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Items 1 to 39 of about 39
1. Kikushige Y, Takase K, Sata K, Aoki K, Numata A, Miyamoto T, Fukuda T, Gondo H, Harada M, Nagafuji K: Repeated relapses of acute myelogenous leukemia in the isolated extramedullary sites following allogeneic bone marrow transplantations. Intern Med; 2007;46(13):1011-4
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  • [Title] Repeated relapses of acute myelogenous leukemia in the isolated extramedullary sites following allogeneic bone marrow transplantations.
  • Isolated extramedullary (EM) relapses of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) have been reported to be rare, and are usually followed by bone marrow relapses.
  • Fifteen months after allo-HSCT, the patient initially developed a relapse only in his inguinal lymph nodes, and then bone marrow relapse became evident one month after the EM relapse.
  • Subsequently, the patient received chemotherapy and a second allo-HSCT from another donor, but he suffered another relapse in different EM sites including the skin and central nervous system with a persistently normal marrow.
  • This case is characterized by repeated relapses in isolated EM sites after allo-HSCT and suggests that the anti-leukemic effects of chemotherapy and/or graft-versus-leukemia effects in the EM sites might not be so uniformly effective as that in the marrow.
  • Accordingly, we should be aware that AML relapses can occur repeatedly only in isolated EM sites post allo-HSCT, resulting in treatment failure and a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Leukemic Infiltration / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17603242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Maruyama T, Yamamoto S, Nojima M, Morita N, Tanizawa T, Shima H: Extramedullary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood to the prostate. Int J Urol; 2007 May;14(5):447-9
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  • [Title] Extramedullary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood to the prostate.
  • He had a past history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which subsided in response to chemotherapy at 3 years of age.
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed no other abnormal finding.
  • Transrectal needle biopsy showed infiltration of leukemic cells in the prostate.
  • Bone marrow puncture and cerebrospinal fluid aspiration revealed no leukemic cells, resulting in a diagnosis of extramedullary relapse of ALL in the prostate.
  • Although he was successfully treated by chemotherapy, irradiation and his voiding function was improved, ALL relapsed in the left testis 1 year later.
  • In spite of left orchiectomy, irradiation and additional chemotherapy, he died of bone marrow relapse and multiple organ failure.
  • Extramedullary relapse of ALL in the prostate is very rare.


3. Mateo J, Abarzuza R, Núñez E, Cristóbal JA: [Bilateral optic nerve infiltration in acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol; 2007 Mar;82(3):167-70
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  • [Title] [Bilateral optic nerve infiltration in acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission].
  • CASE REPORT: An 18-year-old male affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after having reached complete remission after chemotherapy developed bilateral optic nerve infiltration.
  • DISCUSSION: Infiltration of the optic nerve may appear as an isolated sign of extramedullary relapse of ALL months in advance of the hematologic relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemic Infiltration. Optic Nerve / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Fundus Oculi. Humans. Male. Papilledema / diagnosis. Prognosis. Recurrence. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 17357894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0365-6691
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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4. Sollecito TP, Draznin J, Parisi E, Duffy K, Stadtmauer EA, Luger SM, Schuster SJ, Tsai D, Porter DL: Leukemic gingival infiltrate as an indicator of chemotherapeutic failure following monoclonal antibody therapy: a case report. Spec Care Dentist; 2003;23(3):108-10
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  • [Title] Leukemic gingival infiltrate as an indicator of chemotherapeutic failure following monoclonal antibody therapy: a case report.
  • Treatment options are limited for patients with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), particularly when the disease is refractory to standard cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Targeted drug therapy offers the advantage of delivering higher doses of non-cross resistant chemotherapy with potentially less systemic toxicity.
  • Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg, Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories) is an immunoconjugate that consists of humanized anti-CD 33 antibody linked to the potent anti-tumor antibiotic calicheamicin and has been an effective therapy for some patients with relapsed AML.
  • For instance, it is not known how well this antibody will target extramedullary disease.
  • This article reports gemtuzumab treatment of refractory AML in a 32-year-old man.
  • At the time of recurrence, his bone marrow was hypoplastic and without leukemia, but the condition progressed resulting in marked leukemic infiltration of the oral mucosa.
  • This case history raises the possibility that leukemic sanctuary sites may exist, and that monoclonal antibody therapy may have sub-optimal activity in non-medullary sites of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides / therapeutic use. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Gingiva / pathology. Immunotoxins / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antigens, CD. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 14650559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-1879
  • [Journal-full-title] Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spec Care Dentist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; 0 / gemtuzumab
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5. Huck K, Laws HJ, Meisel R, Traeger A, Bernbeck B, Schonberger S, Stackelberg VA, Pape H, Dilloo D: Three cases of renal relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Haematologica; 2006 May;91(5 Suppl):ECR07
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  • Generally, in ALL, the sites most frequently affected by extramedullary relapse are the central nervous system (CNS) and the testicles.
  • In all patients at the time of relapse bone marrow showed complete remission with complete donor hematopoiesis.
  • They all received total body irradiation with partial shielding of the kidneys as part of their conditioning therapy, such that renal shielding could be an explanation for the observed accumulation of renal relapses.
  • Due to these observations we advocate sufficient treatment of the kidneys during conditioning therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Kidney / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Dendritic Cells / transplantation. Disease Progression. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunotherapy. Leukocyte Transfusion. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / surgery. Radiation Protection. Recurrence. Salvage Therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Transplantation Conditioning / adverse effects. Transplantation, Homologous. Whole-Body Irradiation / adverse effects


6. Song JH, Kim SH, Cho D, Lee IK, Kim HJ, Kim TS: Enhanced invasiveness of drug-resistant acute myeloid leukemia cells through increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Int J Cancer; 2009 Sep 1;125(5):1074-81
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  • [Title] Enhanced invasiveness of drug-resistant acute myeloid leukemia cells through increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2.
  • The acquired drug resistance as well as extramedullary tissue infiltration of leukemic cells is a major obstacle in leukemia treatment.
  • Excessive egress of leukemia cell blasts results in invasion into various organs or tissues, which is facilitated by the catalytic activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
  • Here, we generated drug-resistant variants of the human acute myeloid leukemia cell line (AML-2/WT) by stepwise exposure to anticancer drugs and evaluated the level of MMP-2 in the drug-resistant variants, along with their invasiveness.
  • Each of the drug-resistant cell variants demonstrated predominant increases in the expression and gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 as well as in invasiveness, which were significantly suppressed by both a MMP-2 inhibitor and a blocking antibody.
  • Importantly, elevated levels of MMP-2 activity and invasiveness were observed in ex vivo mononuclear cell of bone marrow from patients with poor responses to chemotherapy.
  • These findings suggest that advanced malignancy due to acquired drug resistance is responsible for the progressive invasiveness of leukemia cells via MMP-2.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / enzymology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Benzopyrans / pharmacology. Blast Crisis. Blotting, Western. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] 2009 UICC.
  • (PMID = 19449375.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 1',3-dihydro-1'-(2-carboxyethyl)-3,3-dimethyl-6-nitrospiro-(2H-1-benzopyran-2,2'-(2H)-indoline); 0 / Benzopyrans; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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7. Breccia M, Petti MC, Testi AM, Specchia G, Ferrara F, Diverio D, Romano A, Guerrisi V, Greco A, Fiorella ML, de Vincentiis M, Mandelli F, Lo Coco F: Ear involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia at relapse: a disease-associated 'sanctuary'? Leukemia; 2002 Jun;16(6):1127-30
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  • Extramedullary (EM) involvement occurs infrequently in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and usually involves skin and CNS.
  • Front-line treatment included ATRA and chemotherapy (six patients) or chemotherapy alone (one patient).
  • [MeSH-major] Ear / pathology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration. Nuclear Proteins

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  • (PMID = 12040443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human
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8. Kobayashi R, Tawa A, Hanada R, Horibe K, Tsuchida M, Tsukimoto I, Japanese childhood AML cooperative study group: Extramedullary infiltration at diagnosis and prognosis in children with acute myelogenous leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Apr;48(4):393-8
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  • [Title] Extramedullary infiltration at diagnosis and prognosis in children with acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Extramedullary infiltration (EMI) is an occasional clinical symptom in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), but there is considerable controversy regarding the prognostic significance of EMI in AML.
  • PROCEDURE: We evaluated the frequency and prognostic significance of EMI at diagnosis of AML in children.
  • The complete remission rate following induction chemotherapy was lower in patients with EMI.
  • A detailed analysis showed that patients with EMI with a WBC count at diagnosis of over 100 x 10(9)/L or infiltration into the central nervous system are likely to have a poor prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CNS leukemia and EMI together with a WBC count of >100 x 10(9)/L at diagnosis of AML are high risk factors for relapse, and alternative treatment approaches for patients with these characteristics should be explored.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Myeloid / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone and Bones / pathology. Central Nervous System / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gingiva / pathology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Japan / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Orbit / pathology. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Skin / pathology. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16550530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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9. Hiçsönmez G, Cetin M, Tuncer AM, Yenicesu I, Aslan D, Ozyürek E, Unal S: Children with acute myeloblastic leukemia presenting with extramedullary infiltration: the effects of high-dose steroid treatment. Leuk Res; 2004 Jan;28(1):25-34
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  • [Title] Children with acute myeloblastic leukemia presenting with extramedullary infiltration: the effects of high-dose steroid treatment.
  • To evaluate whether children with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) presenting with extramedullary infiltration (EMI) have different clinical, morphologic features and prognosis from children without EMI, a 127 consecutive previously untreated children with AML were entered in this study.
  • However, analysis of clinical and biological features at diagnosis showed that WBC count > or =50 x 10(9) l(-1), hepatosplenomegaly >5 cm, FAB AML-M4 and AML-M5 subtypes and CD13, CD14 expression of bone marrow (BM) leukemic cells (>20%) were more frequent in children with EMI.
  • Two consecutive treatment protocols were used.
  • In both protocols remission was achieved with combined high-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) as a differentiating and apoptosis inducing agent with mild cytotoxic chemotherapy (low-dose cytosine arabinoside (LD Ara-C), weekly mitoxantrone and Ara-C or 6-thioguanine).
  • However, in patients who presented with myeloblastoma and treated with a more intensive post-remission therapy (AML-94), the 4-year disease-free survival (DFS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were not found to be significantly different from children who had no EMI (P>0.05).
  • Whereas, the outcome of children who presented with gingival infiltration did not improve.
  • In further studies, the prognostic significance of different localisation of EMI and the effect of addition of HDMP to cytotoxic chemotherapy should be explored in larger series.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / diagnosis. Leukemic Infiltration / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antigens, CD13 / metabolism. Antigens, CD14 / metabolism. Blast Crisis. Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Thioguanine / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14630077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD14; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; EC 3.4.11.2 / Antigens, CD13; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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10. Matano S, Ohta T, Nakamura S, Kanno M, Sugimoto T: Leukemic hypopyon in acute myelogenous leukemia. Ann Hematol; 2000 Aug;79(8):455-8
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  • [Title] Leukemic hypopyon in acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • We encountered a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who developed leukemic hypopyon.
  • He achieved complete remission after chemotherapy but developed blurred vision and hypopyon.
  • Anterior chamber paracentesis disclosed leukemic infiltration of the anterior chamber.
  • Infiltration of the central nervous system also occurred.
  • He received systemic chemotherapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, and local chemotherapy.
  • These findings suggest that these chemotherapy treatments have an inadequate effect for AML with anterior chamber infiltration.
  • This rare complication is associated with extramedullary infiltration of leukemia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Leukemic Infiltration. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 10985367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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11. Raanani P, Shpilberg O, Ben-Bassat I: Extramedullary disease and targeted therapies for hematological malignancies--is the association real? Ann Oncol; 2007 Jan;18(1):7-12
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  • [Title] Extramedullary disease and targeted therapies for hematological malignancies--is the association real?
  • During the past years targeted therapies have gained a major role in the treatment of cancer patients, including those with hematological malignancies.
  • Extramedullary involvement is a rare manifestation of acute and chronic leukemias and of multiple myeloma.
  • Nevertheless, with the expanding use of targeted treatments there is an impression that the incidence of extramedullary relapses is increasing.
  • The pathogenetic mechanisms suggested are: life prolongation by these treatments allowing for disease progression arising from dormant cells; poor penetration of the drugs to sanctuary sites like the central nervous system; the requirement of some of these drugs, especially thalidomide, for the marrow microenvironment to exert their action; and finally, a possible active role for some of the drugs, like all-trans-retinoic acid.
  • Since the use of these targeted therapies is expanding we should be aware of this association.

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  • (PMID = 16790518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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12. Chang H, Brandwein J, Yi QL, Chun K, Patterson B, Brien B: Extramedullary infiltrates of AML are associated with CD56 expression, 11q23 abnormalities and inferior clinical outcome. Leuk Res; 2004 Oct;28(10):1007-11
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  • [Title] Extramedullary infiltrates of AML are associated with CD56 expression, 11q23 abnormalities and inferior clinical outcome.
  • We evaluated the frequency and prognostic significance of extramedullary infiltrates (EMI) at presentation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adult patients.
  • Of 331 cases with de novo AML, 101(30.5%) had extramedullary infiltrates at diagnosis.
  • The extramedullary manifestations included: lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, gingival hypertrophy, skin infiltrates and involvement of central nervous system (CNS).
  • The complete remission rate (CR) with induction chemotherapy was lower in patients with EMI (P=0.0077) and their overall survival was also inferior (P=0.0017).
  • Flow cytometric evaluation of the surface antigens expressed by the leukemic blasts for CD34, TdT, HLADR, CD7, CD19 and CD56 found that only CD56 expression was associated with EMI.
  • Our study of adult AML patients demonstrates that EMI at diagnosis is associated with CD56 expression by leukemic blasts, 11q23 karyotypic abnormalities, low complete remission rate and poor overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD56 / biosynthesis. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Leukemic Infiltration
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Central Nervous System / pathology. Cytogenetic Analysis. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Skin / pathology. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15289011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56
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13. Kang SP, Liu Db, Qureshi A, Seiter K: Presentation of extramedullary acute myelogenous leukemia as bilateral testicular masses: response to non-myeloablative allogeneic transplantation. Leuk Lymphoma; 2004 Jul;45(7):1481-3
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  • [Title] Presentation of extramedullary acute myelogenous leukemia as bilateral testicular masses: response to non-myeloablative allogeneic transplantation.
  • We present an unusual case of extramedullary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) presenting as bilateral testicular masses.
  • The patient subsequently developed diffuse skin lesions and bone marrow involvement.
  • Although he had only a partial response to intensive chemotherapy, the patient obtained a complete remission after non-myeloablative allogeneic transplantation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Graft vs Host Disease / etiology. Humans. Leukemic Infiltration. Male. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Skin / pathology. Transplantation Conditioning. Transplantation, Homologous


14. Rege K, Swansbury GJ, Atra AA, Horton C, Min T, Dainton MG, Matutes E, Durosinmi M, Treleaven JG, Powles RL, Catovsky D: Disease features in acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21)(q22;q22). Influence of age, secondary karyotype abnormalities, CD19 status, and extramedullary leukemia on survival. Leuk Lymphoma; 2000 Dec;40(1-2):67-77
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  • [Title] Disease features in acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21)(q22;q22). Influence of age, secondary karyotype abnormalities, CD19 status, and extramedullary leukemia on survival.
  • The clinicopathological features of these cases were analyzed to determine the influence of age, secondary karyotype abnormalities, and expression of the lymphoid marker CD19 on event free survival, and presence of extramedullary leukemia on overall survival.
  • They were treated with a variety of chemotherapy protocols and some had bone marrow transplantation.
  • Extramedullary leukemia (EML) occurred in 5 of the 50 cases (10%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Antigens, CD19 / analysis. Central Nervous System / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Disorders. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Leukemic Infiltration. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11426630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD19
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15. Tsimberidou AM, Estey E, Whitman GJ, Dryden MJ, Ratnam S, Pierce S, Faderl S, Giles F, Kantarjian HM, Garcia-Manero G: Extramedullary relapse in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia: successful treatment with arsenic trioxide, all-trans retinoic acid and gemtuzumab ozogamicin therapies. Leuk Res; 2004 Sep;28(9):991-4
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  • [Title] Extramedullary relapse in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia: successful treatment with arsenic trioxide, all-trans retinoic acid and gemtuzumab ozogamicin therapies.
  • Standard treatment consists of the combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with an anthracycline that results in complete remission (CR) rates in excess of 90%.
  • Herein, we report a patient with APL who relapsed with extramedullary disease 2.5 years after lipo-ATRA therapy and was successfully treated with the sequence of A2O3, ATRA, and GO and we summarize our experience with patients with isolated extramedullary relapse in APL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemic Infiltration
  • [MeSH-minor] Aminoglycosides / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Oxides / therapeutic use. Recurrence. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15234578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 0 / gemtuzumab; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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16. Liu HC, Hung GY, Yen HJ, Hsieh MY, Chiou TJ: Acute sciatica: an unusual presentation of extramedullary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Int J Hematol; 2007 Aug;86(2):163-5
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  • [Title] Acute sciatica: an unusual presentation of extramedullary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • He was in hematologic remission at admission but as progressive swelling of his left leg continued, bone marrow relapse developed.
  • A muscle biopsy revealed leukemic infiltrates in the surrounding muscles of the left sciatic nerve, and swelling of the nerve was found on a magnetic resonance imaging scan.
  • His symptoms/signs subsided soon after reinduction chemotherapy.
  • Unfortunately, he didn't survive because of a fungal sepsis that developed during the neutropenic state.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemic Infiltration / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / complications. Sciatica / etiology

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  • [Cites] J Formos Med Assoc. 1998 Apr;97(4):252-60 [9585676.001]
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  • (PMID = 17875532.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Nasilowska-Adamska B, Majewski M, Seferynska I, Szczepinski A, Tomaszewska A, Prochorec-Sobieszek M, Guz K, Torbicki A, Warzocha K, Marianska B: Predictive value of RT-PCR PML-RARA transcript monitoring for extramedullary relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia in the pleura, heart and pericardium after allogeneic SCT. Ann Transplant; 2007;12(3):33-8
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  • [Title] Predictive value of RT-PCR PML-RARA transcript monitoring for extramedullary relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia in the pleura, heart and pericardium after allogeneic SCT.
  • BACKGROUND: We report a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) relapse in extremely rare sites--the pleura, heart and pericardium without evidence of bone marrow infiltration and with molecular evidence of disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT).
  • After transplant, this patient remained in complete hematological and cytogenetic remission but nested RT-PCR assays with detection thresholds of 10(-3)/10(-4) were positive for PML-RARA rearranged gene even chimerism tests showed 100% of donor profile.
  • Twenty one months after transplant, the leukemic relapse in the pleura, heart and pericardium was diagnosed.
  • At that time, PML-RARA transcript detected in RT-PCR assay (10(-2)) was positive for the first time after transplant.
  • During salvage chemotherapy he died because of cardiogenic shock.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that detection of PML-RARA after alloSCT should be indication insightful diagnosis of medullary or extramedullary (EM) relapse.

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  • (PMID = 18290568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1425-9524
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein
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18. Al-Rayes HM, Al-Shaikh AA, Halim MA, Al-Qurashi FS, Al-Jurf MM: Leukemic synovitis as a presentation of myelomonocytic blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Saudi Med J; 2001 Sep;22(9):808-11
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  • [Title] Leukemic synovitis as a presentation of myelomonocytic blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia.
  • Imaging studies showed changes consistent with leukemic infiltration of the soft tissues around the right shoulder joint and the proximal humerus.
  • Immunophenotypic and morphologic analysis of the large number of cells obtained from the synovial fluid confirmed the shoulder synovitis to be an extramedullary manifestation of myelomonocytic blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia.
  • The patient was not a candidate for aggressive chemotherapy treatment because of her poor overall condition, and she had no compatible donor for allogenic bone marrow transplantation.
  • Her painful arthropathy was refractory to standard pain management but she achieved excellent pain relief with palliative radiation therapy.
  • We conclude that the involvement of extramedullary sites by chronic myeloid leukemia blast cells can predate hematological blast crisis in some of chronic myeloid leukemia cases.
  • Also, painful leukemic synovitis can be managed by low dose radiotherapy in a candidate who is refractory to chemotherapy and other medical therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Allopurinol / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hydroxyurea / administration & dosage


19. Bellaaj H, Moussa A, Gouiaa N, Maazoun K, Frikha I, Medhaffar M, Hdiji S, Elloumi M, Souissi T: [Isolated extramedullary adnexal relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report]. Arch Pediatr; 2009 Jul;16(7):1016-20
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  • [Title] [Isolated extramedullary adnexal relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report].
  • The occurrence of an isolated ovarian or pelvic relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in complete remission after chemotherapy has rarely been described.
  • We report the case of a 12-year-old girl, treated for ALL, who developed an isolated left ovarian and fallopian tube localization without medullary or blood relapse 4 years after the end of the initial treatment.
  • The treatment consisted of a second course of chemotherapy and complementary surgery; a second complete remission was obtained.
  • [MeSH-major] Fallopian Tubes / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / diagnosis. Ovary / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Remission Induction
  • [MeSH-minor] Adnexa Uteri / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ovariectomy. Retreatment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19359147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-664X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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20. Crazzolara R, Bernhard D: CXCR4 chemokine receptors, histone deacetylase inhibitors and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 Nov;46(11):1545-51
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  • Recent reports indicate that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is found on ALL cells and its ligand is highly expressed at sites associated with ALL-induced organ infiltration.
  • This results in chemotaxis, or directed migration of leukemic cells from the bone marrow via the circulation to preferential sites of extramedullary organ infiltration.
  • Because overexpression of CXCR4 on ALL cells is associated with high extramedullary organ infiltration and shorter disease-free survival, numerous pharmacological agents affecting CXCR4 have currently been investigated.
  • Wider recognition of the role of CXCR4 in ALL and manipulation of this important mechanism may lead to novel approaches in the treatment and outcome of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Receptors, CXCR4 / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Down-Regulation / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Leukemic Infiltration / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 16236608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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21. Norén-Nyström U, Eriksson M, Eriksson B, Roos G, Bergh A, Holmberg D: Antitumor activity of the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470 on murine lymphoma/leukemia cells in vivo and in vitro. Exp Hematol; 2003 Feb;31(2):143-9
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  • RESULTS: TNP-470 treatment significantly reduced total tumor load and tumor mass in specific organs infiltrated with lymphoma/leukemia.
  • We also observed side effects of TNP-470 not previously reported, such as diminished extramedullary erythropoiesis and disrupted liver morphology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TNP-470 treatment has a beneficial effect on tumor load in the TLL transfer model, most likely caused by the antiangiogenic effect of TNP-470.
  • The TLL transfer model is well suited for further studies of combinations with TNP-470 or other angiogenesis inhibitors and cytotoxic drugs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Cyclohexanes. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Erythropoiesis / drug effects. HL-60 Cells. Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary / drug effects. Humans. Leukemia / drug therapy. Leukemia / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / drug therapy. Liver / drug effects. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Neoplasm Transplantation. Transplantation, Isogeneic. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12591279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-472X
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Cyclohexanes; 0 / Sesquiterpenes; 129298-91-5 / O-(chloroacetylcarbamoyl)fumagillol
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22. Kiratli H, Demiroğlu H, Emeç S: Ocular relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (M4) with normal bone marrow. Int Ophthalmol; 2009 Aug;29(4):243-5
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  • A 47-year-old woman with AML was treated with chemotherapy and went successfully into remission.
  • Histopathological examination of the specimen showed diffuse blast cell infiltration.
  • Although exceedingly rare, ocular extramedullary relapse in AML M4 heralds bone marrow recurrence and, despite intensive chemotherapy, the prognosis is dismal.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Leukapheresis. Leukemic Infiltration / etiology. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1999 Feb 1;85(3):608-15 [10091734.001]
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  • (PMID = 18338107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2630
  • [Journal-full-title] International ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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23. Zebisch A, Cerroni L, Beham-Schmid C, Sill H: Therapy-related leukemia cutis: case study of an aggressive disorder. Ann Hematol; 2003 Nov;82(11):705-7
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  • [Title] Therapy-related leukemia cutis: case study of an aggressive disorder.
  • Therapy-related leukemia cutis has not yet been described.
  • We report a 55-year-old male who developed aleukemic leukemia cutis 15 months after chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Despite intensive therapy including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the patient died of progressive disease.
  • This case demonstrates that therapy-related aleukemic leukemia cutis is an aggressive disorder resistant to conventional antineoplastic treatment approaches.
  • As the number of patients developing therapy-related myelodysplasia or leukemia is increasing, clinicians might be confronted more frequently with atypical, extramedullary presentations of these disorders.
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Pair Mismatch / genetics. DNA Repair / genetics. Fatal Outcome. Genes, p53 / genetics. Humans. Leukemic Infiltration. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Peroxidase / metabolism. Skin / pathology. Skin / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 12920571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase
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24. Guo XN, Wang CY, Wang Y, Xu SR, Ren JH, Lin FR, Yao EG: [Blastic natural killer cell leukemia--one case report and review of literature]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2003 Jul;24(7):362-4
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  • METHODS: The characteristics of blastic NK cell leukemia and its treatment were discussed with review of literatures.
  • RESULTS: After combination chemotherapy and spinal cord segmental radiotherapy, the patient entered hematological remission, but the extramedullary lesion remained unchanged.
  • CONCLUSION: Blastic NK cell leukemia has an aggressive clinical course with poor response to treatment and unfavorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, Lymphoid / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 12941191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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25. Alexandrescu DT, Koulova L, Wiernik PH: Unusual cutaneous involvement during plasma cell leukaemia phase in a multiple myeloma patient after treatment with thalidomide: a case report and review of the literature. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2005 Jul;30(4):391-4
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  • [Title] Unusual cutaneous involvement during plasma cell leukaemia phase in a multiple myeloma patient after treatment with thalidomide: a case report and review of the literature.
  • We report the case of a 54-year-old African-American male with IgG multiple myeloma (MM) with disease resistant to multiple chemotherapy regimens and immunomodulatory treatment with thalidomide.
  • The malignant plasma cells derived from the dermal lesions were CD45+, CD38+, CD138+ and matched the immunophenotype of the plasmacytes during the leukaemic phase.
  • Occurrence of extramedullary lesions in the setting of MM treated with thalidomide is of concern, although currently there are very few reports describing this association.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Leukemia, Plasma Cell / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / chemically induced. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Skin / pathology. Thalidomide / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15953079.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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26. Firas AS, Demeckova E, Bojtarova E, Czako B, Hrubisko M, Mistrik M: Isolated extra-medullary relapse of acute leukemia following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2008;109(8):358-61
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  • Isolated extramedullary relapse (IEMR) of acute leukemia (AL) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a rare occurrence.
  • It is seen more commonly after BMT than after conventional chemotherapy (CHT) alone.
  • We describe the natural history and response to treatment in four patients with IEMR following allogeneic BMT.
  • The results indicate a stronger graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect in the marrow than in the peripheral tissues (Fig.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / surgery. Leukemic Infiltration / etiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18837244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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27. Wilkins R, Janes S: Aleukaemic leukaemia cutis: case report and review of the literature. Clin Lab Haematol; 2004 Feb;26(1):73-5
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  • Its recognition is important, because early diagnosis should lead to more appropriate chemotherapy, and a better prognosis.
  • These patients probably require therapy directed specifically to the skin, as well as to other extramedullary sites, such as the central nervous system, to prevent early relapse.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Protocols. Bone Marrow / pathology. Central Nervous System / pathology. Female. Humans. Leukemic Infiltration / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / prevention & control. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 14738442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0141-9854
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and laboratory haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lab Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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28. Monteleone PM, Steele DA, King AK, Konefal S, Kelleher JF: Bilateral breast relapse in acute myelogenous leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Feb;23(2):126-9
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  • We present the case of an 11.5-year-old girl with M1 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who had isolated extramedullary relapse develop in both breasts 12 months after diagnosis and 7 months off chemotherapy.
  • She received further chemotherapy, focal radiation therapy, then underwent a matched, unrelated bone marrow transplant and continues in remission 37 months later.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / etiology. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Leukemic Infiltration. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Recurrence. Salvage Therapy. Thioguanine / administration & dosage. Transplantation Conditioning

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  • (PMID = 11216705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interleukin-2; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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29. Alvarez M: Intracerebral granulocytic sarcoma. J Neurosci Nurs; 2007 Oct;39(5):297-304
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  • Granulocytic sarcomas, also known as chloromas, are rare extramedullary tumors of myeloid or myelocytic origin.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging with and without gadolinium is the imaging of choice to evaluate the tumor; however, tissue biopsy is essential for definitive diagnosis.
  • Treatment usually involves radiation followed by chemotherapy, depending on the previous systemic treatment.
  • Because medical literature about IGS is scarce, optimal treatment is unclear.
  • Nurses play a vital role in helping patients and families understand the disease process, the treatments involved, and the necessary adjustments, such as performing mundane activities of daily living, especially when neurocognitive impairments are present.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / complications. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Blood-Brain Barrier. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Headache / etiology. Humans. Incidence. Infection / etiology. Leukemic Infiltration. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Nurse's Role / psychology. Patient Education as Topic. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rare Diseases. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tumor Lysis Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17966297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0395
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience nursing : journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosci Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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30. al Lamki Z, Wali YA, Shah WM, Zachariah M: Relapsed acute leukemia in children: Oman experience. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2004 Mar;21(2):167-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • They were classified as per BFM group as "very early," "early," and "late" according to the time from diagnosis to first relapse and were divided into isolated bone marrow (BM), extramedullary site, and combined relapse.
  • Most of the AML cases relapsed very early on in treatment.
  • Eleven patients had combined relapse in BM and extramedullary site (9 in the central nervous system, 1 in the testicles, and 1 in the eye).
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Central Nervous System / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Eye / pathology. Female. Humans. Infant. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / mortality. Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration. Male. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Recurrence. Remission Induction / methods. Retrospective Studies. Testis / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15160516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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31. Kajiwara R, Goto H, Yanagimachi M, Kuroki F, Fujii H, Takahashi H, Yokota S: [Recurrent spontaneous regression of aleukemic leukemia cutis in a girl with acute monocytic leukemia]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2006 Aug;47(8):764-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Leukemia.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Aleukemic leukemia cutis is a rare form of leukemia manifestation, defined as a skin infiltration of leukemic cells with no evidence of leukemia in the bone marrow.
  • Histological examination revealed partial infiltration of histiocytic cells in the skin lesion.
  • However, the diagnosis could not be made at that time.
  • At 9 and at 13 months old, appearances of exanthema similar to the previous time were combined with systemic fever, abnormal coagulation tests, and the marked increases of atypical lymphocytes in peripheral blood: however, these symptoms resolved spontaneously.
  • Complete remission was obtained with standard chemotherapy.
  • Six months after the therapy was completed, an extramedullary relapse occurred in the inguinal lymph nodes, which was successfully treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-matched unrelated donor, and the patient has been free of disease for two years after the transplantation.

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  • (PMID = 16986716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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32. Seok JH, Park J, Kim SK, Choi JE, Kim CC: Granulocytic sarcoma of the spine: MRI and clinical review. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Feb;194(2):485-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: Granulocytic sarcoma is a tumor formed by myeloid precursors at an extramedullary site.
  • All of the patients underwent radiotherapy with chemotherapy, and four patients underwent surgical decompression or excisional biopsy.
  • CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the imaging findings of spinal granulocytic sarcoma, which consists of multiple extramedullary masses with diffuse leukemic bone marrow infiltration, can lead to early diagnosis and appropriate treatment to reduce neurologic symptoms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [ErratumIn] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Mar;194(3):554
  • (PMID = 20093613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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33. Shi J, Shao ZH, Liu H, Bai J, Cao YR, He GS, Tu MF, Wang XL, Hao YS, Yang TY, Yang CL: Transformation of myelodysplastic syndromes into acute myeloid leukemias. Chin Med J (Engl); 2004 Jul;117(7):963-7
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  • METHODS: Leukemic transformation in 151 patients with MDS was dynamically followed up.
  • The clinical manifestation, peripheral blood and bone marrow condition, karyotypes, immunophenotypes, response to treatment, and prognosis of AML evolution from MDS (MDS-AML) were also observed.
  • There were no significant differences between rates of leukemic transformation in comparison with the refractory anemia (RA), RA with excess of blasts (RAEB), and RAEB in transformation (RAEB-t) patient groups.
  • There were five parameters positively correlated to leukemic transformation: under 40 years of age, pancytopenia of 3 lineages, more than 15% blasts in the bone marrow, at least two abnormal karyotypes, and treatment with combined chemotherapy.
  • Two (9.52%) MDS-AML patients developed extramedullary infiltration.
  • After developing AML, 8 (47.06%) patients developed abnormal karyotypes.
  • High expression of immature myeloid antigens, including CD33 [(49.83 +/- 24.50)%], CD13 [(36.38 +/- 33.84)%], monocytic antigen CD14 [(38.50 +/- 24.60)%], and stem cell marker CD34 [(34.67 +/- 30.59)%], were found on bone marrow mononuclear cells from MDS-AML patients after leukemic transformation.
  • A low complete remission rate (31.25%) and a short survival time, with median survival of 6 (1 - 28) months, were found in patients with MDS-AML treated by induction chemotherapy.


34. Vural F, Ozcan MA, Ozsan GH, Demirkan F, Piskin O, Ates H, Kargi A, Undar B: Gingival involvement in a patient with CD56+ chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2004 Feb;45(2):415-8
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  • Leukemic infiltration of the gingiva is most commonly reported to be associated with monocytic subtypes of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) but rarely with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
  • Here we report a case of CD56+ chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) who developed gingival involvement simultaneously when the leukocyte count elevated.
  • At that time no increase in peripheral or bone marrow blasts were observed.
  • Gingival hypertrophy regressed with the treatment of hydroxyurea.
  • Three months later, bone marrow blast count elevated and the patient was treated with two courses of AML-like regimen and then one course of consolidation therapy.
  • Similar to other extramedullary involvements, gingival hypertrophy in CMML can be a harbinger of the disease entering a more aggressive phase requiring systemic chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 15101735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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35. Yu XF, Yang C, Liang LH, Liu B, Zhou B, Li B, Han ZC: Inhibition of human leukemia xenograft in nude mice by adenovirus-mediated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3. Leukemia; 2006 Jan;20(1):1-8
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  • [Title] Inhibition of human leukemia xenograft in nude mice by adenovirus-mediated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3.
  • Considerable studies have demonstrated the pivotal roles of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in leukemia dissemination and extramedullary infiltration.
  • Tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are multifunctional proteins with MMPs inhibitory effects.
  • However, little is known about the application of TIMPs in the treatment of leukemia.
  • Here, we investigated the effects of TIMP-3 overexpression via adenoviral gene delivery on the in vitro growth and invasiveness of leukemic cells and the in vivo progress of K562-derived xenografts in nude mice.
  • These data demonstrated the potential of applying AdTIMP-3 as an effective antiangiogenic adjuvant in the treatment of leukemia progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Leukemia / therapy. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Female. Gelatinases / biosynthesis. Gelatinases / drug effects. Gelatinases / metabolism. Gene Transfer Techniques. Genetic Therapy. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. K562 Cells. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Transplantation, Heterologous. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors / antagonists & inhibitors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16281069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; EC 3.4.24.- / Gelatinases
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36. Shi J, Shao Z, Liu H, Li K, Song L, Zhang Y, Zheng Y, Chen G, Chu Y, He H, Zhao M, He G, Feng B, Hao Y, Yang T, Yang C: [Study on the transformation from myelodysplastic syndromes into acute leukemias]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2001 Jul;22(7):351-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Leukemic transformation of MDS patients was dynamically followed up and the clinical manifestations, peripheral blood and bone marrow pictures, karyotypes, immunophenotypes, response to treatment and prognosis of post MDS acute leukemia (postMDS-AL) were observed.
  • The transformation was developed either gradually or rapidly.
  • There were five parameters related to the leukemic transformation: under 40 years of age, pancytopenia, more than 0.15 blasts in bone marrow, at least two types of abnormal karyotype and combined chemotherapy.
  • Two (9.52%) post MDS-AML developed extramedullary infiltration.
  • After evolving into AML, 8 (47.06%) patients developed abnormal karyotypes.
  • A low complete remission rate (31.25%) and short survival duration with median survival of 6 (1 - 28) months were found in patients with post MDS-AML treated by induction therapy.


37. Zang C, Liu H, Ries C, Ismair MG, Petrides PE: Enhanced migration of the acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4 under in vitro conditions during short-term all-trans-retinoic acid treatment. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2000 Jan;126(1):33-40
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  • [Title] Enhanced migration of the acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4 under in vitro conditions during short-term all-trans-retinoic acid treatment.
  • All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is a potent differentiating agent that is very effective in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • Since clinical response can be accompanied by extramedullary manifestations, we have investigated the influence of RA on cell adhesion to and migration through reconstituted basement membranes (Matrigel) in the APL cell line NB4.
  • The expression of the beta subunit of the beta2 integrins (CD18), but not that of beta1 integrins (CD29), was increased during 24-h RA treatment.
  • RA treatment had no influence on the quantity of secreted MMP-9 or MMP-2 in these cells as determined by zymography.
  • These findings indicate that adhesion molecules as well as matrix metalloproteinases are involved in RA-stimulated migration of NB4 cells through Matrigel, possibly providing some explanation of tissue infiltration by leukemic cells as observed during treatment of APL patients with RA.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Integrins / metabolism. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / pathology. Tretinoin / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Line. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Separation. Collagen. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Combinations. Extracellular Matrix. Flow Cytometry. Fluorescence. Gelatinases / analysis. Humans. Laminin. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors. Phenylalanine / analogs & derivatives. Proteoglycans. Thiophenes. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 10641747.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Integrins; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Thiophenes; 119978-18-6 / matrigel; 47E5O17Y3R / Phenylalanine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; BK349F52C9 / batimastat; EC 3.4.24.- / Gelatinases
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38. Seo S, Kami M, Honda H, Kashima T, Matsumura T, Moriya A, Machida U, Kanda Y, Chiba S, Hirai H: Extramedullary relapse in the so-called 'sanctuary' sites for chemotherapy after donor lymphocyte infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2000 Jan;25(2):226-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cancer Chemotherapy.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extramedullary relapse in the so-called 'sanctuary' sites for chemotherapy after donor lymphocyte infusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Leukemic Infiltration / therapy. Lymphocyte Transfusion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Central Nervous System / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Testis / pathology. Treatment Failure

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  • [CommentIn] Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000 Nov;26(10):1133-5 [11108319.001]
  • [CommentOn] Bone Marrow Transplant. 1999 Apr;23(7):731-4 [10218852.001]
  • (PMID = 10673689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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39. Au WY, Ma SK, Ooi C, Liang R, Kwong YL: Unusual manifestations of acute leukemia. Case 1. CNS extramedullary relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia after arsenic trioxide-induced remission. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Oct 01;18(19):3435-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ARSENIC TRIOXIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual manifestations of acute leukemia. Case 1. CNS extramedullary relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia after arsenic trioxide-induced remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System / pathology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration. Oxides / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11013284.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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