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1. Fujiwara K, Segawa Y, Takigawa N, Kishino D, Ida M, Eguchi K, Nakata M, Saeki H, Mandai K: Two cases of atypical carcinoid of the thymus. Intern Med; 2000 Oct;39(10):834-8
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  • [Title] Two cases of atypical carcinoid of the thymus.
  • We describe two cases of atypical carcinoid of the thymus.
  • Computed tomography scans of the chest in both cases revealed a large mass in the anterior mediastinum.
  • Multiple metastases to bone and liver were also noted in the former case.
  • Combination chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin and etoposide was performed as initial chemotherapy in the former case and as adjuvant therapy in the latter.
  • It is important to differentiate atypical carcinoid from other thymic tumors, since such tumors including thymoma have a much better prognosis than does atypical carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11030210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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2. Gilbert JA, Frederick LM, Ames MM: The aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa is selectively cytotoxic to human pulmonary carcinoid and small cell lung carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res; 2000 Nov;6(11):4365-72
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  • [Title] The aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa is selectively cytotoxic to human pulmonary carcinoid and small cell lung carcinoma cells.
  • The carcinoid tumor is an uncommon neuroendocrine neoplasm the hallmark of which is excessive serotonin production.
  • In studying kinetics of tryptophan hydroxylase and aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) in human carcinoid hepatic metastases and adjacent normal liver (J. A.
  • Pharmacol., 50: 845-850, 1995), we identified one significant difference: the Vmax of carcinoid AAAD was 50-fold higher than that in normal liver.
  • Here, we report Western and Northern analyses detecting large quantities of AAAD polypeptide and mRNA in human carcinoid primary as well as metastatic tumors compared with normal surrounding tissues.
  • To assess the feasibility of targeting these high AAAD levels for chemotherapy, AAAD inhibitors carbidopa (alpha-methyl-dopahydrazine), alpha-monofluoromethyldopa (MFMD), and 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD-1015) were incubated (72 h) with NCI-H727 human lung carcinoid cells.
  • For lung tumor lines (carcinoid, two SCLC, and one large cell lung carcinoma), AAAD activity was correlated with the potency of carbidopa-induced cytotoxicity.
  • However, carcinoid cell death was not solely attributable to complete inhibition of either AAAD activity or the serotonin synthetic pathway.
  • In further evaluating potential applications of these findings with carbidopa, we determined that sublethal doses of carbidopa produced additive cytotoxic effects in carcinoid cells in combination with etoposide and cytotoxic synergy in SCLC cells when coincubated with topotecan.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Inhibitors. Carbidopa / pharmacology. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Humans. Ileum / enzymology. Liver / enzymology. Microscopy, Electron. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11106255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 58450
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; MNX7R8C5VO / Carbidopa
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3. Cook MR, Pinchot SN, Jaskula-Sztul R, Luo J, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Chen H: Identification of a novel Raf-1 pathway activator that inhibits gastrointestinal carcinoid cell growth. Mol Cancer Ther; 2010 Feb;9(2):429-37
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  • [Title] Identification of a novel Raf-1 pathway activator that inhibits gastrointestinal carcinoid cell growth.
  • Carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumors (NET) that secrete hormones, including serotonin, resulting in the malignant carcinoid syndrome.
  • Surgery is the only curative option, and the need for other therapies is clear.
  • We have previously shown that activation of Raf-1 inhibits carcinoid cell proliferation.
  • We investigated the ability of leflunomide (LFN), a Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and its active metabolite teriflunomide (TFN) as a potential anti-NET treatment.
  • LFN and TFN inhibit the in vitro proliferation of gastrointestinal carcinoid cells and induce G(2)-M phase arrest.
  • Daily oral gavage of nude mice with subcutaneous xenografted carcinoid tumors confirms that LFN can inhibit NET growth in vivo.
  • Treatment with TFN suppresses the cellular levels of serotonin and chromogranin A, a glycopeptide co-secreted with bioactive hormones.
  • In summary, LFN and TFN inhibit carcinoid cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo and alter the expression of NET markers.

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  • (PMID = 20103603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-8514
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121115-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA121115
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Crotonates; 0 / Isoxazoles; 0 / Toluidines; 1C058IKG3B / teriflunomide; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf; G162GK9U4W / leflunomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS167835; NLM/ PMC2820603
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4. Shelat VG, Diddapur RK: Duodenal carcinoid: a rare cause of melaena in a cirrhotic patient. Singapore Med J; 2008 Aug;49(8):e198-201
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  • [Title] Duodenal carcinoid: a rare cause of melaena in a cirrhotic patient.
  • These are indolent tumours and hence role of chemotherapy is limited.
  • Radionuclide and biological therapies are emerging.
  • We report a 29-year-old man presenting with melaena and diagnosed as having a neuroendocrine tumour of the duodenum together with liver cirrhosis.
  • Standard Whipple's procedure was done and he is doing well at follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Duodenal Neoplasms / complications. Liver Cirrhosis / diagnosis. Liver Cirrhosis / therapy. Melena / diagnosis. Melena / etiology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Duodenum / pathology. Endoscopy / methods. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18756332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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5. Liu Y, Liang H, Liu N, Zhang RP, Cui QH: [Relationship of biological behavior and the prognosis in gastric carcinoid]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Sep;10(5):472-5
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  • [Title] [Relationship of biological behavior and the prognosis in gastric carcinoid].
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of biologic behavior and prognosis in patients with gastric carcinoid.
  • METHODS: A total of 26 gastric carcinoid patients proven by pathology from Jan.
  • Tumor size, invasion depth, regional lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, adjuvant chemotherapy and 5-year survival were analyzed retrospectively.
  • A univariate analysis of survival rate with respect to gastric wall infiltration, regional lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, and adjuvant chemotherapy were accomplished by Kaplan-Meier estimation method.
  • During the follow-up period, liver metastases occurred in 14 patients (53.8%).
  • Tumor size was not associated with gastric serosa invasion, regional lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis and 5-year survival (P>0.05).
  • Analysis of cumulative survival showed different survival time depending on gastric serosa invasion, regional lymph node metastasis and liver metastasis.
  • In patients with gastric serosa invasion, regional lymph node metastasis and liver metastasis, estimated 5-year cumulative survivals were 16.7%, 16.7% and 0 respectively.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was administrated in 10 patients (38.5%) and was not beneficial to prolong the survival time and increase the 5-year survival rate.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection is the major strategy for the treatment of gastric carcinoid, and adjuvant chemotherapy is not proved to produce obvious effects.
  • The prognosis of gastric carcinoid depends on the tumor infiltration of gastric wall, regional metastasis and liver metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17851792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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6. Stathopoulos GP, Papadopoulos G, Koutantos J: Long-term survival of patients with carcinoid tumor and liver metastases. J BUON; 2009 Oct-Dec;14(4):609-11
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  • [Title] Long-term survival of patients with carcinoid tumor and liver metastases.
  • PURPOSE: To determine long-term survival and long-term stable disease in patients with atypical carcinoid tumor with liver metastases.
  • METHODS: From 1993 till 2008, the records of 56 patients with atypical carcinoid were reviewed.
  • Nine of them who had liver metastases were analysed.
  • All patients had carcinoid tumors confirmed histologically.
  • Treatment, including chemotherapy and somatostatin, was given as palliative therapy of short duration.
  • The remaining 6 patients are alive after 36, 40, 108, 120, 156 and 156 months, practically without treatment and experiencing a high quality of life.
  • CONCLUSION: Six of 9 (66.66%) patients are alive having received almost no treatment for many years.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20148450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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7. Chen F, Sato T, Fujinaga T, Sakai H, Miyahara R, Bando T, Date H: Surgical management of bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors: an institutional experience. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2010 Dec;11(6):737-9
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  • [Title] Surgical management of bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors: an institutional experience.
  • Bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors are well known as low-grade malignant tumors with fairly benign behaviors; however, distant metastasis after complete resection and multiple carcinoid tumors in the resected lungs have been sporadically reported.
  • For better understanding of bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors, we reviewed our institutional experience.
  • Eight patients with bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors underwent complete pulmonary resection.
  • In one patient who received a lobectomy for a peripheral nodule, multiple carcinoid tumors were found in the resected specimen.
  • No patients received any adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy after pulmonary resection.
  • In one patient, tumors recurred at the bronchial stump and in the liver approximately five years after complete pulmonary resection.
  • Despite a small number of cases, our study supported the idea that bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors might require major surgical procedures and that complete pulmonary resection of typical carcinoid tumors could expect long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Pneumonectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Bronchoscopy. Female. Humans. Japan. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20852330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Rekhi B, Saxena S, Chintamani: Gastric outlet obstruction and cutaneous metastasis in adenocarcinoid tumor of stomach - unusual presentations with cytologic and ultra structural findings. Indian J Cancer; 2005 Apr-Jun;42(2):99-101
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  • He underwent radical gastrectomy and was diagnosed with a gastric carcinoid tumor, on histopathology.
  • After 6 months, he developed hepatic along with nodular cutaneous lesions over the scalp.
  • Aspiration cytology (FNAC) from these metastatic lesions showed two distinct cell types with rosette formation.
  • Subsequently, he underwent 2 cycles of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Gastric Outlet Obstruction / etiology. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Neoplasm Metastasis. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16141510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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9. Knox CD, Anderson CD, Lamps LW, Adkins RB, Pinson CW: Long-term survival after resection for primary hepatic carcinoid tumor. Ann Surg Oncol; 2003 Dec;10(10):1171-5
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  • [Title] Long-term survival after resection for primary hepatic carcinoid tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary hepatic carcinoid tumors (PHCTs) are extremely rare, and fewer than 50 cases have been reported in the English-language literature.
  • METHODS: Our patient presented with symptoms and underwent liver resection for PHCT and regional lymph node metastasis.
  • He underwent two more liver resections over the following 7 years for recurrent PHCT.
  • The survival impacts of age, gender, tumor foci, extrahepatic metastasis, unilobar versus bilobar disease, and type of preoperative treatment were determined by means of log-rank test.
  • The administration of preoperative chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or chemoembolization did not impact survival, nor did age, gender, presence of extrahepatic metastasis, number of tumors, or distribution of the tumor within the liver.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Resection is the treatment of choice for PHCT and has provided favorable outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2003 Dec;10(10):1131-2 [14654465.001]
  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2003 Dec;10(10):1133-5 [14654466.001]
  • (PMID = 14654473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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10. Zhou Y, Wang S, Gobl A, Oberg K: Interferon alpha induction of Stat1 and Stat2 and their prognostic significance in carcinoid tumors. Oncology; 2001;60(4):330-8
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  • [Title] Interferon alpha induction of Stat1 and Stat2 and their prognostic significance in carcinoid tumors.
  • IFN-alpha has been shown to elicit antitumor activity in carcinoid tumors.
  • Archive specimens from 45 carcinoid patients, 33 before IFN-alpha and 45 during treatment, were studied.
  • The tissues were immunostained for protein expression by using monoclonal anti-Stat1 and anti-Stat2 antibodies.
  • Results showed that Stat1 and Stat2 immunostaining were significantly increased during IFN-alpha treatment.
  • In a carcinoid tumor cell line, Bon1, IFN-alpha dose-dependently increased the Stat expression.
  • Thus, the antitumor effect, in vivo and in vitro, in IFN-alpha-treated carcinoid tumors seems to be mediated via upregulation of Stat proteins and enhancement of phosphorylation of these proteins.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Trans-Activators / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Division. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Staging. Phosphorylation. Precipitin Tests. Prognosis. Protein Kinases / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. STAT1 Transcription Factor. STAT2 Transcription Factor. Survival Rate. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Up-Regulation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 11408801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / STAT1 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT1 protein, human; 0 / STAT2 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT2 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases
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11. Yamashita K, Takase S, Nakamura T, Matsuda Y, Imanishi T, Sumi Y, Suzuki S, Kamigaki T, Ku Y, Kuroda D: [A case of rectal carcinoid with multiple liver, lymph nodes and bone metastases that responded to an octreotide therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2349-51
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  • [Title] [A case of rectal carcinoid with multiple liver, lymph nodes and bone metastases that responded to an octreotide therapy].
  • Colonoscopy revealed a lower rectal tumor diagnosed as rectal carcinoid on biopsy.
  • Multiple metastatic liver tumors were found on abdominal CT scan.
  • There seemed to be no apparent residues of a carcinoid tumor on abdominal CT.
  • About one year after the first therapy, CT scan had revealed multiple metastases to the liver, lymph nodes and bones.
  • The treatment of an octreotide LAR had controlled the progression of metastatic tumors for two and half years.
  • In this case, the effect of an octreotide LAR for recurrence of rectal carcinoid after local therapies brought good controls of symptoms and an inhibition of tumor growth for long-term.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Hepatectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 21224569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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12. Comaru-Schally AM, Schally AV: A clinical overview of carcinoid tumors: perspectives for improvement in treatment using peptide analogs (review). Int J Oncol; 2005 Feb;26(2):301-9
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  • [Title] A clinical overview of carcinoid tumors: perspectives for improvement in treatment using peptide analogs (review).
  • Carcinoid tumors were first described more than a century ago, but the treatment of patients with advanced disease remains a challenge to physicians.
  • The etiology of carcinoid tumors, the biologic determinants of the growth of these malignancies, as well as the high frequency of multiple carcinoid and/or non-carcinoid tumors in patients with this disease also remain to be elucidated.
  • A 5-decade analysis of 13,715 carcinoid tumors in the USA showed that distant metastases were demonstrated at the time of diagnosis in 12.9% of patients with this neoplasia.
  • The prognosis of patients with early stage disease is good and surgical resection is the standard form of treatment.
  • However, patients with metastatic dissemination have poor outcomes since chemotherapy is generally ineffective.
  • Surgical resection of isolated hepatic metastases, surgical hepatic artery ligation or embolization produce responses in selected patients.
  • Radiation therapy may ease the pain of bone metastases.
  • The administration of long acting analogs of somatostatin can control the symptoms of diarrhea and flushing in patients with the malignant carcinoid syndrome.
  • However, a complete regression of metastatic carcinoid tumors following the administration of somatostatin analog octreotide has been reported so far in only 3 cases.
  • Other modalities of treatment, including liver transplantation and the administration of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs have likewise been applied in patients with advanced disease.
  • It is expected that advances in proteomics research will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of diseases and aid in designing new drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Peptides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gamma Cameras. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Liver / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Proteomics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15645113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptides; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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13. Gopinath G, Ahmed A, Buscombe JR, Dickson JC, Caplin ME, Hilson AJ: Prediction of clinical outcome in treated neuroendocrine tumours of carcinoid type using functional volumes on 111In-pentetreotide SPECT imaging. Nucl Med Commun; 2004 Mar;25(3):253-7
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  • [Title] Prediction of clinical outcome in treated neuroendocrine tumours of carcinoid type using functional volumes on 111In-pentetreotide SPECT imaging.
  • The quantification of the tumour volume is essential for the assessment of therapy-induced changes.
  • Traditional methods of assessing the response of neuroendocrine tumours using radiological methods yield poor results, particularly within the liver.
  • The aim of this study was to establish whether it would be possible to identify a method using functional volumes to predict the response of tumours to various therapies.
  • Twenty-two patients with neuroendocrine tumours of carcinoid type in the liver were treated with chemotherapy, chemo-embolization or 90Y-radiolabelled somatostatin analogues.
  • All patients underwent 111In-pentetreotide single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT) scan pre- and post-treatment.
  • The tumour functional volume, a measure of metabolically active tumour tissue, was calculated from the SPECT images using a 10-point display; regions of interest were drawn around 50% of the maximum tumour activity, slice by slice, and then multiplied by the slice thickness (9.3 mm).
  • At 6 months after treatment, 14 patients showed a good clinical response, as measured by a reduction in pain, flushing or abdominal symptoms; the functional volume of the tumours in these patients decreased by a mean of 25% (range, 1-52%).
  • The assessment of the total functional volume by SPECT quantification is more useful than CT in monitoring tumour response after treatment, and the changes in functional volumes after therapy correlate well with the clinical response.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anatomy, Cross-Sectional / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radiography. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics as Topic. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15094443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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14. Kulke MH, Freed E, Chiang DY, Philips J, Zahrieh D, Glickman JN, Shivdasani RA: High-resolution analysis of genetic alterations in small bowel carcinoid tumors reveals areas of recurrent amplification and loss. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2008 Jul;47(7):591-603
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  • [Title] High-resolution analysis of genetic alterations in small bowel carcinoid tumors reveals areas of recurrent amplification and loss.
  • Carcinoid tumors of the small intestine are characterized by an indolent clinical course, secretion of neuropeptides, and resistance to standard cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • To evaluate the molecular events underlying carcinoid tumorigenesis, we used high-resolution arrays of single nucleotide polymorphisms to study chromosomal gains and losses in 24 primary and metastatic small bowel carcinoid tumors derived from 18 patients.
  • The amplitude of observed gains was modest in comparison to those reported in some other tumor types.
  • This detailed study of an uncommon neoplasm provides a basis to investigate putative oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in intestinal carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Intestinal Neoplasms / genetics. Intestine, Small. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18383209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2264
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / DAD1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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15. Hasuike Y, Takeda Y, Ueda S, Tujinaka T, Yoshida K: [A case report of primary hepatic carcinoid with lymph node metastasis--treatment of hepatic arterial infusion to post-reoperative liver and radiation to metastasis of para-aortic lymph nodes]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2002 Nov;29(12):2433-6
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  • [Title] [A case report of primary hepatic carcinoid with lymph node metastasis--treatment of hepatic arterial infusion to post-reoperative liver and radiation to metastasis of para-aortic lymph nodes].
  • We report a case of primary liver carcinoid.
  • She developed abdominal pain.
  • CT scans showed a low-density area in the lateral segment of the liver and lymph node swelling to the left of the abdominal aorta.
  • After lateral segmentectomy and examination of the gastrointestinal tract, we diagnosed primary liver carcinoid.
  • Unfortunately, the tumor recurred at multiple sites in the residual liver about 9 months after the first operation.
  • She underwent further liver resection and microwave coagulation therapy.
  • At that time, lymph node biopsy confirmed metastatic carcinoid.
  • We began hepatic arterial chemotherapy for the residual liver and radiation therapy for the para-aortic lymph nodes (total 45 Gy).
  • During chemotherapy, no recurrence was seen.
  • At 11 months after reoperation, however, multiple liver metastases occurred with severe liver dysfunction and jaundice.
  • She died about 24 months after the first liver resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Electrocoagulation. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Hepatectomy. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Microwaves / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 12484093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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16. Hogan BA, Thornton FJ, Brannigan M, Browne TJ, Pender S, O'Kelly P, Lyon SM, Lee MJ: Hepatic metastases from an unknown primary neoplasm (UPN): survival, prognostic indicators and value of extensive investigations. Clin Radiol; 2002 Dec;57(12):1073-7
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  • [Title] Hepatic metastases from an unknown primary neoplasm (UPN): survival, prognostic indicators and value of extensive investigations.
  • AIM: The objectives of this study were to identify prognostic features for patients with hepatic metastases and unknown primary neoplasms (UPN), determine the common primary tumours, assess the value of diagnostic tests in finding these tumours, and evaluate the impact of therapy and knowledge of the primary tumour on patient survival.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-eight patients with UPN and liver biopsy proven hepatic metastases over a 10-year period were reviewed (M:F, 58:30; age range 27-91 years, median 64.5 years).
  • Histopathology, diagnostic investigations and success at identifying the primary neoplasm were recorded.
  • In addition, in 70 patients with adenocarcinoma histology (M:F, 48:22; age range 27-91 years, median 65 years), treatment and survival data from the date of biopsy were recorded.
  • RESULTS: The histological spectrum included adenocarcinoma in 70, neuroendocrine in four, squamous cell carcinoma in four, small cell carcinoma in four, carcinoid in two, hepatoma in one and three others.
  • Extensive investigation identified a primary neoplasm in 16/88 patients (18%) including colorectal in six, gastric in two, lung in four, oesophageal in two, prostate in one and carcinoid in one.
  • Sixteen of 62 patients received active treatment with either surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination protocol.
  • Patients <65 years were more likely to receive active treatment than those >65 years (P=0.006).
  • Age with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.01 (P=0.178), active treatment (HR=0.65;P=0.194), knowledge of the primary neoplasm (HR=0.60;P=0.213) and male gender (HR=0.88;P=0.642) had no significant effect on survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Although hepatic metastases are associated with poor prognosis, it is essential that a liver biopsy be performed to obtain a histological diagnosis.
  • Extensive investigation is not warranted in patients with adenocarcinoma liver metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 12475531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Szybiński P, Fröss-Baron K, Mikolajczak R, Huszno B, Sowa-Staszczak A: (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate - a new radiotracer for detection and staging of NET: a case of metastatic duodenal carcinoid. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur; 2005;8(2):155-6
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  • [Title] (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate - a new radiotracer for detection and staging of NET: a case of metastatic duodenal carcinoid.
  • We present a case of a 47-year-old man with disseminated duodenal carcinoid.
  • Histopathology revealed carcinoid of the duodenal wall with local lymph node and liver metastases.
  • The patient was qualified for chemotherapy stopped due to severe leucopenia. (99m)Tc EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate scintigraphy was performed for staging and to determine SSTR status of the tumour before planned 90Y-DOTATATE therapy.
  • On the basis of SRS result the patient was qualified for 90Y-DOTA-TATE therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Duodenal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Organotechnetium Compounds
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 16437406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1506-9680
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine review. Central & Eastern Europe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / technetium 99m EDDA-HYNIC-Tyr(3)-octreotide
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18. Williams S, Palmer D, Johnson P: New medical options for liver tumours. Clin Med (Lond); 2007 Aug;7(4):351-6
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  • [Title] New medical options for liver tumours.
  • Significant progress is being made in the prevention of hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but hepatitis C-related HCC is increasing in the West and therapeutic advances in established disease have been modest.
  • Although ablative therapies, including surgical resection, seem effective in patients with small tumours these only represent a minority of patients.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is of unproven benefit and is now largely confined to clinical trials.
  • In contrast, there has been a steady improvement in the outlook of patients with established metastatic liver cancer when the primary site is colorectal.
  • Somatostatin analogues have had a dramatic impact on the symptomatic control of neuroendocrine tumours, metastatic to the liver that result in the carcinoid syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion of Innovation. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Great Britain. Hormones / therapeutic use. Humans. Interferons / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Palliative Care. State Medicine. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 17882851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2118
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
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19. Sutcliffe R, Maguire D, Ramage J, Rela M, Heaton N: Management of neuroendocrine liver metastases. Am J Surg; 2004 Jan;187(1):39-46
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  • [Title] Management of neuroendocrine liver metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: The optimum management of neuroendocrine liver metastases, particularly the role of liver transplantation is ill-defined.
  • This, as well as the failure to standardize treatment, has probably contributed to the reported variations in outcome.
  • DATA SOURCES: To formulate a putative management protocol and to reevaluate the role of liver transplantation in patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases, a review of the published literature (Medline search) was conducted.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Isolated hepatic metastases should be resected when suitable.
  • Chemoembolization of liver metastases should precede resection of bulky disease and be used to palliate those with unresectable disease.
  • Radiofrequency ablation is suitable for smaller metastatic lesions (<3 cm diameter) in the liver.
  • Systemic treatment with somatostatin analogues or radioactive metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is appropriate to reduce symptoms and slow disease progression, but prospective data is required to define their exact roles as adjuvant and therapeutic agents.
  • Although current systemic chemotherapy, applied in isolation, may have a role in patients in whom other therapies have failed, its efficacy remains unproven.
  • Restriction of liver transplantation to the treatment of patients with carcinoid metastases with biologically favorable features, limited tumor bulk and without systemic disease may make transplantation a curative rather than a palliative treatment option in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Biopsy, Needle. Humans. Liver Transplantation. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy

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  • (PMID = 14706584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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20. Frezza EE, Wachtel MS, Barragan B, Chiriva-Internati M, Cobos E: The role of radiofrequency ablation in multiple liver metastases to debulk the tumor: a pilot study before alternative therapies. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2007 Jun;17(3):282-4
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  • [Title] The role of radiofrequency ablation in multiple liver metastases to debulk the tumor: a pilot study before alternative therapies.
  • INTRODUCTION: In this study, our aim was to proceed with the first study of our patients by evaluating different metastatic tumor to the liver to check whether, after debulking the tumor with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), the chemotherapy, could increase the survival in these patients as a pilot study before applying alternative therapies in the future.
  • The tumors considered were carcinoid (3), gastrinoma (3), a new endocrine of unknown origin (2), colorectal (2), and breast (1).
  • All other patients are still alive, although 2 experienced hepatic recurrences.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The 11 patients in this series showed that RFA combined with chemotherapy is a viable therapeutic choice for patients with cancer that has metastasized to the liver.
  • New therapies are still needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Catheter Ablation. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Cause of Death. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrinoma / secondary. Humans. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Myocardial Infarction / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Pilot Projects. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17570770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Fernández JA, Robles R, Marín C, Hernández Q, Sánchez Bueno F, Ramírez P, Rodríguez JM, Luján JA, Navalón JC, Parrilla P: Role of liver transplantation in the management of metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. Transplant Proc; 2003 Aug;35(5):1832-3
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  • [Title] Role of liver transplantation in the management of metastatic neuroendocrine tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: In the majority of patients transplanted for unresectable liver metastases, long-term results are disappointing because of early tumor recurrence.
  • Due to its biologically less aggressive nature, neuroendocrine metastases (NM) may represent a good indication for liver transplantation (LT).
  • The management of primary tumors was sequential in three patients with the tumor being resected before LT (one Whipple procedure and two left pancreatectomies).
  • All patients were treated with chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Two patients developed recurrent disease succumbing at 15 months (nonfunctioning NE pancreatic head tumor) and 17 months (carcinoid of the pancreatic tail) post-LT.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Transplantation / physiology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12962813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Fiorentini G, Rossi S, Bonechi F, Vaira M, De Simone M, Dentico P, Bernardeschi P, Cantore M, Guadagni S: Intra-arterial hepatic chemoembolization in liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors: a phase II study. J Chemother; 2004 Jun;16(3):293-7
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  • [Title] Intra-arterial hepatic chemoembolization in liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors: a phase II study.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors, particularly those of gastrointestinal tract origin, have a predisposition for metastasizing to the liver, causing parenchymal substitution and paraneoplastic syndrome.
  • Lipiodol embolization combined with anticancer drugs is a recent tool in regional therapy.
  • It has been proven that chemoembolization reduces tumor bulk and hormone levels, and that it palliates the symptoms of many patients with liver-dominant neuroendocrine metastases.
  • Beginning in December 1988, ten patients with unresectable and chemotherapy-refractory liver metastatic neuroendocrine tumors were treated with chemoembolization based on a mixture of lipiodol, mitomycin, cisplatin, epirubicin, followed by gelfoam powder and contrast media.
  • One patient had liver abscess and persistent fever for 2 weeks.
  • They showed more than a 75% decrease in urinary secretion after treatment.
  • In a patient with transplanted liver we noticed a partial response lasting 7 months.
  • We conclude that chemoembolization will improve the clinical condition of a significant percentage of patients with liver metastases, that future therapy of carcinoid tumors will be based on specific tumor biology and that treatment will be customized for each individual patient combining the use of cytoreductive procedures including radiofrequency ablation, laser treatment and chemoembolization.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Liver / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15330328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-009X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chemother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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23. Ducreux M, Baudin E, Schlumberger M: [Treatment strategy of neuroendocrine tumors]. Rev Prat; 2002 Feb 1;52(3):290-6
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  • [Title] [Treatment strategy of neuroendocrine tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Stratégie de traitement des tumeurs neuro-endocrines.
  • Therapeutic strategy of neuroendocrine tumours is complex, due to their heterogeneity and to the fact that although generally slow growing, a significant proportion demonstrates aggressive tumour growth.
  • Symptomatic carcinoid syndrome and various pancreatic endocrine tumours with symptomatic syndromes are well controlled with somatostatin analogues.
  • Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment if the tumour can be resected.
  • Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour are treated when resection is not feasible with combination chemotherapy using adriamycin and streptozotocin, which remains a standard of care.
  • In well differentiated tumour of the gut or the lung there is no clear standard of chemotherapy and treatment vary according to the tumour course.
  • In indolent cases, somatostatin analogues are the best treatment, in case of aggressive tumours chemoembolisation should be preferred when the disease is located or predominant in the liver.
  • Poorly differentiated tumours are treated by combination chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin, and surgery has no indication.
  • Gastrinoma and other pancreatic tumours arising in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I disease need a specific therapeutic strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Hormones / therapeutic use. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Gastrinoma / drug therapy. Humans. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / drug therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia. Neoplasm Metastasis. Streptozocin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11925720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Hormones; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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24. Amersi FF, McElrath-Garza A, Ahmad A, Zogakis T, Allegra DP, Krasne R, Bilchik AJ: Long-term survival after radiofrequency ablation of complex unresectable liver tumors. Arch Surg; 2006 Jun;141(6):581-7; discussion 587-8
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  • [Title] Long-term survival after radiofrequency ablation of complex unresectable liver tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between November 1, 1997, and January 31, 2005, we performed 219 RFA procedures to ablate 521 hepatic tumors in 181 patients.
  • The most common tumors included colorectal cancer (40.9%), hepatocellular carcinoma (14.9%), carcinoid tumor (13.8%), melanoma (9.4%), and breast cancer (5.0%).
  • The average number of RFA-treated lesions per procedure was 2.38 lesions; the mean lesion size was 3.56 cm (lesion size range, 0.8-9.0 cm).
  • At a mean follow-up of 33.2 months (follow-up range, 12-91 months), overall survival was 48.3 months for carcinoid tumors, 25.2 months for hepatocellular carcinoma, 18.5 months for melanoma, 29.7 months for colorectal cancer, and 30.1 months for breast cancer.
  • Seventy-eight patients (43%) developed recurrences.
  • CONCLUSION: A significant number of patients whose hepatic malignancies are unresectable or refractory to chemotherapy may be considered for RFA as part of a multimodality therapeutic regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Catheter Ablation. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 16785359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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25. Desai KK, Khan MS, Toumpanakis C, Caplin ME: Management of gastroentero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol; 2009 Dec;55(4):425-43
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  • The ability of carcinoid tumors to cause clinical symptoms by secretion of hormones or biogenic amines is best recognised in the form of the carcinoid syndrome.
  • A small percentage of NETs are associated with co-existing synchronous non-carcinoid neoplasm.
  • The therapeutic options which are reviewed, including the use of somatostatin analogues, the role of surgery, the use of chemotherapy, biotherapy using interferon, peptide receptor targeted therapy.
  • In addition, the challenging interventional management of liver metastases is discussed, including the role of hepatic-artery embolization, radiofrequency ablation and the place of orthotoptic liver transplantation in selected patients.
  • Authors have focused on the newest therapeutic modalities, e.g., radionuclide peptide receptor targeted therapy with Yttrium-90 and Lutetium-177, the newest somatostatin analogues such as pasireotide and angiogenic inhibitors.
  • In conclusion, with the increasing number of investigative procedures and therapeutic options available to diagnose and treat carcinoid tumors, it is vital to have a multidisciplinary approach.
  • Furthermore, additional scientific research and controlled clinical trials are needed to determine the efficacy of the many treatment options, which for these rare tumors can only be achieved by collaboration.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Biochemistry. Embolization, Therapeutic. Gastrinoma / therapy. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Insulinoma / therapy. Liver Transplantation. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Patient Selection. Receptors, Peptide / physiology. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Vipoma / therapy. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / complications

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  • (PMID = 19942827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-421X
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva gastroenterologica e dietologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Peptide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide
  • [Number-of-references] 160
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26. Basaria S, McCarthy EF, Belzberg AJ, Ball DW: Case of an ivory vertebra. J Endocrinol Invest; 2000 Sep;23(8):533-5
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  • He failed to respond to conventional bisphosphate therapy.
  • The review of the original biopsy specimen showed metastatic carcinoid tumor involving the bone marrow.
  • The various features of carcinoid tumors metastasizing to the skeleton are briefly reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Alendronate / therapeutic use. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Biopsy. Bone Marrow / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Osteitis Deformans / drug therapy. Osteoblasts / pathology. Technetium. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] Radiology. 1973 May;107(2):327-30 [4695897.001]
  • [Cites] Anticancer Res. 1998 Mar-Apr;18(2B):1243-9 [9615795.001]
  • [Cites] Thorax. 1977 Aug;32(4):509-11 [929495.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1994 Mar-Apr;12(2):228-9 [8039297.001]
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  • (PMID = 11021770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 7440-26-8 / Technetium; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate; X1J18R4W8P / Alendronate
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27. Dörffel Y, Wermke W: Neuroendocrine tumors: characterization with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Ultraschall Med; 2008 Oct;29(5):506-14

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: In NET of the lung, stomach, and colon we found only hypoechoic or isoechoic liver metastases.
  • NET of the small intestine and pancreas represented hypoechoic, isoechoic, and/or hyperechoic liver lesions, sometimes combined.
  • Necrotic areas (25/83) were detected after interferon therapy, embolization, systemic chemotherapy, and radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases, but did not develop after somatostatin receptor radionuclide therapy.
  • The hypervascularized tissue was found in the primary lesions, in liver, lymph node metastases and any kind of abdominal metastases.
  • In liver metastases with a proliferation index >2%, tumor arteries showed a chaotic growth pattern.
  • In most cases real-time CEUS may replace other imaging techniques.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / ultrasonography. Humans. Jejunal Neoplasms / secondary. Jejunal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / ultrasonography. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19241507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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28. Menias CO, Surabhi VR, Prasad SR, Wang HL, Narra VR, Chintapalli KN: Mimics of cholangiocarcinoma: spectrum of disease. Radiographics; 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4):1115-29
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  • Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant hepatobiliary neoplasm, accounting for approximately 15% of liver cancers.
  • Mimics of cholangiocarcinoma constitute a heterogeneous group of entities that includes primary sclerosing cholangitis, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cholangiopathy, autoimmune pancreatitis, inflammatory pseudotumor, Mirizzi syndrome, xanthogranulomatous cholangitis, sarcoidosis, chemotherapy-induced sclerosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, metastases, melanoma, lymphoma, leukemia, and carcinoid tumors.
  • In most cases, a definitive diagnosis can be established only with histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / radiography. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18635632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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29. Gualdi GF, Casciani E, Polettini E: [Imaging of neuroendocrine tumors]. Clin Ter; 2001 Mar-Apr;152(2):107-21
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  • Functional tumors show early, because the neoplasm release the hormone produced when they are still small.
  • The localization and the evaluation of the extensive of these tumors has come fundamentally important both in correct presurgical detection and also in the diagnosis of metastases which excluded surgery.
  • Also, as the survival of 20% of the patients with metastases is only five years, the use of non-invasive imaging techniques is very important for the evaluation of results of the various therapies (chemotherapy, interferon, somatostatin).
  • Where SRS is negative and surgery is possible, Spiral CT or better still MRI is the best tool to check the results of chemotherapy in patients with hepatic metastases (already detected by SRS), because it is easier to compare the changes in size and morphology of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiography. Apudoma / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Humans. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / diagnosis. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / radiography

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  • (PMID = 11441522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9074
  • [Journal-full-title] La Clinica terapeutica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ter
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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30. Higashi D, Watanabe Y, Hirano K, Shimomura T, Egawa Y, Tomiyasu T, Ishibashi Y, Futami K, Maekawa T, Ota A, Oshige K, Iwashita A: A study of the postoperative course in cases of GIST of the stomach. The efficacy of imatinib in cases of recurrence. Anticancer Res; 2009 Nov;29(11):4893-6
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  • In addition, treatment with the molecular-targeted drug imatinib was studied in cases of recurrence.
  • Six of these cases involved patients with carcinoma or carcinoid tumors, which could have affected the procedure and prognosis, and 2 cases involved patients who developed cancer during the postoperative course of the GIST.
  • Recurrence occurred in 6 out of the 32 patients (18.8%) and was observed in the liver of 5 patients, in the lungs of 2 patients, in the peritoneum of 2 patients, locally in 1 patient, and in the bone of 1 patient (including patients with multiple sites).
  • The treatment for recurrence was transcatheter arterial embolization for 1 patient and imatinib for 5 patients.
  • Imatinib was effective against GIST that were positive for KIT protein, but future study is needed to clarify the risk factors for recurrence and indications for adjuvant therapy in cases of GIST.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20032453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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31. Elizalde I, Borda F: [Current treatment of carcinoid tumor]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2002 Oct;25(8):508-13
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  • [Title] [Current treatment of carcinoid tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento actual del tumor carcinoide.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Heart Disease / drug therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Dietary Fats / therapeutic use. Embolization, Therapeutic. Endoscopy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / drug therapy. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / prevention & control. Neoplasm Metastasis. Niacin / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Serotonin Antagonists / therapeutic use. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / complications

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  • (PMID = 12361534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Serotonin Antagonists; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 2679MF687A / Niacin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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32. Khan MQ, Al Kahtani KM, Al-Ashgar H: Metastatic hepatic carcinoid associated with ectopic ACTH syndrome, resistant to octreotide and ketoconazole therapy. Ann Saudi Med; 2004 Sep-Oct;24(5):386-90
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  • [Title] Metastatic hepatic carcinoid associated with ectopic ACTH syndrome, resistant to octreotide and ketoconazole therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / complications. ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Ketoconazole / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [ErratumIn] Ann Saudi Med. 2004 Nov-Dec;24(6):490. Al Kahtani, Khalid Mohammed [corrected to Al Kahtani, Nora]
  • (PMID = 15573856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-4947
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of Saudi medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Saudi Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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