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1. Chen RJ, Chen KY, Chang TC, Sheu BC, Chow SN, Huang SC: Prognosis and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma from a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary. J Formos Med Assoc; 2008 Nov;107(11):857-68
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognosis and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma from a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is rare and only reported sporadically.
  • This study assesses the clinical characteristics, treatment, outcome and prognostic factors of reported cases.
  • METHODS: Two hundred and twenty cases from 1976 through to 2005 in MEDLINE were analyzed for patient age, clinical and laboratory data, extent of disease, tumor markers, treatment and survival rates.
  • RESULTS: The disease occurred most often in elderly women (mean, 55.0 +/- 14.4 years) and cysts were large (mean, 13.7 +/- 5.7 cm).
  • Further investigation into treatments for all stages revealed that postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy may produce a better survival rate for both stage III and stage IV cases.
  • Unlike SCCs of the uterine cervix, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy may produce a better result than adjuvant radiotherapy for advanced-stage cases.

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  • (PMID = 18971155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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2. Pectasides D, Pectasides E, Psyrri A, Economopoulos T: Treatment issues in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: a different entity? Oncologist; 2006 Nov-Dec;11(10):1089-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment issues in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: a different entity?
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is a distinct histopathologic subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with an incidence of <5% of all ovarian malignancies.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a PubMed search using the phrase "clear cell ovarian cancer."
  • OCCC patients have a high incidence of stage I disease and frequently present with a large pelvic mass.
  • Recurrences are more frequent with this entity than with other types of EOC.
  • The clinical management of advanced EOC includes maximal cytoreduction and platinum plus paclitaxel-based chemotherapy.
  • Despite their aggressive clinical course, OCCCs are still treated similarly to the other EOCs at the present time, because the rarity of these tumors prevents the conduction of randomized studies.
  • CONCLUSION: Novel treatment approaches should be adopted in OCCC.
  • Molecular-targeted therapies and effective new agents without cross-resistance to platinum compounds should be evaluated in a prospective clinical trial in OCCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17110628.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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3. Chou TC, Dong H, Zhang X, Tong WP, Danishefsky SJ: Therapeutic cure against human tumor xenografts in nude mice by a microtubule stabilization agent, fludelone, via parenteral or oral route. Cancer Res; 2005 Oct 15;65(20):9445-54
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  • [Title] Therapeutic cure against human tumor xenografts in nude mice by a microtubule stabilization agent, fludelone, via parenteral or oral route.
  • Treatment of nude mice bearing MX-1 human mammary carcinoma xenografts (as large as 3.4% body weight) with Fludelone (6-hour i.v. infusion, 25 mg/kg, q3d x 5, q3d x 4) led to complete disappearance and de facto "cure" (i.e., remission without a relapse for over 15% of the average life span of 2 years).
  • Parallel studies with Taxol and Fludelone [20 mg/kg, 6-hour i.v. infusion (q2d x 4) x3] against HCT-116 human colon carcinoma xenografts revealed that both drugs achieved tumor remission; however, all Taxol-treated mice relapsed in approximately 1.3 months, whereas the Fludelone-treated mice were cured without any relapse for over 7 months.
  • Furthermore, tumor remission was achieved by Fludelone against SK-OV-3 (ovary), PC-3 (prostate), and the Taxol-resistant CCRF-CEM/Taxol (leukemia) xenograft tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Epothilones / administration & dosage. Microtubules / drug effects. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 16230408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA08748; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA28824
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Epothilones; 0 / fludelone; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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4. Kommoss F, Kommoss S, Schmidt D, Trunk MJ, Pfisterer J, du Bois A, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynaekologische Onkologie Studiengruppe Ovarialkarzinom: Survival benefit for patients with advanced-stage transitional cell carcinomas vs. other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma after chemotherapy with platinum and paclitaxel. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Apr;97(1):195-9
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  • [Title] Survival benefit for patients with advanced-stage transitional cell carcinomas vs. other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma after chemotherapy with platinum and paclitaxel.
  • OBJECTIVE: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ovary is a less well recognized histological type of ovarian carcinoma resembling TCC of the urinary bladder.
  • It was the aim of the present retrospective study to compare incidence and outcome of patients with TCCs and other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma from a large homogeneous collective of patients with primary advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma.
  • 5-year survival of patients with TCC was 57% as compared to 31% for patients with ovarian carcinomas of other types (P = 0.03).
  • CONCLUSION: TCC of the ovary seems to be a less well recognized entity.
  • In the current series, TCCs had a significantly better prognosis as compared to all other types of ovarian carcinomas after standardized chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15790458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Baeyens L, Amat S, Vanden Houte K, Vanhoutte P, L'Hermite M: Small cell carcinoma of the ovary successfully treated with radiotherapy only after surgery: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(5):535-7
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the ovary successfully treated with radiotherapy only after surgery: case report.
  • Small cell ovarian tumors are rare and highly malignant, occurring mainly in young patients.
  • Early mortality is high due to the lack of an effective treatment.
  • The first adjuvant therapy is usually chemotherapy.
  • CASE: During laparotomy for renal transplant in a 17-year-old girl, the right ovary exhibited a suspicious mass, whose pathological diagnosis was Stage 1A small cell ovarian tumor.
  • Prognosis was poor (young age, hypercalcemia, tumor >10 cm, and presence of large cells).
  • Since chemotherapy is contraindicated for dialysed patients, only radiotherapy was given.
  • The patient is still alive and disease-free ten years after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19051830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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6. Popiolek DA, Kumar AR, Mittal K: Large cell variant of small cell carcinoma, hypercalcemic type, of primary peritoneal origin. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jan;96(1):249-53
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  • [Title] Large cell variant of small cell carcinoma, hypercalcemic type, of primary peritoneal origin.
  • BACKGROUND: Large cell variant of small cell carcinoma hypercalcemic type (SCC-HT) is extremely rare.
  • All reported cases involved an ovary, and one with primary peritoneal origin has not been described.
  • The tumor had features of large cell variant of SCC-HT, described in the ovary.
  • The patient received standard chemotherapy for SCC.
  • CONCLUSION: SCC-HT should be considered in the differential diagnosis of primary neoplasms of the peritoneum.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Hypercalcemia / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15589611.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Lindboe CF: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary. APMIS; 2007 Feb;115(2):169-76
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  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary.
  • Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary is a recently described tumour entity that is now included in the WHO classification of primary ovarian neoplasms.
  • Although mostly in stage I at diagnosis, this tumour shows an aggressive clinical behaviour with subsequent metastases and mean survival is less than one year.
  • In addition to the neuroendocrine carcinoma, most cases also have a malignant surface epithelial tumour component.
  • I here report a 64-year-old woman who was operated on for a right-sided ovarian large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma without a surface epithelial component, which constitutes only the second reported tumour of this "pure" kind.
  • The patient was treated postoperatively with chemotherapy.
  • She developed bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis that responded well to treatment with steroids.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17295684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm
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8. Kommoss F, Kommoss S, Eichhorn J, Schmidt D: [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):209-14
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  • [Title] [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features].
  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary (TCC-O) is a less common type of malignant surface epithelial-stromal tumor of the ovary, still with uncertain incidence.
  • Histologically, TCC-O resembles urothelial carcinoma of the urinary system, and by definition does not contain a Brenner tumor component.
  • TCC-O may not be a bona fide urothelial neoplasm, however, but rather a lesion of the Müllerian type derived from the ovarian surface epithelium.
  • This notion is supported by the existence of mixed tumors consisting of TCC-O and other histological types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as the observation that TCC-O has a Müllerian type but not a urothelial-like immunohistochemical profile.
  • Besides metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract, the other types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as sex cord-stromal tumors such as adult granulosa cell tumors, have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of TCC-O.
  • A recent analysis of a large series of advanced ovarian carcinomas treated by radical surgery and postoperative chemotherapy confirms studies that had suggested that TCC-O has a better prognosis (with current treatment) than that of the other histological types of ovarian carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [Cites] Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Apr;168(4):1178-85; discussion 1185-7 [8475964.001]
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  • (PMID = 17447068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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9. Dos Santos L, Mok E, Iasonos A, Park K, Soslow RA, Aghajanian C, Alektiar K, Barakat RR, Abu-Rustum NR: Squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: a case series and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 May;105(2):321-4
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: a case series and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: Malignant transformation of mature cystic teratomas is rare, with squamous cell carcinoma being the most common type.
  • The prognosis is generally poor when disease has spread beyond the ovary.
  • We conducted this study to review our experience with this disease and describe our current treatment modality.
  • METHODS: During a 22-year period (1983-2005), we identified 17 women treated for squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary.
  • Ten patients received adjuvant treatment-6 with chemotherapy and 4 with chemoradiation.
  • Six patients had recurrent disease in the pelvis after adjuvant treatment.
  • The 4 patients with stages IA-IIB disease treated with adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy and radiation survived at 12-56 months' follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Squamous carcinomas arising in mature cystic teratomas are commonly large ovarian tumors that occur in perimenopausal women and often present as an incidental pathologic finding.
  • While the prognosis seems highly dependent on surgical stage, there is a lack of consensus in the literature regarding adjuvant treatment.
  • Platinum-based chemotherapy with pelvic radiation may be a reasonable adjuvant therapy for early-stage disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies


10. Timmers PJ, Zwinderman AH, Teodorovic I, Vergote I, Trimbos JB: Clear cell carcinoma compared to serous carcinoma in early ovarian cancer: same prognosis in a large randomized trial. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Jan;19(1):88-93
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  • [Title] Clear cell carcinoma compared to serous carcinoma in early ovarian cancer: same prognosis in a large randomized trial.
  • BACKGROUND: An analysis was performed comparing survival of patients with clear cell carcinoma (CCC) to patients with serous adenocarcinoma (SAC) in early ovarian cancer.
  • Furthermore, a literature search was done to clarify the clinical and histopathological features of clear cell tumors of the ovary.
  • METHODS: Between November 1990 and March 2000, 448 patients with ovarian cancer International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages I to IIa were enrolled in the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Ovarian Neoplasm Trial, a randomized study comparing adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy to observation after surgical treatment in patients with early ovarian cancer.
  • No significant difference was found in overall survival between patients with CCC and patients with SAC in both treatment arms together.
  • In the observation arm, the 5-year disease-free survival was 71% in the CCC group versus 61% in the SAC group, whereas in the chemotherapy arm, the 5-year disease-free survival was higher in the SAC group compared with the CCC group (78% vs 60%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed no worse prognosis in patients with CCC as compared with patients with serous carcinoma in early ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Platinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19258948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Platinum Compounds
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11. Park JY, Kim DY, Kim JH, Kim YM, Kim YT, Nam JH: Malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: experience at a single institution. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Dec;141(2):173-8
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  • [Title] Malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: experience at a single institution.
  • OBJECTIVES: Malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma (MCT) of ovary is very rare.
  • Therefore, the clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment and prognostic factors are not yet well established.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histologic type, comprising 75%.
  • According to the review of the patients in our study and of the literature, early detection and complete surgical resection are important for long-term survival.
  • It seems that adjuvant chemotherapy or concurrent chemoradiation therapy have roles in treating this malignancy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Early detection is important for long-term survival.
  • Old age, large tumor size, and solid portion in mature cystic teratoma seem to predict the malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Korea / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Parity. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18823690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7654
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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12. Rabban JT, Barnes M, Chen LM, Powell CB, Crawford B, Zaloudek CJ: Ovarian pathology in risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomies from women with BRCA mutations, emphasizing the differential diagnosis of occult primary and metastatic carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Aug;33(8):1125-36
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  • [Title] Ovarian pathology in risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomies from women with BRCA mutations, emphasizing the differential diagnosis of occult primary and metastatic carcinoma.
  • Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is an effective prophylactic procedure for women with mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, both of which confer an increased lifetime risk for ovarian, tubal, peritoneal, and breast cancer.
  • In addition to lowering this risk, RRSO also offers the opportunity to detect occult early-stage fallopian tube or ovarian carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of occult tubal/ovarian cancer includes a spectrum of benign tubal and ovarian alterations and also occult metastatic breast cancer, although only rare cases of the latter have been reported in RRSO.
  • Neoadjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy may contribute to diagnostic difficulty due to treatment-induced cytologic alterations.
  • With the aim of elucidating features which may help with differential diagnosis, this study reports the incidence and pathologic features of benign ovarian alterations, benign ovarian tumors, and occult primary and metastatic malignancies in prophylactic oophorectomies from 108 women with a BRCA mutation and from 35 women with other strong risk factors for hereditary breast/ovarian carcinoma.
  • We also evaluate histologic alterations due to neoadjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy in the ovary and fallopian tube of patients who received such treatment immediately preceding RRSO.
  • Neoadjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy was administered in 15%.
  • Occult primary carcinoma occurred in 7 (6.5%) BRCA patients (5 in fallopian tube, 1 in fallopian tube and ovary, 1 in ovary).
  • Abundant foamy, vacuolated cytoplasm due to neoadjuvant chemotherapy exposure was notable.
  • In contrast, ovarian metastases in the non-RRSO population were all clinically detected, bilateral, large, and exhibited well-developed malignant cytologic features.
  • None of the normal cell types in the ovary or tube demonstrated any cytologic alterations in RRSO patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The main morphologic mimics of metastasis with superimposed chemotherapy-induced alterations in RRSO were stromal hyperthecosis (n=8), nodular hyperthecosis (n=2), adrenal rests (n=3), hilus cell nodules (n=43), and hilus cell hyperplasia (n=4).
  • Occult primary ovarian carcinoma was reliably distinguished from ovarian metastases of breast cancer by WT-1+, p53+, mammaglobin-, GCDPF-immunoprofile.
  • These results demonstrate that evaluation of RRSO specimens requires awareness of a spectrum of ovarian lesions which may mimic occult primary or metastatic carcinoma; awareness of the masquerading effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy; and awareness of the potential morphologic differences between occult metastatic breast cancer in RRSO and non-RRSO specimens.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Mutation. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / prevention & control. Ovariectomy. Ovary / drug effects. Ovary / pathology. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19440148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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13. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • In 8 cases, NSCNEC was associated with other epithelial neoplasms, including mucinous neoplasms of low malignant potential, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, mixed endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma, and a high-grade carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • The latter case had a dermoid cyst in the contralateral ovary.
  • Microscopically, the neuroendocrine component was usually composed of large and/or intermediate oval to round cells.
  • Seven patients were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • One patient had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omentectomy and appendectomy followed by chemotherapy; 1 patient had a total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy; one had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy, and one had a right salpingo-oophorectomy with appendectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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14. Bing Z, Adegboyega PA: Metastasis of small cell carcinoma of lung into an ovarian mucinous neoplasm: immunohistochemistry as a useful ancillary technique for diagnosis and classification of rare tumors. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2005 Mar;13(1):104-7
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  • [Title] Metastasis of small cell carcinoma of lung into an ovarian mucinous neoplasm: immunohistochemistry as a useful ancillary technique for diagnosis and classification of rare tumors.
  • The authors report the first case of ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma with metastasis from a synchronous small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung.
  • She was found to have a large, complex cystic mass in the pelvis, and during the staging evaluation, a large, right pulmonary hilar mass was detected.
  • Bronchial brushing as well as transbronchial fine-needle aspiration was diagnostic of small cell carcinoma.
  • The patient received 3 cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin and subsequently underwent a supracervical hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.
  • A large, multiloculated cystic mass was found arising from the right ovary.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that group of cells to be positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and chromogranin, confirming them to be metastasis from the pulmonary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • This case, in addition to being the first reported case of such metastasis, also highlights the diagnostic utility of immunohistochemistry as a reliable and very useful ancillary technique for the diagnosis of neoplasms with unusual clinical and/or histomorphologic presentations.

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  • (PMID = 15722802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; EC 1.11.1.- / Peroxidases
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15. Le T, Adolph A, Krepart GV, Lotocki R, Heywood MS: The benefits of comprehensive surgical staging in the management of early-stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 May;85(2):351-5
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  • [Title] The benefits of comprehensive surgical staging in the management of early-stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
  • Options include offering chemotherapy based on histopathologic factors or reoperation to obtain the necessary information needed to assign an accurate surgical stage.
  • Patients not having surgical staging procedures were offered platinum-based chemotherapy based on high tumor grades, dense adhesions, and presence of surface excrescences or large necrotic areas.
  • Patients with surgically proven stage I disease were treated with no further therapy regardless of histopathologic factors.
  • RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-eight patients presented with tumor macroscopically confined to the ovary at the time of laparotomy.
  • The histology distribution was serous tumor in 28.3%, mucinous in 26.1%, endometrioid in 23.2%, clear cell in 14.5%, anaplastic in 2.2%, and mixed types in 5.8%.
  • Sixty-eight percent of the patients had a comprehensive surgical staging procedure initially.
  • Thirty-six percent of these patients were found to have extraovarian metastases and were subsequently treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Forty-three percent of those not having staging laparotomy were offered chemotherapy based on high risk factors only.
  • CONCLUSION: Absence of surgical pathologic high-risk factors is inferior to comprehensive staging laparotomy findings in guiding recommendations for subsequent adjuvant therapy.
  • Patients who have not been properly staged stand a significant risk of recurrent disease despite more frequent use of chemotherapy.
  • All clinically early-stage ovarian cancer patients should be considered for comprehensive staging surgery prior to further treatment recommendations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Laparotomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
  • (PMID = 11972399.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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16. Uzunoglu S, Karaca B, Atmaca H, Kisim A, Sezgin C, Karabulut B, Uslu R: Comparison of XTT and Alamar blue assays in the assessment of the viability of various human cancer cell lines by AT-101 (-/- gossypol). Toxicol Mech Methods; 2010 Oct;20(8):482-6
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  • [Title] Comparison of XTT and Alamar blue assays in the assessment of the viability of various human cancer cell lines by AT-101 (-/- gossypol).
  • This study compared the two different commercially available in vitro viability assays: XTT and Alamar blue (AB), to detect anti-proliferative effects of AT-101, a cotton plant extract, on six different human carcinoma cell lines including: prostate (PC-3 and DU-145), breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), and ovary (OVCAR-3 and MDAH 2774) in a time- and dose-dependent manner.
  • The AB assay was slightly more sensitive than the XTT assay in the evaluation of AT-101 at 24 h, suggesting that the AB assay might be used for detecting early changes in cell viability as compared to the XTT assay.
  • The non-toxic, non-radioactive AB metabolism assay allows rapid assessment of large numbers of samples, with simple equipment and at reduced cost for continuous monitoring of cancer cell viability, and, thus, should be accepted as a suitable alternative viability method.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Gossypol / analogs & derivatives. Indicators and Reagents / metabolism. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oxazines / metabolism. Tetrazolium Salts / metabolism. Xanthenes / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Female. Humans. Male. Reproducibility of Results. Tumor Stem Cell Assay

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  • (PMID = 20843265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6524
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology mechanisms and methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Mech. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / Oxazines; 0 / Tetrazolium Salts; 0 / Xanthenes; 117038-70-7 / 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-((phenylamino)carbonyl)-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide; 1FN9YD6968 / resazurin; KAV15B369O / Gossypol; S7RL72610R / gossypol acetic acid
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17. Davidson B: Biological characteristics of cancers involving the serosal cavities. Crit Rev Oncog; 2007 Dec;13(3):189-227
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  • Tumor cells in effusions most frequently originate from primary carcinomas of the ovary, breast, and lung, and from malignant mesothelioma, a native tumor of this anatomic site.
  • Unlike the majority of solid tumors, particularly at the primary site, cancer cells in effusions are not amenable to surgical removal and failure in their eradication is one of the main causes of treatment failure.
  • In recent years, we have studied the biological characteristics of ovarian carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and malignant mesothelioma cells in effusions and compared it to their counterparts in primary tumors and solid metastases.
  • Our data show that a large number of cancer-associated molecules, including cell adhesion proteins, proteolytic enzymes, growth factor receptors, signaling molecules, and transcription factors, are differentially expressed along tumor progression and have a different prognostic value, depending on the organ sampled.
  • In ovarian carcinoma, several of these molecules are differentially expressed in primary diagnosis (prechemotherapy) and disease recurrence (postchemotherapy) specimens, reflecting the effect of disease progression and chemotherapy, and have different prognostic significance as function of disease progression.
  • The findings presented in this review underscore the need to take into consideration the unique biology of cancer cells in effusions if patient-tailored molecular therapy is to become a successful treatment modality in these malignancies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins. Cell Adhesion Molecules / physiology. Cytokines / physiology. Ephrins. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / physiology. Receptors, Growth Factor / physiology. Signal Transduction. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18298385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-9675
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit Rev Oncog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / EFN-4 protein, C elegans; 0 / Ephrins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 167
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18. Manchana T, Ittiwut C, Mutirangura A, Kavanagh JJ: Targeted therapies for rare gynaecological cancers. Lancet Oncol; 2010 Jul;11(7):685-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeted therapies for rare gynaecological cancers.
  • Some gynaecological cancers are uncommon, such as sex cord-stromal tumours, malignant germ-cell tumours, vulvar carcinoma, melanoma of the female genital tract, clear-cell carcinoma of the ovary and endometrium, neuroendocrine tumours of the cervix, and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
  • Despite aggressive treatment, some cancers recur or respond poorly to therapy.
  • Comprehensive knowledge of the molecular biology of each cancer might help with development of novel treatments that maximise efficacy and minimise toxic effects.
  • Targeted therapy is a new treatment strategy that has been investigated in various tumours in clinical and laboratory settings.
  • Since these cancers are rare and large clinical trials are difficult to do, molecular biological techniques might allow rapid proof-of-principle experiments in few patients.
  • Novel targeted agents either alone or in combination with other treatments offer promising therapeutic options.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Delivery Systems / trends. Genital Neoplasms, Female / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Female. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Humans. Melanoma / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Pregnancy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20362508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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19. Dubin M, Fernandez Villamil SH, Stoppani AO: [Cytotoxicity of beta-lapachone, an naphthoquinone with possible therapeutic use]. Medicina (B Aires); 2001;61(3):343-50
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  • [Title] [Cytotoxicity of beta-lapachone, an naphthoquinone with possible therapeutic use].
  • These enzymes are essential for maintaining DNA structure. beta-Lap inhibited growth of a large variety of tumor cells including epidermoid laringeal cancer, prostate, colon, ovary and breast cancer and also different types of leukemia cells.
  • Advances in knowledge of apoptosis ("programmed cell death") and necrosis provided useful information for understanding the mechanism of beta-lap cytotoxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Naphthoquinones / pharmacology. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism. Reactive Oxygen Species / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma 256, Walker / drug therapy. Carcinoma 256, Walker / enzymology. Humans. Sarcoma, Yoshida / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Yoshida / enzymology. Topoisomerase I Inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 11474885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Naphthoquinones; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Topoisomerase I Inhibitors; 4707-32-8 / beta-lapachone; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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