parkinson's disease.
  • Neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome (NMLS) is a rare but life threatening and important complication because of the withdrawal of long-term l-Dopa therapy in Parkinson's disease patients.
  • In this case report, we review the pathophysiology, clinical features and treatment of this curable condition.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antiparkinson Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Levodopa / therapeutic use. Parkinson Disease / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16943262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-0729
  • [Journal-full-title] Age and ageing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Age Ageing
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiparkinson Agents; 46627O600J / Levodopa
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2. Ramani P, Ahmed S, Janaki VR: Primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the oral cavity. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2004 May-Jun;70(3):172-4
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  • [Title] Primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the oral cavity.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) belongs to a group of lymphoid neoplasms that is diverse in manner of presentation, response to therapy and prognosis.
  • A 55 year old woman presented with a swelling in the maxillary right alveolus and buccal vestibule.
  • There were no palpable lymph nodes.
  • Incisional biopsy of the lesion showed a dense lymphocytic infiltrate with formation of variably sized lymphoid follicles.
  • The infiltrate showed a mixed neoplastic lymphocyte composition which was suggestive of follicular mixed type of malignant B cell primary extranodal lymphoma.
  • The patient was treated with chemotherapy followed by radiation.

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  • (PMID = 17642600.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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3. Zuk E, Nowacki P, Fabian A: Guillain-Barre syndrome in patient with Burkitt's lymphoma and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Folia Neuropathol; 2001;39(4):281-4
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  • [Title] Guillain-Barre syndrome in patient with Burkitt's lymphoma and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • Although peripheral neuropathies are commonly observed in patients with non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphomas (NHML), Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) belongs to the occasional complications of lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • It appears in less than 0.3 per cent of NHML.
  • It is worthy of note that in the reported case there occurred three independent risk factors of peripheral neuropathy: Burkitt's lymphoma, chemotherapy and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • Based on clinical course, EMG finding and neuropathological examination, in spite of normal cerebrospinal fluid protein content, GBS as a paraneoplastic disorder was diagnosed.
  • It was assumed that chemotherapy and diabetes mellitus conduced to severe neuropathy.


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4. Petrescu A, Dobrea C, Vasilică M, Andrei F, Niculescu L: Primary malignant lymphoma of the testis. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(2):83-6
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  • [Title] Primary malignant lymphoma of the testis.
  • Primary testicular lymphomas are rare entities representing 1-2% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHML) and 1-7% of malignant testicular tumors and they are the most common testicular tumors in men older than 50 years of age.
  • The age of patients was between 46 and 81 (with a mean of 52).
  • Orchectomy was performed as first therapeutic and diagnostic purpose.
  • All patients were clinically staged according to the Ann Arbor criteria in IE and IIID stage and received a doxorubicin based chemotherapy regimen (CHOP, MTX, CVP, and Leukeran).
  • A standard chemotherapy protocol has not been used because of reduced number of patients.
  • Alphafetoprotein was positive in seminal tubes and negative in tumor, NK1 in small lymphocyte and negative in tumor and L26 diffuse positive in tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis was of NHML in 6 cases and for 2 secondary involvement of hematopoietic malignancy (myeloid sarcoma and leukemia).
  • Lymphoma cases were typed using REAL classification as small and large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Unfavorable evolution with 6 months relapse and one death prove a more aggressive evolution of primitive testicular lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology


5. Gregor JI, Kilian M, Heukamp I, Kiewert C, Kristiansen G, Schimke I, Walz MK, Jacobi CA, Wenger FA: Effects of selective COX-2 and 5-LOX inhibition on prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in ductal pancreatic cancer in Syrian hamster. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids; 2005 Aug;73(2):89-97
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  • [Title] Effects of selective COX-2 and 5-LOX inhibition on prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in ductal pancreatic cancer in Syrian hamster.
  • Furthermore, size and number of liver metastases per animal were determined and concentration of PGF1alpha, PGE2 and leukotrienes was measured in hepatic and pancreatic tissue.
  • Combined therapy (Celebrex+Zyflo) significantly decreased incidence, number and size of liver metastases.
  • Furthermore extra- and intrametastatic concentration of PGE2 was reduced by this treatment in hepatic tissue.
  • Single Cox-2-inhibition (Celebrex) decreased intrametastatic hepatic PGF1alpha and PGE2 concentration while PGF1alpha concentration was reduced in non-metastatic liver (nml).
  • Moreover 5-LOX-inhibition (Zyflo) decreased intrametastatic PGE2 concentration as well as PGF1alpha and PGE2 in nml.
  • In pancreatic carcinomas highest LT-concentration was found after combined treatment and this therapy group was the only one revealing a significantly higher amount of LTs in carcinomas compared to tumour-free tissue.
  • Hepatic LT-concentration was significantly lower in the control groups than in nml of the tumour groups.
  • Combination of Cox-2-inhibition and 5-Lox-inhibition might be a suitable adjuvant therapy to prevent liver metastasis in human ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / drug therapy. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Hydroxyurea / analogs & derivatives. Lipoxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / prevention & control. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pyrazoles / therapeutic use. Sulfonamides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Celecoxib. Cricetinae. Dinoprostone / analysis. Drug Therapy, Combination. Leukotrienes / analysis. Leukotrienes / biosynthesis. Liver / chemistry. Pancreas / chemistry. Prostaglandins / analysis. Prostaglandins / biosynthesis. Prostaglandins F / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15964750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0952-3278
  • [Journal-full-title] Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Leukotrienes; 0 / Lipoxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Prostaglandins; 0 / Prostaglandins F; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Sulfonamides; 132880-11-6 / zileuton; 745-62-0 / prostaglandin F1; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone; X6Q56QN5QC / Hydroxyurea
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6. Guilarte M, Luengo O, Nogueiras C, Labrador-Horrillo M, Muñoz E, López A, Cardona V: Acquired angioedema associated with hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol; 2008;18(2):126-30
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  • Angioedema caused by C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare disorder that may be either hereditary or acquired, the latter being mainly associated with lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • Due to a worsening of her symptoms she was reassessed and low levels of C1q and an abnormal lymphocyte count were detected.
  • Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood revealed 9% monoclonal lambda B cells with a follicular center phenotype.
  • The histopathology was consistent with a grade II follicular lymphoma stage IV-A.With chemotherapy, the hematologic disease was controlled and C1q levels returned to normal values.
  • This represents a rare case of a patient with hereditary angioedema who developed acquired angioedema due to a lymphoma that was associated with a reduction in the levels of C1q as her symptoms worsened.
  • [MeSH-major] Angioedema / etiology. Angioedemas, Hereditary / complications. Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins / deficiency. Lymphoma, Follicular / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Complement Activation. Complement C1 / genetics. Complement C1 / metabolism. Female. Humans. Lymphocyte Count. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Stanozolol / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18447143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-9068
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Complement C1; 0 / Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins; 0 / SERPING1 protein, human; 4R1VB9P8V3 / Stanozolol
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7. Reimer J, Kuhlmann A, Müller T: Neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome after rapid switch from bromocriptine to pergolide. Parkinsonism Relat Disord; 2002 Dec;9(2):115-6
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  • [Title] Neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome after rapid switch from bromocriptine to pergolide.
  • Neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome (NMLS) occurred after rapid switch from bromocriptine to pergolide in a Parkinsonian patient.
  • Long-term treatment with bromocriptine may thus have induced plastic changes in intracellular signal processing in the nigrostriatal system, which resulted in reduced dopaminergic efficacy of pergolide.
  • We recommend vigilant outpatient supervision during performance of rapid switchover from one dopamine agonist to another in advanced Parkinson's disease or in subjects with predisposing factors for onset of a neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Bromocriptine / adverse effects. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome / diagnosis. Pergolide / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Dopamine Agonists / adverse effects. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parkinson Disease / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12473402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1353-8020
  • [Journal-full-title] Parkinsonism & related disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 24MJ822NZ9 / Pergolide; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine
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8. Saigo K, Okumachi Y, Kondo S, Chinzei T, Okamura A, Takenokuchi M, Kawano S, Kumagai S: Rituximab combined with a small dose of melphalan for a refractory follicular lymphoma patient. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Feb;47(2):353-6
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  • [Title] Rituximab combined with a small dose of melphalan for a refractory follicular lymphoma patient.
  • A 48-year-old male patient with follicular lymphoma, grade II, stage IV, was treated with CHOP, ESHAP and MACOP-B, resulting in partial remission.
  • After 9 months, the disease progressed and several chemotherapy agents, including three courses of rituximab combined with etoposide, sobuzoxane or methotrexate, only resulted in a stable disease response.
  • However, the fourth course of rituximab combined with a small dose of melphalan produced excellent results and the complete response continued for more than 15 months.
  • It is possible that these two drugs may act synergistically.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Melphalan / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Drug Synergism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Rituximab. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16321871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
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9. Asahi A, Okamoto S, Matsushita H, Hattori Y, Takayama N, Ikeda Y: [Follicular lymphoma in two brothers]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2001 May;42(5):408-13
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  • [Title] [Follicular lymphoma in two brothers].
  • Two brothers, whose parents had a history of exposure to atomic bomb radiation, developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • The younger brother, a 48-year-old man, was diagnosed as having follicular small-cleaved cell lymphoma in October, 1996.
  • He had extranodal lymphoma involvement of the right kidney, bone marrow and skin, in addition to generalized lymphadenopathy.
  • He was treated with intermittent COP chemotherapy, and good control of the lymphoma was obtained.
  • The elder brother, aged 50 years, was diagnosed as having follicular mixed cell lymphoma in May, 1998.
  • He also had extranodal lymphoma involvement of the right parotid gland and bone marrow, as well as generalized lymphadenopathy.
  • After one course of CHOP chemotherapy, he developed paresis of the lower legs and was found to have a mass at the Th5-6 vertebrae by CT scan.
  • After four courses of CHOP chemotherapy followed by ESHAP chemotherapy and radiotherapy, he achieved complete remission, and has since been well.
  • Follicular lymphoma occurring among siblings is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Follicular / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Family Health. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nuclear Warfare. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11452461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; COP protocol 2; VAP-cyclo protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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10. Tomita N, Kodama F, Oshima R, Hashimoto C, Koharazawa H, Takemura S, Yamazaki E, Fujimaki K, Sakai R, Fujita H, Fujisawa S, Kanamori H, Motomura S, Ishigatsubo Y: Phase II study of CHOP-GR therapy for advanced-stage follicular lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Jun;47(6):1041-7
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  • [Title] Phase II study of CHOP-GR therapy for advanced-stage follicular lymphoma.
  • Recently, the cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) regimen plus rituximab (R-CHOP) have been used widely to treat patients with follicular lymphoma.
  • We investigated a fixed scheme of combination chemotherapy protocol including CHOP, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and rituximab (CHOP-GR) for patients with advanced-stage grade 1 or grade 2 follicular lymphoma in a phase II clinical trial, assessing enhancement of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of rituximab by G-CSF.
  • Twenty-one untreated patients received two courses of CHOP chemotherapy followed by four courses of CHOP-GR, including G-CSF (s.c.) on days 11 - 14 and rituximab on day 15.
  • Two patients, one with no response and subsequent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and one with progressive disease, died of lymphoma.
  • One patient refused to continue therapy, whereas two were rediagnosed and no longer met histologic criteria; these three patients were classified as nonresponders.
  • After a median observation time of 23 months, the 19 histologically assessable patients showed a 2-year progression-free survival rate of 82%, whereas 2-year overall survival was 95%.
  • Of seven patients with initial bulky mass, five responded to therapy.
  • Of 11 patients examined for bcl-2 translocation in peripheral blood or marrow by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), four were positive, whereas three of the four had complete remissions and converted to PCR negativity after therapy.
  • According to short-term observation, CHOP-GR is a safe and effective therapy for patients with advanced-stage follicular lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, Follicular / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Synergism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Rituximab. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16840195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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11. Spectre G, Gural A, Amir G, Lossos A, Siegal T, Paltiel O: Central nervous system involvement in indolent lymphomas. Ann Oncol; 2005 Mar;16(3):450-4
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  • [Title] Central nervous system involvement in indolent lymphomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, a well-recognized complication of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), has rarely been reported in indolent lymphomas.
  • Large series have reported this complication in 3% of indolent NHLs, generally following histological transformation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the disease characteristics and clinical course in seven patients (six females, one male) with indolent B-cell lymphomas who developed CNS involvement during various stages of their illness.
  • RESULTS: The median ages at diagnosis of systemic and CNS lymphoma were 60 and 63 years, respectively.
  • Histologies were: small lymphocytic lymphoma (two), follicular lymphoma grade I (two), follicular lymphoma grade II (two) and unclear low-grade histology (one).
  • Systemic lymphoma was found in all patients, all but one having bone marrow involvement.
  • Four patients had a transformation to high-grade histology.
  • Six patients were treated with systemic and intra-cerebrospinal fluid chemotherapy, and two received radiotherapy as well.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CNS involvement is a rare and unexpected complication of indolent NHL, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with new neurological signs.
  • This condition is treatable and some patients have a long clinical course.

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  • (PMID = 15642707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Bonnici A, Ruiner CE, St-Laurent L, Hornstein D: An interaction between levodopa and enteral nutrition resulting in neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome and prolonged ICU stay. Ann Pharmacother; 2010 Sep;44(9):1504-7
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  • [Title] An interaction between levodopa and enteral nutrition resulting in neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome and prolonged ICU stay.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a probable interaction between enteral feeds and levodopa leading to neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome (NMLS) in a polytrauma patient with Parkinson's disease (PD).
  • CASE SUMMARY: A 63-year-old morbidly obese male polytrauma patient with PD and type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted to our intensive care unit postoperatively.
  • His PD medications (pramipexole, entacapone, and immediate-release levodopa/carbidopa 100 mg/25 mg, 1.5 tablets 4 times daily) were administered via nasogastric tube.
  • He developed a high fever (40.5 degrees C), leukocytosis, elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) (480-1801 units/L), and acute renal impairment.
  • His enteral nutrition was changed to decrease protein intake to 1.0 g/kg/day based on IBW and he was given bromocriptine 5 mg 3 times daily via nasogastric tube.
  • DISCUSSION: Withdrawal or dose reduction of levodopa in patients with PD has been reported to precipitate NMLS, which is potentially fatal.
  • In this patient, the likelihood that a drug-nutrient interaction occurred between levodopa and enteral feedings is considered to be probable based on the Naranjo probability scale and the Horn Drug Interaction Probability Scale.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Health-care professionals should be aware of the interaction between levodopa and protein content of enteral nutrition to avoid the occurrence of NMLS in patients with PD.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiparkinson Agents / adverse effects. Enteral Nutrition / adverse effects. Food-Drug Interactions. Levodopa / adverse effects. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carbidopa / administration & dosage. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Intensive Care Units. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Parkinson Disease / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20628041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-6270
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiparkinson Agents; 46627O600J / Levodopa; MNX7R8C5VO / Carbidopa
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13. Derringer GA, Thompson LD, Frommelt RA, Bijwaard KE, Heffess CS, Abbondanzo SL: Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study of 108 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 May;24(5):623-39
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  • [Title] Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study of 108 cases.
  • We report a retrospective clinicopathologic study of 108 primary thyroid gland lymphomas (PTLs), classified using the REAL and proposed WHO classification schemes.
  • All patients presented with a thyroid mass.
  • The PTLs were classified as marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) or MZBL (n = 30), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with MZBL (n = 36), DLBCL without MZBL (n = 41), and follicle center lymphoma (FCL; n = 1).
  • Excluding the FCL, features of lymphomas of MALT-type were identified in all groups, despite a follicular architecture in 23% of cases.
  • Lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) was identified in 94%.
  • Ninety-one percent of patients presented with stage IE or IIE disease, whereas 69% had perithyroidal soft tissue infiltration.
  • All patients were treated with surgical excision followed by adjuvant therapy (76%): chemotherapy (15%), radiation (19%), or a combination of radiation and chemotherapy (42%).
  • Statistically, stages greater than IE, presence of DLBCL, rapid clinical growth, abundant apoptosis, presence of vascular invasion, high mitotic rate, and infiltration of the perithyroidal soft tissue were significantly associated with death with disease.
  • In summary, PTLs typically occur in middle- to older-aged individuals as a thyroid mass, with a predilection for females.
  • Despite their histologic heterogeneity and frequent simulation of other lymphoma subtypes, virtually all PTLs are lymphomas of MALT-type arising in the setting of LT.
  • Mixed DLBCL and MZBL are common.
  • Overall, PTLs have a favorable outcome with appropriate therapy, but prognosis depends on both clinical stage and histology.
  • MZBL and stage IE tumors have an excellent prognosis, whereas tumors with a large cell component or DLBCL or stage greater than IE have the greatest potential for a poor outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10800981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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14. Zinzani PL: Lymphoma: diagnosis, staging, natural history, and treatment strategies. Semin Oncol; 2005 Feb;32(1 Suppl 1):S4-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymphoma: diagnosis, staging, natural history, and treatment strategies.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is not a single disease, but a group of closely related B- and T-cell cancers of the lymphatic system.
  • Precise staging of NHL is a prerequisite for the selection of a suitable therapeutic regimen and influences the likelihood of its success.
  • Staging of lymphoma is traditionally conducted using tumor biopsy, imaging (X-ray, computerized tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging, lymphangiogram, gallium scan using 67 Ga citrate single photon emission CT [ 67 Ga-SPECT], or positron emission tomography), blood tests, bone marrow examination, and examination of cerebrospinal fluid.
  • Low- and high-grade lymphomas differ markedly in prognosis and response to treatment.
  • The management of NHL has been characterized by the increasing recognition that distinct subgroups of NHL respond differently to various therapeutic approaches.
  • In follicular lymphoma (FL), a successful approach has been to combine fludarabine with mitoxantrone (FM), resulting in an overall response rate of 89% (67% complete remission).
  • In an ongoing phase III trial in patients with untreated, advanced, low-grade follicular lymphoma, FM was compared with CHOP (cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone) with or without rituximab.
  • Patients previously treated with FM achieved a significantly better complete remission rate (67% v 38%; P = .0013) and a better molecular remission (36% v 20%; P = .049) than patients previously treated with CHOP.
  • Following rituximab treatment, 88% of patients who had received FM achieved clinical and molecular remission compared with 70% who had received CHOP.
  • Strategies using various chemotherapy combinations, including innovative agents such as 90 Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan, show promise in the treatment of NHL, particularly indolent NHL, and hopefully will lead to an improvement in prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15786020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / ibritumomab tiuxetan; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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15. Heukamp I, Kilian M, Gregor JI, Neumann A, Jacobi CA, Guski H, Schimke I, Walz MK, Wenger FA: Effects of the antioxidative vitamins A, C and E on liver metastasis and intrametastatic lipid peroxidation in BOP-induced pancreatic cancer in Syrian hamsters. Pancreatology; 2005;5(4-5):403-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of the antioxidative vitamins A, C and E on liver metastasis and intrametastatic lipid peroxidation in BOP-induced pancreatic cancer in Syrian hamsters.
  • 2 and 6 were administered retinol, Gr.
  • No treatment was performed in Gr. 1 and 5.
  • Activities of glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and concentration of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were analyzed in hepatic tissue.
  • Activities of GSH-Px and SOD were increased and concentration of TBARS was decreased in NML and LiMe by all vitamins.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / drug therapy. Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Ascorbic Acid / therapeutic use. Cricetinae. Disease Models, Animal. Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism. Male. Mesocricetus. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Nitrosamines. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism. Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances / metabolism. Vitamin A / therapeutic use. Vitamin E / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP.
  • (PMID = 15985764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-3903
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Nitrosamines; 0 / Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances; 11103-57-4 / Vitamin A; 1406-18-4 / Vitamin E; 60599-38-4 / nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid
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