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Items 1 to 29 of about 29
1. Dham A, Truskinovsky AM, Dudek AZ: Thymic carcinoid responds to neoadjuvant therapy with sunitinib and octreotide: a case report. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Jan;3(1):94-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thymic carcinoid responds to neoadjuvant therapy with sunitinib and octreotide: a case report.
  • Carcinoids are malignant neuroendocrine tumors consisting of a spectrum of neoplasms from low-grade typical carcinoid to high-grade small cell carcinoma.
  • We report a case of atypical thymic carcinoid that responded to neoadjuvant therapy with octreotide and sunitinib, an oral multikinase inhibitor.
  • After 3 weeks of treatment, tumor size significantly decreased to allow for a safe surgical resection with clear margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Indoles / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Male. Necrosis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Radiography, Thoracic. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18166847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / sunitinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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2. Skov BG, Holm B, Erreboe A, Skov T, Mellemgaard A: ERCC1 and Ki67 in small cell lung carcinoma and other neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: distribution and impact on survival. J Thorac Oncol; 2010 Apr;5(4):453-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ERCC1 and Ki67 in small cell lung carcinoma and other neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: distribution and impact on survival.
  • The associations of ERCC1 and Ki67, clinical features and survival in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) were determined.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included a consecutive series of 186 patients with SCLC treated with platinum-based chemotherapy and surgically treated patients with TC (n = 48), AC (n = 15) and LCNEC (n = 27).
  • RESULTS: The expression of ERCC1 was different among the different tumor types (p < 0.001).
  • A difference of the percentage of Ki67 LI was observed for the different tumor types (p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: ERCC1 expression in SCLC treated with platinum-based chemotherapy has no impact on survival.
  • High expression of ERCC1 in TC might represent a clue to the failure of platinum-based therapy in these patients.
  • ERCC1 expression has prognostic impact in lung carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Endonucleases / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / metabolism. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / mortality. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / pathology. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Thorac Oncol. 2010 Nov;5(11):1876-7 [20975385.001]
  • (PMID = 20104194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; EC 3.1.- / ERCC1 protein, human; EC 3.1.- / Endonucleases
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3. Langfort R, Rudziński P, Burakowska B: [Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The spectrum of histologic subtypes and current concept on diagnosis and treatment]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol; 2010;78(1):33-46
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The spectrum of histologic subtypes and current concept on diagnosis and treatment].
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung represent a broad spectrum of morphologic types that share specific morphologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular characteristics.
  • The classification of neuroendocrine lung tumors has changed over the last decades and currently four categories are distinguished: typical carcinoid tumor, atypical carcinoid tumor, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell carcinoma.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung comprise approximately 20% of all primary lung cancers.
  • Because of differences in clinical behavior, therapy, and prognosis, a reliable histological diagnosis, as well as clinical and pathological staging system are essential for an appropriate medical proceedings.
  • The most effective treatment of bronchial carcinoids and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in an early stage is complete surgical resection, whereas chemotherapy remains the primary treatment for small cell carcinoma.
  • The majority of patients with pulmonary carcinoid have an excellent survival, even if they present with lymph node metastases.
  • Increased knowledge about pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors biology and the genetic characteristics, imply that carcinoid tumors appear to have a different etiology and pathogenesis than large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma.
  • In practice, it could be easiest to conceptualize this group of pulmonary tumors as a spectrum of malignancy ranging from the low grade typical carcinoid to the highly malignant large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma.
  • Typical carcinoid tumors associated with a fairly benign behavior should be classified as low-grade neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma (G1) and atypical carcinoid tumors as intermediate-grade tumor/carcinoma (G2).
  • Whereas, large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma should be grouped together under the designation of high-grade neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma (G3).
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Large Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20162517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0867-7077
  • [Journal-full-title] Pneumonologia i alergologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pneumonol Alergol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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4. Capelli M, Bertino G, Morbini P, Villa C, Zorzi S, Benazzo M: Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the upper airways: a small case series with histopathological considerations. Tumori; 2007 Sep-Oct;93(5):499-503
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  • Diagnosis requires the recognition of the typical neuroendocrine architecture and morphology and the immunohistochemical confirmation of neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • The patient with small cell carcinoma was free from disease 26 months after radical surgery, while the other patients showed liver, lung and bone metastases 18, 26 and 24 months after the diagnosis despite radical surgery or concomitant intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18038886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Abdel Rahman AR: Bronchoplasty for primary broncho-pulmonary tumors. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2010 Mar;22(1):73-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Between 2000 and 2009, 36 patients with primary lung tumors required bronchoplasty were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Preoperative assessment included computed tomography (CT) of the chest, bronchoscopy, and spirometry.
  • Pre operative diagnosis was acheived by bronchoscopy for all patients, mediastinoscopy was done for patients with primary lung cancer.
  • Neo adjuvant chemotherapy was given for 6 patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • Post operative pathology revealed: 27 patients with typical carcinoid, 2 with atypical carcinoid, 4 with squamous cell carcinoma, 2 with adenocarcinoma and one with hamartoma.
  • The patient with hamartoma developed local recurrence 5 years later and re-excision was done.
  • One patient with lung cancer developed bone metastases and was alive with disease, while the remaining 30 patients were alive and disease free.
  • CONCLUSION: Bronchoplastic resections achieve local control and long-term survival comparable to the standard resections in patients with carcinoid tumor and NSCLC in anatomically suited lesions.
  • KEY WORDS: Bronchoplasty - Primary - Lung - Tumors.

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  • (PMID = 21503009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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6. Morandi U, Casali C, Rossi G: Bronchial typical carcinoid tumors. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2006;18(3):191-8
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  • [Title] Bronchial typical carcinoid tumors.
  • The current WHO classification of lung tumors recognizes bronchial typical carcinoid as low-grade neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Paraneoplastic syndrome can be present (carcinoid syndrome, Cushing's syndrome, acromegaly).
  • Computed tomography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy are useful in the preoperative staging.
  • The complete surgical resection remains the only therapy with curative intent in the majority of patients.
  • N-status and type of resection seem not to affect prognosis.
  • Local relapse can be treated successfully with surgery, whereas distant metastases have a poor prognosis even after chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17185178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-0679
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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7. Chen F, Sato T, Fujinaga T, Sakai H, Miyahara R, Bando T, Date H: Surgical management of bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors: an institutional experience. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2010 Dec;11(6):737-9
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  • [Title] Surgical management of bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors: an institutional experience.
  • Bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors are well known as low-grade malignant tumors with fairly benign behaviors; however, distant metastasis after complete resection and multiple carcinoid tumors in the resected lungs have been sporadically reported.
  • Lesser resections are preferred including lung-sparing surgery, while the importance of major surgical resections is also emphasized.
  • For better understanding of bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors, we reviewed our institutional experience.
  • Eight patients with bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors underwent complete pulmonary resection.
  • In one patient who received a lobectomy for a peripheral nodule, multiple carcinoid tumors were found in the resected specimen.
  • No patients received any adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy after pulmonary resection.
  • Despite a small number of cases, our study supported the idea that bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors might require major surgical procedures and that complete pulmonary resection of typical carcinoid tumors could expect long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Pneumonectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Bronchoscopy. Female. Humans. Japan. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20852330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. das Neves Pereira JC, da Silva AG, Soares F, Ab'Saber AM, Schmidt A, Rodrigues OR, Garippo A, Capelozzi M, de Campos JR, Takagaki T, Jatene FB, Martins S, Capelozzi VL: Nuclear and environment morphometric profile in tumor size and nodal metastasis of resected typical pulmonary carcinoid. Pathol Res Pract; 2004;200(6):459-67
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  • [Title] Nuclear and environment morphometric profile in tumor size and nodal metastasis of resected typical pulmonary carcinoid.
  • As the biologic behavior in lung tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation is highly dependent on cell death (apoptosis) and extracellular matrix invasion, Bcl2 and extracellular matrix density have been targeted as potentially useful tumor markers.
  • In this study, we sought to validate the importance of Bcl2 and ECM density and to study the relationships of Bcl2 and ECM density with clinical factors and other tumor or stromal markers.
  • We examined Bcl2 and several other markers in tumor tissues from 55 patients with surgically excised pulmonary typical carcinoid.
  • We used histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and morphometry to evaluate the amount of tumor staining for Bcl2 and ECM; the surrogate markers for aggressive potential for our study were tumor size and lymph node metastasis determined at diagnosis.
  • Multivariate logistic model analysis demonstrated that after surgical excision control, tumor size was significantly related to nodal metastasis (P = 0.01), but quantitative staining of the tumor for Bcl2 and ECM added prognostic information and was as strongly prognostic as tumor size (P<0.01).
  • We concluded that tumor staining for Bcl2 and ECM in resected PTC is strongly related to tumor size and nodal metastasis.
  • Patients with > 3.1% and <9.8 microm2 staining in their tumors comprise a subset with a high hazard for nodal metastasis and may be an appropriate target for prospective studies of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Thoracic Surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Collagen / metabolism. Elastic Tissue / metabolism. Elastic Tissue / pathology. Extracellular Matrix / metabolism. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Microcirculation. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15310149.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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9. Kong L, Wang Z, Wang R, Zhao X, Li B, Zhou T: [Clinical analysis of 17 cases of lung carcinoid tumor]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi; 2002 May;25(5):265-7
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 17 cases of lung carcinoid tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the classification and treatment modalities of lung carcinoid tumor.
  • METHODS: 17 cases of lung carcinoid tumor from May 1983 to May 1998 were reviewed and analysed.
  • RESULTS: Lung carcinoid tumors were classified into two sub-groups: typical carcinoid tumor and non-typical carcinoid tumor.
  • The prognosis of typical carcinoid tumor was better than that of non-typical carcinoid tumor.
  • 3-year survival was 5/6 for typical carcinoid tumor, 4/11 for non-typical carcinoid tumor.
  • There was no statistic significance in the treatment outcome between patients receiving operation + chemotherapy + radiotherapy and patients receiving chemotherapy + radiotherapy in non-typical carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Operation should be considered as the first choice for typical carcinoid tumor that has a good prognosis.
  • Non-typical carcinoid tumor tends to be metastatic and has a poor prognosis.
  • Chemotherapy should be considered as the first choice and radiotherapy as palliative for non-typical carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lung / drug effects. Lung / radiation effects. Lung / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12133316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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10. Wirth LJ, Carter MR, Jänne PA, Johnson BE: Outcome of patients with pulmonary carcinoid tumors receiving chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Lung Cancer; 2004 May;44(2):213-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome of patients with pulmonary carcinoid tumors receiving chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.
  • STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the outcome of patients with pulmonary typical and atypical carcinoid tumors treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy.
  • The medical records of patients with diagnoses of typical or atypical pulmonary carcinoids were reviewed for the presence of evaluable disease, treatment with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy, response to these treatments, survival and cause of death.
  • RESULTS: Eighteen patients with typical (n = 8) or atypical (n = 10) pulmonary carcinoid tumors who were treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy were identified.
  • Of these, four received chemotherapy plus chest radiotherapy.
  • One of the patients with stable disease to chemoradiotherapy subsequently received chemotherapy alone, to which he had a complete response.
  • Fourteen additional patients were treated with 18 chemotherapy regimens.
  • There were two partial responses, eight stable disease, seven progressive disease and one allergic reaction precluding further treatment.
  • The overall response rate to any chemotherapy was 3/15 (20%, 95% CI 0.07-0.45), and the best overall response rate to chemotherapy with or without chest radiotherapy was 4/18 (22%, 95% CI 0.09-0.45).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumors can respond to chemotherapy with or without chest radiotherapy, though with response rates that appear less than those of small cell lung cancers.
  • Further characterization of pulmonary carcinoid tumors and study of treatment alternatives for unresectable disease is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15084386.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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11. Ruggieri M, Scocchera F, Genderini M, Mascaro A, Paolini A: Therapeutic approach of carcinoid tumours of the lung. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci; 2000 Jan-Apr;4(1-2):43-6
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  • [Title] Therapeutic approach of carcinoid tumours of the lung.
  • In the carcinoid tumours of the bronchopulmonary tract surgical resection is still the primary goal.
  • In the Department of Surgical Sciences and Applied Medical Technologies, "La Sapienza", Rome's University, from 1969 to 1994, we observed 18 patients with carcinoid tumours of the lung: 13 typical carcinoid (TC) and 5 atypical carcinoid (AC).
  • In our series, the choice of therapeutic procedure was made on the basis of histological criteria and TNM classification.
  • We performed 3 conservative and 10 extensive resections on typical carcinoid and 5 extensive resections on atypical carcinoid tumours.
  • In our series VATS played a minor therapeutic role.
  • Formal lymph node dissection was carried out on all our patients except in the cases of those with typical carcinoid tumours without enlarged hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in carcinoid tumours treatment is controversial and will be confirmed by further trials.
  • In bronchial carcinoid tumours the long-term prognosis is excellent.
  • In our series the ten-year survival rate is 77 per cent in typical carcinoid and 40 per cent in atypical carcinoid cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11409188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1128-3602
  • [Journal-full-title] European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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12. Dahabreh J, Stathopoulos GP, Koutantos J, Rigatos S: Lung carcinoid tumor biology: treatment and survival. Oncol Rep; 2009 Mar;21(3):757-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lung carcinoid tumor biology: treatment and survival.
  • A carcinoid tumor is a rare malignant disease which can be cured when localized and treated by surgery.
  • Chemotherapy is not effective, and somatostatin is used for palliation.
  • The aim of this study was to define the treatment and survival of patients with primary lung carcinoid tumors.
  • All patients had histologically confirmed carcinoid tumors.
  • The site of the disease at diagnosis was the lung in all 43 patients.
  • All patients underwent surgery which involved mainly typical or sleeve lobectomy.
  • One patient had the primary tumor excised for palliation as there were metastases in the liver.
  • Somatostatin palliative treatment was administered to 4 patients; 1 with liver and 3 with lung recurrence.
  • As a rule, a carcinoid tumor is an extremely slow-growing disease with some rare exceptions.
  • All of our patients had primary lung disease.
  • The patients with liver metastases who underwent no specific treatment had a median survival as long as 8 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Hormones / therapeutic use. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care / methods. Pneumonectomy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19212636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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13. McMullan DM, Wood DE: Pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2003 Jul;15(3):289-300
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  • [Title] Pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • Carcinoid tumors of the lung are an uncommon group of neoplasms of neuroendocrine origin.
  • Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are typically benign and slow growing.
  • Because these tumors are generally resistant to chemotherapy, complete surgical resection is the primary form of therapy.
  • Long-term survival for patients with typical carcinoid is excellent but is decreased in those with the atypical subtype.
  • Complete tumor resection with preservation of uninvolved pulmonary parenchyma remains the fundamental goal in the surgical treatment of this unusual clinical entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bronchoscopy. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12973707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-0679
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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14. Kosmidis PA: Treatment of carcinoid of the lung. Curr Opin Oncol; 2004 Mar;16(2):146-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of carcinoid of the lung.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine malignancies that comprise 2% of primary lung tumors.
  • During the last few years, important information has appeared in the literature in relation to the histopathology, molecular biology, biologic behavior, and treatment of these tumors.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Histologic subclassification of carcinoid tumors into atypical and typical is of paramount importance.
  • The biologic behavior of typical and atypical carcinoids is completely different, and treatment planning is based on this information.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice for localized carcinoid tumors and includes lymphadenectomy.
  • In metastatic disease, chemotherapy with a cisplatin-based or streptozotocin-based combination is moderately effective.
  • SUMMARY: Pulmonary carcinoids are rare tumors, and our understanding of their histopathology and biologic behavior are the most important factors for treatment planning.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice for cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Humans. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15075907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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15. Nakamura Y, Okada Y, Endo C, Aikawa H, Sakurada A, Sato M, Kondo T: Endobronchial carcinoid tumor combined with pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection: report of two cases. Lung Cancer; 2003 Feb;39(2):227-9
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  • [Title] Endobronchial carcinoid tumor combined with pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection: report of two cases.
  • We report here two cases of endobronchial carcinoid tumor complicated with pulmonary infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM).
  • Bronchoscopy showed complete obstruction of the left basal bronchus by a tumor and a sleeve lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed.
  • Pathological examination showed typical carcinoid located in the left basal bronchus and many caseous granulomas containing mycobacteria in the lung parenchyma distal to the bronchus.
  • Bronchoscopy showed complete obstruction of the left upper division bronchus by a tumor and a left upper lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed.
  • Pathological examination showed typical carcinoid located in the left upper division bronchus and many caseous granulomas in the lung parenchyma distal to the bronchus.
  • We also discuss the possible mechanisms responsible for the specific relationship between carcinoid tumor and TNM.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Mycobacterium avium Complex / isolation & purification. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / complications. Mycobacterium kansasii / isolation & purification. Pneumonia, Bacterial / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Bronchoscopy. Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use. Female. Gastric Juice / microbiology. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Middle Aged. Sputum / microbiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
  • (PMID = 12581578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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16. Francia G, Davì MV, Montresor E, Colato C, Ferdeghini M, Lo Cascio V: Long-term quiescence of ectopic Cushing's syndrome caused by pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (typical carcinoid) and tumorlets: spontaneous remission or therapeutic effect of bromocriptine? J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Apr;29(4):358-62
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  • [Title] Long-term quiescence of ectopic Cushing's syndrome caused by pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (typical carcinoid) and tumorlets: spontaneous remission or therapeutic effect of bromocriptine?
  • Medical treatment with bromocriptine and cyproheptadine led to a rapid and stabile normalization of adrenal function, so that after two months cyproheptadine was stopped and bromocriptine was tapered to a smaller dose.
  • An attempt to discontinue medical treatment, carried out 3 yr later, was followed by a quick increase of ACTH and cortisol levels, which were normalized by the resumption of the bromocriptine.
  • Adrenal function remained normal until 1994 when hypercortisolism relapsed despite the treatment.
  • Chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) scan detected a 6 mm nodule in the middle lobe of the lung which proved to be a neuroendocrine tumor, with immunohistochemical positivity for ACTH.
  • Nests of neuroendocrine cells (tumorlets) were also demonstrated in the surrounding lung tissue.
  • Although cyclical spontaneous Cushing's syndrome could not be excluded, there was strong evidence that medical treatment with bromocriptine might have played a key role in long-lasting remission.
  • To our knowledge, this is the second case described in literature of Cushing's syndrome caused by neuroendocrine lung tumor responsive to bromocriptine.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / complications. ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / drug therapy. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous


17. Beasley MB, Thunnissen FB, Brambilla E, Hasleton P, Steele R, Hammar SP, Colby TV, Sheppard M, Shimosato Y, Koss MN, Falk R, Travis WD: Pulmonary atypical carcinoid: predictors of survival in 106 cases. Hum Pathol; 2000 Oct;31(10):1255-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pulmonary atypical carcinoid: predictors of survival in 106 cases.
  • Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NE) include a spectrum of tumors from typical carcinoid (TC) to atypical carcinoid (AC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small cell carcinoma (SCLC).
  • Survival analysis was performed on 106 ACs with clinical follow-up from the AFIP and the Pathology Panel of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC).
  • The tumors fulfilled the 1999 WHO/IASLC criteria for AC of a NE tumor with a mitotic rate of 2 to 10 per 2 mm(2) of viable tumor or coagulative necrosis.
  • Of the clinical features, higher stage (P = .003) and a tumor size of 3.5 cm or greater (P = .003) were associated with a worse prognosis.
  • Multivariate analysis stratified for stage showed mitoses (P<.001), a tumor size of 3.5 cm or greater (P =.017), and female gender (P =.012) to be the only negative independent predictors of prognosis and the presence of rosettes (P = .016) to be the only independent positive predictor.
  • Chemotherapy or radiation therapy was given in 12 of 52 and 14 of 52 cases, respectively, but the data were insufficient to evaluate tumor response.
  • Higher mitotic rate, tumor size of 3.5 cm or greater, female gender, and presence of rosettes are the only independent predictors of survival.
  • Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice, and the role of chemotherapy and radiation therapy remains to be proven.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 11070119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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18. Buonerba C, Gallo C, Di Lorenzo G, Romeo V, Marinelli A: Ten-year adjuvant treatment with somatostatin analogs in a patient with atypical carcinoid of the lung. Anticancer Drugs; 2010 Apr;21(4):465-8
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  • [Title] Ten-year adjuvant treatment with somatostatin analogs in a patient with atypical carcinoid of the lung.
  • Both typical carcinoid and atypical carcinoid (AC) of the lung are surgically curable, but AC carries a considerably worse prognosis because of a relatively high rate of recurrence.
  • Adjuvant therapy can be conducted with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and somatostatin analogs (SST-As), but its effectiveness in preventing locoregional and distant recurrences is yet to be fully investigated.
  • A 48-year-old woman, presenting with AC, was free of both radiographical and biochemical signs of residual disease, after surgery and chemotherapy.
  • To prevent disease recurrence, she underwent long-term adjuvant treatment based on SST-As.
  • In consideration of the relatively high recurrence rate of the disease and of excellent tolerance for SST-As, long-term adjuvant treatment based on SST-As could become a therapeutic option for surgically cured patients with AC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20075713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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19. Nogales FF, Buriticá C, Regauer S, González T: Mucinous carcinoid as an unusual manifestation of endodermal differentiation in ovarian yolk sac tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Sep;29(9):1247-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mucinous carcinoid as an unusual manifestation of endodermal differentiation in ovarian yolk sac tumors.
  • We present, for the first time, two yolk sac tumors (YST) in women 37 and 18 years of age, one with a typical parietovisceral pattern and the other with a glandular pattern, which were associated with extensive areas of mucinous carcinoid (MC).
  • The tumor in the first case had numerous nodules of tubulopapillary YST that merged with well-differentiated MC.
  • This patient responded well to chemotherapy.
  • The tumor in the second case consisted of an AFP-positive glandular YST, with a glandulopapillary pattern closely resembling fetal lung type adenocarcinoma, coexisting with an AFP-negative, cytokeratin 20-positive, atypical MC; transitional areas between the two components were also seen.
  • It is important to differentiate the yolk sac and carcinoid components due to their different responses to chemotherapy and to evaluate the possibility of mucinous carcinoid developing into a highly aggressive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16096416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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20. Hage R, de la Rivière AB, Seldenrijk CA, van den Bosch JM: Update in pulmonary carcinoid tumors: a review article. Ann Surg Oncol; 2003 Jul;10(6):697-704
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Update in pulmonary carcinoid tumors: a review article.
  • Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine malignant tumors that make up 1% to 2% of all lung tumors.
  • According to histopathologic criteria, carcinoids can be divided into typical (TC) and atypical (AC) carcinoids.
  • Carcinoids can be placed in a spectrum of neuroendocrine tumors, ranging from low-grade malignant TC to intermediate AC to high-grade large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small-cell lung carcinoma.
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare and include carcinoid syndrome, Cushing's syndrome, and ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion.
  • The treatment of choice is surgical resection, and prognosis is relatively good in TC, although it is worse in AC.
  • The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy as part of multimodality treatment or palliation is still debated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Bronchoscopy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cough / etiology. Fever / etiology. Hemoptysis / etiology. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Radioimmunodetection. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Respiratory Sounds / etiology. Somatostatin

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  • (PMID = 12839856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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21. Wang WP, Guo C, Berney DM, Ulbright TM, Hansel DE, Shen R, Ali T, Epstein JI: Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):519-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases.
  • Testicular carcinoid tumors are rare with only limited studies.
  • We identified 29 primary testicular carcinoid cases from 7 academic institutions.
  • Two patients had carcinoid syndrome including diarrhea, hot flashes, and palpitations.
  • Nineteen were pure carcinoid tumors, 3 were associated with cystic teratoma, 2 with cysts lacking epithelial lining, 4 with epidermoid cyst, and 1 with dermoid cyst.
  • All 29 primary carcinoids lacked associated intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type.
  • Mitotic figures were rare in primary carcinoid tumors with only 3 cases showing more than 2 per 10 HPF; necrosis was found in only 1 case.
  • Of the 28 cases found premortem, treatment included focal excision in 3 patients and radical orchiectomy in 25 patients.
  • Follow-up, available in 24 cases, ranged from 1 to 228 months (mean 52.7 mo); of the 20 patients with testicular typical carcinoid tumors found premortem, all were alive at last follow-up without recurrences or metastases.
  • Of the 4 patients with a primary atypical carcinoid tumor, 1 at the time of diagnosis had retroperitoneal and lung metastases who after chemotherapy underwent resection of the retroperitoneal tumor showing metastatic yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.
  • After resection, serum AFP levels remained elevated and the patient is scheduled for salvage chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant.
  • The other 2 patients with atypical carcinoid and follow-up had no evidence of disease at 68 and 114 months.
  • Most primary carcinoid tumors of the testis have a benign clinical course even if associated with epidermoid/dermoid cysts, or histologically mature teratoma.
  • However, lesions with the morphology of atypical carcinoid can occasionally exhibit metastatic spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jul;34(7):1075. Ubright, Thomas M [corrected to Ulbright, Thomas M]
  • (PMID = 20351489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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22. De Dosso S, Bajetta E, Procopio G, Cortinovis D, Buzzoni R, Catena L, Platania M, Verzoni E: Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign. Oncology; 2007;73(3-4):162-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 48 consecutive patients with pulmonary NETs referred to our Medical Oncology Unit between 1998 and 2006, including 33 subjects with typical carcinoids (TCs) and 15 with atypical carcinoids (ACs).
  • Medical treatments used were somatostatin analogues, combined chemotherapy, within study protocols, 5-fluorouracil/dacarbazine/epiadriamycin (FDE), and oxaliplatin plus capecitabine (XELOX).
  • CONCLUSION: Cell type is the strongest determinant of prognosis, and the degree of malignancy increases from TCs to ACs.
  • Our analysis suggests that patients with advanced disease should receive first-line therapy with a somatostatin analogue, with chemotherapy regimens (FDE, XELOX) used in progressing cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18418008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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23. Daddi N, Ferolla P, Urbani M, Semeraro A, Avenia N, Ribacchi R, Puma F, Daddi G: Surgical treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2004 Oct;26(4):813-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.
  • OBJECTIVE: This report reviews the pattern of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation, lymph-node involvement, extension of surgery, and survival in 125 NE lung tumor patients.
  • RESULTS: There were 79 typical carcinoid (TC), eight atypical carcinoid (AC), 18 large cell carcinoma (LCC) and 20 SCC patients.
  • None had the carcinoid syndrome.
  • Twenty-one percent (4/19) of the patients with SCC treated by induction therapy and surgery, and in few cases by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy are alive without the evidence of the disease for 5 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Due to the high percentage of lymph-node involvement and multicentric forms found in our series lobectomy with radical lymph-node dissection appears, in our opinion, the most appropriate surgical treatment in well-differentiated forms, while more limited resection appears sub-optimal.
  • Only Small Cell Lung Carcinoma patients in clinical stage I and II underwent surgery with good long-term results.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Pneumonectomy / methods. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15450578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Kawase A, Nagai K: [Treatment strategy for neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Oct;36(10):1619-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment strategy for neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung].
  • Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung is classified into typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (ATC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell carcinoma (SCLC).
  • The standard treatment of carcinoid tumor is surgical resection.
  • There is no standard therapy for LCNEC.
  • Generally, the treatment of LCNEC is surgical resection and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in stage I and II, concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in stage III, and combination chemotherapy in stage IV.
  • The treatment of SCLC is mainly combination chemotherapy.
  • Standard therapy of SCLC is concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in limited disease and combination chemotherapy in extensive disease.
  • Combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide is administered for limited disease, and cisplatin and irinotecan is administered for extensive disease.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy is needed postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19838019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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25. Masi G, Fornaro L, Cupini S, Loupakis F, Vasile E, Baldi GG, Stasi I, Salvatore L, Falcone A: Refractory neuroendocrine tumor-response to liposomal doxorubicin and capecitabine. Nat Rev Clin Oncol; 2009 Nov;6(11):670-4
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  • [Title] Refractory neuroendocrine tumor-response to liposomal doxorubicin and capecitabine.
  • BACKGROUND: A 61-year-old patient with no relevant medical or family history presented with a 2 month history of refractory dry cough that led to the diagnosis of typical carcinoid tumor of the lung metastatic to the mediastinal lymph nodes and liver.
  • She initially received a long-acting somatostatin analog (octreotide) and chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide, which was ineffective.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Physical examination, laboratory test, chromogranin A test, CT scan, (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-octreotide scan, (18)F-FDG-PET scan, fine-needle and tissue core liver biopsies.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Pulmonary spindle-cell carcinoid tumor with metastases to mediastinal lymph nodes and liver.
  • MANAGEMENT: Systemic treatment with oral capecitabine (1,500 mg/m(2) daily from day 1 to day 21) and intravenous liposomal doxorubicin (10 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8 and 15), both repeated every 4 weeks, administered concomitantly with long-acting octreotide 30 mg every 3 weeks.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Capecitabine. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19861994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-4782
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Clin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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26. Carretta A, Ceresoli GL, Arrigoni G, Canneto B, Reni M, Cigala C, Zannini P: Diagnostic and therapeutic management of neuroendocrine lung tumors: a clinical study of 44 cases. Lung Cancer; 2000 Sep;29(3):217-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic and therapeutic management of neuroendocrine lung tumors: a clinical study of 44 cases.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (NTL) are a distinct subset of tumors with a wide range of histological patterns and clinical behavior.
  • Controversy still exists as to the ideal diagnostic and therapeutic approach to these neoplasms.
  • A series of 44 consecutive NTL patients operated on at our Institution was retrospectively reviewed in order to critically analyze the diagnostic and therapeutic management.
  • Pathological diagnosis was typical carcinoid (TC) tumor in 36 cases, atypical carcinoid (AC) in three and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) in five.
  • One patient had preoperative chemotherapy.
  • Median follow-up time was 40 months for TC and 51.5 months for AC/LCNEC.
  • Survival was not influenced by tumor size, while lymph node metastases were associated with a worse prognosis.
  • In conclusion, our study confirms findings in the literature showing that TC and AC/LCNEC are clinically different, and that a differential preoperative diagnosis and treatment is necessary.
  • Surgery, with anatomical resection and lymphoadenectomy, remains the treatment of choice in all these tumors.
  • Laser treatment should be considered only as a palliative procedure or as a complementary technique to surgery.
  • The role of adjuvant treatments in AC and LCNEC is uncertain and should be evaluated in larger trials.
  • The prognostic role of biological factors such as cytometry and genetic markers requires further investigation before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 10996424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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27. Larsson DE, Wickström M, Hassan S, Oberg K, Granberg D: The cytotoxic agents NSC-95397, brefeldin A, bortezomib and sanguinarine induce apoptosis in neuroendocrine tumors in vitro. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jan;30(1):149-56
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. BORTEZOMIB .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the apoptosis resulting from NSC 95397, brefeldin A, bortezomib and sanguinarine in neuroendocrine tumor cell lines.
  • The human pancreatic carcinoid cell line, BON-1, human typical bronchial carcinoid cell line NCI-H727 and the human atypical bronchial carcinoid cell line NCI-H720 were tested.
  • After incubation with cytotoxic drugs, the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342, fluorescein-tagged probes that covalently bind active caspase-3 and chloromethyl-X-rosamine to detect mitochondrial membrane potential were added.
  • RESULTS: A time- and dose-dependent activation of caspase-3 and increase in nuclear fragmentation and condensation were observed for the drugs using a multiparametric apoptosis assay.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Benzophenanthridines / pharmacology. Boronic Acids / pharmacology. Brefeldin A / pharmacology. Isoquinolines / pharmacology. Naphthoquinones / pharmacology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Pyrazines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bortezomib. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / drug therapy. Cell Line, Tumor. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20150630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2,3-bis(2-hydroxyethylsulfanyl)-(1,4)naphthoquinone; 0 / Benzophenanthridines; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / Naphthoquinones; 0 / Pyrazines; 20350-15-6 / Brefeldin A; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; AV9VK043SS / sanguinarine
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28. Srirajaskanthan R, Toumpanakis C, Karpathakis A, Marelli L, Quigley AM, Dusmet M, Meyer T, Caplin ME: Surgical management and palliative treatment in bronchial neuroendocrine tumours: a clinical study of 45 patients. Lung Cancer; 2009 Jul;65(1):68-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management and palliative treatment in bronchial neuroendocrine tumours: a clinical study of 45 patients.
  • Bronchial neuroendocrine tumours account for 1-2% of all lung cancers; they are thought to arise from the neuroendocrine cells located in the bronchial mucosa.
  • Typical carcinoid was present in 25 cases, atypical in 9 cases, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in 4 and 1 case of small cell lung carcinoma.
  • All patients were staged at time of initial diagnosis with CT scan, in addition Octreoscans were performed when appropriate.
  • Initial therapy with surgical resection was performed in 19 patients, 2 of whom had undergone neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy was first line therapy in five cases, four achieved disease stabilization and one case had progressive disease.
  • Somatostatin analogues were used as first line therapy in six patients, for symptom control and anti-tumour effect.
  • Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, with Yttrium-90 DOTA-Octreotate, was given in two cases, both of whom achieved disease stabilization for 9-12 months respectively.
  • In conclusion curative surgical resection is treatment of choice, however, chemotherapy, somatostatin analogues and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy offers palliation improving both symptoms and mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19070398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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29. Dörffel Y, Wermke W: Neuroendocrine tumors: characterization with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Ultraschall Med; 2008 Oct;29(5):506-14

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: In NET of the lung, stomach, and colon we found only hypoechoic or isoechoic liver metastases.
  • Necrotic areas (25/83) were detected after interferon therapy, embolization, systemic chemotherapy, and radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases, but did not develop after somatostatin receptor radionuclide therapy.
  • The hypervascularized tissue was found in the primary lesions, in liver, lymph node metastases and any kind of abdominal metastases.
  • In liver metastases with a proliferation index >2%, tumor arteries showed a chaotic growth pattern.
  • CONCLUSION: CEUS with CPS demonstrates typical NET imaging characteristics.
  • In most cases real-time CEUS may replace other imaging techniques.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / ultrasonography. Humans. Jejunal Neoplasms / secondary. Jejunal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / ultrasonography. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19241507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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