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3. Stearns V, Coop A, Singh B, Gallagher A, Yamauchi H, Lieberman R, Pennanen M, Trock B, Hayes DF, Ellis MJ: A pilot surrogate end point biomarker trial of perillyl alcohol in breast neoplasia. Clin Cancer Res; 2004 Nov 15;10(22):7583-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A pilot surrogate end point biomarker trial of perillyl alcohol in breast neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE: Efficient strategies to screen promising agents in early phase development are essential for rapid progress in breast cancer chemoprevention.
  • We report our experience with the natural compound perillyl alcohol (POH) administered in a short-term surrogate end point biomarker (SEB) protocol, using the "window" between diagnostic and definitive surgery.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eligible patients included those with a diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ, lobular carcinoma in situ, or invasive carcinoma (<3 cm in size) that required further surgery.
  • The power to observe changes in candidate SEB was diminished by a 44% incidence of cases in which the index lesion was not present in the definitive surgical specimen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative POH exposure was safe and suitable for a more definitive phase II SEB study.
  • Further investigations must overcome logistical obstacles to accrual, and they must focus on approaches to maximize tissue collection and to incorporate genomic analysis of target lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Monoterpenes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apoptosis. Biomarkers. Biopsy. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15569989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-65003
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Monoterpenes; 319R5C7293 / perilla alcohol
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4. Trastour C, Benizri E, Ettore F, Ramaioli A, Chamorey E, Pouysségur J, Berra E: HIF-1alpha and CA IX staining in invasive breast carcinomas: prognosis and treatment outcome. Int J Cancer; 2007 Apr 1;120(7):1451-8
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  • [Title] HIF-1alpha and CA IX staining in invasive breast carcinomas: prognosis and treatment outcome.
  • Hypoxia stabilizes HIF-1alpha (Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha), which then triggers the expression of several genes involved in many aspects of cancer progression, including metabolic adaptation, cell survival and angiogenesis.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of HIF-1alpha and CA IX (carbonic anhydrase IX) (one of its target genes) expression on prognosis and treatment outcome of patients with breast cancer.
  • Afterwards, the immunohistochemical staining of HIF-1alpha and CA IX was evaluated in 132 invasive breast carcinomas with a 10-year follow-up, and correlated to classical clinicopathological parameters and response to adjuvant therapy.
  • No significant correlation was found between tumour size or nodal status and the expression of HIF-1alpha or CA IX.
  • Statistically significant association was found between HIF-1alpha or CA IX staining and the grade, hormonal receptors loss and the presence of carcinoma in situ.
  • Overexpression of HIF-1alpha and CA IX correlates with a poor prognosis in breast cancer.
  • Furthermore, overexpression of HIF-1alpha or CA IX correlates with a poor outcome after conventional adjuvant therapy.
  • CA IX is, however, a weaker prognostic and predictive factor than HIF-1alpha, and its association with HIF-1alpha does not modify the survival curve neither response to therapy, compared to HIF-1alpha alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carbonic Anhydrases / metabolism. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17245699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hif1a protein, mouse; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
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5. Esteva FJ, Guo H, Zhang S, Santa-Maria C, Stone S, Lanchbury JS, Sahin AA, Hortobagyi GN, Yu D: PTEN, PIK3CA, p-AKT, and p-p70S6K status: association with trastuzumab response and survival in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Am J Pathol; 2010 Oct;177(4):1647-56
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  • [Title] PTEN, PIK3CA, p-AKT, and p-p70S6K status: association with trastuzumab response and survival in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer.
  • Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a key modulator of trastuzumab sensitivity in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer.
  • Primary tumor tissue was available from 137 patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer who had received trastuzumab-based chemotherapy.
  • We observed that each of the four biomarkers alone did not significantly correlate with trastuzumab response, whereas PTEN loss alone significantly correlated with shorter survival times (P = 0.023).
  • PI3K pathway activation, defined as PTEN loss and/or PIK3CA mutation, was associated with a poor response to trastuzumab (P = 0.047) and a shorter survival time (P = 0.015).
  • PTEN loss was significantly associated with a poor response to trastuzumab (P = 0.028) and shorter survival time (P = 0.008) in patients who had received first-line trastuzumab and in patients with estrogen receptor- (P = 0.029) and progesterone receptor-negative tumors (P = 0.033).
  • Our findings may facilitate the evaluation of tumor response to trastuzumab-based and targeted therapies.

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  • (PMID = 20813970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA116199; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA112567; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112567; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30-CA 16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2947262
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6. Hausauer AK, Keegan TH, Chang ET, Clarke CA: Recent breast cancer trends among Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, and African-American women in the US: changes by tumor subtype. Breast Cancer Res; 2007;9(6):R90
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  • [Title] Recent breast cancer trends among Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, and African-American women in the US: changes by tumor subtype.
  • BACKGROUND: Recently, unprecedented drops in breast cancer incidence have been reported for populations of mostly White European descent.
  • Incidence patterns in non-White racial/ethnic groups are less described.
  • Therefore, we examined population-based breast cancer incidence trends separately for US Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, African-American, and non-Hispanic White women by etiologically relevant tumor subtype characteristics, including hormone receptor status, histology, size, and in situ behavior.
  • METHODS: We obtained breast cancer data from 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registries to calculate age-adjusted incidence rates and trends, stratified by race/ethnicity and tumor subtype for the period 1992-2004.
  • Joinpoint regression was used to assess incidence trends by annual quarter of diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2004, incidence rates of invasive breast cancer in women 50 years old or older declined appreciably among Asians/Pacific Islanders (-8.5%) and Hispanics (-2.9%) and were stable in African-Americans (+0.5%), reductions substantially lower than those observed among non-Hispanic Whites (-14.3%).
  • In Asian/Pacific Islander women, perceptible but statistically nonsignificant decreases were observed for hormone receptor-positive, lobular, and small tumors only.
  • Rates of in situ cancer remained stable in all groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Recently reported reductions in breast cancer incidence varied considerably by race/ethnicity.
  • These patterns are consistent with documented racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence and discontinuation of hormone therapy (HT) after July 2002 but do not correspond as well to patterns of mammography use in these groups.
  • The data presented in this analysis provide further evidence that population-level HT use is a major influence on population-level rates of particular breast cancer subtypes, especially receptor-positive tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] African Americans / statistics & numerical data. Asian Americans / statistics & numerical data. Breast Neoplasms / ethnology. Hispanic Americans / statistics & numerical data. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / ethnology. Oceanic Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Lobular / epidemiology. Estrogen Replacement Therapy. European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prevalence. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Research Design. SEER Program. United States / epidemiology


7. Cocquyt V, Van Belle S: Lobular carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular cancer of the breast. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Feb;17(1):55-60
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  • [Title] Lobular carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular cancer of the breast.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of lobular carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast is increasing.
  • Recent data suggest that lobular carcinoma in situ is an indolent precursor for breast cancer, rather than a pure risk factor.
  • The risk of contralateral carcinoma and of multifocality of invasive lobular carcinoma is higher than for invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • Conventional mammography or ultrasonography cannot always give useful preoperative information about the extent of lobular cancers.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The risk of invasive carcinoma after lobular carcinoma in situ is increased.
  • Invasive carcinoma is usually located at the index point of lobular carcinoma in situ and is of lobular histology.
  • Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can be useful in the detection and preoperative staging of invasive lobular carcinoma.
  • The risk of local recurrence is high in patients with invasive lobular carcinoma.
  • Mastectomy and breast reconstruction could be an option in selected patients.
  • The response to preoperative chemotherapy is worse for invasive lobular carcinoma compared with invasive ductal carcinoma, with a greater need for rescue mastectomy.
  • SUMMARY: Lobular carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular carcinoma are different entities from ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular carcinoma.
  • Their biological profile should be studied further in order to make the fine tuning of treatment possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Lobular / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Incidence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mastectomy, Radical. Mastectomy, Segmental. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15711412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-872X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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8. Hershman D, Sundararajan V, Jacobson JS, Heitjan DF, Neugut AI, Grann VR: Outcomes of tamoxifen chemoprevention for breast cancer in very high-risk women: a cost-effectiveness analysis. J Clin Oncol; 2002 Jan 01;20(1):9-16
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  • [Title] Outcomes of tamoxifen chemoprevention for breast cancer in very high-risk women: a cost-effectiveness analysis.
  • PURPOSE: To estimate the effects on survival, quality-adjusted survival, and health care costs of using tamoxifen for primary prevention in subgroups of women at very high risk for breast cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A decision analysis was performed using a hypothetical cohort of women that included subgroups with atypical hyperplasia, Gail risk greater than 5, lobular carcinoma-in-situ, or two or more first-degree relatives with breast cancer.
  • Data sources were the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial, the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results program, time trade-off preference ratings, the Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, and the United States Health Care Financing Administration.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemoprevention with tamoxifen may be particularly beneficial to women with atypical hyperplasia, 5-year Gail model risk greater than 5%, lobular carcinoma-in-situ, or two or more first-degree relatives with breast cancer.
  • The benefits may be greater if tamoxifen is initiated before age 50 years rather than after and if the breast cancer risk reduction conferred by tamoxifen lasts longer than 5 years.
  • For women with a very high risk of invasive breast cancer, chemoprevention with tamoxifen seems to be cost-effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control. Drug Costs. Quality-Adjusted Life Years. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Decision Support Techniques. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Markov Chains. Middle Aged. Risk

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2002 Jan 1;20(1):1-3 [11773145.001]
  • (PMID = 11773148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 13696-26; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32-CA 09529
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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9. Sasson AR, Fowble B, Hanlon AL, Torosian MH, Freedman G, Boraas M, Sigurdson ER, Hoffman JP, Eisenberg BL, Patchefsky A: Lobular carcinoma in situ increases the risk of local recurrence in selected patients with stages I and II breast carcinoma treated with conservative surgery and radiation. Cancer; 2001 May 15;91(10):1862-9
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  • [Title] Lobular carcinoma in situ increases the risk of local recurrence in selected patients with stages I and II breast carcinoma treated with conservative surgery and radiation.
  • BACKGROUND: Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a known risk factor for the development of invasive breast carcinoma.
  • However, little is known regarding the impact of LCIS in association with an invasive carcinoma on the risk of an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) in patients who are treated with conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT).
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of LCIS on the local recurrence rate in patients with early stage breast carcinoma after breast-conserving therapy.
  • METHODS: Between 1979 and 1995, 1274 patients with Stage I or Stage II invasive breast carcinoma were treated with CS and RT.
  • The median follow-up time was 6.3 years.
  • RESULTS: LCIS was present in 65 of 1274 patients (5%) in the study population.
  • LCIS was more likely to be associated with an invasive lobular carcinoma (30 of 59 patients; 51%) than with invasive ductal carcinoma (26 of 1125 patients; 2%).
  • Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) occurred in 57 of 1209 patients (5%) without LCIS compared with 10 of 65 patients (15%) with LCIS (P = 0.001).
  • The 10-year cumulative incidence rate of IBTR was 6% in women without LCIS compared with 29% in women with LCIS (P = 0.0003).
  • In both groups, the majority of recurrences were invasive.
  • The 10-year cumulative incidence rate of IBTR in patients who received tamoxifen was 8% when LCIS was present compared with 6% when LCIS was absent (P = 0.46).
  • Subsets of patients in which the presence of LCIS was associated with an increased risk of breast recurrence included tumor size < 2 cm (T1), age < 50 years, invasive ductal carcinoma, negative lymph node status, and the absence of any adjuvant systemic treatment (chemotherapy or hormonal therapy) (P < 0.001).
  • LCIS margin status, invasive lobular carcinoma histology, T2 tumor size, and positive axillary lymph nodes were not associated with an increased risk of breast recurrence in these women.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that the presence of LCIS significantly increases the risk of an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence in certain subsets of patients who are treated with breast-conserving therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11346867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Kramer R, Brown P: Should tamoxifen be used in breast cancer prevention? Drug Saf; 2004;27(13):979-89
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  • [Title] Should tamoxifen be used in breast cancer prevention?
  • Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women.
  • The risk of developing breast cancer can be lowered by maintaining a healthy bodyweight and avoiding long-term use of combined estrogen and progestogen replacement after menopause.
  • However, many women are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer secondary to age, early menarche, a family history of breast cancer or a personal history of benign breast disease.
  • These women may now be offered tamoxifen as a chemoprevention therapy.
  • Five years of tamoxifen treatment results in a reduction in the relative risk of developing estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer of 48%.
  • The randomized clinical trials evaluating standard-dose tamoxifen versus placebo as chemoprevention therapy are reviewed and analyzed to determine which particular women are most likely to benefit and least likely to experience a tamoxifen-related adverse event.
  • Tamoxifen decreases the risk of breast cancer associated with aging, having a first-degree relative with disease, and a personal diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ.
  • Women who have had a hysterectomy and are at low risk of a thromboembolic event have a decreased risk of adverse effects associated with tamoxifen therapy.
  • The strengths and weaknesses of the Gail model (frequently used to assess an individual's risk of developing invasive breast cancer over the next 5 years) are highlighted.
  • Alternative breast cancer chemoprevention strategies are considered, including the use of aromatase inhibitors.
  • This article discusses the pros and cons of these various preventive therapies and concludes that at this time, tamoxifen remains the gold standard for breast cancer prevention.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15471505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0114-5916
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug safety
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Saf
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA58183
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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12. Lewis JP: The Breast Cancer Continuum: insights from the tamoxifen trials impact future drug development strategies. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2001 Dec;949:327-32
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  • [Title] The Breast Cancer Continuum: insights from the tamoxifen trials impact future drug development strategies.
  • The Breast Cancer Continuum includes women at high risk, as in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial; those with a history of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS); women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); those with <1 cm invasive disease or node-negative or node-positive disease; and those at risk of developing contralateral breast cancer.
  • Women in all these categories benefit from therapeutic intervention with tamoxifen because each clinical state is associated with a certain probability of having early undiagnosed invasive breast cancer responsive to tamoxifen.
  • This framework, relating these disorders to each other through their 5-year incidence of developing invasive breast cancer, leads to important conclusions relative to pharmaceutical drug development strategies, including chemoprevention investigations.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease Progression. Drug Design. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11795371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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13. Shin SJ, DeLellis RA, Ying L, Rosen PP: Small cell carcinoma of the breast: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of nine patients. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 Sep;24(9):1231-8
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the breast: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of nine patients.
  • Small cell carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon neoplasm that has been reported rarely in the literature.
  • Nine examples of mammary small cell carcinoma were retrieved from the authors' consultation files and reviewed.
  • Two patients had a previous history of cutaneous malignant melanoma and one had prior lobular carcinoma in situ and atypical duct hyperplasia in the same breast as the small cell carcinoma.
  • Eight patients presented with a mass in the breast; one patient had an axillary tumor.
  • Histologically, the nine tumors had characteristics of small cell carcinoma with high mitotic activity and necrosis.
  • In one instance, this consisted of small cell carcinoma merging with invasive lobular carcinoma.
  • In three cases, small cell carcinoma was present together with invasive, poorly differentiated duct carcinoma; invasive carcinoma with "lobular and gland-forming elements"; and focal squamous differentiation, respectively.
  • An in situ component was seen in seven tumors; five were of the small cell type in ducts and two were of the ductal type with high nuclear grade.
  • Eight underwent an axillary dissection that revealed metastatic carcinoma in four patients.
  • Seven patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and four patients received radiation.
  • Two patients also received tamoxifen treatment.
  • Metastases developed in two patients (22%) with a follow-up period of 11 and 32 months.
  • All patients were alive at last follow up 3 to 35 months after treatment.
  • When compared with published reports of mammary small cell carcinoma, our results show that the prognosis in these patients may not be as poor as previously suggested.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2001 Jun;25(6):831-2 [11395567.001]
  • (PMID = 10976697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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14. Wood WC: Should the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy be increasing as it is? Breast; 2009 Oct;18 Suppl 3:S93-5
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  • The choice of surgical procedure is primarily influenced by the recommendations of physicians and surgeons.
  • As smaller breast cancers are detected by improved breast screening, and larger breast cancers are reduced in size by neo-adjuvant chemo- and endocrine therapy, breast conservation therapy (BCT) has been applicable to more women.
  • No one would advocate CPM with the breast primary was to be treated by BCT.
  • The ability to better define inherited breast cancer risk by genetic analysis of BRCA1 or 2 mutations does identify a group of patients at greatly increased lifetime risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC).
  • It appears that many physicians and surgeons believe the risk of contralateral breast cancer to be sufficiently high to justify advising CPM.
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma is considered by some physicians to represent an increased risk of contralateral cancer, but that has not proved to be correct.
  • Women with lobular carcinoma in situ or atypical ductal hyperplasia found at the time of their cancer diagnosis are sometimes advised to consider CPM.
  • Treatment with tamoxifen has shown a 50-75% reduction in risk from these tissue findings.
  • Chemotherapy for the primary breast cancer also lowers contralateral risk by about 20%.
  • The use of skin-sparing mastectomy has greatly reduced the incidence of any surgery needed for symmetry on the contralateral breast.
  • MRI used to "stage the breast" can raise questions by noting small foci of enhancement in the contralateral breast.
  • Some women elect CPM rather than biopsy or further imaging of the contralateral breast.
  • Its increase raises questions of the awareness of breast oncologists, medical and surgical, of the true risk data.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control. Mastectomy / adverse effects. Neoplasms, Second Primary / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Decision Making. Humans. Male. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19914552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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15. Cummings FJ: Evolving uses of hormonal agents for breast cancer therapy. Clin Ther; 2002;24 Suppl C:C3-25
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  • [Title] Evolving uses of hormonal agents for breast cancer therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: During the past decade, a number of new hormonal therapies (HTs) have been developed, including the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), aromatase inhibitors (AIs), and estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists.
  • Their uses in breast cancer are continually evolving as new clinical trial results become available.
  • Although tamoxifen, the most widely used HT for breast cancer, was originally approved for and used in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC), its effectiveness as MBC therapy led to its subsequent assessment and use as adjuvant and risk-reduction therapy for breast cancer.
  • However, tamoxifen is not universally effective in these settings and is associated with infrequent known toxicities such as increased risk of thromboembolism and endometrial cancer; therefore, a search for more effective and more tolerable HTs has evolved.
  • OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the data supporting the use of newer HTs as initial treatment of MBC and their potential use as adjuvant, neoadjuvant, and chemopreventive therapies.
  • METHODS: Articles for inclusion in this manuscript were identified through the following searches, limited to English-language publications: MEDLINE (mid 1960s to January 2002), American Society of Oncology abstracts (1997-2001), and San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium abstracts (2001 and 2002).
  • The following search terms were used: breast cancer, breast cancer guidelines, hormonal therapies, tamoxifen, toremifine, letrozole, anastrozole, exemestane, megestrol acetate, fulvestrant, and ICI 182,780.
  • RESULTS: Recent studies have focused on newer agents as initial and subsequent treatment of MBC, adjuvant or neoadjuvant treatments of breast cancer, and chemopreventive agents in both healthy women and women with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • Results of clinical trials comparing AIs with tamoxifen as first-line MBC treatment show that AIs are as effective as, or more effective than, tamoxifen and are associated with fewer serious adverse events.
  • Tamoxifen remains the gold standard for adjuvant therapy.
  • Both tamoxifen and the AIs have been shown to be active in the neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer.
  • Trial results have shown that tamoxifen is effective for breast cancer prevention in patients at high risk of developing breast cancer but who are otherwise healthy, patients with a history of DCIS, and patients with lobular carcinoma in situ.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although tamoxifen has been the gold standard of HT for breast cancer, results of ongoing trials assessing the newer HTs as initial, neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and chemopreventive therapies may substantially change our current clinical practice patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials as Topic. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Nitriles / adverse effects. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Toremifene / administration & dosage. Toremifene / adverse effects. Toremifene / therapeutic use. Triazoles / adverse effects. Triazoles / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12117074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0149-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole; 7NFE54O27T / Toremifene
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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16. Silberfein EJ, Hunt KK, Broglio K, Shen J, Sahin A, Le-Petross H, Oh J, Litton J, Hwang RF, Mittendorf EA: Clinicopathologic factors associated with involved margins following breast conserving surgery for invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e11528

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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic factors associated with involved margins following breast conserving surgery for invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC).
  • This has resulted in difficulty obtaining negative margins at the time of breast conserving surgery.
  • Clinical data including radiographic appearance, biopsy method, initial surgical procedure (segmental vs. total mastectomy), and use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were noted.
  • Pathologic data included margin status (negative (>2mm), close (0-2mm), or positive), multifocality, multicentricity, ILC subtype, grade, associated LCIS or DCIS, hormone receptor status and HER2 status.
  • RESULTS: 110 (52%) patients underwent total mastectomy and 101 (48%) underwent segmental mastectomy as their initial procedure.
  • Having an excisional biopsy for diagnosis was also associated with need for multiple surgeries (p < .0001).
  • Breast conserving surgery was ultimately successful in 86 patients (85%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients with ILC can undergo successful breast conserving surgery.
  • Diagnosis by excisional biopsy makes subsequent imaging less reliable and results in the need for multiple surgeries to ensure adequate excision.

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  • (PMID = 27964633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Katz A, Niemierko A, Gage I, Evans S, Shaffer M, Smith FP, Taghian A, Magnant C: Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 May 1;65(1):40-4
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  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed.
  • Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis.
  • On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis.
  • On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16488555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21239; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA50628
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Ebert AD, Rosenow G, David M, Mechsner S, Magalov IS, Papadopoulos T: Co-occurrence of atypical endometriosis, subserous uterine leiomyomata, sactosalpinx, serous cystadenoma and bilateral hemorrhagic corpora lutea in a perimenopausal adipose patient taking tamoxifen (20 mg/day) for invasive lobular breast cancer. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2008;66(3):209-13
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  • [Title] Co-occurrence of atypical endometriosis, subserous uterine leiomyomata, sactosalpinx, serous cystadenoma and bilateral hemorrhagic corpora lutea in a perimenopausal adipose patient taking tamoxifen (20 mg/day) for invasive lobular breast cancer.
  • CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old perimenopausal woman on tamoxifen (20 mg/day), gravida 0, with surgically treated invasive lobular breast cancer and extensive lobular carcinoma in situ (pT2 (m) pN0 (snl) pL0 G2 pTis (LCLIS) R0 M0 Ki-67 1%, ER+, PR+, Her-2-neu-negative) was referred for evaluation of a pelvic mass.
  • The CA-125 level was normal (9.4 U/ml).
  • CONCLUSION: The possibility of tamoxifen-induced or tamoxifen-driven endometriosis in peri- or postmenopausal patients with breast cancer should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cystadenoma, Serous / chemically induced. Endometriosis / chemically induced. Fallopian Tube Diseases / chemically induced. Leiomyoma / chemically induced. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Uterine Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / surgery. Corpus Luteum / drug effects. Corpus Luteum / pathology. Female. Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Ovarian Diseases / chemically induced


19. Heinig A, Lampe D, Kölbl H, Beck R, Heywang-Köbrunner SH: Suppression of unspecific enhancement on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by antiestrogen medication. Tumori; 2002 May-Jun;88(3):215-23
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  • [Title] Suppression of unspecific enhancement on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by antiestrogen medication.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The value of breast MRI may be impaired by unspecific enhancement.
  • This may leave patients with difficult-to-assess breast tissue with an uncertain diagnosis.
  • We examined whether this unspecific enhancement (which is mostly due to proliferative or hyperplastic changes of benign breast tissue) may be suppressed by antiestrogen medication.
  • METHODS: In a trial of treatment, 10 peri- or postmenopausal patients who exhibited diffuse and/or focal enhancement on breast MRI before tamoxifen medication agreed to undergo a short-term tamoxifen treatment.
  • MRI monitoring was performed 2, 4 and 8 weeks after onset of antiestrogen therapy (tamoxifen, 30 mg per day).
  • One of the three patients with unchanged enhancement proved to have diffuse lobular carcinoma in situ.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Part of the unspecific enhancement seen on breast MRI can probably be suppressed by short-term antiestrogen medication.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / administration & dosage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 12195760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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20. Rakha EA, Gill MS, El-Sayed ME, Khan MM, Hodi Z, Blamey RW, Evans AJ, Lee AH, Ellis IO: The biological and clinical characteristics of breast carcinoma with mixed ductal and lobular morphology. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Mar;114(2):243-50
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  • [Title] The biological and clinical characteristics of breast carcinoma with mixed ductal and lobular morphology.
  • Although invasive ductal (IDC) and lobular (ILC) breast carcinomas are well characterised in the literature, the biological and clinical significance of mixed tumours with both ductal and lobular components has not been investigated.
  • In the current study, we have examined a well-characterised series of breast carcinoma with a long term follow-up that comprised 140 mixed tumours, 2170 IDC and 380 pure ILC.
  • DCIS was detected in 123 (89%) and LCIS in 43 (31%) (both DCIS and LCIS were found in 39 cases).
  • The majority of tumours were predominantly (>50 of tumour area) of ductal type (57%).
  • There was an association between histologic type of carcinoma in LN metastasis and the predominant histologic type of the primary tumour.
  • No clinically meaningful differences in survival were found between these mixed carcinomas and pure IDC or ILC of the breast or between mixed tumours with predominantly ductal or lobular phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18404368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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21. Martín M, Rodríguez-Lescure A, Ruiz A, Alba E, Calvo L, Ruiz-Borrego M, Munárriz B, Rodríguez CA, Crespo C, de Alava E, López García-Asenjo JA, Guitián MD, Almenar S, González-Palacios JF, Vera F, Palacios J, Ramos M, Gracia Marco JM, Lluch A, Alvarez I, Seguí MA, Mayordomo JI, Antón A, Baena JM, Plazaola A, Modolell A, Pelegrí A, Mel JR, Aranda E, Adrover E, Alvarez JV, García Puche JL, Sánchez-Rovira P, Gonzalez S, López-Vega JM, GEICAM 9906 Study Investigators: Randomized phase 3 trial of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide alone or followed by Paclitaxel for early breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2008 Jun 4;100(11):805-14
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  • [Title] Randomized phase 3 trial of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide alone or followed by Paclitaxel for early breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Taxanes are among the most active drugs for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, and, as a consequence, they have also been studied in the adjuvant setting.
  • METHODS: After breast cancer surgery, women with lymph node-positive disease were randomly assigned to treatment with fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) or with FEC followed by weekly paclitaxel (FEC-P).
  • Secondary endpoints included overall survival and analysis of the prognostic and predictive value of clinical and molecular (hormone receptors by immunohistochemistry and HER2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization) markers.
  • Associations and interactions were assessed with a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model for DFS for the following covariates: age, menopausal status, tumor size, lymph node status, type of chemotherapy, tumor size, positive lymph nodes, HER2 status, and hormone receptor status.
  • FEC-P treatment was associated with a 23% reduction in the risk of relapse compared with FEC treatment (146 relapses in the 614 patients in the FEC-P arm vs 193 relapses in the 632 patients in the FEC arm, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.95; P = .022) and a 22% reduction in the risk of death (73 and 95 deaths, respectively, HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.57 to 1.06; P = .110).
  • Among the 928 patients for whom tumor samples were centrally analyzed, type of chemotherapy (FEC vs FEC-P) (P = .017), number of involved axillary lymph nodes (P < .001), tumor size (P = .020), hormone receptor status (P = .004), and HER2 status (P = .006) were all associated with DFS.
  • We found no statistically significant interaction between HER2 status and paclitaxel treatment or between hormone receptor status and paclitaxel treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with operable breast cancer, FEC-P treatment statistically significantly reduced the risk of relapse compared with FEC as adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Infusions, Intravenous. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TAXOL .
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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .
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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Jun 4;100(11):761-3 [18505966.001]
  • (PMID = 18505968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; FEC protocol
  • [Investigator] Martín M; López García-Asenjo JA; Rodríguez-Lescure A; Ruiz A; Almenar S; Alba E; Vicioso L; Calvo L; Guitián MD; Ruiz-Borrego M; Palacios J; Munárriz B; Vera F; Rodríguez CA; Crespo C; González-Palacios JF; Ramos M; de la Cruz A; Marco JM; Angulo JM; Lluch A; Ferrer J; Alvarez I; Ruiz I; Seguí MA; Sáez A; Mayordomo JI; Moros M; Antón A; Ríos MJ; Baena JM; Palomo MJ; Plazaola A; Rezola R; Modolell A; De las Heras P; Pelegrí A; Riu F; Mel JR; Alba J; Aranda E; Fuentes E; Adrover E; Peiró G; Alvarez JV; Puche JL; Aneiros J; Sánchez-Rovira P; Cueva C; Gonzalez S; López-Vega JM; Garijo MF
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22. Mokbel K, Kirkpatrick KL: Recent advances in breast cancer (the Twenty-fourth San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, December, 2001). Curr Med Res Opin; 2002;18(1):26-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent advances in breast cancer (the Twenty-fourth San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, December, 2001).
  • This paper reviews the Twenty-fourth Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.
  • The preliminary results of the ATAC study have shown that Arimidex is superior to tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with ER-positive early breast cancer in terms of DFS, adverse effects and prevention of contralateral breast cancer.
  • However, longer follow up is required to assess the drug safety regarding bone mineral density and cognitive function.
  • Letrozole seems to be superior to tamoxifen as a first-line therapy in ER-positive advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
  • Although the incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia is significantly increased (cumulative incidence at 5 years = 1.1%) in breast cancer patients receiving cyclophosphamide and anthracyclines, the risk of this complication is easily outweighed by the benefits of chemotherapy.
  • Adjuvant clodronate was found to be associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of bone metastases during the treatment period.
  • A randomised trial comparing axillary dissection and axillary radiotherapy (RT) for early breast cancer reported no significant difference in survival at 15 years.
  • However, axillary recurrence was significantly increased in the RT group. hTERT protein expression by IHC was found to correlate significantly with breast cancer-specific survival.
  • LCIS is currently considered as a non-obligate precursor to breast cancer rather than just a risk factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Female. Humans. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Texas

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  • (PMID = 11999142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-7995
  • [Journal-full-title] Current medical research and opinion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Med Res Opin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Congresses
  • [Publication-country] England
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