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1. Goon PK, Lip GY, Boos CJ, Stonelake PS, Blann AD: Circulating endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and endothelial microparticles in cancer. Neoplasia; 2006 Feb;8(2):79-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Circulating endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and endothelial microparticles in cancer.
  • Cancer, a proliferative disease hallmarked by abnormal cell growth and spread, is largely dependent on tumor neoangiogenesis, with evidence of vascular endothelial dysfunction.
  • Novel ways to assess vascular function in cancer include measuring levels of circulating endothelial cells (CEC).
  • They have been documented in many human diseases, including different types of cancers.
  • At present, there is great interest in evaluating the role of EPC as novel markers for tumor angiogenesis and drug therapy monitoring.
  • This review aims to collate existing literature and provide an overview on the current position of CEC, EPC, and EMP in cell biology terms and to identify their significance to clinical medicine, with particular emphasis on relationship with cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16611400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 94
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1578513
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2. Pirollo KF, Rait A, Zhou Q, Zhang XQ, Zhou J, Kim CS, Benedict WF, Chang EH: Tumor-targeting nanocomplex delivery of novel tumor suppressor RB94 chemosensitizes bladder carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Apr 1;14(7):2190-8
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  • [Title] Tumor-targeting nanocomplex delivery of novel tumor suppressor RB94 chemosensitizes bladder carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
  • PURPOSE: RB94, a truncated form of RB110, has enhanced tumor suppressor potency and activity against all tumor types tested to date including bladder carcinoma.
  • However, efficient, systemic delivery of the gene encoding RB94 specifically to tumors, is an obstacle to clinical application as an anticancer therapeutic.
  • We have developed a systemically given, nanosized liposome DNA delivery system that specifically targets primary and metastatic disease.
  • The ability of RB94, delivered via this nanocomplex, to sensitize bladder carcinoma to chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo was assessed.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The nanocomplex is an RB94 plasmid encapsulated by a cationic liposome, the surface of which is decorated with a tumor-targeting moiety, either transferrin (Tf/Lip/RB94) or an antitransferrin receptor single-chain antibody fragment (TfRScFv/Lip/RB94).
  • In vivo tumor specificity and efficacy were tested in mice carrying HTB-9 tumors by PCR and tumor growth inhibition, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Transfection with Tf/Lip/RB94 significantly sensitized HTB-9 cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro.
  • Tumor specificity of the complex was shown in an orthotopic bladder tumor model by immunohistochemistry and PCR.
  • Moreover, in mice bearing subcutaneous HTB-9 tumors, the combination of systemically given Tf/Lip/RB94 or TfRScFv/Lip/RB94 plus gemcitabine resulted in significant (P<0.0005) tumor growth inhibition/regression and induction of apoptosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Use of our tumor-targeting nanocomplex to specifically deliver the potent tumor suppressor RB94 efficiently to tumors has potential as a more effective treatment modality for genitourinary and other cancers.

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  • (PMID = 18381961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA091846; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097127; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / C06 RR14567; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / C06 RR014567; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 1S10 RR15768-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin Fragments; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Transferrin; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS686809; NLM/ PMC4448145
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3. Brennan P, Coates M, Armstrong B, Colin D, Boffetta P: Second primary neoplasms following non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in New South Wales, Australia. Br J Cancer; 2000 Apr;82(7):1344-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We used data from the New South Wales Central Cancer Registry to analyse second primary neoplasms following NHL diagnosed between 1972 and 1995, to identify possible common causal agents.
  • A total of 12,452 patients contributed 54,308 person-years of follow-up during which time there were 705 second primary neoplasms compared to 592.99 expected (standardized incidence ratio (SIR = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.28).
  • There were excesses of melanomas of skin (SIR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.92-2.91), lip cancer (SIR = 2.74, 95% CI 1.59-4.38), tongue cancer (SIR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.09-4.99) and bladder cancer (SIR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.19-2.21).
  • There was also over a threefold excess in soft tissue sarcomas (SIR = 3.61, 95% CI 1.80-6.45) and in thyroid cancer (SIR = 3.42, 95% CI 1.56-6.49).
  • The increases in melanoma of the skin and cancer of the lip and tongue among patients with NHL strongly suggest sunlight exposure as a shared causal agent.
  • The increase in soft tissue sarcomas might be due to shared effects of exposure to chemicals such as phenoxy acid herbicides.
  • The increases in bladder and thyroid cancers are likely to be explained by effects of treatment for NHL.
  • We did not find a chemotherapy related increased risk of myeloid leukaemia among NHL patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / etiology. Middle Aged. New South Wales / epidemiology. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 10755412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] SCOTLAND
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2374485
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4. Khan A, Khan AA, Dwivedi V, Ahmad MG, Hakeem S, Owais M: Tuftsin augments antitumor efficacy of liposomized etoposide against fibrosarcoma in Swiss albino mice. Mol Med; 2007 May-Jun;13(5-6):266-76
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  • Anticancer drugs are generally plagued by toxic manifestations at doses necessary for control of various forms of cancer.
  • Incorporating such drugs into liposomes not only reduces toxicity but also enhances the therapeutic index.
  • The efficacies of the free form of ETP, liposomized ETP (Lip-ETP), and tuftsin-bearing liposomized ETP (Tuft-Lip-ETP) formulations were evaluated on the basis of tumor regression, effect on expression level of p53wt and p53mut, and survival of the treated animals.
  • Tuft-Lip-ETP, when administered at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight/day for five days, significantly reduced tumor volume, delayed tumor growth, and also up-regulated the expression of p53wt.
  • In contrast, although Lip-ETP delayed tumor growth, it did not decrease tumor size.
  • The results of the present study suggest that tuftsin incorporation in drug-loaded liposomes is a promising treatment strategy for various forms of cancers, including fibrosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Fibrosarcoma / drug therapy. Tuftsin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Cell Count. Body Weight / drug effects. Buffers. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Liposomes. Mice. Pharmaceutical Preparations. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17622310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-1551
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Buffers; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Pharmaceutical Preparations; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; QF5336J16C / Tuftsin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1906688
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5. Kyllönen L, Salmela K, Pukkala E: Cancer incidence in a kidney-transplanted population. Transpl Int; 2000;13 Suppl 1:S394-8
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  • [Title] Cancer incidence in a kidney-transplanted population.
  • A study on cancer incidence after kidney transplantation was performed using data of national transplant and cancer registries.
  • The SIR was highest in skin cancer (39.2).
  • The SIRs were high in cancers of the lip (23.0), thyroid (8.08), kidney (8.0), lower urinary tract (3.2), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.8), ovary (3.9) and colon (3.9).
  • Skin cancer and lymphomas had much higher SIRs in men than in women whereas lower urinary tract cancer had a higher SIR in women.
  • During the first 10 follow up years, life-table analysis indicates a higher cancer risk in cyclosporine-treated patients, but this may be biased by their shorter follow up as the overall SIR was equal in both groups.
  • This population study shows the increased incidence of cancer in the transplant population and points out the importance of cancer surveillance in the years following kidney transplantation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Finland / epidemiology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Incidence. Male. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11112040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0934-0874
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transpl. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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6. Wu CF, Chen CM, Chen CH, Shieh TY, Sheen MC: Continuous intraarterial infusion chemotherapy for early lip cancer. Oral Oncol; 2007 Sep;43(8):825-30
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  • [Title] Continuous intraarterial infusion chemotherapy for early lip cancer.
  • Most lip cancers are usually diagnosed and can be treated with good prognosis at an early stage.
  • This study reports our experience of treating seven, previously untreated, patients with lip cancer in stage I or II using intraarterial infusion chemotherapy with a single agent.
  • In every case the tumor regressed dramatically and disappeared completely after treatment within a mean period of 2.5 months.
  • Only one patient died, of non-disease related pneumonia 3 years after infusion therapy.
  • The side effects of infusion chemotherapy were mild and tolerable.
  • Our technique of continuous intraarterial infusion therapy for treatment of early lip cancers seems to be as effective as other standard techniques such as surgery or radiation therapy.
  • This modality achieves good tumor response rates, an excellent cosmetic result, preservation of function and minimal side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Lip Neoplasms / drug therapy. Methotrexate / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusion Pumps, Implantable. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17207655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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7. Penn I: Post-transplant malignancy: the role of immunosuppression. Drug Saf; 2000 Aug;23(2):101-13
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  • Immunosuppressed organ allograft recipients have a 3- to 4-fold increased risk of developing tumours, but the risk of developing certain cancers is increased several hundredfold.
  • With the exception of skin and lip cancers, most of the common malignancies seen in the general population are not increased in incidence.
  • Skin and lip cancers present some unusual features: a remarkable frequency of KS, reversal of the ratio of basal to squamous cell carcinomas seen in the general population, the young age of the patients, and the high incidence of multiple tumours (in 43% of the patients).
  • Anogenital cancers occur at a much younger age than in the general population.
  • As the immunosuppressed state per se and various potentially oncogenic viruses play a major role in causing these cancers, preventative measures include reducing immunosuppression to the lowest level compatible with good allograft function and prophylactic measures against certain virus infections.
  • Reduction of exposure to sunlight may also decrease the incidence of skin cancer.
  • In addition to conventional treatments (resection, radiation therapy, chemotherapy) patients may receive antiviral drugs, interferon-alpha and various other manipulations of the immune system.
  • A significant percentage of cases of PTLD and KS respond to reduction or cessation of immunosuppressive therapy.

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  • (PMID = 10945373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0114-5916
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug safety
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Saf
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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8. Kovács AF, Ghahremani MT, Stefenelli U, Bitter K: Postoperative chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in cancer of the oral cavity and the oropharynx--long-term results. J Chemother; 2003 Oct;15(5):495-502
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  • [Title] Postoperative chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in cancer of the oral cavity and the oropharynx--long-term results.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy has not yet been proven to have a survival benefit for patients with head and neck cancer.
  • Studies dealing with this topic have had several faults like mingling tumor localizations and treatment modalities.
  • To re-examine the role of postoperative chemotherapy in oral cavity cancer, a single-center study was conducted with the attempt to have higher homogeneity.
  • 122 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the lip, the oral cavity and the oropharynx have been treated with 100 mg/m2 cisplatin bolus infusion and 120-h continuous infusion of 1000 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil following radical surgery; 99 patients completed all 3 cycles.
  • The disease-free and overall survival are reported and compared to a control group of 161 patients with cancer of the lip, the oral cavity and oropharynx treated only with surgery, and a treatment-dependent prognostic index.
  • After a median follow-up of 79 months (range 5-18 years), the current 5-year overall survival of the chemotherapy group was 67% and the 5-year disease-free survival was 57% while the respective data for the control group are 46% and 40%.
  • The chemotherapy group suffered from fewer local and more neck relapses and had a much longer relapse latency (29 months versus 8 months).
  • The toxicity of the chemotherapy regimen was tolerable.
  • In a homogeneous population with resectable oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil resulted in a high overall survival rate which was significantly better than in a comparable population treated only with surgery and better than the survival expectation calculated with the help of a prognostic index.
  • A prospective randomized study of postoperative chemotherapy versus control, exclusively in patients with oral cancer, is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Lip Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lip Neoplasms / surgery. Mouth Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mouth Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14598943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-009X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chemother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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9. Ryu S, Khan M, Yin FF, Concus A, Ajlouni M, Benninger MS, Kim JH: Image-guided radiosurgery of head and neck cancers. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2004 Jun;130(6):690-7
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  • [Title] Image-guided radiosurgery of head and neck cancers.
  • OBJECTIVES: Radiosurgery precisely delivers a single high dose or a few fractionated doses of radiation to a localized tumor via the stereotactic approach.
  • The clinical studies were carried out to determine the accuracy of stereotactic radiosurgery and to demonstrate the effectiveness of radiosurgery in head and neck cancers.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients were treated with either single-dose or fractionated radiosurgery to the tumor.
  • All patients except one with cancer of the lip had received prior treatments including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy for the primary cancers.
  • The dose ranged 12 to 18 Gy for single-dose radiosurgery and 30 Gy in 5 or 6 fractions twice a week for fractionated radiosurgery.
  • Tumor localization was achieved via the stereotactic approach.
  • Despite the recurrent disease from previous heavy treatments, 9 patients (70%) showed a significant response (complete or >50% tumor reduction) to radiosurgery, and 3 patients had stable disease.
  • Complete tumor response was achieved in 6 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Image-guided radiosurgery is effective in achieving the local tumor control and pain relief.
  • The results indicate the potential of radiosurgery in the treatment of recurrent and selected primary head and neck cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Stereotaxic Techniques

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  • (PMID = 15195054.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Güleç AT, Haberal M: Lip and oral mucosal lesions in 100 renal transplant recipients. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Jan;62(1):96-101
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  • [Title] Lip and oral mucosal lesions in 100 renal transplant recipients.
  • BACKGROUND: Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) appear to be more susceptible to the development of oral mucosal disease and lip cancer as a result of graft-preserving immunosuppressive therapy.
  • However, reports regarding these pathologies other than lip cancer are scarce and not studied in a detailed manner in this patient population.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rates and clinical features of lip lesions and oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) in RTRs.
  • METHODS: In all, 100 consecutive RTRs (21 female and 79 male) and 79 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects (23 female and 56 male) were screened for all pathologic and pseudopathologic lip lesions and OMLs, with special interest on precancerous and cancerous lesions.
  • RESULTS: One or more lip lesions, OMLs, or both were noted in every participant of both groups.
  • Fordyce spots on the lips was the most common lesion in the patient group (73%), followed by diffuse gingival enlargement (39%), fissured tongue (35%), and oral candidiasis (26%).
  • No actinic cheilitis, lip cancer, or oral malignancy was observed.
  • LIMITATIONS: This was a relatively small sample size for evaluating precancerous and cancerous lip lesions and OMLs, as they are less frequently observed than benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Some of the benign OMLs (oral candidiasis and diffuse gingival enlargement) are increased in RTRs mainly as a result of the immunosuppressive therapy or drug side effects.
  • Precancerous or cancerous lesions were not observed on the lips or the oral mucosa of our RTRs.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunocompromised Host. Kidney Transplantation. Lip Diseases / epidemiology. Mouth Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Candidiasis, Oral / epidemiology. Female. Gingiva / pathology. Humans. Hypertrophy. Lip / blood supply. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Tongue, Fissured / epidemiology. Varicose Veins / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19926164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Clifford GM, Polesel J, Rickenbach M, Dal Maso L, Keiser O, Kofler A, Rapiti E, Levi F, Jundt G, Fisch T, Bordoni A, De Weck D, Franceschi S, Swiss HIV Cohort: Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Mar 16;97(6):425-32
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  • [Title] Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk for several cancers, but the influences of behavioral risk factors, such as smoking and intravenous drug use, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on cancer risk are not clear.
  • METHODS: Patient records were linked between the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and Swiss cantonal cancer registries.
  • Observed and expected numbers of incident cancers were assessed in 7304 persons infected with HIV followed for 28,836 person-years.
  • Relative risks for cancer compared with those for the general population were determined by estimating cancer registry-, sex-, age-, and period-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).
  • Statistically significantly elevated SIRs were also observed for anal cancer (SIR = 33.4, 95% CI = 10.5 to 78.6); Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 17.3, 95% CI = 10.2 to 27.4); cancers of the cervix (SIR = 8.0, 95% CI = 2.9 to 17.4); liver (SIR = 7.0, 95% CI = 2.2 to 16.5); lip, mouth, and pharynx (SIR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.1 to 7.4); trachea, lung, and bronchus (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.7 to 5.4); and skin, nonmelanomatous (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.2 to 4.5).
  • No clear impact of HAART on SIRs emerged for cervical cancer or non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers.
  • Cancers of the lung, lip, mouth, or pharynx were not observed among nonsmokers.
  • CONCLUSION: In persons infected with HIV, HAART use may prevent most excess risk of KS and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but not that of Hodgkin lymphoma and other non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers.
  • No cancers of the lip, mouth, pharynx, or lung were observed in nonsmokers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms / etiology. Smoking / adverse effects

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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Mar 16;97(6):407-9 [15769998.001]
  • (PMID = 15770006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Pollard JD, Hanasono MM, Mikulec AA, Le QT, Terris DJ: Head and neck cancer in cardiothoracic transplant recipients. Laryngoscope; 2000 Aug;110(8):1257-61
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  • [Title] Head and neck cancer in cardiothoracic transplant recipients.
  • INTRODUCTION: There is an increased incidence of cancer in patients after organ transplantation.
  • Demographic data, risk factors, and disease course were evaluated in patients who developed cancer.
  • RESULTS: One hundred twenty patients (11.2%) developed 547 non-lymphomatous malignancies.
  • The mean number of malignancies per cancer patient was 4.6.
  • The average time from transplantation to development of cancer was 63.1 months.
  • Of cutaneous malignancies, 79.3% were squamous cell carcinoma and 15.9% were basal cell carcinoma Cutaneous malignancies most commonly presented on the scalp, cheek, lip, and neck.
  • Thirteen percent of cutaneous head and neck cancers behaved aggressively, requiring extensive management including radical surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy.
  • A total of 34.2% of cancer patients developed metastases and 54.9% of cancer patients died as a direct result of cancer.
  • A total of 68% of cancer patients were smokers and 23.8% had significant alcohol use.
  • CONCLUSION: Transplant recipients have an increased incidence of cancer presenting in the head and neck.
  • Recognition of this aggressive biological behavior and heightened cancer surveillance should result in improved outcomes.


13. Hauschild A, Lischner S, Lange-Asschenfeldt B, Egberts F: Treatment of actinic cheilitis using photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate: report of three cases. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Oct;31(10):1344-7, discussion 1348
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  • [Title] Treatment of actinic cheilitis using photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate: report of three cases.
  • Treatment options comprise, for instance, destructive approaches, such as vermilionectomy and carbon dioxide laser ablation.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has demonstrated high efficacy in patients with epithelial skin cancers, but there is only one report on PDT with free delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and noncoherent light in the treatment of actinic cheilitis.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the treatment of three patients with actinic cheilitis with PDT using the new photosensitizing agent methyl aminolevulinate (methyl-5-amino-4-oxopenthanoate [MAOP]) combined with red light.
  • METHODS: MAOP was topically applied on the lower lip 3 hours before treatment with red light.
  • Two consecutive treatments, 1 week apart, were administered.
  • Clinical assessment was performed up to 13 months after the initial treatment.
  • Moderate to severe pain was associated with the application of the red light, and mild inflammation with edema of the lower lip occurred.
  • However, further studies are needed to compare the efficacy and cosmetic outcome with conventional treatment modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / administration & dosage. Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Cheilitis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sunlight / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16188193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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14. Kübler AC, de Carpentier J, Hopper C, Leonard AG, Putnam G: Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the lip using Foscan-mediated photodynamic therapy. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2001 Dec;30(6):504-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the lip using Foscan-mediated photodynamic therapy.
  • Carcinoma of the lip is a common cancer of the head and neck area; its incidence is approximately one-quarter that for oral cavity cancers.
  • It occurs most frequently on the lower lip of elderly males.
  • This non-randomized Phase II study aimed to estimate the complete response (CR) rate to Foscan-mediated photodynamic therapy (Foscan-PDT) in patients with primary cancer of the lip, duration of CR, and the tolerability and safety of Foscan-PDT.
  • Twenty-five patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip (Tis, T1, T2/N0/M0) and Karnofsky status > or = 70 received 0.15 mg/kg Foscan intravenously, followed 4 days later by a single non-thermal illumination of the tumour (light dose 20 J/cm2, irradiance 100 mW/cm2, lambda=652 nm).
  • The most common adverse event was swelling and local pain at the treatment site.
  • Tumour recurrence was observed in two patients 4 and 18 months after PDT.
  • One patient developed a single lymph node metastasis 7 months after therapy.
  • The functional results were excellent in all patients without any signs of limited mouth opening or impaired lip closure.
  • The cosmetic outcome was better than after surgical therapy.
  • Foscan-PDT is an effective treatment modality for small primary tumours of the lips.
  • It allows preservation of form and function and does not compromise future treatment options for recurrent, residual or second primary disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Lip Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mesoporphyrins / therapeutic use. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Laser Therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Photosensitivity Disorders / chemically induced. Prospective Studies. Radiation Dosage. Remission Induction. Safety. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11829232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0901-5027
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Mesoporphyrins; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; FU21S769PF / temoporfin
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15. Fields MT, Eisbruch A, Normolle D, Orfali A, Davis MA, Pu AT, Lawrence TS: Radiosensitization produced in vivo by once- vs. twice-weekly 2'2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (gemcitabine). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 Jun 1;47(3):785-91
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  • PURPOSE: Gemcitabine (2'2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine, dFdCyd) is a potent radiosensitizer of rodent and human tumor cells.
  • Our Phase I clinical trial using once-weekly dFdCyd as a radiosensitizer in the treatment of patients with Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer has produced a high rate of tumor response and significant normal mucosal toxicity.
  • Therefore, we have used a mouse model to assess whether the therapeutic ratio of combined modality therapy may be improved by using a twice-weekly drug regimen.
  • 1) Does a once-weekly or twice-weekly dFdCyd regimen cause more normal tissue radiosensitization?
  • 2) Does a once-weekly or twice-weekly dFdCyd + RT regimen produce a better therapeutic index?
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: To assess normal tissue toxicity, C3H mice underwent mouth (60)Co RT (27.5 Gy in 5 daily fractions) +/- dFdCyd delivered intraperitoneally (IP) either once or twice weekly 6 hours prior to irradiation.
  • Acute lip reactions were quantified according to a standard scoring system, and weight loss was measured.
  • We measured tumor control using squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) VII murine squamous cell flank tumors (50-125 mm(3)) treated with the same regimens used in the mouth irradiation model.
  • RESULTS: We found that dFdCyd delivered 800 mg/kg once weekly or 150 mg/kg twice weekly caused similar (and maximal tolerable) weight loss; therefore these regimens were chosen to test which schedule produced more acute lip radiosensitization.
  • To assess therapeutic index, we treated SCC VII flank tumors with RT combined with isotoxic drug/RT regimens (dFdCyd 800 mg/kg once weekly or 100 mg/kg twice weekly).
  • Tumors treated with twice-weekly dFdCyd + RT were significantly smaller than tumors treated with once-weekly drug + RT at 28 days from the start of treatment (p < 0.03).
  • In addition, our findings suggest that for head and neck cancers twice-weekly dFdCyd may have a higher therapeutic index compared with once-weekly dFdCyd when combined with daily RT.

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  • (PMID = 10837965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078554; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA78554
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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16. Lin CY, Wang HM, Kang CJ, Lee LY, Huang SF, Fan KH, Chen EY, Chen IH, Liao CT, Chang JT: Primary tumor site as a predictor of treatment outcome for definitive radiotherapy of advanced-stage oral cavity cancers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Nov 15;78(4):1011-9
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  • [Title] Primary tumor site as a predictor of treatment outcome for definitive radiotherapy of advanced-stage oral cavity cancers.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome of definitive radiotherapy (RT) for oral cavity cancers and to assess prognostic factors.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Definitive RT was performed on 115 patients with oral cavity cancers at Stages III, IVA, and IVB, with a distribution of 6%, 47%, and 47%, respectively.
  • The median dose of RT was 72 Gy (range, 62-76 Gy).
  • Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to 95% of the patients.
  • RESULTS: Eight-eight (76.5%) patients responded partially and 23 (20%) completely; of the patients who responded, 18% and 57%, respectively, experienced a durable effect of treatment.
  • The 3-year PFS rates based on the primary tumor sites were as follows: Group I (buccal, mouth floor, and gum) 51%, Group II (retromolar and hard palate) 18%, and Group III (tongue and lip) 6% (p < 0.0001).
  • The 3-year progression-free survival was 41% for N0 patients and 19% for patients with N+ disease (p = 0.012).
  • The T stage and RT technique did not affect survival.
  • CONCLUSION: The primary tumor site and neck stage are prognostic predictors in advanced-stage oral cancer patients who received radical RT.
  • The primary tumor extension and RT technique did not influence survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Mouth Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cause of Death. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Salvage Therapy / mortality. Survival Analysis. Taiwan. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20434273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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17. Guntinas-Lichius O, Wendt T, Buentzel J, Esser D, Lochner P, Mueller A, Schultze-Mosgau S, Altendorf-Hofmann A: Head and neck cancer in Germany: a site-specific analysis of survival of the Thuringian cancer registration database. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2010 Jan;136(1):55-63
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Head and Neck Cancer.

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  • [Title] Head and neck cancer in Germany: a site-specific analysis of survival of the Thuringian cancer registration database.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe epidemiology and prognosis of head and neck cancer in Germany.
  • METHODS: We analyzed the Thuringian cancer registry database from 1996 to 2005.
  • 3,821 cases with primary head and neck cancer were evaluated for patient's characteristics, tumor stage, incidence, treatment, and trends in overall survival.
  • RESULTS: During the period 1996-2005, the incidence of oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and salivary gland cancer increased significantly for males, and of oral cavity and hypopharynx cancer for females.
  • There was a significant trend using more multimodal therapy combining surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, and to use less radiotherapy as a single modality.
  • The median follow-up time of patients alive was 42 months.
  • The site-specific 5-year OS for lip, oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, salivary gland, and nose/paranasal sinus cancer was 75.7, 42.6, 43.5, 45.9, 27.2, 57.3, 61.0, and 34.9%, respectively.
  • The multivariate analysis showed that male gender, age ≥ 60 years, therapy without surgery, higher T classification, N classification, and M classification were independent significant negative risk factors for OS (p < 0.0001).
  • Cancer of the oral cavity and of the hypopharynx had a significant lower OS than lip cancer (p = 0.012 and p = 0.044, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Many subsites of head and neck cancer have changing incidence.
  • Although treatment strategies have changed, outcome has not improved significantly from 1995 to 2006.
  • [MeSH-major] Databases, Factual / statistics & numerical data. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19568769.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1335
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Stanko P, Satko I, Czako L, Beno M, Danko J, Zmeko S: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2007;108(7):292-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Oral Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: A number of treatment modalities are available in the management of oral cavity cancer.
  • These are surgery (operation OP), irradiation (radiotherapy RT), chemotherapy (CHT), or complex therapy performed as a combination of the later three methods with various survival rates.
  • BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Authors analysed retrospectively a group of 622 patients (553 men, 69 women), mean age 58.6 years (range 23-88 years) hospitalised in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty Hospital and Faculty of Medicine Comenius University in Bratislava within the years 1992-2001 with primary untreated histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity (beside cancer of the lip and salivary glands).
  • Gender, age, location and TNM staging of the disease, clinical and histopathological evaluations of the neck lymph nodes and relationship to the treatment modalities were recorded.
  • Regarding the complexity of treatment, the best 5-year survival rates showed the complex three-modal therapy (CHT + OP + RT = 23.5%), comparing to the dual (OP + RT or CHT + RT = 19.4%) and mono-modal therapy (OP or RT alone = 17.2%).
  • In the complex therapy, the mean disease-free interval improved (30.2 vs 39.4 months) due to a change in the sequence of therapy modalities.
  • In spite of the fact that the overal 5-year survival was found not to improve, the quality of life regarding the mean disease-free interval in the group of patients under the complex treatment is considered to be a positive result (Tab. 3, Fig.


19. Liang XH, Wang SZ, Mao ZY: [Effects of thermochemotherapy on immunologic function of patients with lip cancer]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2004 Mar;35(2):220-2
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  • [Title] [Effects of thermochemotherapy on immunologic function of patients with lip cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of thermochemotherapy on the immunologic function of lip cancer patients and to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of thermochemotherapy.
  • Each of the patients received the therapy twice a week for 5 weeks.
  • The lymphocyte transformation index after treatment was significantly higher than that before treatment (P < 0.01).
  • The CD4+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ after treatment were significantly higher than those before treatment (P < 0.05); the CD8+ T cells after treatment was lower than that before treatment, but there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Thermochemotherapy can enhance the lip cancer patient's T lymphocyte immunologic function, which possibly plays an important role in the treatment of lip cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / analogs & derivatives. Lip Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lip Neoplasms / immunology. T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. CD4-CD8 Ratio. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / immunology. Female. Hot Temperature. Humans. Lymphocyte Activation. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Microwaves. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15071922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-173X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 77108-50-0 / zhengguangmycin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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